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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Review Article
ISSN 2320-2912
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Applications of Fluid Mechanics in Different Engineering Fields


Ved Kumar Mishra1, Satyam Kumar Singh2, Satya Prakash Patel3, Sachin Pandey4, Naveen
Dwivedi5, Shubha Dwivedi6
1,5&6

Department of Biotechnology, S. D. College of Engineering & Technology, Muzaffarnagar,


U.P., 2&3Department of Civil Engineering, S. D. College of Engineering & Technology,
Muzaffarnagar, U.P., 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, S. D. College of Engineering &
Technology, Muzaffarnagar, U.P.
Abstract: Fluid mechanics is an ancient science that alive incredibly today. The modern
technology requires a deeper understanding of the behavior of real fluid on other hand
mathematical problems solved by new discovery. Fluid mechanics played a special role in this
work by incompressible viscous flow. The aim of this logical statement is to furnish some result
in different areas (i.e. civil, mechanical, biotech &chemical engineering), that are linked by the
some general scope in that areas of giving new in site in field mechanics.
Keywords: Fluid mechanics, siphon, turbine, wind tunnel, pumps and draft.

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Correspondence: vedmishra.bioinformatics@gmail.com

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Introduction: A pragmatic if not scientific

him comfortable to experience he suppose

knowledge of fluid flow was exhibited in

that the in a vessel the surface of the fluid

design of arrows, spares, boat and hydraulic

which is emptying itself by an orifice remain

project for fluid protection and water supply

always horizontal and if the fluid mass is

[1].

of

concaved too be divided to an infinite

hydrostatics was given by Archimedes work

number of horizontal strata of the same bulk

on floating bodies. Archimedes develop the

the velocity inversely proportional to their

law of bouncy that states when a body

width

immersed in a fluid experience a force that is

reservoir[4].

principle

equal to the weight of fluid ,it displaces


when in equilibrium is equally pressed in all

or

too

the

horizontal

section

V=1/B

direction[2]. the effect of friction and

Where,

viscosity is diminishing the velocity of

V=velocity of fluid and B=width of orifice.

running water, the hypothesis in this course


should investigate that the velocity at any
stratum of the vertex is an arithmetical mean
between the velocity of the strata enclosed it,
that the velocity of a filament of water
moving in a pipe is an arithmetical mean
between the velocity of filament which
surrounded it[3]. In 1738 denial Bernoulli
published his hydrodynamic a text book,
communicated to

the

academy of st.

Petersburg

was

founded

1726

on

to

comfortable supposition, which appeared to

The continuity equation of fluid mechanics


before

discussing

it

with

respect

to

cardiovascular system the mass of moving


fluid does not change it flows that leads to an
important quantitative relationship called the
continuity equation[5]. Consider a portion of
flow between two stationary cross section
with area A1 &A2 at that section velocity V1
& V2 respectively[6].
The mass flowing in to the tube across A1
and time dt is

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fundamental

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The

molecules move at moderate speeds and


dm 1 = A1 V1 dt

exert a moderate attraction on each other. A

Similarly the mass flow the across A2 in the


same time

liquid will disperse in response to impact its


force determining the area over which the
total volume of liquid is distributed. The
response of fluid to pressure is one of most

dm 2 = A2 V2 dt

significant aspect of fluid behavior and plays

in steady flow the total mass in tube is

an important role with in both statics and


dynamics sub disciplines of fluid mechanics

constant

[7].
Application of fluid mechanics in field of

dm 1=dm

civil engineering
A1 V1 dt = A2 V2 dt
Wind tunnel: The scenario of wind flowing
Continuity equation for incompressible flow

through a room described a rudimentary


wind tunnel, a wind tunnel is a chamber

A1 V1 = A2 V2

build
The product of AV is volume flow rate dv/dt

for

purpose

examine

the

characteristics of air flow in contact with


solid objects such as aircraft and automobile.

dv/dt =AV

The wind tunnel represent a safe and


judicious use of the property of fluid

defining in their arrangement is random and


molecules are close in proximity, the fluid
take place the shape in which it takes. Liquid

of airflow and solids in relative motion the


first wind tunnel was built in England is
1871 and years later aircraft pioneers Orville

molecular level, particles of fluids tend to be

mechanics it purpose to test the interaction

construct (1871 to 1948 and Wilbur 1867 to

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Molecular behavior of fluids: At the

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1912) wrights used wind tunnel to improve

Hydraulic: Hydraulic is a branch of

their plans by the let 1913 the US national

practical

advisory committee for aeronautics (NASA)

application of fluid primarily liquid in

was building wind tunnels capable of

motion it is related to fluid mechanics which

creating speeds equal to 300 mph (480km/h)

in

[8].

foundation hydraulic deals with such matter

Syphon: A syphon is a long bent pipe is use


for carrying water from a reservoir at a
higher level to another reservoir at a lower
level when the two reservoirs are separated
by a hill or high level ground.

large

science

part

with

provides

the

its

practical

theoretical

as the flow of liquid in pipe reverse and


channels and their confinement by dams and
tanks some of its principle apply also to
gases the scope of hydraulic extend to such
mechanical device as fans and gas turbines
and pneumatics control system liquid in

To take out water from one reservoir

motion or under pressure did useful works

to another reservoir sepreted by a hill

for man for many centuries before French

or ridge.

scientist, pressure in a liquids transmitted

To drain out water from a channel

equally in all direction that is when water is

without any outlet.

made to fill a closed container ,the

To take out the water from a tank this

application of pressure at any point will be

does not have any out let.

transmitted to all sides of the container in the


hydraulic pressure. Pascal law is used to gain

Bernoullis, the flow through syphon then


remains continuous till pressure in syphon
remains

negative

separation pressure [9].

but

less

than

piston in a small cylinder is transmitted


through a tube to a large cylinder where it
pressure equally against all sides of the
cylinder including the large piston [10].

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pipe

an increase a small force applied to small

The syphon works on the principle of

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Hydraulic power system have become one of

high and there is no way to adjust the

the major energy transition technology

thermostat outside however the air is cold

utilize by all faces of industrial agricultural

thus by opening a window one can

and difference activity. Modern air craft for

presumably cool down the room but if one

example use hydraulic system to activate

open the window without opening the front

their control and to operate landing gars &

door of the room there will be a little change

brakes, virtually all missiles as well as their

in temperature the only way to cool will be

ground support equipment utilize fluid

standing next to the window with the door

power uses hydraulic power system in their

closed the room constitute an area of

transition brakes and steering mechanisms

relatively high pressure compare to the

[11].

pressure of the air outside the window

Application of fluid mechanics in field of


mechanical engineering
Creating

draft:

because air is fluid.[13] ,it will tend to flow


in to the room but once pressure inside rich a
certain point it will prevent additional air

Among

the

most

from entering the tendency of fluid is to

application of Bernoullis principle is its

move from high pressure to low pressure

used aerodynamics

areas not the other way around as soon

P/g +v^2/2g +Z =constant

relatively high pressure air of the room flows


in to the low pressure as a result the air

and he is discussed in the context of

pressure in the is reduced and the air from

Bernoullis

outside can now enter soon a wind will

aerodynamics,

according

to

principle for instant explain why a shower

began to blow through the room [14].

certain tends to below in word, when the

one is in a hotel room where the heat is onto

and it does so by utilizing a pressure


difference causing the fluid to move from an

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an open window create a draft [12]. Suppose

Pumps: Pump is a device for moving fluid

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water is turned on in addition it shows why

area of higher pressure to one of lower

angular velocity w power required to

pressure its operation is based on accepts

maintain the fluid flow will be torque

both of Pascal and Bernoullis principle

multiplied by angular velocity [17].

though a course human were using pumps


many of years before[15] .a syphon hose

Torque*w =m(R2V2-R1V1)*w

used to draw gas form car fuel tank is a very

So power required for this fluid flow will

simple pump shucking on one end of the

taken as,

hose creates an area of low pressure

Power =(U2V2-U1V1)

compared to the relatively high pressure area


of the gas tank. The piston pump slightly

Air jet weaving machine: The air jet

more complex consist of vertical cylinder

weaving machine are the weaving machine

along which a piston rises and fall near the

with the highest insertion performance and

bottom inlet valve through which fluid flow

are considered the manufacturing of light to

into the cylinder and an outlet valve through

medium weight fabrics preferably main

which fluid flows out one of the most the

fibers these machine for those who want to

fluid being pump which pushes the piston up

produce built quantities of customized

& down.[16]

fabrics styles the weaving width range


generally from 190 to 400cm[18].

Turbo machine: Turbo machinery device

design of them consider the turbo machine


and axial turbine a centrifugal machine are
peloton wheel you can predict performance
of all of these from same turbo machinery
fundamentals .if the channel is rotating at an

Process industry: Continuum mechanics


one of our most successful physical theories
is radically application to the process
industry .In continuum mechanics, the
existence of molecule is ignored and matter

machinery from the primullary design tool in

Application in chemical engineering:

is treated as a continuous medium. The

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inject life in to fluid principle of turbo

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continuum hypothesis is valid provided the

institute has extensive CFD experience

equation

performing

of

continuum

mechanics

are

detail

at

simultaneous

of

applied at sufficiently large scale that the

complex engineering and natural system and

property molecules are noticed the mapping

providing clients with optimized designed

of the large of mass momentum and energy

solution get integrated multi disciplinary

conservation the continuum result in field

approach uses code costuzmation analytical

equation that describe the dynamics of the

model development and application and

continuum these field equation variably

experimental investigation to accurately and

known

defectively solve complex problem in the

as

the

equation

.continuum mechanics

of

motioned

is the mechanical

analog of classical electrodynamics in which


a set of field equation describe the dynamic

following area.
Unsteady turbulent flow analysis:

relevant variable of the electrical and


magnetic field where as Maxwell equation
are linear on less the constitutive behavior is
non linear the equation of continuum
mechanics are non linear regardless of the
constitutive behavior of material of interest

Acoustic analysis

Nozzle flow application

Code customization

Atmospheric gas dispersion

Hydrodynamic analysis

A logrithium development

[19].
Computational fluid dynamics for oil and

Natural

gas industry: Computational fluid dynamics

environmental fluid flow:

hazard

analysis

and

is a tool that can be use effectively in a

Free surface flow evaluation using


volume of fluid technique

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Tsunami.

industry application that geosciences and


engineering division at south west research

Simulation of land slide generates

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variety of onshore & offshore petroleum

Mesh free smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Development

of

new

bio

code capable of modeling flow with large

medical

deformation.

with support from material

plastic/

capabilities

Fire dynamic simulation:

within

materials

Leak rapture and spill related fire

materials

CSIRO

science

&

engineering division

analysis

Design of original devices

Smoke propagation assessment

Out comes:

Use of NIST fire dynamic simulator

We have successfully applied our fluid

and commercial code [20].

dynamics capabilities to innovative projects

Fluid dynamic for medical research and


bio medical device:

such as

A new oxygen air mixing


device with a radically

A world leader in fluid dynamic is active in

different design to current

fundamental

technology

on

the

development of medical device technology

graph

Service from science:

Development of bio medical


device

Proto

type

testing

fluidic device

micro

the

Remote sensing technology

Minotaur

and

for

to develop a device to

and

psychological

parameter from within the

Development of electronic ,
microelectronic

used

treatment of aneurysm

development

New design for instant

body.

Electronic

fluid

flow

detector to measure fluid


flow in a hospital setting
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research

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medical

Facilities:

cohesive force, when they easily move and

Our facilities include highly specialized and

change

complex measuring equipment such as

continuously deform that is flow under the

their

relative

position.

They

Pulse tile flow rig simulating

action of shear force, no matter how force

the pressure and flow profile

are small or large. Fluid mechanics is

from the heart

involved

Micro

particle

image

nearly

all

areas

of

civil,

mechanical, chemical, biotech engineering

velocimetry

either directly or indirectly some example of

Laser Doppler velocimetry

direct involvement are those were we are

system

considered with manipulating field: Sea and

Phase

Doppler

particle

river defenses, Water distribution/sewage

analyzer

network, Hydraulic design of water/ sewage

Experimental rigs

treatment work, Dams irrigation, turbine and

Medical power injector

water retaining structure, Siphon, airfoils,

Medical ultrasound scanner

pumps, drafts.

Micro fluid laborites

Other facilities include wind and water


tunnels for physical modeling visualization
and flow measurement [21].
Summary & Conclusion:
Molecules are spaced further apart they

Naveen Dwivedi and Shubha Dwivedi,


Associate

Professor,

Department

of

Biotechnology, S.D. College of Engineering


and Technology Muzaffarnagar, U.P. India
for support and guidance.

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attract each other with a small intermolecular

Acknowledgement: We specially thank to

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4. Malvern, L.E.,( 1969), Application of Bernoulli principle, prentice hall publication page
no.(1-7).
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Indian J. Chest Dis. (1976),Flow of fluid, Vallabh Bhai chest institute publication page
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J Chem Phys. (2012) Molecular behavior of simulation of fluid, Aug 7; 137(5):054507. doi:
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8. Yih ,C.-S.(1969) Textbook of fluid mechanics ,McGraw hill publication ,New York, page
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Indrajeet M. Jain(2008),Textbook of fluid mechanics, Tech-Max publications, page no.(9.19.7)

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publication,vol 4 page no.(14-34)

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13. Smith, J. Mihelic, R. Gifford, 2014,How to create a draft, MSAE Int. J. Commer. Veh

15. Rechard Cuammines/carbis,2001, Reproduced by permission given structure of pump E.A


Tthomson publication page no.476
16. Indrajeet M. Jain (2008),Application of Pascal law ,Tech-max publication, page no.(2.1-2.35)
17. Prof. Bhaskar Ray & Prof. A.M Pradeep (oct 2013) ,IIT Bombay lecture notes page no.120.
18. R Marks, A.T.C. Robinson(1976),Principle of weaving, page no.(100-170)
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