32 visualizações

Enviado por Thiago André Weschenfelder

Prof. P Chandramouli
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

- dok chart
- dok chart
- DOK_Chart
- dok chart
- dok chart
- dok
- dok chart
- dok wheel
- depthofknowledgechart
- depth of knowledge chart
- depth of knowledge chart
- dok chart
- Mathematical Modeling.docx
- iam13.pdf
- Simulation in in Mineral Processing
- _Lesson_2_5_Tech_Template_Snow_Cone_Sales_Tech%208 (1).xlsx
- Curriculum 2016-2017 Mining Cegep
- 15. SPE-13059-PA
- subjects
- Diapositivas Del Paper Mas Programa

Você está na página 1de 39

Simulation

P Chandramouli

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

March 5, 2009

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

1 / 39

What is a model?

Classification of models

Modelling example

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

2 / 39

Someone posing for a

product?

I

be talking about those

models

Italian

Means Copy or

Template or

Prototype

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

3 / 39

Representation of phenomena or systems we want

to understand

I

I

I

I

Bohr representation of the atom

Double helix structure of DNA

Scale model of an automobile/airplane

Representation of data

I

I

Need to eliminate faulty observations

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

4 / 39

Model Classification

Physical objects

Fictional objects

Equations

A combination of the above!

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

5 / 39

Physical Models

Class of physical or material objects

Serves as a representation of something

Scale models of bridges, planes, cars and ships are

examples

Watson and Cricks DNA model also falls in this

category

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

6 / 39

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

7 / 39

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

8 / 39

Fictional objects

I

I

I

Exists only in the researchers mind

Physically need not be realized in the lab to represent

the function

Analogical models

I

I

I

Liquid drop model of nucleus

Billiard ball model of a gas

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

9 / 39

Phenomenological Models

I

I

I

target

Refrain from coming up with individual mechanisms

Automotive suspension and shock absorber models based

on testing is an example

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

10 / 39

PhD research

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

11 / 39

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600

-1.5

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

12 / 39

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600

-20

Mouli (IITM)

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

March 5, 2009

13 / 39

Finally ...

I

I

I

Simple pendulum differential equation is an example

We will focus on these models for the rest of the lecture

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

14 / 39

Why Model?

around us

I

Scientist in us ..

I

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

15 / 39

models

I

I

Papers published introducing, applying and interpreting

models

One of the major learning instruments of research

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

16 / 39

As we already mentioned these are vehicles for

learning about the real world

Easier to study the model rather than reality

Example of studying behaviour of polymers through

their constitutive models

Learning happens during the construction and

manipulation of the model

I

I

I

One can easily construct a scale model of a car

Manipulate involves measuring say drag in a wind

tunnel

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

17 / 39

How does one construct and then manipulate a

fictional model?

I

plane how does it move?

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

18 / 39

Thought experiment

Add some links as shown below

Our surmise is that the initial links must have been

in static equilibrium

If not we wind up with a perpetual motion machine!!

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

19 / 39

Math Models

Math models are represented by equations

In some cases analytical solutions exist for these

If not we tend to use the computer to solve these

numerically

I

I

I

the math model!!

Simulation usually represents solving models as a

function of time

Is handy when standard methods fail

But this can also lead to wrong results!!

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

20 / 39

A

Real

World

We See

This

Computer

Model

C

Mathematical

Model

A is perception and B maybe abstraction

C is the simulation

I

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

21 / 39

Step A

Understand or visualise the physical world to be

investigated

I

white

Our perception may not mirror the real thing

modelling

Make appropriate assumptions based on the physics

required

I

F

Needs to be checked

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

22 / 39

Step B

Generate the appropriate equations governing the

physics

I

attendant assumptions

Mechanics

I

I

Conservation laws

Thermodynamics

I

I

Zeroth/First/Second Laws

Equation of state

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

23 / 39

Step C

Representation on Computer

I

list is below

I

I

I

I

Newton-Raphson for nonlinear algebraic equations

A number of ODE solvers such as Runge-Kutta method

PDE solvers using say shooting methods

equations

Need to be aware of accuracy and stability of solvers

used

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

24 / 39

Remember the dashed arrow between the hexagon

and perceived reality?

The simulation results have to be interpreted to

gain insight into physics

I

fact when looking at data from the simulation !!

results

So until now we have seen the process of modeling

and now it is time to look at an example to put the

ideas into practice

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

25 / 39

Motorcycle goes over a

speed breaker

Our objective is to

reduce the vibrations

felt by the rider

We then need to

generate a

mathematical model

capable of predicting

the rider vibrations

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

26 / 39

What causes this vibration when the rider goes over

the speed breaker?

I

I

axle

From the axle transferred through the suspension to the

frame

Rider is sitting on the frame and feels the force

A)

Now how do we generate a mathematical model to

satisfy our objective?

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

27 / 39

Preliminaries

Some background for those not familiar with

vibrations

Vibration is basically to-and-fro motion in

bodies/objects which possess inertia and an ability

to deform

Usual cartoon representation of these two features is

by a set of inter-connected springs and blocks

representing masses

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

28 / 39

Various Models

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

29 / 39

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

30 / 39

First model

I

I

This is more valid when the bump wavelength is not

small in relation to wheel base

At slower speeds

I

is linear

rigid and represented by a Centre of Mass)

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

31 / 39

Assumptions

Second model

I

I

No restriction on wavelengths and speed

I

is linear

and rider masses

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

32 / 39

More ...

Last model

I

considered

No restriction on wavelengths and speed

I

is linear

be found

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

33 / 39

The second model equations derived using Newtons

second law

m

x + kf (x l1 rf ) + kr (x + l2 rr ) = 0

J kf l1 (x l1 rf ) + kr l2 (x + l2 rr ) = 0

The road inputs are rf = a0 sin VL t and

)

rr = a0 sin V (t

L

I

L

V

and 0 t

L

V

suspensions from the CG

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

34 / 39

Solutions

The equations are second order linear ODEs

This can be solved in a number of ways

I

of convolution integrals

Above is a decoupling technique based on eigenvalue

extraction

Direct time integration using Runge-Kutta method

Some results are shown for low speed and high speed

situations with the length of the bump held fixed

I

convolution integral results

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

35 / 39

2500

Bounce

Pitch

2000

1500

Amplitude

1000

500

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Time

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

36 / 39

800

Bounce

Pitch

600

Amplitude

400

200

200

400

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Time

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

37 / 39

I hope that you will be excited in exploring the

unknown

Enjoy the research experience

I leave you with a problem that I would love

someone to model

I

I

Problem involves fluid mechanics/ heat transfer/

materials and maybe something more

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

38 / 39

Sources to acknowledge

Faculty with whom I had discussions on this topic

I

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/models-science/

Juri Neimark, 2003, Mathematical Models in

Natural Sciences and Engineering Springer: New

York

Rutherford Aris, 1994, Mathematical Modeling

Techniques Dover Publications: New York

J N Kapur, 1988, Mathematical Modelling New

Age Publishers: New Delhi

Mouli (IITM)

March 5, 2009

39 / 39

- dok chartEnviado porapi-241104247
- dok chartEnviado porapi-231239219
- DOK_ChartEnviado porPrimaryGraffiti
- dok chartEnviado porapi-137669263
- dok chartEnviado porapi-240782388
- dokEnviado porapi-233692923
- dok chartEnviado porapi-170220766
- dok wheelEnviado porapi-249854100
- depthofknowledgechartEnviado porapi-244658943
- depth of knowledge chartEnviado porapi-252786575
- depth of knowledge chartEnviado porapi-205397345
- dok chartEnviado porapi-116421360
- Mathematical Modeling.docxEnviado porJunyipp Chai
- iam13.pdfEnviado porIsmail Rahim
- Simulation in in Mineral ProcessingEnviado porshashidharsm
- _Lesson_2_5_Tech_Template_Snow_Cone_Sales_Tech%208 (1).xlsxEnviado porsally
- Curriculum 2016-2017 Mining CegepEnviado porAnonymous 1djaLYNG
- 15. SPE-13059-PAEnviado porleonelz6a
- subjectsEnviado porapi-297822864
- Diapositivas Del Paper Mas ProgramaEnviado porgabriel arroyo achu
- Mat Mod Report 6Enviado porRenny Bala
- Solving by graphing systems of equationsEnviado porNilam Doctor
- Introduction of Cadence Tools (Extraction)Enviado porgiaoduyvinh
- R.J. Duffin- Some Problems of Mathematics and ScienceEnviado porKluff5878
- Algebraic System of EquationsEnviado porxcrunitcc
- T2 Overview 2016/17Enviado porMissB
- Six Point Lesson Plan STAR Academy Teacher: Mr. R. D.Enviado porrdgloria
- Mathematical Research and National EducationEnviado porAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- cmeterEnviado porHasen Bebba
- CBSE X ModulesEnviado porsahil suman

- CBE103Enviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- sislinmdiretosEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Sistemas LinearesEnviado porAndre Lago
- Aula07BioqAvan_CinEnzimáticaEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Applications of Systems of Linear EquationsEnviado porGovind Manglani
- Apostila Cálculo de Reatores I.pdfEnviado porClarissa Gontijo
- Mathematics in Chemical EngineeringEnviado porPedro CoronadOyarvide
- 1710_LEI 8.112_90 - Apostila AmostraEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- 12860-Apostila.pdfEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Metódo de Gauss-Seidel em FortranEnviado porPedro Vieira
- Apostila de FortranEnviado porAna Paula Albuquerque
- Livro Boyce e Diprima 9th Edicao - RespostasEnviado porhofhofhof
- Apostila de FTEnviado porFábio Silva
- Gauss SeidelEnviado porJuliano Shimbo
- Gauss SeidelEnviado porJuliano Shimbo
- efluentes biologicosEnviado porLeomar Cardoso Cunha
- Apostila de Scilab - AtualizadaEnviado porDanusio Gadelha Guimarães Filho
- Apresentação2Enviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Matematica Elementar Versao Final27072011Enviado porOlympio Neto
- Fortran - Paul TackleyEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Aula14 Exercícios Do Método de Newton-RaphsonEnviado porThiago André Weschenfelder
- Analise de Componentes PrincipaisEnviado porThieres M. Costa Pereira
- Conceitos Básicos de VazãoEnviado porjohnshxxx
- Conceitos Básicos de VazãoEnviado porjohnshxxx
- 1 IntroductionEnviado porJavier Blanco Alvarez
- tratamento_de_aguasEnviado porDeivid Carlos
- Apostila de FTEnviado porFábio Silva
- curso-oldEnviado porLaura Arriaga
- 20-MetNum-EDO.pdfEnviado porjeanecef

- AF Flue Gas Ex ChangersEnviado porVikrant Sharma
- Tumeric Gardening; Gardening Guidebook for IndiaEnviado porWinter Gardening
- BCHWEnviado porthanhvanngocpham
- DOELeadership-FunctionalViewEnviado porGothamSchools.org
- nakpilEnviado porEllehcar Bonita
- 221646_1484643098SW_PGS011817.pdfEnviado porCoolerAds
- DL8000 02Enviado porAlisson Albuquerque
- Sweet Home 3D _ 3D Models ImportEnviado porkemas
- method to improve power factorEnviado porasim00786
- How Do Columns in RC Buildings Resist EarthquakeEnviado porkooadu
- Air Pressure science form 2 chapter 6Enviado pornwahidawomar
- BBA SyllabusEnviado porBABITA RAWAT
- Physical Properties of FireEnviado porHenrick Vaquilar
- Through Pop CultureEnviado porCarol
- CRxxx-Technical Specification TemplateEnviado pormikekoolguy
- food labeling research paperEnviado porapi-316889059
- Oracle Enterprise Asset Management (EAM)Enviado porAsim Majeed
- Mark 3 ASME Pumps.pdfEnviado porInf Ing
- THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONSEnviado porΚωνσταντίνος Αμπατζής
- Senior Airport Operations Agent 08Enviado porkpall99
- week11Enviado porVijay Kumar
- Arihant CAT VA LR SpEnviado porbingo
- Idealpos 6.03 User Guide Oct 2014Enviado porDana Mathers
- Title Seven (Termination of Employment Contract and End of Service Gratuity) (1)Enviado porDrMohamed Rifas
- Jurnal HerniaEnviado porluthfikhairul
- Ap13 Internal AuditEnviado porCosty Bochizu
- Dutch coasts in transition.Enviado pordeltaprogramma
- LBRARY Development GuideEnviado porFarhan Zia
- AIMCAT 1220Enviado porHariharan Venkataramanan
- US Internal Revenue Service: p1635Enviado porIRS