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THEOPHRASTUS

BOMBASTUS

VON

HOHENHEIM

CALLED

PARACELSUS

HIS

PERSONALITY

PHYSICIAN,

CHEMIST

JOHN
PROFESSOR

OF

AND

OPEN

_STILLMAN
EMERITUS,

STANFORD

UNIVERSITY

LONDON

CHICAGO

THE

AS

REFORMER

AND

MAXSON

CHEMISTRY

INFLUENCE

COURT

PUBLISHING

CO.

copyright

The

Open

Court

by

Publishing

1920

PRINTED

IN

AMERICA

Company

TO

THE

BUILDERS

CHEMISTRY

AND

HAVE

OF

OF

MEDICINE

CONTRIBUTED

THE

DREAM

OF

THE

REALIZATION

OF

NOT

UPON

IS

DOGMA

EXPERIMENT,

AND

STUDY

OF

LABORS

PARACELSUS

OBSERVATION

THIS

SCIENCES

WHOSE

TO

FOUNDED

UPON

THE

DEDICATED.

ENCE
SCI-

BUT

CONTENTS.

PAGF,

Preface
v

Introductory

The

Life

Early

The

of

Paracelsan

Medical

11

Paracelsus

of

View

25

Nature

44

Theory

Defiance

Medical

to

As

Reformer

and

Faculty

in

63

Profession

Medicine

80

The

Chemist

Contributions

The

Reformer

and

Medical

to

Mission

and

Paracelsus
as

The

Later

The

Last

of

Theological

of

of

Strenuous

and

the

91

Chemistry

Science

Ethics

Years

Days

of

113

Practice

Physician

132

142

Writer

159

Labor

174

Paracelsus

181

Bibliography
:

PARACELSUS.

viii

of

writings
that

other

no

of

used

texts

1616

of

appeal

his

for

third

(the

1589-90)

Versuch
2

vols.,

The

valuable

and

texts,
Stanford

as

the
for

in

to

faculty,
same

their

Schrif-

to

Stanford

of
the

for

his

connection.

imperfections,

J.

helpful
For

the
the

gratitude
for

University

interpretation

Professor

his

express

S.

P.

and'

accuracy
author

of

the

also

Tatlock,

clarifying
of
alone

University,

March

15,

1920.

to

much

Early

man
Gerof

the

suggestions

the

translations,
is

responsible.

J.
Stanford

as

bibliography

Paracelsischen

der

occasion

Rendtorfif

assistance

burg,
Strass-

1894-99.

takes

Karl

monumental

Echtheit

der

Berlin,

author

Professor

in

Kritik

of

manuscripts

Paracelsus

Sudhoff's

Karl

Schrifften,

und

from

edition

edition

original

Huser's

of

folio

Strassburg

the

The

followers.

and

Bucher

extracts

Dr.

einer

impression

and
in

contained

are

purpose

Chirurgische

the

1618;

ten,

that

acter
char-

the

and

physician

Swiss

sion
impres-

some

convey

contemporaries

his

to

well

so

the

of

personality

the

of

could

treatment

belief

the

in

introduced,

been

have

Paracelsus

M.

S.

INTRODUCTORY.

period

THE

of

Protestant
of

vievv

and

in
man

all

the

philosophy,

of

accepted

Men

arose.

consciousness

new

the

medieval

came

more

mental

domain
the

was

of

hundreds

had

art

of

years

intellectual
the

to

thought

had

Church,
and

question

the

science.

Church

criticism

of

be-,

man

all

and
censored

After

accepted

science

existed

quests,
con-

tive
compara-

learning
all

by

this

many

barbarian

developed

restless

in

Roman

and

there

and

gradually

from

share

to

by

period

orders

of

spirit

overthrown

jealously

had
the

and

Greek

clerical

there

without

since

sterility

been

Reacting

latest

natural

which

during

to

self-assertive.

and

of

been

bold

aroused

powers.

thought

field

men

and

strong

many

slavery,

independent

The

impetus

their

of

literature,

art,

becoming

were

of

minds

In

dogmas.

tradition

of

the

the

ment
readjust-

bonds

held

long

so

of

readaptation

the

as

politics, theology,

thinkers

and

had

influences

conditions,

violent

more

points

many

Many

changing

to

fetters

about

the

and

from

interest.

bringing

authority
the

is

human

great

of

spirit

Renaissance

late

Reformation

active

were

in

of

the

was

fined
con-

independent
the
both

movement

dogmas

medieval
within
toward
and

au-

PARACELSUS.

There

thorities.
and

to

faith.
took

by

test

related

beginnings of this movement


of thought most
clearly
domains

theology

and

however,

as

this

movement

its

classes, and
medium

of

the

expression

infections

of

with

thought

accepted
could

at

first in other

in the art
forth
"

and
of

architecture
Two

century
of

toward

the

in

flict
con-

independent
It found

revival

of art, in

influences

had

accelerate

to

Europe,

the

any

outlet

interest

of

painting, sculpture,

literature.

universities, both
and

control

of the ancients, in the bursting

forms

great

the

great

no

dangerously

extinguished.

literature

and

to

authority

the

measure

tendency

directions, in

new

ical
cler-

beliefs.

be

not

great

considered

the

Nevertheless,

thought

in

could

Latin,

and

occur,

long,

the

to

in

"

So

confined

was

in scholastic

manuscripts

Church

limited

was

popular participation could


of

time

scholarly thought of the


in speculative philosophy.

the

of

and

the

in those

to

reinvestigate

to

basis of knowledge

the

reason

Naturally

place

ambition

an

arose

arisen

the intellectual

remarkable
in number

invention

of

during

the

ing
awaken-

development
and

of

scope

printing by

teenth
fif-

of

the

teaching,

movable

metal

types.

Many
in

the

earlier.
in

of the

thirteenth

Among

older
and

the

universities
fourteenth
more

had

been

centuries

prominent

of

Paris, Montpellier, Toulouse;

or

these

Italy,Naples, Salerno, Bologna, Padua,

Spain, Valladolid, Salamanca,

founded
even

were",

Pisa

; in

Seville; in France,
in

England,

Oxford

INTRODUCTORY.

Cambridge ;. in Bohemia, Prague; in Poland,


berg,
HeidelCracow
; in Austria, Vienna
; in Germany,

and

Erfurt.

Cologne,
In

fifteenth

the

large number
Empire,
Rostock

universities,particularlyin

as

Wiirzburg

In

(1478).
Poitiers
and

France

also

Caen

(1431),
In

others.

century

in

earlier

the

Marburg

(1527), Konigsberg
printing

the

the

sixteenth

(1502),
(1506),

Wittenberg

of the

both

ideas

(1544), Jena (1557).

universities

served
of

to

the

and

bring

to

tension
ex-

larger

representative thinkers

other

events

operative

were

the barriers of traditional

down

discovery of America,
wealth

centers

to

and

growing,
The

India

(1498),
of

of

of

the

great

prestige

disputed.

As

German
of the

the

power

breaking
its

opening

and

of

Empire

Spain

losing

temporal

of the emperor

new

and

commerce

power

in

of the

discovery

were

Pope

The

exploitation of
the

trade
The

wealth.

in

conservatism.

the

Pizarro,

currents

sources

and

and

Cortez

by
route

ocean

was

the

time.

Many

new

of

(1441)

Frankfort-on-the-Oder

development

constituency

(1409),

Provence

e.g.,

(1505),

of

universities

new

half

Breslau

The

Copenhagen

(1437), Bordeaux

established,

were

(1477),

Tiibingen

several

Aix

as

(1472), Ingol-

(1476),

Upsala

established,

were

Munich

(1477),

(1465),

man
Ger-

the

Greifswald

(1426),

(1471),

Mainz

(1472),

(1403), Leipsic (1409),

Louvain

(1419),

Budapest

founded

were

of

(1456), Liineburg
stadt

there

century

was

ency.
coher-

aflfairs

waned,

PARACELSUS.

cities

German

authority,

in
classes

middle

occasioned

and

theological thought,
the

in the

he

this
its

illustrates

from

old

of

that

fell in

activity
realize

this

touched

the

Leonardo

if

of

these

of the

most

that

the

More,

impress
of

upon

America,

Paracelsus

the

born

was

ence
dependitself

free

Paracelsus

tellectu
fertile inWe

may

his

of

span

Rafael,

life

an

and

event

and

who

development
in the

Columbus,

Luther,

Erasmus,

will suggest,

names

its

as

Michelangelo, Machiavelli,

Vinci, Ariosto,

Paracelsus

The

of

Rabelais, Vesalius, Cardanus,

lanchthon,

discovery

to

well

as

Renaissance.

the

of

Thomas

Copernicus,

thought

lifetime

period

of

independence,

struggle

its

recall

lifetimes
da

distinct

of

its

as

child

true

tendencies,

The
a

we

sulted
re-

Paracelsus'

or

once

new

and

bondage.

(1493- 1 541)

whom

and

tradition

upon

at

self-confidence, its boldness

its confusion

Hohenheim,

von

He

period.

in

eventually

which

generally called, was

be

to

came

current

Reformation.

Protestant

Theophrastus

also

largely influential

was

schisms,

of

development

of

criticism

wide-spread

more

Bible

of the

circulation

and

printing

The

ence.
influ-

and

in wealth

increasing

were

and

mercantile

the

while

minishi
di-

barons

feudal

the

gaining,

were

The

princes increased.

German

of the

influence

the

Me-

others
left

have
of

tion.
civiliza-

following

year

which

with

con-

in accordance
by Hohenheim
of using Latinized
time
or
Hellenized
Thus
names.
Agricola (from Bauer), Melanchthon
(from
all German
Schwarzerd),
CEcolampadius
(from Hausschein),
temporaries
conwith

name

custom

common

was

of

adopted

its

the

writers

of

the

"

of

Hohenheim.

INTRODUCTORY.

sequences

had

thoughts

and

Through
fame

of

the

age

that

he

of the

have

It is

distinct

impress
the

whether,

detrimental

to

is admitted

that

to

as

the

on

the

development

he

inaugurated

the vain

cation

of

of

of

of modern

to

the

of

philosophy
his life and

era

Books

Paracelsus

we

and
2

Cf.

works
material

Stoddart,

must

Goethe

homeopathy.
find in the

have

The

been

look
scholars

of Paracelsus
of

Faust.

chemists

of

the

to

appli
"

It is recognized

ideas

into the

his

Erdmann

with

readers

written
the
have
much

Modern

Life of Paracelsus, London,

augurate
in-

having

of the
that

know

to

debtedne
in-

in his

of Robert

Paracelsus

for

the

called

development

thought inspired the

Browning.
to

modern

English

nature.

in chemical

era

acknowledged
him

It

contemporary

younger

credits

of the

new

writer.^

or

science.

the

sometimes

have

earlier

History of Philosophy
the

surgery,
to

ence
influ-

beneficial

rational

Pare,

is said

Paracelsus,

of that

alchemy

some

surgery.

great

was

of
a

existed

in medicine.

use

introduced

he

practice

to

it

and

theory

attention

of medieval

chemistry

that

father

aims

the

have

extent

whole,

activityby diverting
from

with

us

characterizes

the

upon

differences

opinion

and

quite generally recognized


there

and

the

of

name

to

that

haze

practice of medicine, though


of

the

down

come

legendary

of fables.
a

imagination

centuries

four

Paracelsus

left

energizing the

followed.

nearly

something

toward

the

stimulating

that

generation

influence

much

that

show

beginnings

of

attempted

to

of the

tion
inspira-

mystics
1911,

p.

65.

have

PARACELSUS.

in

sought
the

occult

who

have

him

the

method.

As

with

his

By
or

modern

wise

pious and

work,

has

other

charlatan,

extolled

By

man.

as

skilled

drunken

early
cian,
physi-

sincere

his

of

critics he
as

sonality.
per-

critics

many

other

by

and

character

disciplesand

characterized

been

hand,

who

been

have

great reformer,

and

opponents

his

with

been

unselfish

scientific

modern

of

nition
recog-

claims.
so

teacher,

wanting

not

earliest

the

there

of his

many

he

are

moreover,

all these

disputed

students

basis

necessary

Writers,

the

doctrines

in his

found

of

revelation

of

source

while

in nature,

of

have

fertile

and

sional
profes-

has,

ignorant

an

braggart,

the

on

tist,
ego-

superstitious

visionary.
Evidently

not

in this confusion
the

could

of
But

were

why

have

his

real

the

he

of

these

opinions

mythical

no

impossible

no

lie

must

sonage
perbination
com-

antagonistic estimates,

varied

so

accomplishments

this

it

became
It

was

To

in the
has

extremely
what

"

his

attempt

past few

made

to

to

What
acter
char-

true

summarize

decades, modern
these

questions

is

essay.

is, indeed,
how

physician

estimates

was

possessed

come

research

There

attributes.

have

which,

answers

task

for

Somewhere

true.

contradictory

personality?

historical

be

can

qualities.

whence

and
the

of

Paracelsus,

true

and

and

all of this

came

thus
his

no

great

about

that

credited
fortune

or

in
difficulty
the

with

standing
under-

German-Swiss

contradictory

misfortune

to

have

INTRODUCTORY.

become

the

originator

which
death

and

of

for

than

more

bitter warfare

with

acelsists

anti-Paracelsists

and

the
the

acknowledged

leader

and

adherents

credulous

spread

and

miraculous

tales

the

medical

the

seventeenth

science
that

"

they

borrowed
the

while

differences

of

with

the

ridicule,^lander
in the

hands

the

thus

exaggeration

it is

Paracelsus,

personality and
The

sources

kinds:
life and
are

too

none

of his

work

own

weapons

critical

mentation
experisettled,

were

weapons
of

philosophers
of

authorities

were

effective

"

guments
ar-

to

easy

and

of

mass

fable

and

free the reputation of

justly estimate

his real

influence.
reliable

of
unbiased

such

and

disputants.

accumulated

discover

to

the

traditional

abuse

life

schism.

sixteenth

opinion
and

other

and

hated

with

citation

and
of

not

and

of the

theologians

hostile

but

credited

or

patient and

dialectics, the

"

From

foolish

not

was

with

"

the

from

time

it

settled

were

despised

profession

centuries

of modern

but

the

of

ish
Fool-

wonderworking

character

the

of

credited

admirers

Equally

demned
con-

school.

of his

of

or

character

newer

and

legends

detriment

founder

in

For

and

and

Par-

school.

supported

antagonists invented
the

to

Galenic

or

of the

powers.

malicious

fables
of

the older

his

waged

century

titioners,
prac-

after

mainly

theory, practice, life

and

or

of medical

school

into influence

came

which

of
numerous

information

records

contemporary

Paracelsus
"

and

exist

as

the

published writings.

of

are

"

and

internal

While

of

his

two

the

which

evidence

writings

PARACELSUS.

collected

as

his editors

by

is such

character

of them

interpretation.Some

edited

his

by

or

lecture

the

from

still others

and
in

or

exist
of

authenticity and

of

the

attributed

writings
few

of

his

after

all his

death, and

Huser

of

collection

his

of

work
He
or

with

took

pains

to

give

manuscripts,
made

from

accessible
at

autograph
him.

to

times

deceived

particular work,
statements

of

as
a

to

the

from

in

conscientiousness.

them

of the

books

many

graph
auto-

are

but

be

it may

that

autograph

it is nevertheless
the

particularwriting

true

and

source
we

vate
pri-

ous
his labori-

out

copies known
the

hannes
Jo-

public and

also described

some

While

seventy

tative
authori-

most

of each

source

among

and

to

(1589-91), gathered

and
fidelity

articles included, and

lifetime, the

disappeared.

edited

works

the

authenticity

of

evidently carried

great

degree

original manuscripts

materials

collections,and

the

twenty

have

Basel, who

all available

together

the

works

important

opinion

his

greater part being published from


years

of

Paracelsus.

to

printed during

were

gin,
ori-

wholly

to

as

criteria

the

to

as

others

either

differences

scholars

Paracelsus

among

But

Great

spurious.

part

manifestly

were

some

uncertain

of

manuscripts

from

published

were

writing
hand-

own

his students,

of

notes

them

secretaries,

or

amanuenses

of

Some

in his

manuscripts

from

published

were

published during

were

supervision.

his

under

life and

his

their

in
difficulty

much

offer

to

as

their

great volume,

of

are

are

not

directly

Huser

was

pharacter
that

probable
at

copies

as

present

upon

of

his

ticity
authen-

mainly

INTRODUCTORY.

dependent

for

authenticity
and

basis

the

works

of

included

included

the

in his

authenticityeven
the

There

he

exists

they
letter

collection

by

certain

Schobinger (dated April, 1576)


testimony
in his

opinion

I knew
in
him

well, and

very

the

of my

house

books

many

bears

of

"Theophrastus,

such

part of which

understand

in

things,

There

saw

under

his

also

made.

nor

For
his

and
No

this

the

Main,

of

large

amount

years.

Schubert

and

1887-89, II,

The

Sudhoff,
pp.

there

has

of serious

and

German
motive

writers

attached

the

for

this

to

it is

judgment

from
been

of Paracelsus.

fact

in

brought

search,
scholarly re-

during

Paracelsusforschungen,

140-44.

phrastus
Theo-

assertion, but

separating myth

history of Paracelsus,

problem

notably by

be

can

sure,

life

thirty

style of

writing.""

the

the

alleged writings

some

not

neither

unsubstantiated

regards

as

occult

part

Theophrastus
well

To

bear

to

be

to

left behind

books

interestingas supporting

nevertheless
of Huser

and

in

usage

value,

great

general

I knew

weeks

many

are

which

name

whom

truly did

he

....

printed

time

Paracelsus

brother-in-law,

upon

esting
inter-

that

at

even

lived twenty-seven

who

or

Bartholomaus

which

that

states,

late

and

[verporgelich]
himself

He

belief

the

alleged writings

some

authentic.

not

were

fact

the

to

doubtful

of

genuine.

not

were

indeed

Huser

expressed

the

Paracelsus

to

works.

this

when
that

knowledge

attributed

in

in

confidence

our

collected

works

many

of

the

past

reinvestigation
Frankfort-on-the-

PARACELSUS.

lO

be

may

history

the

to

in

found
of

scientific

to

the

researches

attributed

many

accessible

in

To

the
of

the

on

during
a

new

of

years

the

work

the

the
and

better

accomplishments
eccentric

libraries
of

these
of

history
past

Swiss

Karl

exhaustive

work

early

by

half

of

scholars

and
and

medicine

century,

influence

physician

and

the

the

to

result

collections

Europe.

we

of

other

sciences

indebted

the
the

dents
stu-

authorities

other

are

of

to

to

and

understanding
and

of

works

printed

the

Sudhofif,

Paracelsus,
of

of

study

the

lution
so-

indebted

chiefly

are

bibliography

manuscripts

of

authenticity
we

critical

and

the

Paracelsus,

to

monumental

books

of

Julius

partial

the

For

Strunz.

and

R.

Netzhammer,

Franz

problem

indebted

Schubert

Ed.

Aberle,

Carl

butions
contri-

particularly

are

we

early

the

important

For

Raymund

the

of

of

of

and

Hartmann,

the

story

in

interest

of

revival

thought.

life

Sudhoff,

Carl

for

personality,
original

philosopher.

and

EARLY

THE

LIFE

THEOPHRASTUS
phrastus
at

in

Swiss.

as

His

Hohenheim,
in

149

that

In

married

son

then

person,"

now

he

and

father

removed

physician,

to

he

as

bearing

as

died

in

contemporary

date

in

burg.
Salzhad
des

Einsiedeln,''

zu

know

we

At

the

Einsiedeln

only
cated
lo-

was

the

and

about
in

Villach
for

reside

the

Hohenheim

Frau

was

to

physician

town

was

pilgrimage.

Theophrastus

continued
where

of

von

"Gotteshausfrau

monastery,

place

as

Bombast

him

the

German

practising

union.

Benedictine

When
his

this

of

of

part

was-

von

far

so

born
ber,
Decem-

Museum

lieben

was

of

17th

himself

of

"honest

child

as

time

Wilhelm

Theophrastus

the

Wilhelm

portrait

unserer

and

was

calls

he

Einsiedeln

an

Hohenheim,

Carolino-Augusteum

Gotteshauses

and

village.
the

the

or

region

father,

at

was

is in

that

so

Theo-

Hohenheim,

on

this

time

Elmpire,

well

von

Switzerland
his

In

1493.
German

von

Bombastus

Einsiedeln

PARACELSUS.

OF

1534

the

nine

respected

local

where

Carinthia,

remainder

records

old

years

of

his

citizen
bear

life,
and
ness.
wit-

PARACELSUS.

12

There
founded

the

by
is

and

training

schooling, either

information

Such

there

in his

That

his

attention

In

of

one

his

his

to

and

in the

preparation

for

that

from

not

ancients
some

who

Bishop
his

and

in the

and

of

predecessors

Yppon,

enumerate,

given

Scheyt
Bishop

arts.

besides

moderns,

have

his

that

father

chemical

cesses
pro-

regions.

of

thus

ferring
re-

useless

the

chemistry

from

alludes

pursued

the
his

to

as

who

First, from
has

things
most

were

him
and

well, of various

themselves

forsaken

great

many

much

Lavantall, Bishop

and

Wilhelmus

never

Stettgach, Bishop

Matthaus

these

adepta philosophia

father, who

my

to

necessary

chemistry

to

in

instructors

good

Afterward

me.

of

I have

up

in the

Hohenheim,

student.

task:

childhood

firmly grounded

and

here

as

eliminate

to

medicine,

to

thoroughly grounded

von

mining

experiments
useful

learned

ing.
lack-

surgical treatises, Paracelsus,

experiences
"From

interest

endeavors

transmutation

and

early drawn
quite probable

It is

practised

as

experiences

was

knowledge

some

allusions

from

his

to

formal

occasional

is from

have

and

own

his

to

as

his

university,are

or

we

as

writings

certain.

seems

had

his

of

statements

Details

preliminary

gion
re-

medical

his

of

beginnings

the

the

received

Theophrastus

father.

his

from

and

district.

mining

that

probable

school

mining

Augsburg,

of

Fuggers

schooling,

first

Villach

at

important

an

was

It

located

was

number

writings

of

origins ;
"

trouble,
Erhart

Nicolaus

as

and
of

Schacht, sufifraganbishop

THE

of

LIFE

Phrysingen.

And

others, and

many

and
Hke.
a

EARLY

And

I have

those
of

Fiiger

arts,

the

among

Schwatz

and

who

with

their

and

for

number

gated
investi-

have

noble

the

of

Sponheini'

great experience, and

namely

as

of

as

doctors

alchemists

many

abbots,

many

also had

with

long time,

PARACELSUS.

OF

Sigmund

his

employed

artisans."^
It appears

laboratories

and

twenty-two
a

that

of age

laying
he

knowledge

and

before
and

is

Fiiger

travel

this

Of

in Schwatz

in the

study

from

scattered

through

examined

and

in their

to

the local

scholars,

time, by several

with

the

probably fairlycorrect
The

of magic
2

the

laboratory
a

his

last and

in many

allusions
been

have

consistency
events

and

of the
Dr.

consistent

of his

have

we

notably by

that

of

career

profession.

These

history and

result

studies

R.
and

wanderings

has

constructed.

been
1

had

universities,

and

their

to

outline

and

region.

information

statements

as

and

experiences

writings.

compared

relation

J. Hartmann,

his

of

only

brief

the

chemical

upon

practice of

the

period again

is derived

and

nearly

extensive

in medical

made

series

long

for

the

German

embarked

he

about

Theophrastus

Shortly after leaving

covering

countries

period

young

had

he

of
usual

of the

any

progress

known.

not

of

the

this attended

what

of the

not

or

the

when

there

worked

of

possessed

Fiiger's mines

Tyrol

foundation

the

metallurgical processes
Whether

in

Schwatz

at

years

thus

year,

visited

Paracelsus

eminent
and

the

Chir. Bilcher

Trithemius,

neo-Platonic

philosopher

Cabbala.
und

SchrifFten

(1618),

pp.

lOlf.

and

student

PARACELSUS.

It appears

Schwatz

and

to

np

the

practising physician
in

served

in

campaigns

of

time

Devil's

Bridge

and

the

somewhat

in

Denmark

and

service

surgeon,
of Venice

he

Paracelsus

below

Sweden,

France, Belgium,
army

IN

had

and

the

that

leaving
as

appearance
in

1526,

had

he

1577.

House

will

be

discovered

center.

he

had

visited

that, probably also

participated in

(1521-25).

physician

or

surgeon

army

EINSIEDELN
The

his

Strassburg

as

after

that

evidence

this

from

the

wars

land;
Engas

an

in the

It will be remembered

THE

that
the

Swiss
several

also

LIFE

At

times
visited

Germany,

France

other

received

received
His

attended

and

the

antagonists

DEVIL'S

in

BRIDGE

It is in this

house

the

AND

lifetime
alludes
formal

of
his

his
use

disputed
to

title

his

disdainfully

reply.
having

On

the

received

by

the

been

arst)

of Basel

and

having satisfied

qualifications.The

to

old

celsus
Para-

Medicine.

during

even

his

1S77.

IN

tradition, Paracelsus

it, a

he
the

hand,

is

degree

was

that

professor

makes

he
no

assfumption

supported by

and

writings

the

which

charge

which

to

other

consistently

he

would

not

city physician (Stadtin the

the authorities
records

or

1493.

the

as

of

HOUSE

presumption

appointed

have

that

Doctor

an

but

of it in his earliest

afterward,

of

to

in

time

some

found

PARACELSUS

born

appears

universities

at

profession

that, according

in

title of Doctor.

been

degree

he

period

parts of

different

various

the

has

used

largely

Italy,^nd

assumed

or

in

this

during

positive evidence

No

then

were

or

PARACELSUS.

taking place

wars

have

to

OF

mercenaries

Europe.
in

EARLY

of

his

out
University withas

to

his technical

admission

to

the

PARACPXSUS
Brussels.

Hardly

pupils.

The

Louvre

at

Scorel

in

by

Rul)ens

portrait
Paris,

1517,

but

BY

at

himself,

is e\idently
present

formerly

RUBENS(?)
but
a

of

copy

supposed
attributed

Wildens,

liy Jan

to
to

an

lia\-e
Diirer,

earlier
lieen

one
one

of

his

in

the

painted

by

THE

LIFE

EARLY

OF

rights of citizenship in Strassburg


him

"Doctor

as

records
with

the

title,but

which
he

us

by

later

with

the

of

"It is necessary
of

How

long.
it is

impossible
I add

can

to

of
but

be

his

nor

kinds

are

that

reason

not

The
are

one

in

bear

stars

scattered

the

higher spheres,
for

me

to

seek

me,

for

his

own

Also

world.

found

They

for

not
to

pass
out

must

where
their

that

each

the
to

these

they

tions
inclinaone

in

of

nature

their

all

land
father-

place. They

and

radii

far

the

to

the whole

and

the

in

stove.

according

village, but

own

proper

the

thus
to

grows

witness

wide

I have

How
is predestined

which

advantage

one

together, sought

his

Is it not

that

which

overcome

confined

not

nowhere
that

that

master

nor

man

in defense

answer

to

behind
are

furnishes

remained

or

throughout

scattered

brought

exist.

one's

teacher

wandering

autobiographical

overcome

of

proved

no

reply

from

away

knowledge
in

or

wanderings

have

his

have

do

to

take

accomplished

that

me

The
.

house

for

or

the

I do

can

his

I should

that

"

self.
him-

Paracelsus

made

and

largely

writings :

that

wayfaring

my

it is

to

as

particular critic

extended

in his

belief

assumed

or

sincerityof

few

him

sity
univer-

the

the

and

of any

reproach,

contained

sketches

all

his opponents

of

one

mentions

degree,

at

and

years

matter

it

contemporary

unofficial,credit

confidence

the

truthfulness

In

the

describe

1526

in

Such

nowhere

received

influenced

life

he

conferred

whether

in the

of Medicine."

exist, official and

as

PARACELSUS.

goals.

goals

and

to

PARACELSUS.

find

I should

regard

this
tus

that

no

one

but

and

and

it

not

reason

or

of

he

must

or

"

Does

not

manners

and

to

How

it,
a

see

customs,
ments
ele-

their

of

nature

seek

to

go

wishes

them

pursues

Therefore

one

the

and

can

good
the

....

geographer

develop

behind

seeing^with

the

give

eyes

true

those

from

repeatedly

heard

I have

foundation

I should

their

pursue

cosmographer
stove

that

if any

learn

constellations

their

sought?

city,to

be

.Thus,

me.
.

person

"

knowledge

that

true

it must

that

right

have

Is it not

am.

Theophras-

the

be

worthily

not

fail in

I should

If

each?

in

effects

the

out

....

that

physician

me

remain

not

in

he

diseases

behind

the

and

to

give

so

that

not

how

brought
that

they

cannot

are,

and

on

is their

[humores]
the

in

come
are

Prussian
the

more

not

their

wear

the

problem
For

possess

butcher

the

merely

Not
.

they

attack

they

Since

know

do

many
far

travels

he

much.

know

describe

to

as

the

to
arts

tries
coun-

but

trousers,

ageously
cour-

of

kinds

what
have

sitting

than

knowledge

more

stove

to

diseases

to

wander

is, and

world

If he

learns

pleases

diseases

will

one

laws

as

If

also.

wander

much

the

as

place.

travel

not

that

wide

This

traveler.

reason

as

one

must

experiences
Does

the

thither

and

hither

for

well

very

be

must

in the

it is written

that

in the laws

experienced

no

feet

....

can

drive

them

cushions
nature
to

the

you.

you

must

The

seek

you

must

them,

the

and

go
the

are

them,

English
nor

they

in casks.

pursue

Hungarian,

; therefore

you,

enclosed

nor

you

to

as

humors

tan,
Neapoli-

where
more

they
you

ALTERIVS

NON

Je^fTz^nale

tiobilaim

Qua

HeLuiia

t^ttuj

cLkr^

f/hiJia pe-r
Jiniarxt

a3

tmuttn

Engraved
Paracelsus

by

F.
was

!"

Venetian

inaui

ante
l^/tr^

Ercjrm,
L^prv^Jii/funu.

rcqoi^

be

by

wars.

an

artist

Jculps^.

ChauutAu

TINTORETTO(

BY

May

m^^iium

"jyaier

ptnsu"

the

tuoj

"j

luct Juhuut\
JcTtaScptcmtrv
OjfoJtiffJhit
nunc
r^a
ctncrcJi^Ue jaccnl

tUr

Chauveau.
in

Ajd^

ptunrna. Ijr^um

J^uU

loca

Po/bju/

bombast

PAKj\CELSVS

L.tiprtin.^urm

httmo.

"r^nuu

bJil. (Aim

POTEST

theophrastvs

PARACELSUS

ESSE

DICTV5

J'ARifC"Z.SVS

jemOu

i/lc ora,

ccuScj

J.

SWS

HOHENHEIM,

Afi

^U""ndt

Qyi

PHILIPPVS

AVREOLVS

Su

SIT

?)
of

Tintoretto

about
was

1520-25, when
born

1518.*

data
For
concerning
portraits we
chiefly indebted
are
of Dr.
Karl
Schadel
Aberle,
Grabdenkmal,
scholarly researches
des
1887-91.
Theophrastus
Abbildungen
Paracelsus, Salzburg,

to

the

und

PARACELSUS.

20

the

experience,
in

the

wishes

minerals

the
come

to

minerals

are

not

them.

"

to

his

out

to

way

see

who

not

do

those

and

are

within

the

belly
"

those
not

wanders
them

will

such

as

murdered

the

to

shade.

if

"

in fine

to

let them

that

has

those

"

stay behind

or

that
the

warm

as
no

were

will

serve

he will follow

me,

nothing.

who

homespun;

who

He

clothing.

saying

eat

stove

there

these, for Juvenal has


who

than

knowledge

their

it cold

have
arts

those

fireplace[Win-

the

for

pay

to

and

that

after

follow, after

not

joyfully
conform

follow

hug

long

such

exists

golden chains,

the

no

about

go

and

in

have

he

who
for

who

those

would

"

Those

better

true

sit behind

town-walls

the

they wish,
trees

that

wear

possessions

greater

and

condemned

be

one

who

able

go

much

It is indeed

those

scarce

lover

of

of habits

How

can

have

silks

kelbldser] wear
those

how

who

he

willing to

be

not

know

knowledge

If, then, there

art!

those

milk-broth.

wander

Does

hat.

doing?

so

do;

partridges,
eat

should

one

that

in

gains

the

who

experts

things

other
thither

roam

who

the

will

Where

them.

which,

beautiful

for

mountains

JDrettywoman?

despised

the

of all kinds

[to travel]

need

But
to

in

matrices

the

go

he

now

out

experience
and

shoes

pursue

see

If

seek

also

are

and

peoples

customs,

must

over

pass

hither

wanders

he

there

.1

must

grow.

him,

..

many

he

that

it is necessary

[Alchymist].

chemist

such,

be

to

which

be

physician

understanding

your

Also

fatherland.

own

your

will be

greater

Yet

travel

said

he

alone

Therefore

they
stove

may

and

is

let
not

be

turn

EARLY

THE

before

pears

is for
have

me

the

LIFE

fire.

hitherto

and

will

who

will

investigateher

with

his feet.
its

as

often

of

Nature,
In

skilful

is

again

no

of

with

the

serves

has

op. fol.,I, 2S7ff.

the

land

"

Codex

ARMS

OF

OF

HOHENHEIM

as

an

BASTS
BOM-

THE

It appears

original and

conventionally

trained

hostility.

suspicion and
I

thirty,

cured,"

is his

situation.
of

Strassburg
Hohenheim,

von

purchased

with

of

age

Germany.

sick whom

the

but

"Theophrastus

Medicine,

the

to

is the

the

OF

in

land

be turned."^

attention

official records

The

and

found

him

one

statement

1526

COAT

books

her

is.investigated

Thus

about

at

physician, though

pleased

own

1526,

viewed

leaf.

its leaves

must

attracted

soon

from

he

nature:

travel

is written

nature

PARACELSUS

physicians
"I

which

that

wanderings.

my

must

it

that

blame,

respecting

ways

often

so

year

OF

he

witness

letters,but

Paracelsus
that

That

thus

the

SEAL

I bear

land

of

worthily pursued

this

through

I consider

praise, not

For

21

PARACELSUS.

Therefore

of

matter

OF

the

Luzerne.

show

that

Doctor

in

of

citizenship[Burgrecht]
Enacted

Wednesday

PARACELSUS.

22

Luzerne

privileges

Stadtarst

Preface

he

1526,
Professor

Froben

painful

illness

physician, he

who

sent

of

time

of

"

to

"

the

Paracelsus,
""

Cf.

Schubert

in

and

then

on

vacant

offer

an

and

notably by

sicians.
phynew

to

come

speedy
Erasmus

and

house

of

Switzerland.

the

from

frequented by

was

theology

prominent

in the

in

by
the

tion
reforma-

by the
physician,

Impressed

skill of the

particularly,it

to

found

Froben's

professor

Basel,

of the

Strassburg

Basel

in

medical

and

prevailed

offer

of

skill of the

ministrations

Basel, both
in

efforts

the

at

lived

then

movement

men

his

house

CEcolampadius,

these

is interesting.

suffering

was

scholarly persons,

that

personality

him

to

through

University

Basel

at

remarkable

of the

Froben's

at

defied

which

Hearing

number

and

Physician

say.

appointment

(Frobenius)

Johann

relief.

Ordi-

et

distinguished book-publisher

The

Basel, and

the

Basel.

at

story of his

The

is to

Basiliensis," that

narius

"Physicus

himself

signs

vember,
No-

dated

gradibus,

De

manuscript

his

to

In

University,

the

at

of

functions

it the

with

in medicine

professorship

of

city physician at Basel,

or

carried

position which

offer

the

received

and

duties

his

upon

he

Strassburg,

at

position of

the

surgeons

entering, however,

Before

the

also

which

to

millers

grain-dealers and
belonged.^

the

of

that

was

guild of

The

Apostate [Dec. 5th]."

Andreas

after

new

is said,

dius
CEcolampa-

city authorities

(Stadtrath)

position of city physician

which

was

at

once

accepted.

Sudhofif, Paracelsusforschungen,

11,

p.

3.

to

THE

We

EARLY

have

evidence

by Paracelsus
of Erasmus

written

Erasmus

is in
he

certain

has

of the

tone

given
of

Erasmus,

it concludes,

equal

to

directions

thy

the

to

as

"I

and

art

and

who

is my

other
that

also

[utruniqne
remain

thou

Paracelsus

position
with

zeal

extensive

with
of medicine
hailed

as

thou

restorest

entered

different
with
with

He
in

notions

thee

1528,

and

Cf.

Schubert

the

shades

his

of the

lands

important

his

practice and
much

teacher

from

and

ideas.

the

favor

fortune

returned

foreign

if thou

through

university

had

and

from

upon

radical
distinctly
enthusiasm

offer

each

Basel."

experience

reward

half

in

energy.

some

other

singulis]. May

city physician
and

surely

in

evidently

of

op. cit.,II, p. 72.

[a6 inferis] Frobenius


me

in

general

D."

recalled

restorest

of

his direc-

thee

Hohenheim

hast

grateful

the

of

IN

Thou

soul.

Sudhoff,

"

letter

expressive

PARACELSUS
ex

later

prescriptions for

offer
"

letter

physician

indefiniteness

Bombast

and

the

made

The

though

is

cannot

OF

of

and

knowledge

SIGNATURE

reading: "Theophrastus

1526.

letter

in

time

some

of

summer

letter of Erasmus

dissatisfaction
"tions

his friends

and

to

23

good impression

Paracelsus

to

the

PARACELSUS.

of the

reply

ailments

OF

Froben

on

probably during
which

LIFE

He

his
tact
con-

theory
less
doubt-

self-assurance

PARACELSUS.

24

Opportunity

this

medical

of

his

of
the

he
His

experience

though
of

his

the
he

and

at

Basel

ceased

never

character

and
to

and

his

of
later

dogmatic

whose

estimated
under-

ism
antagon-

forced

soon

ideas

his

abuse

fluence
in-

to

greatly

he

forces

his

of

ability

certain.

also

victory

that
the

is

disappointments

persecutions

of

strength

challenged

that

and

time,

form
re-

celsus
Para-

That

traditional,

ultraconservative,

the

the

to

as

his

time

the

at

ideas

practice.

and

theory

overestimated

medicine

his

propagate

to

was

efforts,
resentments

his

life.

opponents

him

to

distant,
the

ize
realand

bitterness*

against
gave

the
color

THE

PARACELSAN

THAT

we

the

of

and
he

VIEW

conflict

it is

opposed,

something

his

gi-eat

authority

the
basis

aim

in

thought

stand
underthe

mains
do-

impress

to

the

bonds

which

dogma

of

he

as

had

turies
cen-

to

science

open

and

"Light

the

on

upon

experiment
it,

expresses

for

and

that

experience,

ancient

of

enchained,

foundation

open-minded
or,

break

science

the

observation,

which
to

attempt

we

endeavored

to

was

medical

of

sus
Paracel-

of

philosophy

current

accepted

for

way

the

nature

ideas.

and

held

that

Paracelsus

reformatory
His

dogmatic

of

which

theories

the

essential

the

comprehend

to

between

traditional

the

in

able

be

may

NATURE.

OF

of

Nature."
"nature"

But

which
that

to

Paracelsus

our

It

comprised

and

health

not

by

the

view

and

knowledge

merely,

therefore,
and

the

nature

the

observation

ophy
philosmuch

supernatural.

or

stars

the

upon

mysterious

credited

by

of

comprehended

other

many

of

school

the

occult

of

generally

The

experiment

is

influence

men

of

adopted

modern

of
then

people.

view

the

to

all

by

to

was

and

eyes

life

nomena
phe-

classes
be

the

of

achieA^ed
hands
"

as

we

understand

26

PARACELSUS.

the

of

study

Paracelsus

For

hidden,

Hence
of

agent

grounded

complete knowledge

in obedience

interpretationof

judgment,
ancient

Greek

be

may

other

or

of

the

impulse,

and

it

of

largely dominated

latest

authority

phenomena
field to

the

he

individual
of
of

or

ology.
the-

dogmatic

in the

by

as

Christ,

"

its

was

of Christ.

physician's

or

and

of

his

the

sources

nature

remembered,

for

accept

and

of nature

teachings

philosophers

study

still

to

human

of nature,

teachings

and

him

thoroughly

phenomena

the

refuses

and

Church-Fathers

The

the

himself

for

right

the

to

for the

the

must

man,

for

things spiritual.

be

in the

to

in

material

highest

will

interpretationof

claims

the

as

or

man

are

in

man

God's

the

For

to

physician

the

thoroughly

as

will

God's

of

revelation

the

of Christ

teachings

the

just as

"

seen

to

physical and

his

things relating to

all those

will

God's

of

things.

of

of nature,

phenomena

revelation

mystical

more

properties

the

the

are

by

also

but

"

hidden

the

insight into

welfare

nature

it

was,

feel

naissance
Re-

the

sixteenth

tury
cen-

medieval

point of

its scholastic

science,"

view.
"To

Middle

Ages
"nature

Windelband,^

says

which
the

the

the

Church

profane,

the

had

and
was

placed

wicked;

it

closed

its seal.
was

investigated

natural

recoil

Geschichte

der

there
neueren

or

took

upon

Nature

was

hated, combated,

despised, oppressed, anathematized,


known,

book

understood.

possession

but

anything
And
of

in

the

Philosophic, Leipsic, 1907, I,

p.

the

spirit
42.

THE

awakening

for nature,

longing

knowledge
"But
to

be

nature

first

with

Cassirer^
the

and

form
which

neueren

and
the

(2d

before

new

that

nature

peculiar

some

of

lation,
reve-

the

thus
took

nature

the

as

the

eternal

time

leads

with

which

at

the

ophy
philosveil

dense

in

outlines

and

reality.

The

but

forms
lectual
intel-

rarely

later

to

sure

science

can

of

processes
the

well

ence."
sci-

of

the

cepts
con-

phenomena

in the

time

in his

writings.

to

own

scholars

philosophy
Philosophie

ed.), Berlin, 1911, I,

thought

upbuilding

apply

found

in der

them,

anticipates,in symbolic

conventional
natural

natural

"Through

natural

Erkenntnisprohlem
Zeit

It

approached

superstitionsurround

repeated

and

prevailing
Das

the

the

be

of Paracelsus

and

summarizes

of

nature

Among

wish

to

doctrine, and

secret

characterizations

These

be

to

believed

through

it nevertheless

to

seemed

of science, its demonstration

was

language, general

are

of

not

knowledge

results

but

She

was

emerge

of

fruitful

connect,

nature.

concepts

fantasy and

labor
and

of

Renaissance,

view

new

forces

direction."

nevertheless

there

the

the

fantastic

which

of the

power,

mysterious knowledge.

mystical

toward

as

life,for

at, it

by

of

of

arrived

approached

Or

of

determinations,

be

struggle

form

mystery.

scholastic

was

to

natural

living nature
and

was

through

the

method

for

was

revealed

through

its

command

and

felt that

was

of

conscious

freedom,

to

27

NATURE.

OF

VIEW

PARACELSAN

p. 205.

was

und

of
a

the

time

degenerate

Wissenschaft

der

28

PARACELSUS

had

oped
develThe

philosophy.

neo-Platonic

of the

revival

original Greek

there

Renaissance

the

During

sources.

in the

existed

than

mysticism

of

more

and

much

by

corrupted

influences

Oriental

through

interpreters

Arabian

by

obscured

and

fied
transmitted, modi-

been

had

which

Aristotelianism,

las
generally credited originator of this revival is Nichoof Cusa
( 1401-1464), but its chief propagandists

Marsilius

and

Fici-

this somewhat

latter

had

philosophy

natural

fantastic

the

Through

(1433-99).

nus

^notablyGiovanni

"

(1463-94)

della Mirandola

Pico

spread

Germany,

to

where

Reuchlin

(1455-1522),

Trithemius

(1462-

1516),

Cornelius

Agrippa

Nettesheim

(1486-

1535)

prominent

were

(1476-1553)

Bovillus

these

Of

in

named

him

by

as

or

and

authors

with

of

the

fundamental

whether

whose

"

be

school

Chr.

Ficinus

believes, is
Sigwart, Kleine

A. Lehmann,

at

or

und

was

is familiar.
is

and
to

raneous
contempobut

was

that

to

indebted

philosophy

difficult

etc., 2d

one

for

fessor
Pro-

as
as

to

Alfred
decide.

ed., Freiburg, 1889, I,

Zauberei,

few

of nature

LuUus,

Agrippa,

present

Schriften, 2d

Aberglaube

fact, he

of his

Sigwart' thinks,
Lehmann*

observed,

his

mentioned

he

safely assumed

notions

been

among

also

are

Paracelsus

directly to

tive.
representa-

as

works

in

France

previously

Paracelsus

it will be

It may
this

has

Agrippa

Paracelsus's

older.

more

from

Ficinus

Agrippa's lifetime,

years

prominent

in

while

exponents,
was

quotation

with

von

Trithemius

men

teachers.

"

Academy

Florentine

in the

were

p. 42.

ed., Stuttgart, 1908.

PARACELSAN

THE

Lehmann

Mirandola

that

Trithemius
friend
Hebrew

Agrippa

Reuchlin

who

and

the

and

he

and

teacher,

we

Florentine

of

venturesome

especiallyappealed
of
telianism
the

to

of the

recognition

observation

sfeems

it

appeal

and
a

to

the

to

to the
as

of

belief of that
well

for

as

the

many

it
of

opened

of

the
to

"

the

path
and

icine.
of med-

of that

much

was

in

fifteenth

unite

into

mysterious

many

they presented

as

the

experiment

attempt
the

ture
na-

lifeless Aristo-

philosophy

notions

The

probably
in the

was

views, there

popular

time

It

development

neo-Platonic

philosophy
nature

it

and

value

was

strict adherent

because

the

centuries.

natural

phenomena

of

all

philosophy of the
too
was
original

because

present

our

sixteenth

quasi

the

as

time

and

the. basis

as

Fantastic

to

day,

his

theories.

Paracelsus

of

be

dry

and

from

own

philosophy.

the

the

as

drew

of his

to

him

to

revolt' from

he

Paracelsus

of

Ficinus

Trithemius
that

thinker

form

particular

any

of

neo-Platonic

Academy, yet

of

foundations

philosophy

in the

rooted

student

Reuchlin

both

believe

natural

of Trithemius.

mentions

well

was

From

friend

in the construction

the

deeply

the

acknowledges

may

sources

Though

profound

Cabbala.

was

Paracelsus

Agrippa,

and

also

Trithemius
a

received

probably

As

these

of

in

[Ficinus?] initiated

his

was

della

cabbalisticae

Cabbala.

the

Pico

that

Conclusiones
of

29

NATURE.

fact

the

to

pupil

into

of

theory

his

wrote

and

i486

attention

calls

OF

VIEW

themselves

supernattiralphenomena

equally mysterious

natural

phe-

PARACELSUS.

30

nomena

attempted

Paracelsus

period

the

for

accounted

rational

in

only

of

philosophy

orthodox

the

which

things

many

philosophy of
explanations

the

and

give

to

The

imagination.

the

to

Agrippa

of

magic"

"natural

of

inspiring

was

"

purely mystical

sense.

fundamental

of the

influence

in

considered

occult

spiritsor

universe,

and

sun

metals

too, it is
of

these

be

able

Or,

philosophy

of the

investigation of
clearer
"

"In

universe

"

views

with

of

the

has

Agrippa,

Op. cit..I,

p.

63

So,

through knowledge
of

of

in

is to
takes

life

given

us

and

the

is

things
in

nature

neo-Platonist

macrocosm

human

mals,
ani-

physical states.

Cassirer^

analogies

the

ences
influ-

man

of what

in

things
definite

powers

says

French

fantastic

Lehmann"

magic

as

cosm,
micro-

plants and

properties

the

the

Through

exert

and

man

and

is the

all

stars,

may

hidden

or

influence

ways.

obtain

waters,
his mental

occult
to

Man

an
sidered
con-

so

center

macrocosm.

and

impossible that

not

the

sense

the

was

universe,

properties

moon

and
man,

upon

higher

has

earth

the

material

the

universe

the external

their

As

external universe.

of the

epitome

of

center

phenomena

phenomenon

every

other.

every

upon
the

was

that

universe, such

all the

of

interrelation

the

was'

losophy
phi-

neo-Platonic

of this

concept

Bovillus, the
enable

us

the

developed

resemblance
0

op.

and

of the
to

cit.,pp.

to

cosm
micro-

comparison

synopsis

velous
mar-

discussingthe

place in

the

may

of the
preted."
inter-

natural
much
195-202.

of

THE

PARACELSAN

Paracelsus's
all

to

theories

objects in

is

OF

NATURE.

sympathies

and

believes

and

antipathies by appropriate
"This

attained

element

Agrippa

magic,"

importance

certain

medical

"The

says,

world

by

Thus

the

the

higher

Architect

and

receives

and

Prototype

the

heavens, the stars,

animals, plants, rocks,

and

thus, thinks

it becomes

the powers

through
and

This

natural

sciences.
of the
their

It

us

to

parts

paths

of
us

powers

for

the

or

in the

are

of

of

us

God,

words

the

religion; it

concerning
of

the

knowledge
universe

which

dimensions

man

knowledge.

greatest

Mathematics,

observances, forms

it informs

And

the ladder

and

the

the

"

as

teaches

and

to

serve
ob-

heavenly bodies; Theology.

the

and

devils

in three

nature

teaches

angels,
sacred

in its

know

which

reascend

powers

which

things

elements,

actions, times, places, appearances,

and

the

the

of

through

out

possible

to

him

universe

into man."

comprises: Physics,

causes,

whole

nature

is to

magic

nature

of

the

the

is

lower
its power.

flow

thence

gain supernatural

to

of

omnipotence

Agrippa,

sential
es-

of Paracelsus."

thence

of His

the

an

mentary,
threefold, namely, ele-

lets the powers

angels,

"first

as

sidereal, spiritual. Everything


ruled

tained.
ob-

fundamental

adopted

system
is

traordinary
ex-

be

might

its

were

thies
sympa-

Lehmann,

says

when

changes

in the

thies,
antipa-

and

methods

results

attributes

by influencingthese

supernatural

great

with

that

natural

striking.Agrippa

the universe

or

ideas

VIEW

and

and
the

soul, intelligences,
teaches

also

us

mysteries ; and
faith

and

symbols

and

the

the

finally

miracles,

the

sacred

PARACELSUS.

32

Operations and
the

sciences

He

who

Agrippa
the

and
it

Air.

and

Each

of

the

the

the

another

in

"

four

elements

hot

"

According
nature

the

to

sphere

or

Agrippa
in the

universe, influence

influence

the

all

things

in

that

everything

attracts

four

relation

ties
qualito

one

cold

also, all things


divisions

or

of

higher

worlds

of

lower, but the lower


in

sphere

same

is

This

dry

"

higher, though

in the

their

other

Earth

three
the

or

another.

one

element.

"

Water

"

more

quality, the

moist

are

ments
ele-

fashion:

Fire

Air

these

special qualities

two

in

back, when

of

illustratingthe

Aristotelian

the

falls

they

these,

of

combination

by

with

another

to

diagram

but

has

composed

be

Fire, Earth,

None

characteristic

transition

but

confused

elements

is the

represented by
and

be

may

four

one

sciences

composed

everything

in nature,

pure
and

which

forms

is

elements.

the

to

elements,

Everything

perishes, into
mixed

of

all substances

metamorphosis,

less

fects.
per-

the rationalityof magic.

Aristotelian

occurs

and

three

these

simple heaping together

three

These

seals.

the

know

not

supposes

and

by

not

does

four

Water

of

magic brings together

natural

understand

cannot

of

mysteries

less

influence

and

degree.
one

is attracted

also
Also

another

by

its

like.
The

philosophy

resemblances

to

that

of
of

Paracelsus

Agrippa.

presents
The

form

distinct
of

the

THE

neo-Platonic
well

served

quite

in

important.

of

and

that
of

with

another.

the microcosm,

knowledge

by

The

universe

the

study

of the

Paracelsus

with

as

Bovillus, dominant

Instead, however,

of the

(including magic
Theology,

Natural

also

Alchemy

natural

righteousness),
which

upon

"Virtue"

the
as

of

"Theology"
Paracelsus

of the
which

upon

rejectsthe

Paracelsus
as

determining

the

bodies

Agrippa

and

elements.

Mercury,

volatility,Sulphur,
and

Salt,
the

for

that

action

the
the

fire.

the

(or

four

pillars

must

rest.

from

the

rejection by

ceremonies

acles
mir-

and

places emphasis.
four

them

Aristotelian

elements

principles
his

principle
principle

principle which
of

Virtue

the

constituent

substitutes

of

Astronomy,

and

in

matics
Mathe-

Philosophy

differs

mainly

pa,
Agrip-

Science

Medicine

forms,

many

his

Cabbala)

the

substitutes

science

Agrippa

were

with

of

the

"

is founded

of

separate

numbers

constitutes

Science

rocosm,
mac-

the

also

philosophy),
he

which

the

philosophy).

chemistry)

(meaning

as

man

reached,

sciences

three

Paracelsus

Magic,

(meaning

which

upon

fluences
in-

ideas.

natural

Physics (meaning

of

as

and

Agrippa

the

to

macrocosm

be

must

festly
mani-

mutual

concepts

outer

ferences
dif-

the

as

their

the

may

was

Agrippa
and

microcosm

the

contemporary

and

Paracelsus

universe

the

one

and

starting-point,but

agreement

divisions
upon

his

as

also

are

with

33

NATURE.

OF

philosophy presented by Agrippa

have

three

VIEW

PARACELSAN

is

three
of

of

of

all

alchemical

liquidityand
combustibility,

permanent

and

sists
re-

PARACELSUS.

34

The

differed

closet

loose

and

much

interested

for

its

rational
basis

he

mind

theories

it

was

of it

could

as

them,

he

and

at

system

introduced

such

theological ideas
only through

not

but

respect,
school

of

classes

of

Thus
and

less

also

ideas

"

the

schools, for which

his

and

system

which

his

more

direct

of

medicine

influence

on

he

than

presented by Ficinus, Bovillus,

profession

the

of the

he

as

and

a
as

saw
tensions
ex-

arrived

channels

philosophy,

it had

the

of the

felt but
with

little

wider

all

among

lands.

logically developed

nevertheless, because

on

elements

had

experience

in many
of

he

contact

and

the

medical, chemical

indeed

through

such

things

conventional

sources

observation

people

his

of

philosophy

of

of

losophy
phi-

much

so

modifications

with

harmonized

as

and

not

was

fit into the

way

adaptation

imaginative adaptation

an

Galenic

the

consistent

and

carefully thought-out

schooled

less

of medicine

His

of nature.

study

in

so

neo-Platonic

and

stood

not

philosophy

or

of the science

neo-Platonic

current

more

Aristotelian

his

development

of the

been

often

was

natural

was

seem,

utilizing the

had
the

to

it would

was,

in

as

for

which

reasoning

elaborating

sake

own

substitute

He

in

in which

system
as

careless.

the

Paracelsus

For

His

philosopher.

the

in

than

ideas

fundamental

the

celsus
Para-

and

emphasis

the

in

philosophical notions.

formal

presented by

as

more

even

of

application

not

of nature

philosophy

or

less
the

even

consistent

philosophy
by Agrippa,

application to
and
common

the

chemistry,
thought

tical
prac-

was

of

of the

time.

VIEW

PARACELSAN

THE

As

arrived

celsus
"Para-

expressed it/

has

writer

recent

35

NATURE.

OF

his

mystical system long before


Copernicus appeared. The great impulse that proceeded
at

from

the

latter

and

thinking and view-point


he
as

in motion.

arose

Giordano

him

influence

The

from

of

only influence

Meister

late

life and

given

actuality as
always

was

Or

to

quote

and

of

means

of

III,

Moeller
p.

the

latter

the
van

whole
den

the

ment
developfull of

so

his

that

"

has

cism
mysti-

that

actuality
"

eminent

historian

who

his

Bruck, Die

had

it

primitive

emphasized
remained

not

made

was

philosophy.
Deutschen,

Minden

losophy
phi-

doctrine

yet it is only since

that
of

of

was

latelybeen

of

the

"Although

even

Sabunde,

the

have

Paracelsus

which

of

cold

must

warm,

Microcosm

Paracelsus,

to

so

vivified
re-

nature."

and
had

of

Raymond

point

from

Macrocosm

antiquity

mysticism

only

was

remarkable

was

Erdmann:'

H.

J.

that

remained

always

cosmos

''

this

For

of the

philosophy

furthered

of nature,

was

that

that

have

medieval

the

ideas, which

have

metaphysics

us.

of the

than

rather

of

of

metaphysics

transparent
hindered

But

Renaissance.

could

fashionable

that

[sic]

younger

which

was

the

saw

was

from

Eckehart,

neo-Platonism,
of the

also

outside, apart

theless,
Never-

him

after

century

Cardan

him.

first who

the

was
a

cosmological

reached

not

Nearly

Bruno.

Paracelsus.

reached

had

metaphysician

as

world

than

produced

He

known
un-

and

the

by
by

central

designates

i.W.,

n.

d.

(1904),

74.

^History
I, p. 613.

of Philosophy

(trans, by W.

S.

Hough),

London,

1893,

36

PARACELSUS.

nature

the

two

antagonistic, or

were

subordinated

were

God
the

former

by philosophy,

comprehended

are

of Christ

works

or

of

works

the

by theology."

latter

it is

While

foreign
in

describe

to

better

for

they possessed

divides

Paracelsus
into

the

he

in man,

spheres,
is,the fluids, organs,

the

the

of the
and

and
; the

us

wrote.
or

rocosm
mac-

tangible;
heavenly
spiritual.
three

microcosm,

etc.

enable

and

divine

visible

bones,

of the

universe

world

the

ophy
philos-

significance

he

visible

the

celestial,or

sees

and

external

the

ment
treat-

some

to

serve

in which

time

worlds,

three

; and

Similarly

will

(or sidereal),.the

astral

bodies

the

of

influence

the

natural

the

summary

features

understand

to

of this

purpose

detail

brief

characteristic

more

the

to

great

Paracelsus,

of

the

of nature

works

either

are

theology

the

but

cludes
ex-

though

as

though

as

philosophy,

to

Not

theology.

all

latter

the

from

hence

sphere of philosophy and

the

as

responding
cor-

tangible,
astral, the

that
sations,
sen-

seeing, feeling,perception ; the celestial,the


soul

(Seele).

The

divisions

of

three
the

science

of

the

(and astrology)

sciences
the

tas). As, however,


and
who

would

affects

his

the

what

life,health,

grounded
Paracelsus

theology
microcosm

adds

takes
and

is to

the

place

three

alchemy,

which

{propriebe

stood
underhe

macrocosm,

in man,

well-being must

in these

these

astronomy

virtue

or

of

philosophy,

are

of nature;

interpreted through
know

treat

macrocosm,

phenomena
; and

which

sciences.

term,

and
be
To

what
oughly
thorthese

however,

he

THE

PARACELSAN

in the

uses

mystical
word

of

He

the

up

of

Sulphur

and

effect

the

character

the

to

the

So

"Now
which

medicine

and

highest
his

in her

keen

great

alchemist

cloth.
man

Paracelsus

knowledge
develop

of

from

philosophy?

"

nature?"^"
1

nature
nature

what
"

speaks
"As

"

is

an

op. fol, I, 219, "Paragranum."

the

be

kept

so

perfected,
This

it.

is

baker

an

vine-grower
he

point

to

makes
useful
it

which

alchemist."

philosophy
other

other
in mind
i"

than
that

the

as

physician

nature

philosophy

it should

the

the
is

and

in nature

of

now

what

"

is

when

the

the

to

without

perfect

grows

is

subtle

that

weaver

he

nature,

When

be used

For

it to

on

foundation, all

so

not

bread,

the

brings

When

is

must

bakes

whoever

by

an

foundation

in this

man

whatever

ordered

was

is herself

experienced

will

she

Therefore
"

and

alchemy.

wine,

makes

in

produced

alchemy.

yieldsnothing

he

when

he

when

is called

is

nature

state, but

in its natural

be

in

similar

are

third

degree

that
she-

For

art.

perfecting

skilled

For

matters

are

which

nature

Nature

which

stands,

vain.

in

may

the

to

as

is not

stances,
sub-

all

:"

greatest

is in

art

which

chemist.

says

further

physician

the

to

he

the

principlesMercury,

of matter

forms

to

elements,

processes

changes

laboratory of

alchemist.

the

in the

that

considers

chemical

three

the

fourth

the

as

Aristotelian

four

in

attribute

we

chemistry

he

as

Salt, and

changes

present

adds

medicine,
even

made

at

than

rather

chemistry

which

sense

alchemy.

pillar

the

of

sense

37

NATURE.

OF

VIEW

must
'

than

ible
invisto his

Ibid.,I, 205.

38

PARACELSUS.

mind

of

the

stars,

the

of

air

or

the

waters,

of

view

another

one

belief

The

The
of

health

was

H.

the

nymphs

time.

The

by

the

all

things

the

sumption
as-

pathies
sym-

spirits (Geister).

their

of the

stars

well-nigh

was

ogy."
"astrol-

comprehended

interpretation of

customary

its

through

man

of

by

existences

"astronomy"
of

represented

exerted

upon

were

neo-Platonic

Paracelsus

such

influence

influence

the

from

and

in the

universal, and

and

in

antipathies

and

gnomes

influences

the

of

devils, spirits

which

belief

the

The

superstition.

angels

his

universe

the

encouraged

upon

in

credited

generally

gates
rele-

day

our

and

of

of

influences

of

and

fable

of

domain

the

of supposed

number

great

knowledge

the

which

facts
to

included

nature

nomena
phe-

generally, the

contemporaries

his

to

as

bodies

heavenly

the

nature

upon

man's

quotes
purely mystical. Troels-Lund"
Ranzau
(1676), a post-Paracelsan writer,
discussion

following

the

fairlyrepresenting
view

the

of

which

be

may

conventional

matter

accepted

and

purely

as

tical
mys-

:
.

"The

first

which

man

with

The

second

created
the

should

dependent
""*

Gesundlieit

sic, 1901,

p. 80

only

months

years,

conclusions
is

is the

not

sign

sin

came

cause

these

be

of disease

cause

to

as

upon

und

to

the

and

that

we

Krankheit

death

into

For

the

be
but

which

superior.
in der

of

may

days,

from

future.

the

fall of the

influence

and
us

is the

the
The

Anschauung

the

we

world.
God

stars.

able

also

first

to

ure
meas-

that

they
draw

may

inferior

world

heavenly
alter Zeiten,

bod-

Leip-

THE

ies

exercise

certain

the

upon

[Sdfte]

VIEW

PARACELSAN

of

the

conditions

body

the

further

the

moon

crescent

the

and

he

will

the

fluids

the

animals.

ruled

before

tendency

influence

of

Mirandola,
birth,

they

the

to

diseases

"

with

in

and

man

are

"

in

therefore
fluids

bad

death."

symptoms

were

notions

Giovanni

of the

Pico

following

year

of

also

mystical

Thus

the

influence

from

there
the

stars.

died

but

fidence
con-

increase

bodies

bodies,

discredit

lacks

For

"

our

Paracelsus

the

who

marrow

of

from

clearly that

the

body

the

things

one

any

or

character

all

convinced.

of the

fluids

della

Paracelsus's

says:

"The

stars

laws.

They

material

bodies

power

they

earth.

Not

read

the

such

as

are

which

able

they

to

natural

signs

and

are

subject

to

to

or

indicate

or

the

the

predict.

in himself
A

for
stars

his

of

The

whose

influences

secret

its

effects

qualitiesby

destiny.

is indebted

what

and

causes

but

predict

real

produce

of his

not

and

occult

no

heavens

foundations

accomplishments

the

possess

in the

Aristotle

world

either

are

happenings

heavenly

Their

cause.

the

to

indicate

only

can

themselves

belong

the

and

in

observe

be

heavenly

diseases

If

but

fluids

the

by

him

brain"

The

Even
of

let

moon

blood,

arise

this

and

plainlyand

so

is needed.

proof

in

this

the

augmented

position

experience,

teacher, shows

surest
no

Daily

stars.

the

to

ence
influ-

and

whereby

modified,

are

diminished, according
of

action

mysterious

lower

39

NATURE.

OF

must

on

each

great thinker

capacities and

under

which

he

PARACELSUS.

40

but

born,

was

Paracelsus

So
their

bodies

the

And

would

natured

they

as

choleric, one

their

they

have

complexion,
traits, no

had

would

people

been

had

You

cruel,
had

though

Helen
older

than
also

were

"A
fruit

Venus

had
a

no

in the

consider

that

obtained
of

Mars

it from

nature,

one

still would

although
before

such

Although

existed
and

strumpet,

moon

because

Venus

never

no

just

child.

neither
and

have

that

his

was

firmament,

though

people

his

if Saturn

it. For

and

so,

in

man

Venus

Helen

is

there

strumpets.
that

is thrown

itself,for

[ens seminis]
"

Helen

no

nor

believe

nature

Helen

seed
of

Nero

see

been

have

stars, for

characteristic

no

shortens

just

not

same

You

nor

still would

must

the

the

disturbs

heavens

born

therefore

other.

and

be

form,

no

entity of

is,they give

that

body,

pious,

one

in the

from

come

Saturn

in the

created

natures.

they

of

been

untrue,

other
an-

individuality.'"^

lengthens

never

melancholic,

one

qualitiesare
not

yet

nor

born, complexioned

so

"

world.

the

existed

had

another

in the

no

course

life,neither

are

colors,

no

nature,

"The

now

do

part

no

just

Such
and

natures

be

principle

the
of

away

planet

received

Eve

through

or

true,

wicked.

another

and

passing

the

star

no

children

and

creation

to

up

though

the

received

he

and

"Adam

says:

the

at

seed

were,

is

which

genius

own

God."

from

of

his

to

it has

within

Op. fol, I, S, "Paramirum."

into
the

it, but

the

earth

principle of
if the

sun

were

yields its
the

seed

not, it

THE

would

not

the

nor

the

firmament

not

it grows
and

of

that

the mother

is

"But

or

evil

good nothing

are

evil,evil

they

are

they

surround

the

toward

them
note

they

contaminate

the

when

there

It may

stars.

that

part where

also

it is with

This
habit

is

an

not

of his time

'3/6"rf., I, 6.

poison

the
the

of

by

an

of

but

is

first

that

air

through

Therefore

poisonous
place

properties

"

fore
Thereeases
'dis-

such

of

those

but

earth

strongest.

only

And

so

stars.""

of the
very

when

the

egg:

are

any

they

note

world.

whole

influences

good

illustration

of Paracelsus,

beliefs

have

worse,

their poison.
to

come

also

When

Take

the

its.influence
the

have

them.
shell

The

ties,
proper-

stars

passes

air with

as

"^^

manifold

which

stars

poisons

these

appear

of

but

sun,

stars.

them,

and

center

those

earth,

of the

from

the

as

shell

that

now

from

earth

the

through

comes

The

the

bitterer.

or

comes

comes

the

have

better, sometimes

milder

sourer,

must

....

The

have.

men

for

mother,

stars

any

their

and

sometimes

changes,

sweeter

the earth.

also the virtue

earth

on

child

seed

without

digestion

their nature

just as

planets,its

nor

The

digestion without

that

in the

say,

stars

no

place in

takes

understand

have

is to

its star.

and

no

mark

digestion [gestation]

the child needs

affords

however,

their

its

digestion,that

digestionand

it,

....

in the

planet

s^in makes

it its time

sets

sun

the

things, but

without

is its

mother

the

that

such

nor

4I

NATURE.

OF

not

grow

therefore

stars

Think

grow.

warmth

may

VIEW

PARACELSAN

characteristic

explaining generally accepted

some

plausiblyrational theory.
^*

Ibid.,I,

7.

PARACELSUS.

42

In his time

the

the

earth

and

planets revolved,

was

supposed
their

The

the

not

he

has

him

to

and

like

the

to

things.

heaven

For

heavenly

Says

celsus:'"'
Para-

The

and
stars

him

and

ruled, mastered,
stars,

to

rule

can

cord
ac-

the

that

so

he

gallows,

the

essential

was

of Paracelsus

could

the

influences

to

the

because

"

of

sician
phy-

external

physician

affecting man

pletely
com-

(the

quote:'"
is its

but

man

as

he

own

has
is

more

"=

op.

'"

Ojy. fol.,I, 216, "Paragranum."

fol, I, 910,

in

follow

thief

tent
consis-

more

must

the

bodies.

less

him.

is

celsus
Para-

as

stars

by

view

the

To

microcosm).
wounds,

the

complete understanding

understand

"The

diseases

man

for

account

and

man

the

(the macrocosm)

nature

its

the

of all nature

according
only through

nothing

wheel."

the

study

The

not

brutish

them

follow
to

was

there

wise

in

them

strange

Agrippa.

the

necessitated

and

murderer

of

monly
com-

time

is, however,

that

and

them.

to

to

passage

and

stars,

subject

compelled

health

know

are

our

time

own

philosophy

the

"Therefore
master

of

was

support

to

foregoing quotations, and

the

with

his

credited

following

with

and

to

thought

upon

others

with

to

atmosphere

the

moon

smi,

imaginative hypothesis to

influences

such

and

the

which

about

"

extend

to

yet

"

in this

absurd

center

To

places.
fantastic

and

cosmology prevailed,

the Ptolemaic

when

"De

natnra

physician
his

is

shortcomings

than

rerum."

as

mortal

dog
in

of

such

creature,

THE

he

have

must

is in the

order
is.

what

matter

no

his

father

and

must

and

that

see

and

in

this

[air] ;

blood

from

These

diseases

for

this

and

the

beasts

that

the

that

and

of
man

fourth

his

to

the

of
of

sick

and

their

Light

that

he

and

subject

mission

their

and

earth.

exist

only
forest

is like the

he

observe

man

all created

hands

virtue
of

obedience

things

the

the

the

teachings

universe

health

physician
of

of nature,

obligation

prepare

their

of

of Christ.
direct
as

and

toward
to

will

the

through

man

into

God
the

through

with

is treated

[proprie-

Paracelsus

to

of

profession

Nature."

the

flesh

of the

must

of

is from

health

that

Therefore

health,

from

beasts

in

made, this

thy

there

see

profession by studying
of

this
thou

the

may

of the

forces

the

medical

the

know

that,

and
has

of their

may

and

of

will for the

God's

Mars

water,
and

men

direction

the

generally
to

diseases

hast

place

man

recognize

must

this, Luna;

itself in the

of nature

powers

is,he

what

know

may

pillar of medicine,

recognition

and

he

from

In

himself."

know

tas), resolves
a

who

so?

necessary

man

gain experience

may

The

that

better.

not

and

he

But

element

field,and

himself

not

this member

Venus,

is this

is and

were

[the macrocosm]

member,
Chaos

sick.

in the

earth, what

he

who

what

know

must

Why

knowledge

be

not

know

may

this

He

water.

43

NATURE.

OF

in the

what

in the

he

If

would

and

what

that

VIEW

knowledge.

more

heavens

air, and
he

PARACELSAN

the

Quite
tion
applica-

agent

of

his

standing
under-

the

duties

to

poor

and

themselves

science

in

the
for
"the

THEORY.

MEDICAL

the

main

ix.

and

as

the

theory

AS

and

his

philosophy

of

theory

history

The
of

practice

at

results

of

his

natural

gives

radical
of

his

his

perience
ex-

ined-

ophy.
philos-

dence
evi-

ample

reform

period

the

with
of

also

science

need

great

and

theory

medical

of

formulate

Naturally
to

first

harmonize

the

related

closely

is

on

of

was

should

he

and

nature

it

should

observation.

and
ical

that

medicine

of

theory

that

mission

his

to

medicine,

authorities

medicine,

of

practice

in

lay

ancient

the

rejected

he

importance

Paracelsus

of

interest

both

the

in

of

activity

Paracelsus.
The

accepted
by

of

Hippocrates

Greek
much
and

in
had

his

human

the

physicians
of

to

advance

subject,

Galen

of

were

the

but

of

ancient

the

animal

upon

time
almost

of

the

Arabian
The

accomplished
of

medicine,
indeed

not

bodies.

Paracelsus

unknown

in

latter.

practice

dissections,

thorized
au-

ties
authori-

their

indeed
the

as

taught

and

had

performed

even

the

texts

Galen

Galen

time

and
the

particularly

physician

doctrines

upon

and

and

medical

faculties

founded

was

interpreters,

of

medical

the

universities

body

the
in

their

But

on

to

ancient

purity,

MEDICAL

but

read

were

only as transmitted, commentated

interpolated by
Averrhoes, Mesne
sixteenth

Arabian
and

century

with

Oriental

teachings

been

for

finished

and

interpreted

doctrines
as

be

in

and

be

taught,

doctrines

evident

to

bound

was

to

Naturally
the

also

lifeless

theories
and

them.

meet

condition

degenerate
ignorance
the

when

men

should

medical

the

ranks

itself

"

protest

arisen

have

of

though

the

into

some

ties.
authori-

puzzle

caste.

incapacity,fostered

the

conventional
of

phase

or

dogmas,
symptoms

Renaissance,

in the

thoughts,

as

to

practice,not

by

pretentiousness and

new

there

be

profession

and

many

the

while

self-satisfied

suspicion

and

might

could

the

voice

within

profession
raised

was

feature

there

sufficiency

perhaps

conventionally trained

here

against

to

medical

also that

and

theory

that

measures

rise to

gave

thinking

were

of

of

It followed

nor

aged,
encour-

sacred

stereotyped system

remedies, often

hypocrisy.

were

arisen

the

Church

the

Naturally enough,

prevailed

teaching

and

these

had

were

expounded,

tolerated

unauthorized

new

science

experiments

to

infallible

as

of

had

contradicted

not

opinions

over,
More-

profession.

commentated,

diseases

new

profession, no
attempted

or

No

medical

but

laid
over-

authorities

authorities

contradiction

Though

such

of

the

seriouslyquestioned.
no

in the

still held

were

they might

"

Galenism

mysticism.

spiritstill ruled

book, just

final

were

and

of the

Galenism

of the Arabian-Greek

The

dogmas.

The

corrupted

occultism

centuries

and

interpreters, Avicenna,

others.

was

the medieval
The

45

THEORY.

of

in

medical

4-6

PARACELSUS.

practice
the

theory

or

It

indeed

was,

acquiring

indeed

"And
but

Agrippa
in

"The

physicians

it is

as

tedious

of craft

or

these

hours

shamelessness

according
kinds

and

to

the

medicines

are

that

by
can

on

foresee

Peter

himself

that

of

latter

and

effects

action

the
so

that

which

of

always

and

native

will arise

edies
rem-

acted
counter-

human

no

all

in such

is

one

and

hang

mixed

are

of

ity
sagacfrom

such

mixture."

Ramus,
reform

medicines

patient. Simple

another,

the

abominable

and

the

times

quite neglected. Costly foreign

numbers

enormous

their

with

praising

observe

They

cures.

preferred, which

are

in the

astrologicalcalendar,

of amulets

fatherland,

combine

who

and

exactly,dispense

most

distant

tumes,
cos-

religion, especially the

Mohammedan,

medicines

those

by

by splendid

jewels, a

strange

monstrous

and

temporary
con-

ten,^
writ-

also

is attained

is

ture."
impos-

had

recommended

rings

and

Paracelsus,

who

are

practised

now

the elder

reputation

of

science,

Nettesheim,
of

Germany

travels,

Hindu

von

greatest

many

''-

art

mus
Eras-

follies

medical

contemporary

whole

celsus
Para-

training,that

his medical

the

the

And

an

of

among

when

time

very

incorporated compound

one

their

the

of Folly, satirizing the

Praise

time, said

the

during

was

in his

particularly

more

general public.

the

and

laymen

but

"

the

distinguished

professor

great

in the

admirer

Ba.a.s,Geschichtliche
1896, p. 185.

Entivickelune

of

College

the

des

French

work

drztlichen

ist
human-

of France

and

"

skill of

Standes.

Berlin.

Paracelsus,
reformations
"

in the

theology,

of

herbs

effects

an

and

and
the

upon

shortcomings

of the

body

that

the

the

cine;
medi-

ing
analyztheir

of

study

The

totallyneglected."

medical

profession

unappreciated by

not

professors of

and

were

the

of

(in 1562)

Paris

complained

simples

certain

urging

essay

University of

the laziness

emphasized
and

in

shown

as

47

THEORY.

MEDICAL

able

many

dently
evi-

were

rary
contempo-

critics.
The

medical

already mentioned,
Galen.

and
had

been

They

With

such

had

doctrines
The

and

time

of

and

reading

of

the

Dissections

the

in
"

students

were

and

made
the

accepted

authorities.

ancient

practicallyconfined

to

the

of

Averrhoes

doctrine,

their

"

at

and
and

meaning

laboratory

taries
commen-

by

the

1912,

of
town.

Educational
pp.

80, 82.

turer.
lecwere

onstrations
authorities, dem-

presence

of the

the

methods

superficialand

physicians

other

intervals, when

rare

clerical

the

and

the

the

civil and

Cf. Graves, Peter


Ramus
Sixteenth
Century, Macmillan,
"

were

at

and

in

no

universities

Galenic

anatomy

apply

to

in the

sometimes

lacking; though

observations

the

Mesne,

exposition

permitted by

of

was

Avicenna,

interpreters of
and

them

and

interpreters

their

enable

Paracelsus

rates
Hippoc-

observation

by

medieval

medicine

of

of

as

cine
physicians,medi-

learned

formulas

teaching

doctrines

the

their

might

as

based,

was

tive.
living science, though primi-

least

longer experimented
only

period

these-Greek
a

but

the

upon

indeed
at

experiment:

of

theory

crude
the

deed
in-

medical
The

Reformation

first

of

the

48

PARACELSUS.

important publication on
of

studies,

print two

authoritative

The

bile, these
the

to

disturbances

"

fluids

generally
decoctions
in their
this

of

of

admixture.

Galenic
had

become

other

mysticisms,
Church,

while

northern

European

influence

upon

prevalent

summarized
First:
volition
s

as

of

as

warning
41 ff.

the

medical

complex
influences
as

of the

superstitions
without

not

dieval
me-

of

the

their

practice.

interestinglydescribed
sixteenth

disease.

it

and

astrology

superstitions

were

of

use

century

They

may

as

be

the
to

the

briefly

follows:

Disease

op. cit.,pp.

with

of
sisted
con-

unscientific

and

heathen

the

of

cures

the

peoples
has

beliefs

and

causes

the

local

Troels-Lund"

and

Oriental

through

complicated
and

and

symptoms,

fantastic

theory,

was,

balance

generally extremely

But

by

directed

was

bleeding, purging,

herbs,

disease.

or

disturbed

the

by

portions
pro-

indicated

was

treatment

supposed

indicated

qualities as

proper

illnesses

produced
The

the

restoring

in the

disturbances

these

accepted symptoms.
toward

yellow and the


by metaphysical

the

Any
of

nature

or

elementary qualities cold, dry,

of these
The

humors

four

moist.

warm,

based

was

four

the

related

being

"

analogy

of

body, phlegm, blood,

fluids of the
black

diseases

of

theory

doctrine

Galenic

the

upon

of Paracelsus.

the death

after

years

in

appeared

which

Vesalius

of

that

was

anatomical

modern

of

development

the

ginnings
be-

the

marking

anatomy,

from

comes
or

as

God

punishment.

by

His
The

direct

logical

THEORY.

MEDICAL

conclusion
effect
of

the

the

that

was

Church

were

which

through
of the

relieve

the

physician

Second
Devil

and

his

the

Church

and

to

assist

could

the

skill of

the

has

been

the

at

them

and

the

Fourth:

Galenic
A

mentioned
elaboration

owing

or

doctrine
fifth

to

planets

with

the

also there

from

above

general

and

idea

the

chance
per-

of

powers
little

was

it

might

room

be he

This

stars.

Here

the

of the

secrets

could

tion
no-

evidently
his

prepared

and

dies
reme-

administer

favorable.

were

from
the

the

body.

disturbances
This

the

was

mentioned.
as

by Troels-Lund,
of

the

knew

time

of

or

certain?

comes

humors

superior

nature,

gathered

Disease

fluids

their

previously.

auspicious

when

in the

who

who

magicians,

physician, though

discussed

also,

formulas,

of

comes

ances,
pen-

So

powers

be

of the

offices of

to

physican might help, who

heavens,

the

and

and

alliances

could

skill

prayers,

power

Here

Disease

Third

again

who

"

influence

the

women,

unholy

voked
in-

place.

ceremonies

occult

be

the

(white magic).

their

the

of

"the offices

might

purificationby

wise

(black magic)

for the

Here

to

ities
instrumental-

mercy

from

magic

by

natural

little

avail

owed

even

evil

here

and

exorcisms

knowledge

divine

agents.

might

presumably

the

comes

might

however,

the

permitted
and

penances,

thus

had

exorcisms

be

suffering. Manifestly

Disease

should

Prayers,

cure.

to

God

49

to

the

may

fourth, viz.,

something lacking

in the

cause

of

disease

have

been

but

that

disease

body

which

an
was

medi-

PARACELSUS.

50

cine

could

supply

and

medica

which

presented

almost

incredible
this

To

restore

this idea

with

materia

of

to

in

sixteenth

the

to the

as

These

himself

sidereal

of

poisons;

exists

in

the

the

the

With
of

the

that

to

the

by

respect

he

have

had

explain

an

their

effluvia

of
the

the

of

influence

control

of the

illustration
influence

conveyed

we

by

from

the

influence

or

which
cosm;
micro-

the

rectly
di-

not

punishment.

or

these, the
have

destinies

the

man.

spirit(Geist)

of the

of

or

acting directly to

warning

astrale)

sight.
in-

astrale,

acting

the

God

first of

of

ens

individual,

through

will

ens

recognizes
their

but

way
to

(the

stars

admitting
we

body

"

illness

produce

the

of

acteristic
char-

influence

or

spirituale,influences

deale

ens

veneni,

ens

own

"entities,"

the

are

naturale,

e^is

nature

ens

upon
the

the

his

health

the

influences

ties
authori-

intuitive

five

influence

influence;
the

often

with

some

describes

and

principles or

or

of

with

in accordance

principles,which

active

century

ancient

the

replace

to

more

catalogs

body

celsus,
disease, Para-

of

causes

applied
philosophy of nature,
originality,and with
He

developed

was

repulsive remedies.

and

by something

rium,
equilib-

the

were

astonishing catalog

an

desire

his

there

during

question

it

as

his

influence

already

without

stars

of

man,

curious

and

attempt

hypothesis
stars

seen

of various

through

the

atmosphere.
His

treatment

2"eneni, is of

of

interest

the
as

second

influence,

illustratingboth

the

his

ens
com-

prehension
his

of

fanciful

and

the

give

and

is

there

important physiologicalfact, and

an

body

in it ; but

its food

for

idea

this

given

was

poison

no

body

elaborates

food

and

useless

material, wholesome

and

be

must

blood

This
the

situated

separates

the

functions

in

the

long

properly

from

become

incapacitated, the

and

from

those

to

animals
vary

in

"The

degree

healthy, though

causes

not

it may

to

to

perfectly
im-

is, then, says

of

are

laboratory.
their

in

the
the

op. fol, I, 9, "Paramirum."

are

of other

peacock.

be, his alchemist

Other

man.

themselves
needs

lar
simi-

functions

snakes, lizards,stellions

eats

which

poisons being

his functions

in his

those

from

peacock

complete
in-

Archaeus
for

Archaeus
is

"Archaei," and

their

have

poison, but

chemist

of the

animals

are

alchemist,

an

the

his
the

and

separation

the

The

eliminated.

Paracelsus,

from

suffer

we

performs

cause

any

and

out

is wholesome

food

Should

or

spirit.-The
unwholesome

the

body thrives.
ill

son
poi-

is effected

sorts

Archaeus

the

as

our

the

transformed

or

stomach,

wholesome
So

useful

and

considers,

he

directing force

plant

unwholesome,

being

food

He

inated.
bone, etc., the poisons elim-

separation,

Archgeus,

food.

the

the
both

food

the

must

we

that

and

body

and

"Archseus,"

in the

the

In

poison,

poison."*

contain

eat

we

separated,

into flesh and

by

which

poison.

which

that

by explaining

animal

it into

of

without

us

contains

and

food

elaboration

imaginative

"The

theory.

51

THEORY.

MEDICAL

For
is

so

; these

perfect
animals

from
subtle

and

sheer

whatever
that

the

PARACELSUS.

52

alchemist

of

no

other

animal

the

poison

cleverly separates
peacock

the

which

adapted

his alchemist

by

who

injury.

the

is given

materials.

proper

who

alchemist

an

him

for

ordained

been

has

food

has

animal

every

separates

there

ostrich

the

To

which

it and

to

that

then,

"Observe,

so

in that

good,

the

from

without

eats

who

equals him,

arates
sep-

iron," etc.^

an

which

that

It is difficult to say
this

having
what

to

It is

extent

De

the

term

Huser

the

vis,

word

notion

the

philosophy

of

the

sixteenth

century, however,

principle

and

for
"

as

the

parts
'

God

spirit were
the soul

was

microcosm
of

Ibid.,I,

the
10.

is

had
an

noteworthy,

ancient

of the

notions

fable

exact

of

of force

the
and

closely connected,

more

macrocosm

This

here

res,

himself.

the

possesses

"

pears:
ap-

rerum."

omniurh

neo-Platonists

of the

of

definition

demonstration

Paracelsus

after

produxit

quae

is

"force,"

or

possessed by

To

vis

compositor

et

necessarily a

not

following

ista

est

dispensator

though

the

of his

amanuensis

and

pupil

Oporinus,

"Archaeus

The

principle.

gradibus (1526), published by

that

note

of

in the

or

text

manuscript

est

force

spirit

its own,

of

personality

lieved
be-

true

Latin

Paracelsus,

id

was

typify a

to

Paracelsus

extent

Archseus

presiding

interesting to

work

what

to

individuality or

an

poison

man,

preserves

poison;

illness.

produces

that

and

essence

an

which

is that

essence

is

there

everything

In

universe, and
soul,
souls
that

the

so
or

as

man

also all other

spirits. Or,

ostrich

can

eat

iron.

expressed by Agrippa

as

be absurd

if the

which

for all

are

should

had

tree

every

and

stars

of

microcosm,
in his

and

nature

the

external

universe

the

their

predestined

and

have
the

could

exert

human

sun

things, so
determined

body.

to

Venus,
their

have

the

established

brain

the

As

quoted

the
to

course

and

These

by Cassirer,

sense

planets

on

the

health

and

influences
the

eases
dis-

of

all

the

its

has

warmth

its influences

to

the

living

to

sponds
corre-

similarly,the lungs
liver

with

Thus,

body,

and

so

bodies

influences.

of

in

courses,

heavenly

.sun

Mars,

analogies in

oppositions.
*

gall

cosm,
macro-

planets

the

heat

in man;

For

As

As

and

moon

Mercury,

ture
na-

and

and

gives light

and
the

the

in

found

moon

similar

heart, the

To

ens

of the

determined

light and

course

the

to

its

by

the

corresponding planets

have

organism

the

the

the

so

men,

upon

moon

sun,

influence

getters."
be-

natural

influences.

all external

courses.

some

be

to

its sun,

predestined
of

as

has

mirocosm

their

of

epitome

were

counterparts

the

complicated.

more

the

and

than

influence,

dependent
the

was

their

are

soul,

plant

destiny

third

the

individual, is

the

the

man,

which

influences

the

or

nobler

of

description

naturale,

in

part

if every

"

elements,

the

of life and

sources

these

elements

the

The

lack

and

stars

the

beings

"It would

Nettesheim,"

von

heavens, the

themselves

53

THEORY.

MEDICAL

respond
cor-

Jupiter,the kidneys
Thus

etc.

body,

and

the

planets
has

each

its

influence,its conjunctions and

courses

are,

according

op. cit.,I, p. 207.

to

Para-

PARACELSUS.

54

celsus, foreordained
their
a

Hfe

activities, as

and

at

certain

hour,

naturale

ens

its

at

for

hundred
different

Thus

one.

and

than

course
are

that

for

according

had

been

just

its

if it had

has

man

what

often

no

slower

creation

the

naturale.

entia

bodily
lived

child,but

ens

his

to

predestined
of

as

one-hour

other

is born

child

courses

in the

are

the

is set

understand

to

predestination

however,

the

we

hourglass

hundred-year

the

And

for

live

as

the

completed

years.

is set

the

example,

hours,

Then

will be

an

is to

and

ten

creation.

planets

"For

time.

determined

time

birth, and

at

Observe,

interrupt

the

predestination."'
All

this

is fanciful

fundamental

one

with

the

which

birth,

influences

The

of

in

witches

health

point

fantastic
of

which

illness

might

ens

little in
be

the

nition
recogenergy

individuals

pendent.
de-

spirituale,is

also

ju.dged from

as

to

at

external

upon

tortured

were

not

of

the

orate
elab-

provided

are

manner

view, though

sorcerers

probably

was

or

the

vital

of

alone

not

influence, the

quite

and

endowments

that

be

to

seems

individuals

fact

is the

present

there

the

fourth

treated
our

varying

The

enough.

underlying

structure

different

and

fantastic

observation

metaphysical
of

and

period
and

thought

when

burned,
of

plausible enough

celsus
Parato

his

contemporaries.
The

which
'

op.

ens

spirituale comprises

afifect the
fol.,I, 14,

those

body only indirectlyby

"Paramimm."

influences
direct

action

the

upon

spirit (Geist)

"Take
this

assistance

spirit which

The

body,

is

in the

death,

our

but

explains

the

will

in

waking

of

in

or

engendered

to

their

spiritthus
over

originator
In

the

do

the

them
the

discussion

of

that

with

the

stylewhich

everything

is

is not

which

holy

he

Ibid., I, 17.

through
hand,

which

uses

and

the
vail
prethe

case

sufferer.

to

into

come

that

festly
mani-

ous
danger-

they "lay
For

not

theology employs.
who

aside

thing
every-

theological,and
does

theology aright.""
"

and

theological.

which

person

stood,
doctrines, if misunder-

is called

which

the

topic Paracelsus

readers

is called

is sacred

this

Church

his

warns

the

is liable

he

spiritsthus

other

attacking spirit, in

realizes

true

the

by

person,

successfullyresist
be

the

created

another

and

to

On

will

the

when

be

spirits of

injury

may

himself

and

of

"

the

possessor.

assailed

conflict

thinks

attack

may

like

that

spiritsmay

he

after

also.

sleeping hours

selected, and

them

suffers

when

man

without

is born

forgotten

these

how

is

That

diseases

from

be

body

which

spirit

no

[Seele]."^

soul

not

is

devil

his

nor

thoughts,

that

suffer

it must
the

effects

spirit.

our

living body
is the

his

the

is not

in

comprehended

nor

from

spirit may

He

the

born

that

spiritsuffers

thus

also

angel

an

distinguishes

(Seek)'.

not

for

[Zulendung],

[Geist]:

is

devil

spiritualeany

ens

^oul

and

there

that

note

matter,

Paracelsus

spirit (Geist).

between

55

THEORY.

MEDICAL

"

Ibid.

not

Also

understand

not

all

56

PARACELSUS.

This

curious
then

the

of

person

one

upon

witchcraft
to

modern

our

that

times

Bruno,

the

instead
offices

of

emphasizes
of nature

will

and

rather

than

He

by

the

through

agent

view
is

is

God
the

at

direct
is he

and

to

completed,

is

through

thought

the

ture
na-

true

the

nomena
phe-

knowledge

This

with

He

so

The

that

acts.

he

the system

understands

God

men.

obtained,

work

through

whom

for

be

to

fluence
in-

through

interference.
who

when

of

that

created

has

the

point

Paracelsus

of

and

of his works.

many
sends

the

period

of

naturally only

physician

the

then

ment
punishthe

may

effected.

be

"When

humanly

He
and

cures.
the
"

help

God

illness

time

proper

is

continually in

send

may

is
cure

forward

turers
lec-

or

health

the

inference

prefers

dominating

brought

As

nature,

writers

recognizes

upon
the

that

physician, therefore,
of

God

of

Church

that

dano
Gior-

and

Cardanus

Paracelsus

idea

the

Miran-

della

and

and

time

that

influences.

accepting

the

or

remember

to

Pico

all believers

deale

of

of

thinkers

Melanchthon,

ens

the

it is well

but

charms

or

strangely foreign

Trithemius,

as

"

magical

of

the

seems

were

upon

But

evil eye

thought,

dola, Agrippa,

In

by magic

representative

such
later

of

the

or

another

of

influence

occult

credited

generally

mechanism

the

explain

to

attempt

performs

2\c.

miracle,

through mankind;
He

does

that

physician."^"

Ibid.,I,

He

if He

through

men,

performs
eflfects
and

it

derful
won-

fore
there-

MEDICAL

He

admits

that

-sicians,those
who

heal

have

there

that

heal

of

the

through

the power

of the

skill in medicine.

faith, but

all others

God

"But
that

is

physician

is the

that

because

the

of

physician
Curing by
cens,
Sara-

Turks,

teaches

the

Christians

dations
foun-

but

for

you

has

of

servant

know

may

what

medicine

created

is the

He

the

and

nature,

of nature.""

master

God

end

the

"

he

for

only

not

all

well.

as

"The

heathen
that

asserts

of medicine

those

faith, he explains, moreover

the

to

Jews, etc., but

the

phy-

Not

of medicine.

art

Christian

apply

cannot

of

faith,and

having arrived,

punishment

cure

may

kinds

two

the

through

sufficiently
strong

period

be

may

their

through

57

THEORY.

the

and

physician, and

reasons

the

are

physician

yet works

through

the

without
act
physician and does not Himself
this explanation, that such
physician, understand

His
shall
art

that

mystery
know

that
have

may

shall

man

He

God

is, in God

that

they

may

and

that

according

and

but

help through
to

His

help
also
the

the

sick

that

the

practice,and
in

miracles

in

His

artist

is

that

alone,

creatures

in medicine,

predestination

in

its

time."^^

proper

"So

know

whatever
Ibid., I,

then
and

naked

knowledge

"

Himself,

that

physician, but

His

perceive

not

will

not

is the

procedure

that

born

does

nor

He
22.

all, that

bare, and
wisdom,

may

send

but
us.

we

human

with

bring
await
And

beings

the
He

neither

us

of

grace

gives
12

are

us

God
noth-

jiid^^ I 22f.

58

PARACELSUS.

iiig as

free

gift but

He

commands

sick, that

and

so

as

on,

we

Whether

ordains

grow

up,

with

labor

least

knowledge.

As, then,

must

be

which

wish

learn,

to

first

at

man

and

sends

all

things

through
the

at

is

to

us

the

formal

which

in

God,

that

take

has

place

provided

that

should

rule.

the

He

them

which

of

us

consider

we

things

and

to

should
Thus

fields,the

has

the

health

by Paracelsus.

He

present

as

an

this

of man,

as

by

theory
also

organism.

theory

of

of

acterizes
char-

Troels-

follows:

"It

accepted, something only


positive health.
It is itself

It is

at
de

characterization

whole

to

parasite organism,

^^Ibid., I, 113, "Liber

then

teaches

if

the

Arabians

relation

natures,

we

Father, when

medicine,

itself

something positive.

two

there

teaches

earth, created

influence

summarizes
the

as

who

God

bodies

cataloging

entertained

well

is in

And
all

the

vineyards."^''

adequately

negative

of

If

the

the

our

of

disease

God

and

master

and

means

is not,

nothing.
God

that

Thus

which

over

five entia

Lund

that

our

find

we

heavens

the

This

disease

as

things

not

human

instrumentalitythrough

meadows

no

do

all

learn,

must

we

instrumentalitywhich

the

man

the

possess

is needful.

Creation.

an

come

well

an

created

be

Him

what

us

we

first foundation

our

acknowledge

we

learn

is not

can

parents;

our

must

difficulty,for

something

For

us.

and

or

teaching

nature;

through
we

well

be

we

-through

He

that

speak,

to

us

life.

form

microcosm.
the

origine

same

morborum

of

life of

Man
time

its own,

is in illness
two

bodies

invisibilium."

in

MEDICAL

and

one

the

make

must

it clear

is always

that

what

intimate

an

understand

To

same.

if

intimate

an

they begin

noticeable
it may
is

to

in

lead

pains

visible.

There

Salt.

three,

is

the

is

nothing

combustible,

found

in

united

that

and

Mercury,

is

that

is ashes
All

volatile, the

the

When

Sulphur,
it.

it.

Try

which

in

more

kept

become

it dies.

and

burns

which

it,that

Life

are

and

this?

firewood

and

death.

to

its elements

understand

it into

Cut

separately

they separate

ceases

not

vaporizes

which

are

do

burn

now

you

is

You

lives.

tree

life

while

But

this is disease

burnings,

and

invisible

If

together.

become

to

they

noticed.

complete separation :

to

something

and

separate

life lasts

as

not

are

Life

constituents:

three

long

and

rightly we

call life.

we

of

So

union

this

is

union

Salt, Sulphur, Mercury.


form

59

THEORY.

these

insoluble,

everything living and

are

sep-

'

arated

only

when

it dies.

characterize

we

by

the

These
of

names

it is which

three

Sulphur, Mercury,

Salt.""
is

"Disease
of life
"

in the

disease

in

everywhere

pain
the

not

the

form,

and

the

body;

in all

disease
under

choose

call the

put
"

to

flightthe

op. cit.,pp.

lS6f.

conflict

the
or

The

fever,

disease.

of

nature

living force
The

on

comfort,
heat, cold, dis-

as

archseus,

harbored

is carried

only expressions

which

alchemist,

both

are

is felt

regions.

but

the- inner
to

The

invisible forms

two

health, which

organism.

same

are

conflict between

or

within
main

the

pain,

of the

force,

the

organism,

whatever
you,

battle

you

seeks

to

consists

6o

PARACELSUS.

in the

crisis.

dissolve

If the

give

"

If

is dissolved

organism
"Disease

be

and

way,

respiration.

excreta,

wins, the disease

'archaeus'

exerted

the

itself he

microcosm,

as

life-phenomena
its

organism;
medical
vital
the

disease

as

and

microcosm

place
is

its

the

when

developing

parasite

within

with

"

own

human

nature

or

forceful

so

suffocated, that is,

phase

of

Paracelsus

lies in nature

thought

is the

tive
cura-

herself, independent

assistance.'
may

understand

without

that

you
for

modern

more

emphasized by

all medical

wounds,

spiritual,half

parasite

takes
in

the

which

"That

as

of

half

is overcome.'"*

is much
power

the

conquers,

life-processeswithin

healing

activitythat

which

kind

succeeds

art

Another

of

and

disease

viewed

perspiration,

as

in death.""

corporeal living organism,


the

must

what

it is that

heals

knowledge you may


not
readily recognize the remedy, you must
that
know
the nature
of the flesh,of the body, the
veins, the
bones,
heals
is

has

heals

the

the

force

and

lying

in

naturally
So

with

each

also
compares

the

things.

bone

heals

contained

in

member,

every

has

Theophrast

usually meaning
to

like

its

healing

von

Hohenheim,

which

in

the

That
the

flesh

it must

itself and

159.

Hartmann,

[mwrnm"]

such

90,

"Mumia,
he

force

flesh.

Ibid.,p.

'^R.J.

uses

force

understood,
^=

innate

an

thrusts,

the

say,

fracture,

p.

it

wounds,

to

be

in

somewhat
the

mummy

mystical

mfluence

of

the

sense"

magnet

the

or
as

an
on

dead

Stuttgart, 1904,

body,

attractive
iron
Cf Op

Paracelsus
force

which

fol II 313

thus

has

nature

the

wounded

know
in the
heals
his

art.

the

you,

shield

in every

member

himself

But

you

and

protection

to

that

that

in its

by

the

he

who

is

maintenance

it is to

provide

injured part

external
force

foes

of

and

good

not

may

but

nature,

protection.

take

influence-

Therefore
of

care

wounds

good surgeon.'"'

is but

nature's
the

the
them.

Nature

battle

against
is but

apothecary
to

business

she

the

smith

who

for

ons,
weap-

forges

is therefore

physician

needs

physician

with

nature

the

the

of

what

nature

disease

furnishes

helper, who

The

give

her

battle
....

is the

These

physician.""

medical

theories
in

heretical
of the
have

purpose

vjtal power

of such

protect and

can

"In

to

remain

that

what

in the

spoil the

force

understand

not

that

these

the

it is he

for

nature

against enemies, so
retard, poison, nor
it may

does

exist,learn

surgeon,

should

surgeon

thinks

know

may

heals

which

heals, but

physician

deceives

and

the

that

he

If the

that

that

Therefore

it is not

body.
he

THEORY.

part.

that

6l

MEDICAL

publicly
the

time.

It

of

Least

which

of
were

Paracelsus
of

eyes

the

all

medical

the

fession
prohim

to

without
faculties

that

was

tremely
ex-

medical

his theories
the

were

possible for

not

was

maintained

opposition

practitioners.
universities

the

of

citing
ex-

and

possible in
strongholds

very

the
of

conservatism.
The
18

^^

Chir.

practice

of

his

profession

Bucher, etc., p. 2, "Grosse

Ibid., p. 207, "Ursprung

und

differed

Wundartzney.''

Herkomjnen

der

Frantzosen."

as

de-

62

PARACELSUS.

cidedly

of

methods
with
the
all
in

which

sources

his

and

own

in

used
in

chemical
of

relation

the

to

ideas, and

were

with

during

his

the

is not

remedies

to

the

and

herbs

rejected,

of

chemist

medicinal

spirits,or
processes.

of

using,

mixtures

and

physician

materials

arcana,

In

this

instead

purer

of

their

by

the

line

of

the

medieval
medicinal

vegetable.

lands

or

it

of

of

his

to

and
that

complicated

set

The

costly
the

separate

effective

he

taught

time.

rare

instead

of

many

and

application
work

lated
accumu-

Switzerland,

used

was

and

methods

it is that

literature

taught

suggested

foreign

he

their

in

extent

or

decoctions

and

and

raw

of the
and

Certain

medical

syrups

aim

state.

treatments

complex
he

Germany

and

to

new

in

of

of the

new

what

wanderings

villages

possible

these
to

His

observation

by

tested

and

homely

theories

doubtless

extent

him,

the

substances

man

he

what

original

among

were

these

To

experience.

of

ments
treat-

people.

common

jnineral

nature

and

and

his chemical

or

sojourning

remedies

the

the

and

vegetable

his

and

travels

his

in

healers

of

among

use

lands

from

learn

to

him

to

open

people,

knowledge

nature

the

of

authorities,

hesitated

not

all kinds

by

remedies

new

had

ken
bro-

Having

ancient

the

foreign

all classes

among

of

were

conventional

the

treatment.

teachings

physician

young

and

diagnosis

the

from

theories

his

did

as

true

from

principles,
of
the

and

pharmacopoeia,
preparations,

chemical

example
irrational

simpler
both

tracts
ex-

eral
min-

DEFIANCE

MEDICAL

TO

AND

FACULTY

PROFESSION.

UPON

Paracelsus

the

established

declared
the

made

the

from

theories

Naturally

also

After

medical

few

previously

he

within

the

of

the

title

of

be

appeal

to

of

receive

to

They

Medicine

appear

and

and

defend

To

these

attacks

Paracelsus

the

city

authorities

by

supporting

his
held

they

maintain

position
his

position.

whom
their

under
He

veloped.
de-

his

tures
lecThe

consistently

not

newly

any

rived
ar-

admitted

being

faculty.

Doctor

that

he

that

before

were

interrupted.

statute,

months

medical

appointed,

which

and

upon

soon

that

appears

however,

two

required

title.

with

should,

physician
practice,

it

of

medicine.

of

antagonism

weeks

invoked

faculty

and

profession

and

and

gence
diver-

promptly

he

authorities

practice

of

practice

and

contrary,

faculties

the

interfered

observed

his

and

opposition

and

were

the

ancient

the

upon

prevalent

indignant

On

wide

his

of

doctrines

turer
lec-

University

the

secret

accepted

university

of

at

no

school.

war

office

medicine

upon

Basel,

his

into

entrance

the

to

tion
approbaquestioned

also

demanded
his

that

right

replied
he

had

authority

the

conditions

also

requested

by

to

an

been

by
by
that

64

PARACELSUS.

they

their

use

his

by

authority to put

(1527) he
Latin

program

teach

the

books,

but

his

long

his

own

and

It

writings.
of many

knowledge

the

nor

of

things

business

and

of

the

diseases, their
the

right

these

only

may

and

similar

calculated

Contrary
Though
though

lectured
Luther

others

of
'

Cf. R.

had

his

J. Hartmann,
43f.

the

and

only

in

offenses.

tradition,

tongue."

German,

in Basel

in the

of

and
nacular,
ver-

Oicolam-

supporter

singing

von

"He

antagonists

German

into his church

Theophrast

him

program

and

preaching

colleague

hymns

his

his

common

even

by

Basel.

in

observance

preached

introduced

Latin

Ibid., pp.

then

dustry.
in-

Theophrastus.'"

not

were

in the

was

had

and

padius

these

ploy
em-

with

led

his Galenic

make

to

and

to

come

was

varieties

and

be

to

statements

to

edge
knowlIt

the

insight

heard

all academic

to

Paracelsus

should

the

cian,
physi-

the

symptoms

willing

has

the

powers.
know

to

with

were

who

friendly,but

more

and

paths

judge

not

were

who

new

These

physician

causes

made

hidden

their

remedies

Those

into

of

and
from

teach

books, but

of many

reading

of

talking nor

that

languages

not

art

of nature,

smooth

not

was

the

should

He

In

should

teach

should

experience.

tried

formal

the

he

that

knowledge

his

to

lowing
fol-

June

in medicine.

plainly

according

to

seems

posted

courses

stated

he

tions
persecu-

in the

and

and

printed
of his

ancient

medicine

of

had

announcement

this

the

contentions,

his

sustained

have

the

to

City Council

The

opponents.

end

an

German

service, never

Hohenheim,

pp.

SOf.

stead
in-

DEFIANCE

yet had

than

another

was

An

FACULTY

scandal

Opposition

his

to

professorship
his lectures

indeed,
and

but

the

by
his

whom

to

language opened
trained

career

of the

tenure

that

It appears

fied
only by quali-

not

others

many

mally
for-

less

in the

common

It is also doubtless

medical

the

among

students

true

tionally
conven-

should

he

meet

appreciation,counted

this means,

reaching by

his

lectures

door.

hostilitythan

more

given.
for-

long delayed.

not

to

Paracelsus, realizing that

with

academic

largely attended

students

be

to

not

intense.

more

This

language.

his

of

and

larger

in

lecture

to

insult

an

was,

became

schooled,

that

Latin

teachings

were

medical

and

termination

early

inevitable, and

was

ventured

the customary

65

PROFESSION.

AND

university teacher

other

any

TO

upon

more

thetic
sympa-

constituency.
irritated

Constantly
and

sympathizers
Paracelsus
bitter

evidently

medical
and

retaliated

and

for

doctrines, dogmas

the

teaching
This

He
with

breach

students'

that

the

evidences

retorts

into the

most

the

students

among

adversaries.
his

the

which

contempt

by

most

of that
was

sacred
medical

went

even

traditional

bonfire
revered

it

exhibited,

his

on

St.

defiance

to

much

tempt
con-

his

emphasize

by throwing

John's Day
of

the

tion,
celebra-

medical

of Avicenna.

and

open

of the established
was

and

by

practice of
as

authority

their

lectures

authorities

flagrant defiance
world

citizens

and

time, the Canon

traditions

and

far

so

hostility

faculty
in

of

expressions

of

like the

insult

to

school.

burning

the

To
of

66

PARACELSUS.

the

by

Martin

of that

day.

bull

papal
world

the

cited before

of

episode

the

his

wounded

There

his

tagonists
an-

and

the

the

in

Sunday, posted

one

lower

to

regions

already
He
the

and

anonymous

irritated

and

addressed

abused

take

they

be

among

the

purpose

his
of

Cf.

he

Chambers'

his

teachings.

attack

must

not

be

Encyclopedia,

the

enraged

physician beyond

and

seek

out

he

If the

should

blamed
1st ed., art.

of

ing
demand-

and

priately
appro-

believed

to

for

lectures

authorities
such

for

durance.
en-

Council

the

to

hearers, attending his

satisfy his petition,and


repeated,

and

to

him.

of

shade

"

culprits,whom

abusing

Caco-

inferis attacking

ex

appeal

measures

the

punish

the

of his treatment

City, complaining
that

"

public

strong

from

come

the

at

of Latin

better

or

as

ciently.
suffi-

evidence

writings

ridiculing Theophrastus
This

highest degree,

"Theophrastus

to

physician

public places,copies

phrastus," purporting
in

was

irritable

the

own

other

or

addressed

Galen

cantation
re-

petty persecutions of his

appeared

doors

verses

and

admitted
re-

pride

in

allusions

church

geons
Sur-

and

he

hand

own

excited

evidently
later

Gaynes

humble

and

error

standing.''

to

One

of

his

with

signed

Dr.

Physicians

of

that

recall

we

lize
rea-

of Galen,
infallibility

the

acknowledgment

upon

if

England,

in

better

perhaps

act

College

impugning

for

and

the

olic
Cath-

Roman

the

to

may

(1559),

later

generation

only

We

significance of

the

was

Luther

no

"Galenus."'

not
can-

attacks

longer

be
en-

DICFIANCE

TO

WITH

PARACELSUS

Painted

by

death,

an

unknown

when
was

as

charlatan

FACULTY

the
at

artist, about

BOON

balf

The

plain. Original

COMPANION.

century

enemies

struggle between

its height.
is

intention
in

the

67

PROFESSION.

AND

and
to

after

Paracelsus's

stigmatize

Imperial

of

adherents

Gallery

celsus
Para-

Paracelsus
at

Vienna.

68

PARACELSUS.

during them,

take

ranted
unwar-

Council

took

any

and

the

in

should

if he

or

anger

action.
It does

not

upon

this

request,

intensify

the

animosity

action
served

to

still irritated

While
of

and

prominent

Lichtenfels,

for
in.

his

of

suffering

was

physicians

The
health

and

large

mental

thanks

against
denounced

Warned

In
the

make

to

night

thereupon

him.

"

entered

never

with

his

action

such

being quickly
promised

ward.
re-

recovered

his

to

the

pay

and

of

the

liable

is said

he

judges
to

return

to

high hopes

city

and

in

have

to

such

terms

punishment.

severe

that

the

for

ho'wrever, decided

court,

irritation

suit

danger by friends, he
to

called

was

guldens

brought

The

himself

of the

six

dens
gul-

appreciation.

promised.

amount

having

the

at

hundred

equilibrium, declined
and

Paracelsus

as

however,

the

stinate
ob-

and

relief

relief

offered, sending him

sum

letter of

ministration

Canon,

Basel, Canon

Paracelsus

physician claimed

the

obtained,

termination.

painful

offered

had

Paracelsus

of

sense

incident

an

receive

Eventually

his

Through

the

citizen of

from

of

some

under

sudden

failing to

cure.

any

to

fession,
pro-

writings.

occurred

wealthy

illness, and
hands

and

in his

career

in Basel

residence

his

rankling

and

academic

the

brought

which

found

be

to

injustice,there

and

abuse

and

attacks

violent

most

by

entertained

evidently directly stimulated

and

cisive
de-

episode

faculties

university

the

toward

Paracelsus

the

the

that

appear

left Basel
which

over

he

had

enthusiasm,

and

DEFIANCE

which

TO

left in

he

69

PROFESSION.

AND

FACULTY

bitterness

and

disappointment

of

spirit.
Paracelsus
fall

had

1526

of

in

probably

and

The
finds

but

to

that

of

his

The

work.

theory
of

sense

the

work

orthodox

preserve

lost

extent,

to

some

as

in certain
the

revised

,had written

other

cases

the

following quotation
of its

style and

"That

will

perhaps

to

it might have,

published it,

that

strong
to

serve

work

carefully

he

which

feeling.

The

idea

some

convey

he

content:

they

are

is contained

not

from

mine

but

my

writings

prove,

in the

May-time

at

angry

than

proper

of

stress

otherwise

grounded

it

of communications

first drafts
under

know

we

this

That

himself

had

ful
into boast-

out

which

attack

reaching

sometimes

flavor

lusionment
disil-

academic

vigorous

abuse.

if he

his

of

his life enabled

characteristic

science.

of his

breaking

coarse

printed during

not

formulation

and
"

into

brief

finish

profession

the

Introduction

bitterness

the

caustic

in

form

of medical

disastrous
in

predictions or
was

foundations

injury, and
the

one.

the

in

itself is

versity
uni-

as

adversaries

his

violent

its most

place

momentous

The

the

career

felt toward

he

eloquence, sometimes

rude

brief

particularly

finds vent

upon

L528,

in the

took

departure

and

of

at
career

sudden

in

expression

in Basel

work

for Paracelsus

indignation

Paragranum

his

February,

teacher

his

begun

from
am

in their
their
not

foundation
the

evidence

because

me

authors, results

ignorance,
outside

of medicine
will

write

come

of

for
but

I,

as

well

and

in the

forth.

That

PARACELSUS.

70

they grumble
slight

from

hurt,

nothing

and

therefore

they

cry

out

cry

out

shall

crying

cry

because

it is

that

their

disease

the

"Their
not
to

blame

in

ones

their

these, I
of

art

if I

to

claim

must

medicine

rests,

recognized
not.

And

and

from

Of.

"

manifest."^

to

because

me

ing
accord-

write

nor

is

they

not

the

of the

my

myself
in

order

whether

place the

which

by

writings

then,

Who,

escape
cients
an-

be

can

falseness.

present
for

which

thus, I could

false.

without

am

me

medicine:

made

and

schools

for

that

me,

"Now

leaves

"

of

arts

opposed

I write

falsehood,

them

heaven

disturbed

them:

against

are

themselves

from

the

battle

Should
of

wound

discovered

from

prove
born

lie sick

highest

them.

so

of medicine

art

be

myself

not

and

that

of medicine

art

and

is their

come

does

imperishable
the

they

perishable physicians. They only

like to, have

not

medicine

of

before

I let

defeat

they

therefore

and

foundations

away

should

of these

sign

the

pass

why

the

I do

for

perish. If, then,

peace,

do

art

immortal

upon

earth

shall
at

me,

The

able.
perish-

perishable,

it be

unless

perishable

are

These

fragile and

is

art
out

is sensitive

one

no

unless

out

permanent.

not

cries

me.

against

established
and

and

their

Now,

against

sensitive,

result

not

cries

one

no

unless

because

out

cry

for

"

transitory

unless
men

causes:

is hurt

one

no

does

timely writings

such

at

am

foundation

write,

fol, I, 198, "Paragranum."

upon

in

case

that

opposition to
which

upon

that

it may

entitled

to

be

the
erally
gen-

speak

or

upon

which

four

pillars: upon

I stand

DEFIANCE

Philosophy,
Virtue.

FACULTY

TO

Astronomy,

upon

these

Upon

and

antagonists,

any

these

four,

Despisers

stand

whether

see

will

outside

stand

then,

when

they despise
of

art

medicine,

it will be

bring
of

them

they

and

too

that

your

and

the chastisement

ye

so-called
for

follow

After

Danube

and

ye

and

Italia, thou
thou

me

not

"

you

accept

you

Swabia,

of

Vienna,

the

Rhine,

Dalmatia,

Arabia, thou

after

you

and
ye

"

ye

countries,and

is to

these
them

and

Ye

"

must

me,

Mesue,

Meissen,

Paris,

who

are

of the

me

lars
pil-

after

of

Athens,

say,

four

of

those

Israelita,after

truth,

nor

Ye

islands

thou

for

only

receiving rightly

are

I claim

four

peasants

is

knowledge

As

I after

of

ye

the

to

Rhasis, Montagnana,

not

these

medicine

you

ther
nei-

notice,

take

hypocrites, that

must

so

Galen,

Montpellier,
Cologne,

and

physicians.

after

me

which

fools

ye

myself,

Avicenna,

neither

possesses

you,

manifest

lords, cities and

and

works

recognize

of

mete

that

so

And
.

art

the

foundation

contemners

survived

your

"

despised, but the

was

accept and

villages that

to

his

become

deceiving princes

he

sick

their

the

was

tronomy,
as-

sick

they

and

again

that

upon

must

of

the

the

to

measure

Christ

for

it will

art

what

them

Jerusalem

pillars,or

comes

with
to

ibU

nor

you

in the

for

gives

me.

virtue

undespised by

which

shame.

to

contempt

either

that

measured

blessedness,

real

remain

they

can

of

against

despisers of alchemy, despisers of


how,

await

and

from

upon

philosophy, despisers

of

they

Alchemy,

upon

will

physician

any

are

four

PROFESSION.

AND

sea,

thou
and

not

ye

of

ye

of

on

"

etc.

the
thou

Greece,
I after

PARACELSUS.

72

WILHELM

VON

BOMBAST,

Oil-painting, original

in

FATHER

OF

Salzburg.

.'\rti?t

PARACELSUS.
unknown.

PROFESSION.

AND

FACULTY

TO

DEFIANCE

ATH;^iAT

'FtMCYy.M

J},

c\\

PARACELSUS.
After

life-size

Munich.
Hans

oil-painting in
Artist

Baldung

and

date

(ca. 1470-1

State

the

uncertain.

5,"'2)
.

Gallery
Has

at

Schleissheim
been

attributed

ne:ir

to

PARACELSUS.

74

you,

will

there

"

corner

"This
makes

the

not

legia, nor

somewhat

be

may

been

able

the

truth

"Ye

there

of

the

you

placarded

with

the

explanation

liken

you

me.

Monarch
which
his

for

will surpass
will
The

help

part, wish

your
the

for

him

of

the

am

what
of

than

and

also,

so

am

can

me,

"

answer

and

the

Arcana

of

Luther?

what

wish

you

that

of mine

care

and

over
more-

prove

enemies

are

whom

to

let Luther

attacks

me

Physicians,

those

and

I will take
who

scorn

arch-heretic.

an

I will

I must

hence

Luther

greater

Who

hates

any

for

for

you,

me,

that

is,

fire.

"The
made

that.

crowd

same

to

to

and

sician
phy-

has

nor

Theophrastus

one

every

me

prove.

affairs

own

they

any

With

Physicians,

cannot

you

the

that

am

of

never

and

you.

as

and

Theophrastus

am

me

they

knowledge

kind

from

have

is hidden

malady.'"

least

serpent

only poison

expect

has

with

learn

to

privi-

that

universities

the

of the

cause
are

from

the

not

appearances
There

seen.

born

been
one

outward

upon

peror,
Em-

Therefore

physician.

the

the

them

from

is

it is that

not

"

Faculty,

the

not

university, for

makes

only

depend

Doctor,

health

to

work

their

the

and

Pope,

any

which

that

restoring

the
"

Master

the

makes

monarchy.''^

physician,

be

I shall

:
.

the

certain, that

is

will not.

dogs

will be

mine

and

monarch

what

the

whom

on

furthest

in the

remain

of you

none

me

Ibid., I,

stars

did

; it is not
199.

not

for

make
the

me

physician

stars

to
6

make

ii,i^

I
^

"

God

physicians,
201c.

nEFIANCE

TO

that

is

well

rejoice

work

has

truth

FACULTY

of

that

God,

of

are

my

but

J^

PROFESSION.

not

rascals

enemies

no

AND

the

stars.

enemies

lay

....

against

armor

learned

so

my

least

the

flies

Milan

as

Swiss

nor

The

you

letter.

Could
I

easily as

safe

from

can

work

could

Paragranum

which

many

similar

attacks

upon

them

indeed

couched

in

the

translation.

kind

that these

they

to
to

have

may

his

appeal

campaign

it should
the

be

lack

the

great

period

later

of

his

own

blunt

me

very

well.

strange
this,
"

fashion
7

fashion

by

nature

of

my

Ibid., I, 202.

the

order

and

how
am

land

to

it is
not

that

ofifer
to

woven
one

justified

be

lated
calcu-

not

friendly

other

hand,

found

Paracelsus.
thus

style of writing: "My

replying

in

of bitterness

life,Hohenheim

In

self
him-

has

characteristic

is not
of

not

it is evident

as

extreme

work

of

will

whether

men

an

which
the

his

Preface

contains

he

were

utterances

represent

of

mass

him,

On

these

of restraint

and

the

indignation,however

that

v^ere

neither

you,

is but

he

upon

otherwise.

or

said

Paragranum

assaults

thoughtful

to

and

which

nevertheless

been,

from

antagonists, some

admitting what

of

not

head

taken

language

attacks

outbursts

as

are

his

in such

similar

to

well

as

no

entrance.'"

gain

extracts

Even

that

claimed
in

above

I from

as

on

disprove

monarchy,

my

its enemies

foot-soldiers

bald

the

are

you
can

you

protect my

from

bear

that

experienced

nor

as

corselet, for

no

"

for

"

I need

liars

may

At
refers

for

understood,

attains

to

style pleases

defense

fine

of

"

my

know

it is not

anything

the

by

PARACELSUS.

76

bread,

wheaten

or

That

bread.
At

of

The

in his

him

particular interest

by

many
of

and
that
and

its

have

honor

abandoned,

even

nearly
time,
cure

has

toothache

folly is

large
the

sums,

in

and

physicians, who
idle

and
'

op.

babble.

fol, I, 261, "Die

from

their

have

sechste

called

the

an

tainty
uncer-

reputation

its

disease

one

practice;

say

and

little
several

Defension."

that, in my

rich

And

we

see,

offer

persons

about

of

authors,

in their
go

'

even

nothing

ancient

writings.

in

but

could

who

the

only

it

was

nevertheless

with

impelled

little

so

come

with

no

be

by

certainty, to

with

lends

foundations

was

namely

yet abandoned

are

golden rings, etc.,

physician

cities

great

it.

uncertain

no

with

found

how

moreover,

in

illnesses. Also

severe

such

been

sonally
per-

ruined, killed,crippled

been

So

he

work

the

properly

that

to

not

all diseases.

there-

more

appeared
sick have

many

so

and

procedure,

largely

that

this

of

is in
this:

do

fact

learn

to

it could

to

which

"applied myself

says,

there

reasons

in the

experience

The

industry

what

or

no,

pared
pre-

passage.

he

whether

medicine,
or

the

to

(1536),

motives

printing

the

and

great attention

of his
the

his

to

personal supervision,

career.

always,"

have

Preface

Surgery
his

of

and

oaten

fellows."'

his life, in the

under

and

milk

subtle

make

mead

figs or

on

cheese,

summary

us

reared

Greater

supervised

art

on

time

of medicine

influenced

of

but

published

has given

"I

we

not

work

and

study

are

does

later

influential

he

Nor

silk.

spinning

need
in

by

silks,

reputation, display
times

decided

to

DEFIANCE

abandon

this

certain
and
it

of

was

could
his

the

device

chance
then

attribute
which

art, to

no

collection

of fables

the

upon

of

day

the
I

belong.

one

he

recovery

(though unjustly)
not

that

if

that

credulity, so

it did

seemed

one

attracting pennies;

on

hit

to

that

was

for

founded

art

it

JJ

PROFESSION.

reason

anything, that

an

should

For

art.

honeyed

AND

FACULTY

TO

credit

to

often

have

quitted

the

"And

art, and

unwillingly practised

yet in this

convictions, but

my

mindedness.

for

many

and

sought

only anxious
books

in

foundations

Granada,

Lithuania,

Lusatia,

now

countries

not

Poland,

and

places

questioned

and

sought

arts

of

but

also

women,

with

barbers,

magicians
in

then
"

over

no

the
not

matter

what

it much

"

for

the

wise

that

And

diligently-

and

disease

be
it

medicine

the

doctors;

the

learned

physicians,
art; with

that
the

noble

and
But

simple.

fundamentally
might
was

be.
an

in

experienced

with

practise

to

and

also

as

enumerate.

true

surgeons,

[i. e.,

Saxony],

alone

not

through

Wallachia,

industriously and

who

learn

I could

to

cloisters; with

the

with

common,

and

to

"

land,
Eng-

Mark

Wendian

the

And

medicine.

doctrines,

further

Hungary,

necessary

corners

all

their

to

not

was

Spain, through

part of Prussia

France,

[Brandenburg],

Croatia,

Transylvania,
other

Mark

the

through

and

Italy

wandered

Lisbon, through

to

universities

the

medicine, and

myself

writings, but

and

Prussia,

of

devote

to

in

simple-

usual

my

attended

Germany,

quite followed

not

with

acted

have

therefore

years,
the

I have

matter

it.

chemist
althe
even

certain

pondered

uncertain

art

78
not

PARACELSUS.

honorably

by chance;

upon

"

It caused

ruined.

then

I discovered

need

not

the

Christ, the
and

whole,

that

it

and

leading

books

that

much,

the

of
understood

no

it,and

around

the

art

[hot] porridge;
they

the

nor

was

alone

was,

and
were

in

those

is,so much

they

nothing

in

who

in their

mountebanks

display and

thenj but

the

tomb

pomp,

which

the

which

that

did

they

the
art.

"

not

visited

neither

Therefore

practised

idle talk

still go)

they

understood

curing.

it,nor

around

cat

that

had

dation
foun-

in

(and

disputations,that
of

the

teaching

know,

but

I found

known

and

I should

that

gone

like
were

not

this

experience

they had

sick,
art

had

but

all sick

to

that

was

the

just,

blame,

others, and

had

they

own

the

from

medicine

did

their

advised

disease

was

that

themselves

understand
and

of

art

of

it neither

accepted

necessary

had

that

to

was

of thern

nor

that

need, useful

was

and
one

art,

in

medical

that

from

it

of

meaning

and

When

own,

my

what

learned

in

proven

health.

to

it for

consider

this

art

an

was

view

is true,

fortune

deception by spirits,nor

impressed

another

the

But

whole

medicine

of

art

ness.
busi-

it.

to

This

sick.'

to

them.

Christ, 'The

of

are

tion
decep-

other

back

substitute

to

was

into

went

the

ten

degrade

to

driven

according

certain, perfect

adopted

and

saying

I had

that

of

and

men

was

it

that

be hit

to

art

cured,

was

think

art

this

that

matter;

saying

to

unfair

an

that

physician, but

much

so

me

yet again

But

me

one

the

abandoned

again

for

mislead

by spiritsto
I

followed,

be

to

the
fault

There

and

terers
chat-

and

there

outwardlv

DEFIANCE

TO

beautiful

is

but

full

mass,

seek

to

of

inwardly

to

fables

and

which

in

What

experience

'

Chir.

babble

my-

Bilcher,

to

which

medicine]

[of

and

and

experience
I

etc.,

for

should

have

"Grosse

first
thus

had

the

by
of

surgery

therein

Wutidartzney,"

foundation

unspotted

is

forced

was

another

the
far

corrupt

tioned
above-men-

the

be
in

and

reasons

reading

seek

79

PROFESSION.

stinking

such

stop

"

lies,

For

worms.

further
evil

AND

FACULTY

most

follows

Preface.

such

wounds
certain.
later."^

that

recognized

zeal

the

with

and

believed

himself

destined

to

and

open-minded

of

analyst

evidently

was

of

though
the

thinker, though
in

his

thought
of

whatever
mind

opinion.

reject

the

Aristotle, Galen

the

to

his

ancient

neo-Platonic
his

ships

dominant

preach

mind

him.

teach

of

the

his

did

the

pendent
inde-

and

originality

cut

he

of the

ferences
dif-

from
his

up

authority

substitute

loose

of

found

having

hesitate

not

time,

basis

He

modification

own

very

made

and

Having
of

that

he

under

having

influences

his

philosophy,

Galenism
and

in

keen

legitimate

satisfactory

and

science

not

of

once

Avicenna,

was

dogmas
behind

of

sacredness

and

also

degree

Certainly
of

who

phenomena.

matter

combination

to

what

be

may

one

came

self-reliant

the

Basel

was

whatever

observed

be

at

the

he

nature

probably

unusually

an

in

building
up-

must

truth,

great

By

observer

observation,

of

advance

of medicine.

practice

critical

with

great

career

self-assurance

the

effect

his

upon

inspired

and

his

entered

he

in the

practice, it

and

science

the

to

as

Paracelsus

of

relative

medical

judgment

final

the

be

WHATEVERimportance
of

MEDICINE.

IN

REFORMER

AS

for

of
to

the

burn

from

the

determined

to

medical

science

AS

of the future
of the
the

not

REFORMER

should

infalHble

in the

the tremendous
his

be

campaign

for

"

practice of

Paracelsus
he

thirteen

remaining
to

seems

tenacity

and

and

of purpose

system,
nature

the

to

in terms

authority

the

denouncing

hypocrisy

of the

It is evident

perhaps
into the

even

of

mate
its ulti-

to

as

theories

with

the

and
of

forces

of God's

time

will, and

great

and

of

age

the

for

his

of

with

life,

wonderful
dustry,
in-

and

energy

of

discouragements

establishment
the

philosophy

and

of

on

years

himself

explanation
of his

that

from

"

venerated

of his medical
of

phenomena
to

assailing the

dogmas,

and

to

corruption, ignorance, venality and


medical
that

profession

during

his

of his

sojourn

in

earlier,a profound influence

life and

great

success

new

one

with

to the

of ancient

he

on

in

thirty-four years

against opposition
g'reat magnitude,

his

fourteen

or

devoted

have

doubt

expression

about

Basel,

left

time

prevail.

must
was

that

immediate

his mind
at

in

experience

sometimes

in

were

which

festly
comfort, but mani-

the

never

the

were

eventually they
when

to

medicine

which

nature,

From

in moderate
to

against
his

so,

again,

as

of his
estimate

rightly

not

If

and

long dead.

self-confidence

him.

though

success

experience,

of conservatism

wanderer

disillusioned

he

did

assaults.

sometimes

poverty,

his

he

surely undeceived
to

was

and

force

directed

Basel

pride

enthusiasm

youthful

and

of authors

dogmas

tion
observa-

of nature,

study

patient,experiment

Doubtless

he

be the

8l

MEDICINE.

IN

thought

of Paracelsus

day.
Basel,
had

through

or

come
con-

82

tact

the

PARACELSUS.

printed

was

and

Zwingli

1530

the

appealed

doubtless

Church

before
His

of the

mation
Refor-

in

authorities

the

to

quaintance
ac-

influence

to

traditional

against

revolt

The

man
Ger-

(Ecolam-

and

served

also

doubtless

period,

their

years

thought

in the

prominent

padius, both

in

and

published.

Erasmus

tament
Tes-

New

1522,

four

some

was

with

Basel

in

him.

Bible

complete

Luther's

Bible,

of the

translation

olic
Cath-

published

Judah

Leo

Roman

in

Wittenberg

at

against

of the

translation

Luther's

Church.

revolt

of the

observances

and

corruptions

spiritof

the

with

sympathy

and

who

man

was

in

authorities

battling against similarly entrenched


medicine.
Paracelsus

Certainly
with

the' medieval

teachings

of

catholic

true

all-sufficient
the

New

to

As

he

Luther

of

Galen,

Church

the
or
we

of Paracelsus

For

looked
or

art

Zwingli

the

of

to

medicine
or

the

against

complete
be

to

found

interpretation of
Pope
he

did

university

the

nor

for

the

constituted

mind

him

story of the
the

of

dence
indepen-

spirit of

the

whose

just as

"

corruptions

the

to

for

neither

Avicenna,
follow

and

were

was

sympathetic

While

his

to

"

doctrines

and

Papacy, Lutheranism,

the

which

"

Testament.

doctrines
nor

Christ

vernacular,

characteristic

with

equally foreign

as

familiar

against

alike

condemned

Zwingliism
the

revolt

Church,

thoroughly

spirit.

its

by

the Protestant

he

in the

Testament

influenced

deeply
with

New

the

was

the
not

and
in

these

Fathers,

tion
interpretadepend

on

faculties.

lifelong struggle

centuries-old

conservatism

AS

opposed

REFORMER

sympathy
but

also

tremendous

for

only

not

impossible

it is

him,

to

for

83

MEDICINE.

IN

the

not

great

which

for

cause

feel

to

he

bored
laand

devotion
self-sacrificing

the

which

earnestness

he

to

his

that

the

brought

work.
We
condition

day

realize

can

at

of medical
a

hopeless

ebb.

long

so

experiment.

new

Paracelsus

their

the

upon

of

application

in the

much

of

that

time,
"

held

can

the

of

study
of

than

value

of

hibited
in-

criticism

or

insistence

the

and

patients

the

ancient

indeed

infallible

as

that

see

in his

was

was

rational

books, his

experiments,

of

use

phasis
em-

the

upon

medical
these

unauthorized

and

new

denunciations

his
the

teaching

of

chemistry to the understanding


radical
pharmacology, his own

and

physiology
and

We

rather

distance

Improvement

toward

upon

diseases

and

dogmas

as

initiative

all

of

science

low

very

this

at

now

practice
all

were

the

of

novation
in-

dies,
reme-

of

hollowness

and

of

teaching

direction

in the

working

his

of progress.

Realizing this, we
crudities,
toward
his

limited

his

his

which

tended,

We

pseudo-science.
chains
the

science
much

which

path
upon

which
surer

hampered

little versed

held

by

in the

his

his

medical

science

be

followed

must

foundations
the

"

medieval

methods

of

goal

with

life

to

this
break

enslaved,
to

yet

point
modern

his

superstitions,

sympathize

can

lonely figure battling throughout


the

the

of

understanding

labors

for

allowance

make

can

build

himself
of

view,
science

ing
see-

that
too
too
to

84

PARACELSUS.

the

clearly lead

struggled

he

toward

the

goal

recognize

the

importance

way

attain.

to

though

But

should

be unfair

school

of

which

historians

and
Paracelsus

have

is not

his

fifteen

of

man

just

as

certain

practice
them

to

gives

theory,
evidence

that

he

But

in his destructive
numerous

had

equal insight
with

not

others

science

of

and
the

by
with

into

him

the

presented
violence

the

of

the

Geschichte

der

Medizin,

rare

sufficient

of current

the

demand

Paracelsus
p.

97.

denied

time, and

before

even

necessity

disputab
in-

encouraged

and

and

be

to

not

of

as

power

spiritof

Stuttgart, 1859,

It is

energy.

....

been

polemics aga-inst

it is also

work

that

the

his

materially supported

was

break

have

must

corruption

that

well

ing
followto

possessed

the

and
as

talent.

of

ings.
shortcom-

who,

man

and

Paracelsus

through

see

work

spiritualdomination

self-confidence
that

and

years' standing,

great

acuteness

that

decisively with

hundred

portance
im-

the

the

reflections,dared

spontaneous

and

ing
follow-

of

these

to

ponsible
res-

Wunderlich:^

be doubted

to

own

frankly

blind

been

not

the

his life. Modern

sincerity of

essential

Professor

Thus

of

the

part

recognizing

while

medicine,

of

in

were

during

command

could

he

we

conservative

appreciation and

of

lack

earnestness

recognize

to

which

of the

campaign,

of the

failed

we

of Paracelsus
the

for

the

reform

his

opponents

if

medicine,

shortcomings

"It

his

to

admire

we

sincerity of

essential

and

while

Paracelsus,

of

work

we

him

of

of

reform

for

it,though
It may

be

AS

accepted

and

taught,

when

absurdities,it
unclear

he

plunges

into

confusions

that

it is

him

solid

him.

him, completely
all

at

admitted

conception
of

and

torpid

how

the
to

these

have

no

but
mystifications,

.The
.

with

them.

ideas

are

known
totally un-

are

his

corrupt

of

of

control

ideas
It

and
be

must

magnificent

time."

his

summarizes

thus

infuse

an

to

which

life

new

science, there

strong

hand,

should

seize

the

reform

sweep

the

unselfish

honest

time

fluence
in-

to

domain

of

opinions.

Geschichte

der

Aderlasse,

sluggish
a

of

and

and

should

In

dross.

Hohenheim

sessed
pos-

ennobled

he

Munich,

him

into

complete
order
1870,

turbed
undisstand
under-

to

p.

clinatio
in-

cism
fanati-

autocracy

maintain
146.

these
his

spirit,though

giani

ity
author-

accumulated

drove

extravagances
amounted

reins,

reformer

highest degree,

the

needed

was

the

the

away

into

regardless

of his

judgment

qualities

in the

advance

of

mass

with

by

the

his

of

in

to

dogma,

gifts by

of

Paracelsus:

spirit,who

All

and

confused

Bauer''

order

and

We

positive knowledge.

obscure

many

and

Jos.

"In

and

chieflyonly

.Superstitious prejudices

points
that

Dr.

he

mode

ideas

logical argumentation
..

are

his

was

which

unfortunate

an

of intentional

any

of
to

and

that

he

....

in

demands

conviction;
with

disturbs

that

accuse

lacked

honest

be admitted

must

thinking

expression

right to

he

late
intentionally vio-

not

imbued

manifestly thoroughly

his

did

obligations of

85

MEDICINE.

IN

Paracelsus

that

the

REFORMER

in

these

86

PARACELSUS.

underfoot

trod

he
that

alienated

way

medical

The

by

forward

much

Paracelsus
his

and
that

science

medicine,"

as

rejection

denote

of

life."*

of

freedom

native
be

he

much

Op. cit.,Vol.

in

the

uses

times

the

ical
empir-

tion
undervalua-

word

with

Geschichte

II, p. 91.

can

the

was

as

be

der

by

had

the

Medizin,

3d

love

strong

stock.
This

his own.'

with

he

the

nature

Swiss

Lvither, with

that

whom

form

of the

and

who

'anatomy'

should

opinion

common

bad, nourished

der

anatomy

of all

this

German

another's

John Brown,

Lehrbuch

of
all

as

manifests

the

to

he

only

all he

whom

is

well

as

in his

self-consciousness

that

in

Paracelsus

native

had

"is

scientific

Paracelsus's

to

medicine, the,knowledge

"Above

can

one

in the

which

of

of

importance

medicine,

far that

that

foundation

with

the

.With
.

so

goes

'No

of

of

systems.

to

referring

of all transcendental

symbol

siasm
enthu-

aims

foundation

the

Hiiser,

says

foundation

for

contempt

sweeping

his

recognizes

his

attain

to

services

mistaken.

were

"This

used

he

of

nevertheless

earnestness,

methods

the

of the

purity

the

Haser,'

also

So

"

often

extravagances

great value

medicine,

to

of followers

thought.

the

acknowledging

while
of

his

discredit

the

carried

were

number

whose

not

was

influence

to

ideas

his

relativelysmall

to

opinion,

in

thinkers."

of calm

Paracelsus

of

time, and

visionaries, and

often
did

sympathy

Bauer's

his

of

physicians

the

system

Dr.

in

adapted,

bounds

and

propriety

of

the

is

good,

much

fact

that

in
he

and
mon
comwas

ed., Jena, 1875-82.

AS

in

lowly
finer

of the

manners

slight which

and

drove

him

disdain

into

in

the

after

to

"The

the

says,

"That

that
in

soon

honorable

an

Dr.

Magnus

Ibid.,p.

"

Paracelsus

at

is

in

in the

Ueberarst,

dition
con-

our

medical.
faction
dissatis-

Breslau, 1906,

tions
condi-

sympathy.

Bombastus

clared
de-

erate
degen-

gratitude
the

healing

Paracelsus

p. 3.

of

evidence

corrupt

87.
Jer

patients,"

this

to

our

that

motto,

important

scholastic

history of

emphasizes

matters

events

him

assure

as

more

the

the

uted
attrib-

lamentable

Theophrastus
upon

ical
med-

of

thousand

upon

nus,*
Mag-

dictum

certain

sense

all

Hugo

served

expression

knife

place

very

attacks

medicine, will

Dr.

felt the

gives

him

the

to

own

celsus
Para-

place of

the

books

soon

alone, that

war

have

gave

insure

fact

well

seeing

hero

powerful

must

This

than

science

he

for

his

and

condition

the

which

livelycritical

and

ing
unbend-

contempt

the

upon

for

thousand

our

that

at

but

power

upon

might

of

pride

contemporaries

medicine.

of

time

physician

sound

writers

history

of his

And

later

Rhazes

his

own

his

arrived

strong

of

neglect

""

of the

study

for

his

commenting

science

The

premeditated

of

accomplishments.
of the

to

the

from

insulted

he

peculiar

through

overestimation

One

him

By blameworthy

misfortunes
so

and

poverty,

classes.

himself.

accomplishments

great

to

in

lived

experienced

back

natures,
the

and

cultivated

he

unblameworthy

arrogant

born

87

MEDICINE.

bringing-up separated

and

or

IN

origin,was
rude

that^a

REFORMER

and

art."
was

88

PARACELSUS.

of

view,

not

by

reasoning

of

kind

contemporaries, only

and

predecessors

.losophy

his

of

sought
the

just

his

of

life, of

speculations, just
physicians

he

stands,

the

at

which

has

threshold

but

speculation,

bring

this

new

the

riddle

of

last

In

these

era

during

his

'

Ibid.,

pp.

14f.

age

life

the

its

closed

in the

forever
of
we

his

not

may

among

the

ture,
na-

that

"

age

by

not

investigation
to

the

just

tired

understand

the

over

and,

poor

eyes.'"
nor

of his

friendly
un-

it

why

seemed

physicians

to

celsus,
Para-

as

struggle
weapons

and

task

inappreciative

lifetime, Paracelsus

which
of

secrets

world

his blunted

estimates

little support

so

into

romanticist

authorities,
that

new

So

do.

to

conflict

himself

set

fantastic

knowledge

by observation,

life,lowered

knowledge,

the

the

secrets

philosophers

hoped

the

from

tear

Vesalius

experiment.

in

to

attempts

had

the

bold

by

all natural

over

had

discover

to

of

of

weapons

used

time

waged

new

mankind

embodiment

an

rationalism

his

to

up

phi-

with

growth,

nearly

as

stitute
sub-

to

natural

no

which

and

existence

his

highest knowledge

thought

He

time.

to

the

equipment

same

up

and

invented

achieve

to

all

neo-Platonism.

upon

Theophrastus

"For
but

based

own

same

discarded

he

fantastic

and

similarly unreal

the

sought

and

medievalism

conventional

the

mission

by nearly

used

was

as

point

and

with

but

scientific methods

modern

medieval

problems

his

attacked

he

that

of

possessed

nevertheless

himself

to

was

have

day.

It

AS

is

REFORMER

perhaps

not

which

he

asserted

certain

to

rather

facts

the

vision

of

of his

than

clearly

were

knowledge

authority

and

which
rather

respect.

comprehend

and

prevision
contained

were

ceived
con-

grew

to

day,
"

how
of

the

in

the

his

even

not

the

very

foundation
for

sought

be

we

he

his

in

had

into

for

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material

he

had

indeed

"

mystical

the

his

ories
the-

for

creasing
in-

fact

that

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ings
writ-

many

work

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his

gradually

friends
as

and

logic

and

spite of

print, his

way

which

had

death, and

surprised

formulate

few

their
a

the

teaching

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so

lifetime

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found

agitator.

imaginative

should

"

his

in him

rejected him

mischievous

of

he

which

influence,
his

but

hand, need

much

sion
profes-

recognize

progress,
and

of

medicine

of

did

they

force, eloquence, and

reasonableness

philosophy by

that

pathy
sym-

misjudge

not

conservative

other

native

perhaps

should

the

heretic

the

on

full

our

condemn

of medical

dangerous
Nor,

Paracelsus

unequal battle, we

prophet

aims

science

accord

severely

too

the

in

suggestion,

we

in his

during

which

of Paracelsus.

while

true

them

physician perceived

experience

of

interest

foreshadowings

gained

later

accepted dogmatic

present

As

these

Swiss

methods

So

that

the

brilliant

thought

in

doctrines

the

the

to

himself.

developed,

of

future

as

contained

Paracelsus

required

much

that

say

of their

much

demonstrated,

nor

to

opposed

owed

89

MEDICINE.

intuitively apprehended

and

It

and

truths

by

than

much

too

medicine

IN

laid the
many

of

PARACELSUS.

go

he

seemed

authorities.

his

writings

the

violent
theories

resulted
in

many

influence
The

his
of

in

duty
detail

estimate

for

the

strongholds

the

ideas

of
in
his

efforts

to

medicine
the
later

place

the

printed,
over

which

even

medical

servatism:
con-

vitality

great

was

Paracelsus

to

into

higher
will

influence

be

But

of

as

and
the

let

chemist.

titioners
pracmission

considered
first

ence,
sci-

medical

students

ideals

chapters.
and

of

and

Paracelsus,

instil

physician

and

Paracelsans

there

of

of

contributions
and

and

victories

that

profession

the

the

which

finally

advanced,

he

evidence
in

in

arose

in

vogue

were

practice

universities,

the

all
and

that

and

in

they

tering
shat-

Greek

remarkable

when

conflicts

ancient

the

of

The

enjoyed

generation

coming

sufficiency

and

sacredness

the

of

confidence

in

instrumental

mainly,

indeed

not

the

Arabian

was

"

if

largely,

hc'

nevertheless

that

lifetime

his

overwhelming

against

vain

in

though

that,

forgotten

be

not

struggle

to

during

odds

should

it

Especially

more

us

briefly

CHEMIST

THE

AND

REFORMER

OF

CHEMISTRY.

mentioned,

previously

AS

and

L.

manhood

early

in

experienced
and
was

by

of

metallurgy
spent.
of

study

this

the

principal

them

chemists

artisans

in

pottery,

mystics

or

to

means

or

life

endow

or

The

to

printing
recipes

and

of

usually

not

striving

by

chemists
in

the

addicted
manuals

issued

pioneer

for
authors

metals

elixir

that

early

for

public
in

tries;
indus-

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youth.

decades

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ical
chembook-

Their
in

or

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in

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information.

gold

artisans

were

of

similar

perennial

the

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the

obscure

doubtless

allusions

classes

two

publishing.

to

manuscripts

of

baser

or

added

ical
alchem-

or

or

with

life

writings.

or

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early

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were

glass,

the

were

his

evidently

own

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possessor

practical

industry

the

discover
its

his

period

the

transmute

silver,

form

in

he

mining

of

which

ticularly
par-

"

references

as

in

the

employed

metals,

time,

time

his

authorities

found
of

in

experience

the

be

to

are

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of

in

youth

chemical

operations

region

To

knowledge
to

the

the

the

of

prevalent

in

was

student

theories

and

processes

Paracelsus

use

use

The

chemistry,

trade
in

but

the
not

tant
imporBirin-

PARACELSUS.

92

important
in

appear

his life

works

early

the

were

Pliny

the

was

apocryphal

were

authorities

Avi-

and

the_

Roger

LuUus

Raimundus

and

many

Englishman

the

Spaniard

the

and

Bacon,

for

"

Villanova,

de

Arnaldus

Magnus,

Albertus

German

to

Gheber

Arabians

Spaniard ( ?)

the

cenna,

attributed

or

the

"

whose

important compiler,

most

not

during

extant

philosophers, of

Greek

by

written

works

did

of Paracelsus.

death

the

after

until

print

works

science

chemical

of

history

principal chemical

The

the

the

to

their

though

Paracelsus,

of

period

the

of

also

Palissy, were

guccio, George Agricola, Bernard

(or

Lully).
As

far

studies

M.

of

known

the

centuries

early

philosophy

that

Berthelot

little not

of

of later

mysticism

elaborated
of
their

Oriental

other

such

to

the

above

names

sources

degree

authors

that
or

of

metaphysical
tian
Egyp-

and

bian
Ara-

Chaldean,

been

added

the

chemical

and

and

to

ings
writunder

written

those

fantastic, obscure

were

very

writers

Greek

from

chemistry had, however,


and

The

era.

our

the

contained

Greek

or

in

from

appears

they

Egyptian

to

and

it

concerned,

is

authors

these

contained

knowledge

chemical

the

as

often

tentiona
in-

incomprehensible.
It
that

is
he

evident
was

in

use

in

of

the

country

of the

the

from

familiar
mines
in

chemistry

assimilated.

the

chemical

processes

metallurgical

laboratories

with
and

which

the

he

of his time

It is also

Paracelsus

of

writings

evident

lived.
was

His

knowledge

extensive
that

he

was

and

well

familiar

THE

with

and

influenced

theories
others

OF

REFORMER

of

CHEMISTRY.

the

by

often

fantastic

Lullus, Arnaldus

respecting the

93

de Villanova

of

nature

lative
specu-

and

matter

and
gins
ori-

the

of metals.
Paracelsus

wrote

chemistry

or

under

name

to

appeared

description

his

had

been

surgery
much

this

the

natural

or

evidence

mineralihus,

De

natura

recorded

writings, and

operations
One

of the

elements

and

Salt

substances,

as

"

cine,
medi-

upon

includes

he

entitled

books

and

In

scattered
found

not

rial
mate-

earlier

in

clearlydescribed

more

(tria prima)

than

to

earlier

been

have

cury
Mer-

Sulphur,

"

all other

constitutingprinciplesof

seems

though using

ryphal.
apoc-

as

historicallyitnportant theory, that

previously.
three

they

Archidoxa.

rerum,

facts

many

ternal
in-

who,

because
them

the

by

Huser,

philosophy,

unsystematically arranged
are

of

writings

chemistry, particularly in

such

both

collection

other

which

answer

characterized

his

in

sively
exclu-

few

judged

as

in his

published,

so

Nevertheless,

De

by

including them

The

which

and
"

and

devoted

alchemy.

forgeries

were

evidence
while

treatises

no

original

with

for its

material

speculations as

him.

development.
of

Historians
the

chemistry

important

of chemical

development
importance

influence

to

medicine

have

of Paracelsus

science
and

this, his

most

certain

in

nized
recog-

upon

emphasizing

the
its

pharmacology.

Strangely enough, however,


to

generally

it

was

influence

just
upon

in relation
the

de-

PARACELSUS.

94

in

called

for

question
this

for

occasion

literaryforgeries
of

claim

his

as

to

be

in

About
series
"

at

least

Tholde.

into

German

because

time.

of

the

early

century

before

As

of
a

of

the

from
in

the

of

the

of this

was

was

mony,
Antition
attenat

bution
contri-

real

compovmds.

that

they

were

therefore

century,

it

was

presentation

between

work

occurred

popularity

greatest

noticed

soon

similarity both
and

of

Paracelsus.

Paracelsus,
remarkable

text

These

importance

antimony

fifteenth

appearance

period

Valentine

the

chemical

of

and

wide-spread

mentioned

chemistry

inference

written

the

work

Chariot

or

Johann

manuscript.

and

real

these

discovered

have

Triumphal

their

of

monk

certain

Latin

immediate

The

to

to

appear

Benedictine

was

the

to

publisher

ones

claimed

attracted

The

The

especially the

works,

included,

which

began

alleged

an

earlier

the

Tholde

translated

the

by

Valentinus.
of

philosophical

spurious origin, appeared

or

there

later

years

treatises

Basilius

him

589-1 591.

ten

of

the

sus
Paracel-

chemical

of

era

Paracelsus,

of

of doubtful

much

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of

collection

works

medical

the

of

was

clever

deprive

to

for

The

some

place

to

plagiaristand

initiator

an

of

appeared

honesty,

centuries.

two

appearance

which

Huser's

medicine.
and

the

position of

in the

than

more

was

for

indeed

knowledge, originality,and

reputation

his

that

science

natural

of

velopment

much

in Paracelsus.

in

of

that
matter

contained
Like

during

the
there
and

works
was

form

in

Basil

Paracelsus,

Basil

THE

Valentine

REFORMER

had

abused

authorities; the

celsus
Para-

Even

the

three

principles Sulphur, Mercury,

Salt

were

facts

were

here

in Basil

often

more

plagiarism
ever

Nor

in

also

evident

was

in

the

the

to

access

writers

authenticity of
be

to

came

accepted

certain

From
it became

written

in

type-founding,
plain
of

that

their

writer

entinus

before

monk.
became

(though

no

Generally, however,

these

stolen

his

It may
so

writings, however,

could

they

fifteenth

the

date

could

to

the

be

that

earlier

there

that

strange

easily accepted,

but

from
such

made
the

came
it be-

existed

had

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could

name

that

he

be

lived

Paracelsus

therefore

that

used

than

of Basilius

such

chemistry largely
seem

metal

Nevertheless,

name

of

alleged

as

disease,

French

century.

record

century

not

been

have

not

allusions

for

to

and

his

indeed

were

register of Benedictines),

Paracelsus,

in

in the

in the

under

wrote

in the

found

had

who

There

the

were

disbelief

quite generally accepted


a

expressed

and

fifteenth

the

had

he

genuine.

as

supposed author,

the

end

who

in the

by
it

monopoly

that

early

as

have

passages

evident

Valentine.

if

find.

the

Basil

writer

previous

no

of Basilius.

period

that

minds

Paracelsus,

then

works

of the

sure,

Paracelsus.

alleged original manuscripts

evidence.

plagiarist,must

in

critical

quoted

or

were

chemical
than

to

be

To

mentioned

placed

The

described

existed.

fact

advocated.

Valentine.

clearly

short, it

had

remedies

their

and

physicians

by

found

In

the

mineral

95

CHEMISTRY.

used

were

primary

OF

the
an

it should

supposed
hypothesis
be

noted

g6

PARACELSUS.

that

time

the

at

university faculties

the

on

with

Paracelsus

fantasies

into

facts

of the

existence

The

be

said

historian

of

may

to

the

by accepting
a

century's

ended

and

the

Since

the

accepted

certain

Basilius

of
'

H.

Kopp,

the

this

eminent

beginning

who,

hypothesis, after

in his
was

of

forgery

of

the

half

chemistry

the

judgment

to

problem

the

early history

so

previous

with

time, other
to

Basilius
series

or

seventeenth
the

of
tury,
cen-

publisher

the

that

solution

Alchemie,

no

of

and

the

under

appeared

Heidelberg,

1885,

problem

it may

writings

had

students

competent

Lasswitz,

Valentinus
Die

of

probabilityTholde

Ferguson,
as

author.^

Kopp's

Sudhoff,

confirm

writer

Kopp,

beginning

contributed

have

H.

the

that

in all

that

himself

was

in

work

of

commenced

literature

forgeries

as

conventional

by stating

Valentinus

him

chemistry

at

statements

to

reinvestigation
have

fought

alleged Basilius, and

of the

history finallyaccepted
Paracelsus.

seemed

which

literature

the

this presumption

Against
certain

also

Eventually

from

its vagaries,

with

Paracelsus

erally
gen-

despised

expected

school

new

and

name

be

to

of

champions

disadvantage.
crept

the

was

charlatanry.

and

the

influential

classes

of

founder

and

leader

rapidly

Paracelsan

the

of

more

^Plagiarism was

hated.

and

the

scholarly

more

the

side, and

one

the

and

other.

the

on

progress

profession

increasing revolutionary party


school,

in

was

medical

conservative

the

between

warfare

fierce

pp.

nor

29f.

be

now

the

"

name

existed

THE

either

before

indeed

nor

prior

The

works.

but
from

be

drew

of

collected

his

ten
writ-

presumably

Agricola

celsus
Para-

from

only

not

from

also

Paracelsus

of

and

perhaps

writers.^
of

chemistry, Joh.
to

and

published

doubtless

works

shown

Ufetime

printing

therefore

still later
The

the

to

works

Tholde

by

the

during

or

97

CHEMISTRY.

OF

REFORMER

other

two

and

HoUandus,

Isaac

and

post-Paracelsan

of about

the

period

same

authors

alleged

also been

have

geries
literaryfor-

were

lite-

Basilius

the

as

upon

erature.

the

By

period,

the

relative

that

chemistry
also

the

is

well

as

is due

credit

its

for

as

for

chemical

facts.

is freed

Paracelsus

also

and
minds

of

the

has

The

so

long

whole

and

the
a

more

he

propaganda;

no

from

detailed

odium

or

of

of

history
ism
plagiarin the

in
his

of

chemical

dents
stu-

him.

the

chemistry

was

on

adopted philosophy

replace the

account

him
of

originalitywhich

of

of Paracelsus

to

revision

the

attached'to

felt

to

epoch-making

means

this

practical,though

need

It is to

enhanced.

of medical

majority

interest

the

For

lack

consequent

erature
lit-

first announcement

the

Through

true

initiative' to medical

the

for

turn

their

to

chemical

of the

greatly

interestingthough by

many

must

we

writings

importance

of Paracelsus
him

these

relegation of

Galenic

Basil

Valentine

and

Aris-

forgery

of.

1912, "Basil Valenof early medicine


of Paracelsus
and
student
literature. Dr. Karl
Sudhoff, to the
thousands
writer
in Jan., 1913, states that after looking through many
is
doubt
in
there
of medieval
recent
absolutely
no
decades,
manuscripts
like
Basil
and
Is.
Hollandus
Valentine
or
Joh.
possible that nothing
existed
previous to Hohenheim.
Stillman, Popular

time."

Science

communication

Monthly,

from

the

December,

eminent

historian

g8

PARACELSUS.

And

theorizing.

followed

Platonic

concept

the

it should

be

the

It is
these

by

remedies

new

by

him.

by

the

faculties, in

localities
Thus

pharmacopoeia
requiring
their

for

the

of

operations

and

the

work

in

he

and

the
the

preparation

ments
treat-

Paracelsus.
of

preparations
of

his

chemistry

preparations

of medicines

fluence
in-

greatest

development.
and

the

iron

but

Not

arations
prep-

found

by distillation as
simples by J. Brunswyk,
Paracelsus.
Cf. Stillman, Scientific

distillation
to

of

methods

exerted

antimony

certain
to

had

fats

extension

number

lead, arsenic, copper

probable that

in certain

with

the

activityand

given
on
familiar
Strassburg, 1500, was
Monthly, 1918, pp. 169f.
in

use

in

great

chemical

mercury

It is

to

preparation

upon

only

that

true

authorized

remedies

physicians previous

It is nevertheless

all

originated

not

mixed

foi; external

Italian

arcana.

by irregular practitioners.*

preparations

introduced

by

popular

as

used

least,or

at

mercury

been

use

the

that

were

though

were,

of

assume

introduced

he

of them

Many

simpler
to

rejected

herbs

of

his

for

active
tures,
admix-

he

So

decoctions

necessary

means

no

tions
relaand

real

grosser

efficacious.

more

pharmacopoeia

customary

neo-

man

the

from

plant

extremely complex

the

toward

free

could

if he

principleof

hypothesis,his

universe

tracts
ex-

seems

spiritual sympathetic

in the

Thus

health.

spiritor

of

things

all

of

he

minerals,

working

as

aration
prep-

simple

or

arcana

and

principlesof plants

or

have

his

in the

Thus

practice.

his

theories

these

extent

some

purificationof

and

his

to

into

often

him

leads

ones

new

influenced

doubtless

to

by

theories

totelian

of

place among
entered

into his

laudanum

seems

to have

practice quite largely, and

the word

The

have

to

seems

whether

of

remedies, opium

his

no

as

on

that

point

zinc

of

name

be

to

not

locally in

the

that

with

mining

in the

regions

aration,
prep-

writings

first named

probably

was

"

disagree.

therefore

It

him

opium

an

doctors

he

inferred.
in

use

were

first appears

Paracelsus, though

it, is

also

originated

his "laudanum"

or

99

CHEMISTRY.

OF

REFORMER

THE

in

least

at

which

had

he

studied.
"For
which

namely

are

into

generally

are

metals

some

of

by

[zinc], Kohaltet
in the

yet

be

may

For

Now

nor

metals;

are

which

[?],

there
in

the

commonly
Zincken

as

and

hammered

fire.'"

is also

"There

philosophers

and

Such

man.

recognized

not

and

lead, tin.

metals.

as
are

ancient
such

as

known

which

the

recognized
forged

instrument

an

subdue

fire may

gold, silver,iron, copper,

are

writings

which

metal

be made

can

these

is

that

another

Zincken

called

metal

This
metal

of

origin].

Yet

[i.e.,

three

to

primary
colors

metals

metal

that

op. fol, II, 134, "De

as

its ultima
it is

sense

seed

[i.e.,

three

elements],

nearly

mineralibus."

of

others,

they
materia
as

it

but

its
that

so

And

grow.
is not

strange

it.

fusible

only fusibility. And

other

For

this

[alloy]with

for it is from

the

me.

another

adulterate

the

like

it is such

but

it is in

from

from

is dififerent

it is not

known

the

malleability

no

color

metals

many

is itself fusible

elements
has

and

specialkind

metal

This

generally known,

is not

in

yet
its

PARACELSUS.

100

properties

does

and

it could

hammered

be

be

can

brought

in its

(doubtless meaning
incorrectly,ascribed
by Agricola
by

in his

the

distinction

ascribing
latter

to

the

fqrmer
This

metal.

it

first demonstrated
reduced

"reduction"
of

metals

first

to

metals

from

other

straightforward
mystification of
of the time

"

Cf.

Hoover),

their

into

as

his

and

the

the

said

new

to

are

descriptions are

with

great

none

bulk
even

of
of

the

could
term

obtaining
have

been

by

celsus.
Para-

described

frequently
intentional

alchemical

in the

the

who

The

literature

not

of many

or

to

in

to

Davy

unknown.

applied

is

criminati
logicaldis-

"earths"

so-called

chemical

processes

and

time

is also

ores

base, and

Humphrey

hitherto

(reduciren)

by Paracelsus,

*Ibid., II,

the

as

that

Sir

was

that

introduced

Many

for

was

"

"vitriols"

and

earth

an

and

Paracelsus

to

"alums"

between

for

be

credited

observation

Another

in 1530,

writer.

anonymous

though

it is mentioned

as

printed

Bermannus,

still earlier

fashioning"

is sometimes,

Paracelsus,

to

chemical

amalgams).

alloys or

of bismuth

first mention

The

malleabilityand

to

ity,
malleabil-

"by

because

nature

sider
con-

nature,"

cast, lacked

or

it is of metallic

but

even

but

not

"metallic

of

Though

metal.

true
not

did

(quicksilver)Paracelsus

Mercury

it

ture
admix-

no

by itself."*

stands

art

of

manufacture,

metallic

endure

not

admits

It

quicksilver.

as

ings
writfol-

century

137.

Agricola, De
re
London, 1912,

metallka
p.

433,

n.

(translated by

H.

C.

and

H.

REFORMER

THE

lowing.

That

OF

they

true, but

this is rather

meaning

is not

writing

editing.

or

his better

of

white-lead

from

the

clear, or

no.w

The

from

lead

following is

and

and

careless

from

whose

of terms

use

It describes

style.

intelligibleis

always

not

are

lOI

CHEMISTRY.

the

illustration

an

of

preparation
and

vinegar

hasty

oxide
di-

carbon

gas.

"The

mortification

consists

converting

Bleiweiss

called
two

in

in

Its

preparation

it

[the lead]
in

vinegar

adhering
a

in

until you

that

in the

vinegar

wine-

well

alchemy

with

gives

this

do

other

aration
prep-

is like this

"

of the

much

then

white-lead

sheets, and
The

best
fine

in

set

remove

may

the

pered
stop-

stove:

days good

enough.

That

is dissolved.

salmiac

hang

you

sharp

the

behind

in

"

that

"

you

is in

alchemy.

volatilize,and

again hang

of white-lead

in

other

pot is then

fourteen

white-lead

have

is also

preparation

over

The

sheets, which

foot, and

hare's

sheets

winter
to

ten

which

is thus

spiritsmay

or

the

to

thin

lead

of

death]

Its

the

in medicine

no

will find in

you

cerussa

glazed pot.

ashes,

warm

it into

medicine,

in

that

so

mors,

[white-lead].

one

ways,

[from

cept
ex-

finest

and

subtle

and

white-lead.""

By
carbon

first of

the

dioxide

the

carbonate

the

vinegar.
the

In

second
the

"

the

must

This

from

come

makes

process,

sal-ammoniac

op. fol, I, 893f, "De

for

necessary

gas

natura

with
as

mentioned

methods

two

the

the

formation

be

process

the

addition

of the

prepared

often

rerum."

of

fermentation

slow

then

the

to

of
sure.

miac,
salcon-

PARACELSUS.

I02

of

sisted
with

contained

or

in

dioxide

With

unscientific,and

and

based

They

are

with

such

changes

possibilityof
of

valuable

Thus

have

and

silver.

gold

consider

to

of

of

But

ful
fanci-

of his

predecessors

does

not

for

virtue

it

deny

the

But

his

as

waste

it is for

is not

and

his

profitably employed.

that

such

to

metals.

more

alchemy

what

only

them

disappointed.

search

here

istry,
chem-

not

the

otherwise

said

find

on

themselves
he

rejects the

"Many

tation
fermen-

to

commend

as

energy

the

views

are

we

transmutation

practical sense

carbon

from

theories

the

upon

preconceptions.

own

than

naturally expect

should

we

Hberated

theoretical

his

to

which

alone.

vinegar

respect

carbonate

vinegar

quantity

greater

of the

of the

acid

acetic

the

ammonium

making

the

power

aim

but
lie in

may

medicines.'"
"Not
make
and

they

as

the

direct

them

against

diseases.'"

point

of

of

the

or

chemical

the

of ideas

interestingto.

in

by

include

various

the

name,

Though

view

physical

Van

finds

word

our

Helmont

its

Van

op. fol, I, 149, "Fragmenta

Op. fol, I, 220, "Paragranum."

"

See

O.

make

Helmont

gold,
arcana

of

opment
devel-

science

^a.y which

was

it is
first

generalization to

suggestion

'

E.

as

make

history

elastic fluids which

suggested by

Franz

is to

purpose

find that

formulated

p. 30, and

to

here

to

that

is

alchemy

"

silver:

From

by

say

in

we

now

call

Paracelsus.'
the

term

gas

medica."

Strunz, /. B. van
Helmont,
Leipsic and Vienna, 1907,
Lippmann,
von
Chemiker-Zeitung, XXXIV,
-p. 1.

THE

was

slow

that

the

in

REFORMER

OF

It will be remembered

its way.

making

celebrated

work

of

eighteenth century bore


Van
Helmont
of Air.

the

influenced

strongly

in many

views
word

the

is used

however,

thorough

so

air, and

manifestly
Thus
the

chaos.^"

Greek

student

that

us

he

his

of

in his

him

the

derives

This

chaos,

term

Paracelsus

as

eralized
gen-

familiar

certainly was

of

was

one

differing from

repeatedly by

for

term

who

and

Paracelsus

by

the

Kinds

title of Different

respects, tells

from

gas

Joseph Priestleyin
(1577- 1644),

defenders, though

strong

IO3

CHEMISTRY.

Paracelsus

mont
Hel-

Van

as

to

was.

Paracelsus

"And

says,

elements,

instance

for

as

they

born

are

the

of

out

from

element

....

its

(earth)

terra

its

(water)

aqua

species, and
of the

(fire) its species,out


"Thus

all

the

called

(earthy)

superfluous
Sea

returns

what

is

what

is aerial

igneous

waters

into

the

Earth

Fire

(terra) ;

(ignis);

into

runs

ment
ele-

is terrestrial

called

that

(aereum)

its species.""

into their

run

element

ignis

chaos

; whatever

its element

element

the
element

element

(mare)

to

the

of

species, out

of

out

and

its element

Chaos.""
"The

they
What
the

p.

have
he

earth

J. B. van
69 (29).

elements

and

remain

man

him,

to

come

has

in

received

from

remains

such

^^

Helmont,

^^

Op. fol.,I, 269, "Labyrinthus

12

so

Opera

Op. fol.,I, 291, "DasBuch

indestructible.

they
the
so

from

come

earth

long

goes
as

him.

back

heaven

von

den

tartarischen

to

and

'Omnia, Frankfort-on-the-Main,
medicorum."

As

1682,

Kranckheiten."

PARACELSUS.

104

becomes
chaos

his

the

to

"gas"

used

"chaos"

Thus

so

were

gases

air

[Luft],

of the
time.

the

at

facts

to

water,

other

or

air

between

really discriminated

The

gases.

if Paracelsus

know

interesting to

be

It would

the

and

of

It is nevertheless

be

separated,
as

and

takes

and

in

so

to

its

So

boils, the

it

soon

much

the

as

proportion

an

notions

of

That

the

might

be

changes.

and

disease

12

Chir.

1^

Op.

Biicher, etc.,

Paracelsus

as

interrelation

naturally

theories

its

p.

of the

is the

quantity

adherent
of the

the

be

nature

which

causes

understood

378, "Von

fol, I, 791, "Archidoxa

"

the

is diminished

water

universe, would

prevalent

from

separates

and

is

[Luft]

air

water,

lightestsubstance

it the

with

strong

Platonic

air

tions.
interpreta-

place by boiling, and

takes

that

is

passage

interest.

element

the

from

"When,

of

vapor

following

conclusive, being capable of different

the

between

accumulated

of

century

in

it necessary.

make

to

fire

even

value

the

that

appreciated

not

was

though

dififerences

real

little understood

generalized term
It required another

not

his

air became

for

Helmont,

the

time

Helmont's

Van

can

Paracelsus

by

disciple Van

his

to

the

it;

prevent

one

sun.""

the

of

no

into

again

goes

heat

and

again,

water

that

is water

that

in him

has

he

stand; what

earth

offenen

De

so

air

matter

influence
it

water,

ing
accord-

was

minished
di-

also

neo-

things

interested
of

water

of the

of all

so

in

the

and

of

health

necessary

Schaden.''

separationibus

in

elementorura."

that

the

THE

REFORMER

nature

of

the

final

of the
and

the

upon

of the

Water.

doctrine
and

of the

the

telianism

of
the

upon

the

of

certain

matter.

The

its

alloys

of

these

of

the

metals

from

the

common

the

in

the

the

metals
of

base

From

metals

the

these

cury
mer-

rence
occur-

had

ores,

development

such

phenomena

of

many

the

doubtless

arose

of

the

or

growth

earth.

of

to

possible relations

the

to

time

its appearance

of

treatment

and

earth

notions

and

peculiar properties

into

alloys

of

hopes

of

or

purer

more

metals.

Lullus

Raimundus
assumed

therefore

present

in

Middle. Ages

or

were

to

the

metals,

ores

as

observations

of

properties

other

the

of

subject, from

are

with

result

in

strange

speculations

transmutation

precious

the

as

independent

many

in the

stibstances

and

had

in

sulphur

rise to

of

they

Aristo-

dogma.

metals

the

organism,

medieval

the

had

which

to

disappearance

given

in

infallible

of

occurrence

of
and

or

become

Galenic

the

human

metallurgical chemistry,

developed

nature

Fire, Air, Earth

in the

alchemists

changes

time

had

petrified into

Medieval

study

four. humors

theory

philosophy

founded

was

result

the

medieval

elements,

this

Upon

with

of matter

four

had

philosophers

later

crystallization in

theory

stitution
con-

understood.

and

nature

the

and

changes,
be

Arab

Greek,

speculated
of

should

IO5

CHEMISTRY.

chemical

of matter

Hindu,

OF

and
that

all metals.

early

other

early

and

mercury
In

the

Renaissance

alchemists

sulphur

literature
the

mercury

of the
or

I06

PARACELSUS.

sulphur

the

and

mercuries,

and

sulphur

elements
them

but

these

elements

toward

fusibility,behavior
of

which

was

no

they

agreement

nor
or

their

their

to

as

of

role

colors,

the

metals

ever,
time, how-

the

in the

function

or

There

stances,
sub-

elementary

these

of

to

the

principles.

writers

among

properties

the

to

as

of

fire, etc.,

constituent

were

related

influencing

of

capable

and

understand

substances

be

to

the

not

were

we

as

mercury

supposed

were

sulphurs

or

metals

ores.

this

Upon
inheritance

of

the

Salt, which

destined

was

theory

elements.

three

of

the

to become

of

ory
the-

Mercury

the

and

tial
influen-

most

until

matter

phlogiston theory

the

structed
con-

consistent

Sulphur,

constitution

replaced by

Paracelsus

and

comprehensive

more

this

foundation,

alchemists,

the

from
his

variable

and

vague

in the

ually
gradeenth
eight-

century.
Paracelsus
or

principles
them

also

elements
he

assigned

functions
was

not

Earth,

"

considered

Air, Water,

consisting

definite

more

the

the

as

in

had

To

and

previously

combustible
the

of

been

volatilityand

incombustibilityof

"For

all that

fumes

and

"

three

but

mary
pri-

elements

characterized

all

phur
Sul-

substances,

that

liquidity,or
which

the

ments
ele-

recognized.

Mercury

Salt

Fire

his three

better

volatility;and

that

of

principle in

metals;

property

Aristotelian

four

(tria prima).

than

merely

the

recognized

which

parted
im-

fusibility,and

determined

the

non-

substances.

disappears

in

vapors

is

THE

Mercury

REFORMER

; all that

all that

is ashes

These

of

Like

the

substance

but

as

there

different

in

Also

[fontibus],

ones

and

gems,

one

divided,
but
one

so

which

tained
con-

in

in

"For

"

kinds

Mercury.
silver, another

etc.

Also

the

emerald,

that

kinds

kind

of pear

only

yet they

are

of

one

there
of

fol.,I, 898, "De

or

is not

but

rerum."

Salt
the

are

species

others
so

"

only

three

they

only
as

many

still

kind

there

many

Salt, of

are

one

in

Of

things.

is

nature

with

same

metals,

of

different

"

the

just

"

apple
natura

of

further

gold

etc.

kinds

many

And
in

And

so

kinds

there

as

flint,salts, spring-waters

ones

Sulphur,

many

op.

stances,
sub-

of

another

etc

many

is

so

other

many

many

another

many

gems,

Mercury.

nature

so

"

lead, zinc,

not

different

And

nature

And

also

as

Mercuries.

in

stones,

etc.

metals,

Mercuries,

so

gold,

ties
proper-

Paracelsus

of fruits

sapphire,

in

but

in

of

was

ruby, chrysolites,amethysts, magnets,

another

Sulphur

in

another

in

one

another

kinds

Sulphur

iron,

different

of

words

also

Sulphur

substance

Sulphur, Salt, and

of

in

the

cepted.
ac-

they

invariable

constitution

nition
defi-

present

elements,

the

the

to

at

as

and

with

are

not,

are

answering

as

the

use

there

as

many

are

To

all matter

of

constant

into

Sulphur

Salt.'"'

substances

varied

it.

is

principles. Thus,

of

entering

is consumed

Aristotelian

typifiedqualities or
not

and

understood

elementary

IO7

CHEMISTRY.

constituents

be

to

burns
is also

three

however,

OF

of

is not

kinds.

one

more

gold
only

in
There-

I08

PARACELSUS.

fore

just

there

are

of

gold,

rather

generalizations of

as

in

sense.

closely related

than

the

to

as

the

century

Boyle

laid

bare

Boyle

indeed

definition

modern

by

cannot

of

though
definition

to

The

in

opening

in

the

of

mineral

put into

of

and

use

necessity

physician,
"

op.

and

of

advocated
the

fol, II, 132, "De

as

basis.

substance

into

the

which

simpler

stituents,
con-

this

apply

to

discovery

chemical
the

He

in

of

only

not

in his

forcefully

chemistry

value

but

activity

substances

of

any

preparation

insistentlyand
the

in

nor

value,

to

chemical

chemistry

to

remedies.

mineralibus."

Robert

of

substance.

knowledge

emphasized

teenth
seven-

clearly enunciated

chemistry

known

pothesi
hy-

unscientific

field for

vegetable

many

he

of

in the

permanent

great

application
and

of

Aristotelian

until

Paracelsus

of

theory

new

practice, but
the

particular

chemical

dominant

venture

epoch-making

any

development

not

more

the

and

this

was

in

of the

resolved

did

he

service

great

not

was

any

first

be

it

analysis

element

an

efforts

our

critical

who

that

observed

inadequacy

was

that

of matter

keen

its
it

was

it became

nature

elements

as

time

concept

Consequently

elements.

than

importance

the

herent
in-

properties

The

phenomena

to

experimentation

his

for

theory possessed

followers

his

certain

matter,

to

common

modern

the

in

and

tary
elemen-

three

and

Paracelsus

of

principles

the

phurs
Sul-

gold.'""

of

Mercuries

consider

therefore

should

We

gold,

of

Salts

of

kinds

dififerent

many

as

to

the

experiment

OF

REFORMER

THE

against dependency

as

"But

because

also

are

of

the

ignorant

think

you

are

that

because

Valescus
know
which

they

who

persons

then

with

about

knew
their

it

know

true

proof

to

"What

But

in the

green

that

You

thus

of

but

But
do

made

nothing

that

than

that

is black
I

can

I find it written.'

alchemy?

read

make

me

to

help me)

who

are

think

not

do

what

of it.

be

and

do

it

this, this
and

"

say

it true.

ther
fur-

nothing,

I have

reason

to

and

is in

(God

without

call

prove

read, 'that

you

yet you

indeed

this is green

[of medicine]
Tell

how

is

lies,neither

philosophers

Much

to

virtue

use

and

Do

boast

know

you

no

and

know

but

it

that

so

can

not

cannot

who

such

true

things

chemists

do

not

attribute

vitriol,and

of mercury

you

do

you

You

and
books

out, you

wherein

natural

you

other

that,

it is

and

blue

have

powers

foundation
of

You

do

....

is in

in,the

written

the

true.

have

Archelaus

know

not

masters

"What

is

do

noble

beginners.

and

virtue,

nor

but

of herbs

virtues

it

vonarola
Sa-

their

writings.

are

Hermes

you

yourselves

about

author's

your

it from

But

carry

Do

That
.

written

it is true.

you

therefore

you

learned

cients.
an-

and

beginning.

have

cannot

you

Great

"

is there

that

chatter

it and

"

do

in it.

know

Avicenna

have

about

smooth

Doctores

yourselves
vitriol?

nature.

it is

put

of

much

Test
...

mysteries

etc., have

tested, they

not

alchemy

is but

Pliny, DioscorideS,
have

of

Vigo

That

of the

ignorant

you

and

everything ?

records

the

upon

you

IO9

CHEMISTRY.

laid my

in the

trusted

arts

in the

PARACELSUS.

no

of

knowledge
who

those

or

but

"

has

who

written?

shown

any

"

And

so

these

who

of

and

experiment

depended

following (he

is

proof

that

the

from

his

criticism

physician.""
the

for

of

those

authorities

who
is the

of medicinal

preparation

the

nize
recog-

argument

ancient

write
mists.
alche-

and

lame

Pliny

he

did

his

discussing

make

true

of

the

solely upon

proof,

know

not

but

are

you

"

illustration

Another
value

are

do

make

to

learned

if you

you

those

What

proofs?
had

nature,
to

it not

Is

he

which

That

how

knowledge

the

have

in

things

known

not

not

have

never

then

and

written

have

of

virtue

the

principles):
"The
the

of those

separation

earth

and

easily combustible,

are

herbs, flowers, leaves, grass,

place

in

many

from

ways.
them

first

distillate]
; then
products]
fourth
salt

its

art,

there

"But

serves

the

phlegm

the

and

for

internal

and

because
so

only

the

preparations

op. fol, I,

pp.

laziness

obtained
for

; and

the

display, I
are

remains

and

of

the

221f, "Paragranum."

ash].

chemical

powerful

supposed physicians
hand

not

quite ignored
cheap.

resin;

use.

upper
am

eous
gas-

fifth its
the

or

splendid

or

its

place by

external

watery

third

burns]

taken

is separated

volatile

uncombustible,

many

etc., takes

[i. e.,

oily portion;

fruits,

all

as

distillation

[i.e.,

mercury

found

are

[i.e., fuel]
"

by

separation has

has

such

and

Thus

from

grow

roots, woods,

sulphur [that which

this

remedies

art

the

[non- volatile

When

that

things

As

and

their

surprised

that

and

that

coal
char-

to

this

I will

that

say
the

REFORMER

if the

smith

of

use

their

THE

fire,as

medicines

that

the

"But

the

do

not

they

tend

their
do

thrust

the

fire

into

not

little

show,

their

praise

They

well

their

These

are

they

that

fires

and

dress

their

hands,

know

and

the

that

chatter

themselves

learning

words

master

Therefore

busy

are

and

sooty
and

and

highly praise their

the

not

them.

and

leathern

many

not

well

words

tion
recrea-

coals, into dirt

not

at

night.

charcoal-burners,

make

master,

cure

alone

with

the

know

nor

and

patients,do

for

remedies,

things

the

and

their

wipe

to

go

hands, but they

seek

plain

wear

or

hanging

golden rings. They

make

must

but

which

upon

smiths

sick

and

velvets, gold

patiently day

fingers amongst

with

ruined

loafers

and

their

on

promenading,

like the

own

the

gloves

dirty

gossip

danger

[chemical] physicians,
with

consort

the

at

of hide

and

hence

without

be

all be

spagyric

laboratory,

their

rubbish

would

satins, silks

white

go

aprons

would

fingers, silver daggers

work

not

in

and

in

their

sides, and

They

metals

physicians prepare

fire,there

praise

gorgeous
on

Ill

his

work

so-called

without

their

and

these

CHEMISTRY.

flee.

to

for

rings

could

charcoal-burners

compelled

about

OF

the

work

his

work.

do

they
with

not

help

let

such

working

steps of alchemy.

tion,
solution, putrefaction,extracdistillation,

calcination, reverberation, sublimation,

separation, reduction,

tion,
fixa-

coagulation, tinction,

etc.""
This

opening-up

op. fol., I, 906, "De

of
natura

new

rerum."

field of chemical

es
activ-

PARACELSUS.

112

which

ity

promised
and

development

science

natural

of

Paracelsus

of

transmutation

those

among

of

study
it

indeed

was

and
A

arose.

imparted
that

be

can

justice be
It

is

interesting to

with

Georgius
Agricola

that

Agricola
also

was

versed
His
and

chemical
and

generally

theory

metallurgy
scientific

based

was

His

trained

point
the

of view

and

he

are

established

specialty in clear,

detailed

fact

yet

may

of

celsus
Para-

1494-1555.
well

oughly
thor-

as

the

systematic,

prevalent
upon

and

telian
Aristo-

interest

to

and

mining

writings

himself
facts

metallurgical

comprehensible.

permanent

confined

the

tions
generaliza-

work

of

and

the

than

of

been

metallurgy.

clear

more

had

chemistry.

as

processes

upon

thusiastic
en-

contemporary,

published work

possesses

because

presenting

and

and

"

Paracelsus

Bauer),

and

mining

facts

ideas.

(Georg

the

most

he

great German

medically

in

the

or

the

contrast

in

such

spite

of

of

response

Paracelsus

descriptions of mining

orderly
His

of his

goals

of

in

reformer

vain

impulse

that

to

called

the

that

discoveries

attributed

for

followers

so

chemical

search

many

important

chemistry,

to

great

no

with

and

were

chemists

productive

new

peals
ap-

interested

were

there

the

from

and

immediate

who

and

"

the

other

almost

met

students

nature

the

and

metals

of

the

important

most

period,

abandon

to

alchemists,

the

the

that

at

its

directly upon

touched

which

in

importance

practice of medicine,

field of the
field

of

much

so

the

processes

description,

so

of

from
celsus
Para-

task

of

of his

that

it

THE

might

be of

work.

with

as

two

interestingto

men

the

"

chemistry

the

other.

interests and
ola's great

have

aware

until

works

work

great

technical

chemistry,

is of permanent

the

reform

the

of

efiforts

subordinate

did

knew

value

celsus
Para-

but

death

not

many

Agric-

of

celsus,
Para-

which

tain
con-

in

appear

print

It is therefore
other.

remains

the

h\m

But

main

that

great ambition, the

in

left little

science.

not
to

classic

has

chemical

not

Agricola's
a

Paracelsus

in

ence
exist-

the

possessed

of the

to

of these

and

Saxony

Agricola.

while

of

the

is

century

Paracelsus

chemistry was
of Paracelsus,
his

to

of

there

one

in common,

metallica

re

that

of

of

neither

De

in

after

chemistry

after the death

Paracelsus,

their

Austria

appeared

his

surprisingthat

been

cesses
pro-

the author.

neither
of

in the

and

Agricola

important

and

those

of

most

that

knowledge

work

facts

originalwith

Agricola

much

while

with

so
are

in Switzerland

follow

also in

appear

note

to

seems

"

of

most

should

chemical

that

that these

pretension
It is

who

Paracelsus,

II3

CHEMISTRY.

Many

mentioned

are

but

OF

for others

use

line of

same

no

REFORMER

aim

but

was

revolution

of

medicine.
the

Yet
was

influence

of

epoch-making.

Paracelsus

By pointing

chemistry

upon
out

rational

promising

field for chemical

successful

application of chemically prepared

he

inaugurated

From

the

his

on

with

his

has

own

dies
remetinued
con-

portance
increasing im-

day.

present

time

by

which

movement

interruption and

without
to

activityand

and

new

vitality was

infused

PARACELSUS.

14

into

chemical

passive

there

and

experiments
unscientific
from

and

such

initiative

began

was

struggle

their

the

for

at

of

scientific

first;

ditions,
tra-

indeed

nevertheless,

to

thought
be

the

through
often

independent
spirit

and

progress

interpretation,

illogical

beginnings

authorities

ancient

of

acceptance

of

Instead

activity.

and

thought

developed.

only
and

CONTRIBUTIONS
AND

WHILE
to

the

specificcontributions

appears

more

nearly

the

to

his

lenism

of

attitude

of

greatly

the

his

less

Vesalius,
of

death

often

anatomy,

were

though

of

their

and

the

but

Gaan

assisted

whose

labors

soundly

the

medicine.

the

contemporaries

great

works
The

fluence
in-

admitted

which

more

founder

Pare,

his

arousing

workers

both

of Paracelsus.

be

in

questioning

scientific

called

of

differ

degenerate

effective

of other

edge
knowl-

authorities

the

upon

real

the

medical

It may

sensationally

foundation-stones

science

and

influence

laying

were

were

criticism

opposite

to

character

and

progress.

day

as

to

competent

assaults

vigorous

reformer

the

little doubt

extent

medical

upon
that

be

practice,while
as

as

science

contributions

his

comparatively-

are

true.

to

of

many

of Paracelsus

influence

medical

in

appears

and

widely

his

yet

question,

of

knowledge

and

beyond

value

SCIENCE

PRACTICE.

chemical

unimportant

There

MEDICAL

TO

"Father
of

appeared
Greater

of the

modern
of

gery,"
Sur-

Paracelsus,

only

Surgery

after

the

of Para-

Il6

PARACELSUS.

had

Fare's

classical

indebtedness

his

that

Admitting
has

Paracelsus

be

forgotten

of the

scientific value

his

that

in his

value

its present
Dr.

in the

other

less

The

also

heretic
to

condemned
became
his

by

his

Pare

that

more

Cf.

Stoddart,

The

guages,
lan-

should

both

teacher

and

as

the

his
he

his

ence,
influand

and

forced

result

is said

to

of his

successful

in

to

at

p.

sane
inwas

was

not

Padua

return

have

to

become

persecutions.

maintaining

official support,

Life of Paracelsus,

an

as

he

professorship
was

was

anatomy

on

be

not

Vesalius

Sylvius

work

great

body

universities

hostility. Vesalius

professionalpositionthrough
1

tury,
cen-

Dutch

underrating
that

this

city Brussels

was

the

in somewhat

the

Inquisition. Though

the

hypochondriac

into

former

untenable,

native

us

from

and

and

Paracelsus

recalled

his

by

denounced

be

suffered

denounced

sixteenth

the

hostilityof

and

mislead

it may

as

Pare

to

than

of

editions

of his shared

profession toward

permitted

ence
influ-

an

popularity.-

disapproval

the

and

not

knowledge.

later

Latin

French,

works

in this

degree

of

of

of

works

greater

nineteen
close

the

German,

and

light

some

by

Surgery

had

much

time

own

of

nevertheless

have

may

the

in

records

Sudhoff

Greater

work

treatises

medical

of the

none

the

for progress

"

great contemporaries, it should

his

the

to

his work/

of

first edition

Preface

in the

Paracelsus

to

eral
sev-

acknowledged

Pare

that

it is said

before

years

passed through

had

and

work

editions, and

thirty

nearly

appeared

celsus

65.

his

though

MEDICAL

the

faculty of
The

been

history of

medical

subject

more

the

the

natural

critics of

of

be

of

best

Thus

in

that

article

"Surgery")

says:

fourteenth

and

The

dead

men

of

level

Pare,

Vesalius

of Andreas

hands

teaching
reformer

of

has

as

direct

is

Paracelsus

that

in

innovator

an

to
are

nature

also

point

out

his

sound
the

ofifspringand

for

and

connection

goiter

of

and

between
the

ever,
howbut

description
is

perfectly
on

was

cretinism

parents."

as

processes,

His

he

of his

surgery,

observations

sensible

Padua.

is not,

example,

numerous

briel
Ga-

merits

natural

distinguished.

'hospitalgangrene,'

true

of

observer

at

great

operative

and

much

It

surgical practice

of

at

anatomy

in which

Paracelsus

two

( 1493-

(1514-1564)

form

by

Paracelsus

....

rather

of

mystical

cast,

was

as

to

the

from

most
al-

are

first

Fallopius (1523- 1 562), professors


Apart

Owen

surgical history.

revival

the

celsus.
of Para-

centuries

for

genius, P.
by

sources

Edmund

is broken

tradition

and

most

(eleventh edition,

fifteenth

interest

originalityand
and

1541)

of

Dr.

Britannica

entirely without

such

contributions

the

Encyclopaedia

"The

has

of competent

From

to surgery,

respect

than

study

number

science.

summarized

with

discovery

the
history have estimated
the development
of various

in the

his

protested

and

thorough

medical

Paracelsus

departments

the

of Paris

science

sciences, and

early

of

place

may

University

of office.

tenure

of

the

II7

PRACTICE.

AND

SCIENCE

lis
syphithe

first

of the

Il8

PARACELSUS.

the

inherited

character

that

there

indeed

lations
has

in modern

disease
so

diseases

attention

his

then,

do

writings, which

my
than

by saying

but

of

luxus

in your

and

that
French

been

ever

the

therefore

princes,
that

and

down

me

into the
Baas,
and

p. 403.

fol, I,

201 f.

world

the

and

mire

Geschkhtliche

Pagel, Handbuch

about

triflingthing?

Because
be

"

no

has

and

attacks
shall

bring help
the

the

Entwickelung

resulted

Geschichte

der

to

in

throw

sick.

des

errors

would

you

spare

is the

worse

relate

for me,

der

converted

which

this has

not

I have

"

and

because

write

severely

most

abuse
other

nobody

Because

and

inferred

refute
to

may

spares

high reputation

Neuburger

*0p.

wounds

peasants

found,

Quoted
by
Standes, p. 210.
III,

and

way

that

whole

which

"

no

despised?

despised?

lords

"

the

be

[i.e., syphiHs],

personages

be

I have

good

in

of contemptuous

may

nothing
Is

be

all open

known

highest

to

disease

disease

worst

I know

of these

[Gugelfritsen]
in

can

venere?

opinion

understood
into the

that

as

voted
de-

Paragranum:*

clowns

you

of

Paracelsus

subject

in the

you

character

consideration

made

them

repliesto

"Why,

That

his opponents,

by

attributes

also

hereditary
the

to

evidently

was

criticism
from

the

Paracelsus.'

to

much

of

regii-

Paracelsus

which

Bloch

Iwan

states

subordinate

and

few

and

disease

syphilistherapy

first observation

that

or

but

enunciated.

not

the

are

this

of

of

recognition

the

with

Paracelsus

credits

diseases,
syphilitic

of

historian

the

Proksch,^

also

So

For

arstlichen

Medisin

MEDICAL

it is

they

and

not

IIQ

PRACTICE.

SCIENCE

AND

I whom

you

would

into

cast

the

gutter."
Dr.

Bauer"

calls attention

of Paracelsus
the

at

vogue

hypothesis
of the
could

that

be

"For

the

on

in

times
the

historical

not

hesitate

efifective
as

credit
the

to

to

meaningless
with

it

'

Geschichte

der

'

Neuburger

and

'

Ibid., II,

pp.

Aderldsse,

the

p.

period

times
a

finally
work

master

however

brilliant

and

have

cian
physiat

gone

established, nevertheless
of

the

medieval

merit

of

the

polypharmacy

superstitious,and

was

thus

will

pharmacology

of many

to

attention

metallic

arations
prep-

remedies."

summarizes

147.

Pagel, op. cit.,II, pp. S6Sf.

36ff.

the

But

of

chemical

Neuburger^

Max

portance
im-

....

value

analogous

of

name

effectivelycalled

having

pharmacological

in

sources

the

as

form
"re-

contested

by

Paracelsus

of

the

much

him

he

yield to

his

Schaer

to

direction

goal

in

E.

in recent

consideration

and

Dr.

been

adherents

the

in

medicine

of

has

repression

him

blood

pharmacology,"

of

misunderstood

beyond

often

rebirth

investigation of
have

Dr.

whose

favorable

overzealous
may

harmony

pharmacology

attaches

Paracelsus

the

for

says

history

Reformation

of critical

the

on

that the

argument

and

art

first instance

for

established

based
the

disturbed

the

upon

therewith,"

Theophrastus

much

objections being

healing

in the

the

blood-lettingin

excessive

process

protest

purifiedby merely lessening its quantity.

monograph

of

the

and

the

connection

his

time,

system,
not

the

against

rational

the

to

the claims

PARACELSUS.

I20

of

Paracelsus

to

in medicine

advances

"Under
rendered

the

that

in

importance
to

of

practical

art

this

number

mineral

of

and

the

the

mineral

waters

by

his

dus)

investigation

of

he

extracts

of

has

achieved

also

was

devils
dance.

this

to

rather
or

and

Cor-

alcoholic

fundamental

really

unimportant

no

rendered
natural

pharmacy

all time."

for

It

contents

Valerius

tinctures

....

merit

iron

the

and

Croll
of

copper,

in teaching

hand

essentially improving

preparation

great

in

(determination
in

of

use

injurious actions,

scientific

disciples Oswald
the

by

other

the

their

the

to

way

nutgalls),

(with

of

knowledge

paving

on

cessory
ac-

new

(iron, lead,

substances

antimony, mercury),

istry
chem-

comprehending

in

medicine,

to

the

making

dietetics, in teaching the

of

value

useful

historical

bringing

In

in

vices
ser-

many

so

preeminent

his

and

higher plane

healing

of

doubted.

be

Paracelsus

utilitarianism

respect

cannot

branch
the

banner

the

useful

the

of

history

in the

place

medical

than

It

is

direction

thought,
history

of

witches

during

Doubtless

the

the

if

the

may

tortures

century

also

we

influence

after

fantastic

the

in

influence

rary
contempo-

upon

and

of

St. Vitus's

as

judge

celsus
Para-

attributing to

if his

immediate

trials,
a

maladies

perhaps

very
least

at

in

that

mystical

nervous

doubtful
was

science

to

spiritssuch

service

from

the

executions

activityof
character

sad
of

celsus.
Para-

of

the

MEDICAL

philosophy
the

of

cases

the

the

Paracelsus.

was

think

Europe
diseases
that

of

disease

moment

of

and

that

course

idea

his

diseases

certain

so
as

and

he

History
London,

that

of- the
1896

by

appears

idea

new

it took

loose

in

1563

the

another

it at

to

upon

it and

fiftyyears

maintained

much

their
new

sician,
phyrisk

authorities

ancient

the

must

had

its

have

pronounced

they

were

cordingly
ac-

profession. Rejecting

authorities, Paracelsus

of Science
(reprinted 1919), II,
Warfare

and

Paracelsus

by

disease

every

incurable,

as

the

form

theological leaders

but

considered by

did

reputation."

scholastic

The

these

demons,

interference;

Cleves, revived

of

doctrine

remedy.

that

Paracelsus

about

interesting thesis

the

modern

effected

understood

soon

For

and

position

An

science

nor

be

may

the

'let

had

they

John. Wier

cure

kept under,

well

was

idea

saints

by

serious

any

simple.

was

the

regimen.

he

planet,' but

the

was

the

which

escaped

understand

to

neither

science, and

first bade

upon

be

to

of medical

who

was

began

medical

of

time, perhaps, for

some

scale

Century,

'dancing possession' is simply

the

have

to

large

it

inflicted

remedies

proper

sixteenth

scope

He
for

are

and

of the

led in this evokition

who

man

services

the

direction:'

beginning

within

historyof science,

characterizes

'possession'on

brought

diminish

to

thought.

saner

of the

thus

in this

in the

and

student

White,

Paracelsus

"Yet,

itself served

his sounder

P.

121

PRACTICE.

AND

Paracelsus

distinguished

Andrew
of

of

efifect of
A

SCIENCE

with
p. 139.

Theology,

New

York

PARACELSUS.

122

rejected this dogma

naturally enough
his

with

had
of

able

be

to

debate

was

method

the

or

in

reasonableness

interpretation of

of its

of

priori

and

purpose,

doctrines

the

of

ical
philosoph-

the

by

by

not

evidence

upon

"

^but

"

divine

the

partisan

of

by

his

So

he

Christ.

:"

says

therefore

"Know
in

science

metaphysical argument

rather

thesis

this

that

thesis, however,

observation

and

experiment

ical
of med-

Paracelsus.

after

his

modern

of

pretension

history

The
shows

century

sustains

Paracelsus

no

of certain

frequent subject

the

during

makes

discussion

and

Paracelsus

of

cures

all diseases.

cure

thought

effected
he

diseases, though

these

to

remedies

new

himselt

he

that

believed

he

also

Manifestly

true.

necessarily

as

relation

heal

entertained
for

For

God

live

long,

that

for

our

"There

strongly
this

is

in this

sins

yet

influenced

they

book

not

desire

not

so

that

say

that

to

die

there

we

but

write

God

has

always

its

cure.

live, arid

to

to

and

sorrow

which

error

this

book"

which

Behold,

it to

repent of them."

may

great

for

is

for

bear

may

diseases

incurable.

are

we

be trusted

to

whenever

medicine

to

us

so

possible

mercy,

another
me

for

life

is

it is

disease

every

does

remorse

and

anger

provided

that

"

disease,

natural

every

because

health

to

medicine

that

namely,
include

their

now,

has

in

great
.

folly; how
incurable
"

Liber

Kritik
p.

415.

der

can

when
de

physician

death

religione perpetua,

Echtheit

der

is

not
quoted

Paracelsischen

say

that

present;

disease
those

is

only

einer
by Sudhoff, Versuch
Schriften, Berlin, 1894-99, II,

MEDICAL

are

incurable

in which

of

of

assert

who

gout;

has

and

that

the

the

sick

they

need

If, then, they need

they

be

cannot

be

they

may

that

they

not

are

and

helped

from

and

opposing
without

evidenced

Boyle

in

by
the

of

that

but

cine,
medi-

mankind

having put

methods

himself
lived

Robert

of

Pyrophithe

glorious
vainof

some

longer

than

something

owes
men

is

thought

and

no

was

in

hope

to

of

than have been formerly aspired


doing greater cures
to or
thought possible, and thereby engage
even
1"

op. fol, I, 253, "Die

"

Boyle's Works,

erste

Birch's

Defension."

ed., London,

"

of scholasticism.

writings

some

be

He

against dogma,

disapprove

Paracelsus

say

sick.""

following:" "But,

yet I think
for

you

of Paracelsus

the

all that

chymists

the

in

say

it because

contemporary

for

followers, who
men,

the

dictum

upon

cannot

boasts

other

will
the

to

ways

this

century
we

you

Every disease

it is God's

passage

do

say

mother.

scholasticism

influence

lus, though

his

is your

that

physician.

physician that

You

helped?

For

to

the

then, do

Why,

those

If, then,

so.

the

obviously setting dogma


Yet

not

him.

in marvelous
is

need

They

says

Are

physician, why

you

he

labyrinth [oferrors] of

the

Ignorance

manifested
This

be

to

its medicine.

has

helped by

born

are

you

the

where

need

they

know
do

Why

I think

then

proven,

as

heads,

you

physician?

they

foolish

you

Christ,

of

of

Thus

speak, because

abandon?

you

sick

are

to

saying

have

sick whom

not

accomplish nothing ?

can

consider

not

is present.

death

you

I23

PRACTICE.

epilepsy.

authorized

nothing

AND

SCIENCE

1744, I,

p. 481.

PARACELSUS.

124

them
For

before

only

not

the

by

trials and

make

to

Helmont,

nus

and

too

forward

to

and

such

diseases

from

nature

could

do

will

and

but

are

afifirm

openly

not

too

such

that

if

with

troubled

apt

"that

shall
In

consideration

wounds

to

plastering, or
he
and

to

itself

There

to

if it is

is

and
well

as

his

frequently
12

Cf.

Fr.

there

sent

Helfreich

for

in

the

noted

that

of

sewing

regulation

from

diet,

wound

clean.""

skilful and

is

contemporary

Neuburger

or

plication
ap-

of

"Every

Paracelsus

from

the

poultices and

as

even

tional
ra-

Paracelsus

by

up

cure.

enjoyed
successful

show

siderable
con-

titioner,
prac-

testimony,

as

that

he

was

long distances

to

treat

statements,

own

those

Instead

and

effect the

only kept

reputation

will be

cleanliness, protection

doubt

no

diseases

deride

which

with

enemies,"

nature

been

closing

them

advocated

"external

trusting
heals

covering

even

them."

cure

sores.

open
of

such

if not

treatment

and

treatment

customary

dirt

and

but

presented, they

to

two

particular patient

have

previous chapter

applied

hope

those

though they

and

(at least)

and

attempt

is

them

undervalue

to

very

of

any

such

detract

not,

who

many

absolutely incurable, yet

are

could

ordinary physick

what

with

that

confess

than

art

be

to

rather

and

incurable,

Severi-

wont

were

troubled

men

pronounce

of Ar-

cures

Rulandus,

physicians

many

fear, there

now,

great

some

Paracelsus,

Villanova,

de

naldus

and

promises

many

excited

and

awakened

were

men

thereunto.

in order

attempts

to

and

Pagel, op. cit.,Ill,

p.

IS.

MEDICAL

and

wealthy
baffled

the

It

is,of

in

even

doubt

to

reason

critics of his
keen

able

the orthodox

dogmas
That

unsuccessful.

would

rather

And

practice founded

be the

naturally
paths.

observation

in his

that

probable

natural

native

stated

by

common

est

of

his

their infallible
methods

new

quitepossible.

most

ically
rad-

breaking
and

personal

the

rather

and

and

practice
It

seems

sick, his

tastic
fan-

subordinated

practical logic.

see
Neuburger," "We
prominent embodiment

was

where

cures

Scientia."

with

was

sense

Professor

.the
.

been

dealings

philosophy

is

experiment

teaching: "Experientia

his

result

have

to

his

good

of hostile

independent empiricism

an

upon

seems

"

than

little

mind, he

open

by

That

ability

seems

effect

to

or

sources

of

drawing

intuitive

rather

experience, not
dialecticallyinvolved
Paracelsus
that theories
the
'"'

practice of
Ibid.,II, p. 35.

has

that

of

the

than

reasoning

not

consciously recognized
of

shame

physician.

the

scholasticism."

clearlyexpressed
be

the

unfathomable

infrequently pvits to

indeed

should

the

upon

As

in Paracelsus.

enigmatic, intuitive,anticipativeintelligenceof
people, which,

of

remedies, his

new

unusually

relief

afford

did harm

new

to

his

his

physicians trammeled

were

sometimes

with

that

and

to

there
assertion

the

spite of

time,

observation

indeed

"

in

of

measufe

true

Nevertheless,

day.

our

the

always

not

physicians.
popular reputations

that

true

course,

physicians are

Galenic

had

maladies

prominent patients whose


skill of the

I25

PRACTICE.

AND

SCIENCE

permitted

to

his

ion
opin-

dominate

126

PARACELSUS.

"For

arguments

their

as

admonish

of

For

according

used

thrust,

to

club

To

he

is

and

That

of

symptoms

keep

to

his

his

defense
in which

they

and

symptoms

"They
patient, I

do

an

him,

but

indeed

true

that

their

end

their

day

as

is and
from

hence

day

obscure
colors
green,
1*

folly is

first

time

to

blue,

to

they

know

passes
betake

day
With
etc.

cannot

colors

to

come

the

find

to

for

less

be

at

we

can

matter

It is

out.

diately
imme-

that, for in the


from

what
to

to arrive

"Von

nents
opponizing
recog-

once

false, and

If, however,
300f.

his

judgment

themselves

endeavor

Chir. Biicher, etc., pp.

when

time

blame
is

indicated

of
at

ward
to-

much

too

is also

pronounce

judgment

diseases
are.

they

that

mind

open

instantly what
I need

that

enced
experi-

that

me

know

not

is with

"

of

complain

ments
experi-

its fashion.""

to

of not

treatment

spear

stroke

attacks

him

accuse

own

must

an

patients, not

certain

against

as

and

governed by preconceived dogmas,


in

which

requires

according

endeavored

he

the

it

direct

its

is it with

of his thrust

sure

oppose

as

power,

also

so

we

prejudice.

weapon

experiments

use

who
use

may

without

"

to

not

it out

peculiar

strike

to

....

man

its

to

these,

sidered
con-

Therefore

according

is like

experiment

every

be

follow

to

be

to

but

experiment

permits

power

reads

who

one

other

nor

are

expressions.

own

every

methods

the

they

applicable,but

are

theories

neither

experiments

in

at

once
see

there

day

the

lying,
the

trouble

For

recognized

were

frantzosischen

is
a

while

truth.

what

to

as

black,

curtain

Blatern,"

etc.

MEDICAL

in

front

What

the

what

them

were

he

as

he

from

visible.

the

it is vain

eyes

for

sees

skilful

it

first time

the

an

first

lead
that

it is with

Thus
.

trials and
and

cannot

be

hasty judgments

humoral

physicians

Paracelsus

of

reform

the

it must

For

of

dogmas

his

the

diseases,

and

his

he

hospitalityto
but

discredit

corruptions

that

the

by

the

the progress

in

he

the

this

assault

elements

medical

difficult

to

Op. fol, I, 262, "Die

siebente

tradition, by
theories

assault

of

the

Galenic

for

greater

is unquestionable,

also
as

did

well

achievements

justly balance

"

and

Defension.''

many

his

ideas

he

of

by

reactionary influences
of medicine

of medicine.

Paracelsus

way

progressive

stituted
in-

he

opposed

That

paved

practice,

which

that

weaknesses

valuable

of ancient

It is very

and

and

new

and

fantastic

the

theories.

time

the

though

historians

intrenched

absurdities
of

by

authorities

fantastic

made

campaign

To

own.

Greek-Arabian

equally

upon

these

whither

tedious

remembered

be

fought against dogmas

true.

He

burned.

knowledge

is variously estimated

medicine

it is to

positivecontributions

of the

medical

to

value

net

upon

know

this.""

do

the value

Admitting

the

,be,when

how

or

see

obscure

be

miner;

cannot

yield,nor

if

so

the

and

tests

run

as

grasp

may

he

treated, -roasted, fused, ignited

must

to

as

ore,

it will

contains, what

to

instance, the

for

Take,

judged quickly, but

be

can

them.

rcognize

not

able, experienced and

what

of

see

12/

PRACTICE.

AND

could

we
can

eyes

is hidden

it

be

of

SCIENCE

much
as

is also
the

he

the

gressive
pro-

exerted

in
naturally,there-

128

PARACELSUS.

differ

fore, authorities

burger^" appreciates
considered

was.Vesalius

that

of his

much
of

scientific

and

biologicalfoundations,
the

not

was

fantastic

microcosm
The

disaffection

to

was

has

ever

with
or

similar

with

of his

greater

of

his

one

and

no

less

sought

"We
this
1"

to

recent
a

be

called

seized

op. cit.,p. 37.

value

of

he

chose

analogical

and

macrocosm

and

soning
rea-

led

nowhere.

conditions

in

thinks

can,

revolution.

That

the

constructive

work

the

kept

reformer

mistaken

the

was

method

life

heart,
honor

Einsiedeln.

of

the

his

truer

in view

endeavors
was

of

problem
it with

served

scientific

"Scarcely

remarks,
the

earnestness

But

mistaken

by

which

it."

critical

effect, that

real

dation-stone
foun-

interpretation.

with

Haser"

writer, Professor

must,

no

sense

methods.

attain

more

laid

campaign,

through

vein

calling than

aim

his

enthusiasm,

the

he

by

physician

purer

the

method

of

discontent

later

in

be

physiological

his

and

and

scientific

In

the

convincing

hardly

come

more

but

philosophy

produced

Neuburger,

its

is to

he

developments

upon

not

were

medicine

of

found

right method,

and

for

medicine

aim

to

later

the

thought

His

was

the

and

importance,

thought required

modern

is, he

that

Pare,

or

of

that

medicine

of

reformer

as

accompHsh-

the

yet doubts

Paracelsus,

of

ments

of

value

the

Neu-

Thus

question.

this

upon

point

then,

"

of

view:

summarize

Paracelsus

Magnus,'^* presents

Hugo

keenly

Op. cit.,p. 105.

judgment

our

felt the
18

op.

to

frightful

cit.,pp,

11-13.

SCIENCE

MEDICAL

corruption
but

that

the

causes

found

in the

that

of

he

sought

theory

superman

wrestling

but
in

nor

in his

"

in

not

the

must

limited

to

respect,

points

that

chemical

in
a

in
and

reformer,
of

therapy,
allowed

even

his

in his

here

times,

own

in

of

the

to

way
In

he

need

not

this

has

neo-Platonism

to

attempt

organic

life

to

emphasize

very

powerful

respect

pointed

also he has

our

in certain

first to

phenomena

the

essentially

an

pioneer
the

was

I do

and

nevertheless

pathological phenomena
if here

ation,
valu-

own

to-day

the

as

He

science.

our

valuation

trick."

and

medical

relationshipbetween

no

nature,

sure,

thereby paved

he

advance

the

sense,

energy,

as

of his

be considered

of the

away

wore

"

medicine

of

of view.

consideration
a

find
of

be

concept

posterity.

of

concept

better

mental

reformer

recognition

can

all

hatred

Paracelsus

imagination,

the

super-colleague

blind

bodily and

methods

Theophrastic

the

as

judgment

general

modern

his

be

must

ancients.

of the

and

new

it

position to replace the

in

So

own

"If, therefore, I
the

in

being

lived, indeed,

and

shatter

of this

root

that

art

medicine.

and

nature

believed

maligned by

he

the

healing

to

existed, without

in confused

in

the

Instead

science.

system

to

penetrate

to

of his

he

scholastics,

the

how

scholastic

degeneration,

thus

of

understand

29

investigationof

the

hands

the

exclusively in

And

and

this condition

of

medical

from

did not

he

seeking

old

medicine

suffered

nature

of

which

PRACTICE.

AND

was

paths

new
as

theorized

play

celsus
Para-

him

well

in
as

enough
many

PARACELSUS.

130

discarding

By

authorities,

much

and

Greeks,

the then

not

were

accessible
in them

by

in

have

been

if he

had

Paracelsus
To

the

than

of

promoter
his

"Through

of mistaken

so

that

the

wildest

celsists

of

the

will

critical

credit
in

of

downfall

to

of

say
the

that

rather
science.

impulse

gave
his

illustrate

followers,
the

the

Para-

trend

Paracelsus

the

as

of
former
re-

the

him

as

of

his

Indeed, it
reform

medical

century
be

not

was

mainly

patient labors

was

of

ence
sci-

science,

modern

may

and

cine,
medi-

forceful

in medical
of

of

extent

of

scholastic

basis

century,

the

reformer

reform

work

great

nineteenth

only through

real

upon

follow.
that

as

to

as

vary

of the

The

not

was

to

point

in this direction

among

certainly be given

must

the

may

Paracelsus

its establishment

century

built upon

scientific

among

of

judgment

of his time.

method,

he

existed

to

serve

estimates

influence

agent

and

medicine.

However
the

good

medical

of

theories

vagaries

the

opponent

an

notions

least

succeeding century."

above

of

the

the

at

were

influence

progress

irrational

all sorts

modern

of his

the

to

The

possessed

therefore

was

of

versions, and

incorporated

extent

Paracelsus

they

texts,

translated

newly

might

of view.

prevailing

did

authorities

Greek

original

the

although

not

but

time

achievements

positive

the

discredit

to

assailed

his

of

Galenism

ancient

the

Paracelsus

Magnus,

corrupted

the

only

thinks

all

condemning

and

scientific
of

nor

the

too

much

the

work

made

possible

many

investi-

MEDICAL

in

gators
and

the

unchallenged

and

domains

of

I3I

PRACTICE.

AND

chemistry,

physics,

anatomy

biology.
If, however,

may

SCIENCE

at

least

prophetic

we

place
recognize
voice

claim

cannot

of

the
in

crying

for

reformer
him
in

of

an

the

the

Paracelsus

medicine,

earnest,
wilderness.

powerful

we

WERE
to

he

AND

MISSION

THE

be

of

which

Paracelsus
the

accepted during

was

be

in

the

and

coarse

of

had

gradually

charlatan

ignorant

consider

to

of

teacher

ter
charac-

eighteenth century

in terms

contradiction
role

of the

accept the estimate

to

we

SICIAN.
PHY-

THE

OF

ETHICS

that

"

it would

seriously

him

morality. and

of

ideals

"

come

ethics.

number

of

of Paracelsus

justifyus
of

judgment

students

thorough
his

to

be,

affecting
or

Oporinus,
of

in

Paracelsus,

his

and

discredited
which

both

brought

Paracelsan

on

out

contest,

but

long

this

and

letter
of

different

during

duced
ad-

integrity
student

and

after

the

shows

been

have

the

death

of drunkenness

testimony
of

the

times

often

accusation

the

grounds
the

he

secretary

makes

against him,

as

earnestness,

written

indeed

very

incidents

former

letter

life and

the

personality.

rude

essential

His

morality.

and

authentic

no

of

accepting

character

Egotistic, intolerant
himself

in

of

investigations

the

Fortunately, however,

has

been

circumstances
the

general

bitter
character

antiof

MISSION

the

AND

Had

writer/
it is

charge

ETHICS

of this effective
his

by

there

hardly

quote

the

statement

of

former

"But

the

on

he

anything

scarcely

statement

of that

excesses

sus's

works

life

own

and

This

charge
fact

country

doing

had

of Latin
Greek

to

Ci.

But

those

much

the

set

in his
and

Schubert

the

him
own

Latin
the
and

indeed

and

with

authors

language

doned
con-

in Paracel-

such

condemns
that

convictions.
him.

that

in his

his

that

and

largely upon

in German

lived

who

works,

tom
cus-

occasional

even

based

lectured

same

The

charged against

been

knew

larly
simi-

have

himself

rather
time

make
in which

his

it evident

Paracelsusforschungen,

use

allusions

many

they

so

Luther

Moreover,
his

and

for

reasons

animated

example.

Sudhoff,

he

the

positive evidence

be

and

wrote

well

commanded
1

he

had

time,

Oporinus.

he

no

have

doubtless
were

is

cannot
to

he

the

passages

where

there

seems

in Latin.

than

who

that

few

also

until

against

would

inconsistent

was

Ignorance

of

indulgence

not

says:

undertaken

had

stand

kind, though

are

drunkenness,

he

well

country

reasonable

had

drank

nor

statement

and

he

[gemeiniglich lustig]."

may

of his time

which

he

then, when

unsupported

the

ate

Wiese,

der

von

enjoyed drinking,

when

ordinarilymerry

This

his

Paracelsus

hand,

it and

completed
became

other

in

Schubert

J. Agricola,

of

Aegidius

use

made

been

have

work

the

for

greater

lifetime.

his

from

I33

basis

that

not

Paracelsus,

that

true

solid

believed

certain

of

PHYSICIAN.

would

also

pupil

this is

but

be

to

antagonists during

Sudhoff

been

weapon

and

THE

OF

that

writ-

were

II,

he

pp.

79ff

PARACELSUS.

134

possessed

and

ten

their

perhaps

doctrines, though
in their

earnestness

the

standards
of

piety
We

of

of the

medical

The
we

ethical

practitioner as

the

sincere

and

added

The

probable

too

somewhat

is also

manifest.

appeal
such

upon

profession
and

of Paracelsus

medical

the

may

best

ness
bitter-

and

him

understood

as

and

"

it would

the conventional

be

its

students

lay public, already,

suspicious of
"

lastic
scho-

from

his

utterances.

"Ye
the

resentment

ample
reform

at

of the

contempt

and

criticisms

strongly prejudiced against

physician
own

efforts

if
ready
al-

have

as

affords

personal

of the

influence

his

time,

the

justify the

to

as

and

campaign

particularly upon
seem,

utterances

Agrippa

medicine

warrant

of

element
his

the

of

standards

at

Erasmus,

history of

and

character

not

from

such

was

ethics

expressions

such

persecution

an

to

were

from

the

as

Paracelsus
the

and

medical

of

quoted

confirmation,

That

the

missionary.

been

of

the

judge

Ramus,

essential

ideals

of

condition

may

raise

to

the

nor

reiterated

constantly

medicine,

devoted

efiforts

justifiedin accepting

therefore, be

may,

his

doubt

to

reason

no

ethics,

comings
his short-

been

convictions.

own

mission

medical

of

consistently and

of

is

sincerity of

or

his

terest
in-

scholarly

have

may

limitations, there

the

not

writings.

Nevertheless, whatever
and

familiarity with

extensive

an

physicians, of

what

title,the university,if

we

use

to

possess

is the

us

not

name,

the knowl-

MISSION

AND

ETHICS

edge [of medicine]


the

not

if

US

have

the

not

considered
we

to

arises, when

the

Whom

do

ring really adorn

by

reason

not

grow

in
in

is like

of

garden

experience

and

garden

mutilated

are

tree

if it lacks

trunk

are

The

taught by

who

deserve

them

no

the

mutilated
Or

to

trunk
in

yield

no

trooper

horse

his

to

cuts

off the

adorn

his

But

vanity.

nothing

to

helmet

when

reward

for

trooper's splendor.
ourselves
us
we

as

to

have

over

the
no

to

to

that

so

the

having
with

us

cians
physi-

gratify

may
the

flies

when

Swabian

or

he

and

it

horse
and

has

has

if

we

the

to

give

happens

diseases
must

the

only

"

contributed

horse, when

And

simile, as

show,

be,

fantasies,

physicians :

and

protect

those

fruits

comes

use

of it.

Prankish

from

vanity

Swabian
tails

So

of what

human

another

summer

him

protect

wretched

tail of

in the

trees

it may

are

....

in

founded

are

come

only

take

knowledge

handsome

the

and

of

trunk,

can

virtues

the

know

If the

fruits
to

does

Knowledge

nature.

grounded

stands

cloak

arts

tall and

mutilated
are

doctor's

garden

to

the

not

the

not

the

down

branches

who

do

we

trees;

However

tree

if

herbs.

the

those

the

worthily

have

we

that

"

when

be able

should

knowledge?

heads,

our

and

we
are

we

countries

honors,

and

that

use

or

honors,

but

their

of

contained

they

cities

we

is it for

What

what

bestowed

honors

knowledge?

like

Of

cian,
physi-

great display, if

make

by lords,

great

repay

is the

school.

great and

knowledge

of need

and

the

the

makes

Knowledge
or

I35

PHYSICIAN.

THE

given dignities and

are

time

name

appear

we

OF

to

appear

be

vexed

136

PARACELSUS.

diseases

the

by
our

vanity

and

name

title

and

is

they

whom

to

judge

they

may

your

garden

and

trees

the

it

be

should

and
a

in

its

place,

taken

there

the

like

eyes
This

this
be

planted
into

enter

and

he

after

so

in another
the

is made

garden,
of

paths

experience

is

and

feast

appear.
disfor

about

I should

is, that

that

sities].
univer-

fruits

his

mutilation

much

planted

into

brought

was

just

fruitfulness

linden-tree, but

the

show,

For

the

[in

physician's

transplanting
that

reason,

the

and

linden

there

that

saw

garden.
a

to

transplanted

be

and

up

place

him,

from

away

dug

it takes

so

For

in another

is

other.
an-

where

garden

vanity

I should

that

planted

fruit-tree

good

as

for

about

brought

was

in

it into

from

Archeites

into

me

then

slight ornament

no

the

lead

would

growth

was

when

But

university.

that

and

me

grown

was

in that

trained

was

mutilated

are

not

and

themselves

transplanted

was

is, I

That

they scrutinize,

accordingly.

me

monish
ad-

to

....

hostile, but

are

wish

on

useful

so

was

there

that

physicians

all

remaining

stump

tail which

the

longer

no

the

only

are

and

rump

protection

splendor, our

and

horse's

the

gadflies. For
rings
paternosters, our
the

by

horse

the

as

I should

avoid

that

mutilation."^

Evidently
his

his

day brought
of

himself

lack
called

of

attacks

forth

the

upon
from

his

practitioners of

opponents

professional courtesy,

upon

to

defend

himself

charge.
2

Chir.

Biicher,

etc., p. 309, "Spitalbuch,"

Preface,

for

tions
accusa-

he

against

feels
this

MISSION

"It
I

AND

should

appear

strange

not

THE

praise selfishness

cannot

know

how

has

become

harmful

take

place

show

in all

it

falsified

into

and

that

is,so

falseness

things. The

love.

of

medicine

.1, for

There
house

is

keeper,

human
diseases

with

tells him

the

take

everything

there

have

the

case

they

do

not

only
is also

"It

that

"

To

have

will

have

is

no

right

rings

and

clothing

not

law

come

it is there.

doctor's

custom

rightly or
a

and

become

custom

or

but

more

of

gold

proclaim

take

to

they

So

to

so

wicked

whether

they
in

all the

to

them

deserved,un-

the

I do

know

not

earned

they

use:

law
"

not.

or

fulfil the

to

law
wish

of
to

it

take, whether

"

deck

they

his

good physician.

whether

gulden
another

any

Therefore

wherever
not

pity for

chains
and

it has

that

wrong.

or

is

greed they

lazy and

being

that

visit is worth

....

love

so

only

gets money

care

whether

it

permits

of

reputation

all

cure

conscience

way.

remedies

Whoever

not.

or

the

sell their

his

sell

to

of their

all the

ception.
de-

bawdy-

disease

one

their

comes

into medicine

and

They

....

of

am

into

not

his

when

even

because

But
that

come

has

purse

that

part,

claim

and

money

treatment

him.

to

vagabonds,

for

it, and

that

permitted

suit

fat

founded

be

my

will

can

tion
corrup-

hangman,
that

dog-killer

or

dog's

or

abandoned

no

to

fallen

so

astray

nothing

not

it has

that

led

leads

physician must

in

but

of medicine

that

so

because

been

has

that

one

any

art

which

ashamed

the

it and

by

to

medicine,

in

bargaining,

without

selfishness

on

OF

37

PHYSICIAN.

ETHICS

themselves
go

about

world

with

in silken
their

open

138

PARACELSUS.

disgrace,

which

for

proper

they

^it is

about"
Medicine

God

of

physician ;

strut

consider

they

sight

be

should

which

art

an

as

picture

in the

abomination

an

is

Hke

ornamented

so

and

honor

an

as

ployed
em-

....

with

does

not

and

and

in

fear

God

who

he

him

the

conscience

no

anything

doing anything
the

it would

me

In

similar

all

do

can
a

that

arts

more

than
when

cannot

His

studied

may

God

it all

deceived

so

as

knaving

or

Jew

indeed,

Is it not

ideal
true

his

of

mission
finds

writings,

as

op.

foL, I, 259-261, "Die

Op.

fol, I, 61, "Paramirum."

the

of

these
and
is appointed

because

lie, and
them?"*

medical

frequent

ence
sciance
utter-

following

amples
ex-

that

'

them

mands
com-

crime

him

assist

must

physician

illustrate
wills

the

let

must

with

people

sick flee from

not

throughout
"For

the

have

the

on

that

pass

city physician [Stadtarst]


and

of

speed

such

to

hold

doctors.

them

exalted

and

the
a

from

or

depended

says

they. And,

help

who

others

than

city,and

it

peasant

common

credence

in
he

and

have

They

more

shame

elsewhere

medicine

swindling.

their

he

brought things

flee from

men

and

vein

have

"They

If

tree.

in

having

rather

I would

who

long delayed."'

be

not

that

at

from

pseudo-medici,

the

please them

to

laid

be

to

axe

with

do

to

he

shame

no

myself

....

perience
ex-

continually,

also

has

defended

I have

I trust

for

steals

and

murders

great

God,

of

fear

great

he

has

and

conscientiousness

great

man

be

truthful

fiinfte Defension."

and

not

MISSION

doubter
and

liar ; He

and

ordained

truth

and

Such

is the

"Now

professions

of

the

"As

he

is

be

old

real

wife,

it is the

now

physician

highly prize and praise God,


And
knowledge.
why?
physician

that

great God

has

works

of

born

He
a

and

poor
extract

"Of
and

who

and

how

can

most

can

the

est
great-

he

is, and

make

known

universe

and

macrocosm

this

must

the
how
the
how

is, and

proceeds

one

know

not

who

is it except

what

the

does

tri-

liar,no

have

must

He

the

guished
distin-

and

no

alone

Who

noble

[i.e.,

fore,
There-

is

and

cosm].
micro-

not

boast

physician."^

ideals

His

other

he

man,

him

is man,

the

from

himself

made

God, how

nobler

much

"know

can

sician
phy-

be.""

he

must

man

the

hypocrite [Larven-

no

executioner;

no

and

arts

him.

preferred

no

as

of Christ,

loves

ordains

so

must

integrity.

all the

most

and

physician
God

by

God

commands

the

shall be

he

Apostles

among

mankind

in

less."^

that

note,

He

and

fler,but

is not

sight he

his

Ues,

not

physician

is then

the

as

and

truth

the

truth

truthful

as

take

mann],

created

The

I39

PHYSICIAN.

THE

physician'sintegritythat

and

as

has

in lies.

in God's

for

OF

estabUshed

and

not

steadfast

ETHICS

AND

of service

needy

may

be

of the

illustrated
his

from

the

Preface

what

use

is it if I write

the poor

and

of how

to

op. fol, I, 227, "Paragranum."

"

Ibid., I,

Op.

fol, I, 81, "Paramirum."

by

toward

the

the

following

Hospital-Book.
much

their health

226.

physician

about
is to be

the

sick

secured

PARACELSUS.

140

and

do

happen

can

together

bound

will

ye

be

them?

help

from

links

from

would

the

poor,

the

Kingdom

the

goal

rich

lie in

and

"Do

let

not

of the

many

for

ordained

sick,neither

and

Despise

be
not

you

may

Similar
Chir.

Bucher,

help

Learn

diseases
is the

on

pital
hos-

art

not

Be

will

as

to

make

fail

in

but

that

what
trust

exhortations
etc., pp.

art,

help them;

it is

and

in

continue

the

truth

merciful
use

and

and

and
to

in

standing
underlie

may

of

judge

fruitfulness

unreason."'

expressions

311f, "Spitalbuch."

love.

skilled

failure

any

nothing
and

truth, despair

your

yourself

aim,

ciently
suffi-

elsewhere

not

but

gentle

because

faith,nor

nor

reasons

Forget

arrive, and

may

for

them

medicine,

charities

they

your

nature.

your

to

attain

not

that

discoui-aged,but

not

of

with

reach

discouraged

anything

nor

....

it, that

without

you.

all your

be

yourselves

described
not

some

benevolence,

so

would

single hospital and

one

nor

to

given

was

your

take

short

to

try

shut

to

so,

you

that

poor,

link

God.

of

with

chain

the

broken

short,

too

and

Heaven

of

be

path

your

Unk,

should

it too

to

your

you

and

poor

if you

as

make

and

which

for

then, both
earth

Just

chain

the

from

free

yourselves

make

do

then,

Why,

aside.

cast

binds

rich,

ye

but. like the

chain

may

which

break

if you

are

Uttle

Learn,

poor.

For

the

break

only

not

the

and

Both

as

chain

the

as

chains.

these

recognize

chain, and

break

rich

the

together

with

good

no

rich.

the

without

poor

as

suffer

chain

any

ye

the

to

For

rich?

the

admonish

also

not

of

his

MISSION

Strong

convictions

are

his
ethics
his

AND

writings.
and
reform

ETHICS

upon

scattered

campaign.

mission

the

numerously

was

one

PHYSICIAN.

of

purification
of

the

I4I

the

through

the

Evidently
practice

THE

OF

dorriinant

true

sician
phy-

nearly
of

all

medical
aims

of

THEOLOGICAL

AS

PARACELSUS

WRITER.

the

of

much

and

that
that

been

has

him.

this

that

makes

recotded

mention

of

Conrad

to

the

Paracelsus

Abbot

works

of

for

some

Raymund

1901, p. S3.

of

he

exists

Huser
of

at

and

on

what

not

not

to

record

have

his

titles of

Theophrastus

death
scripts
manu-

also

So

(1545)
dedicated

ical
theolog-

lished.
pub-

receipt signed
1594,

10,

manuscripts
The

sonal
per-

been

October

theological subjects.

differen
in-

works

his

after

composed

autograph

Netzhammer,

written

Universalis

Neuburg,

twenty-five

had

of

ferred
in-

from

known

himself.

by

believe

be

theological

St. Gall, "I know

there

collection

.celsus upon

that

which

Moreover

by Johannes

collection

be

not

was

Salzburg

at

tenor

might

inventory

in his Bibliotheca

Gesner
of

says

the

written

presumably

it

Paracelsus

Even

cjiaracter.

effects

indeed

the

could

theology

And

early records

very

of

Paracelsus

of

it

cited

already

of

taken

From

theology.

on

matters

to

of

writer

been

has

activity

considerable

very

thinker

as

little notice

recently

UNTIL

by

Para-

collection

works.

Paracelsus,

Other

cludes
inlists

Einsiedeln,

PARACELSUS

of

his

the

latter

half

few

Preface

editor

the

where

nearly

Of

through

and

early

of

1564

titles included

not

place

in the

has

these

search

brought

copies dating
bearing

autograph

by Huser,

scripts
manu-

in other

or

to

Leyden,

at

of them

many

list of

early
for

Sudhoff's

of

and

known

now

the libraries

some

1567,

to

is

one

Europe

copies in

receipted

as

his

In

scripts
theological manu-

though
of

elsewhere,

as

volume

knows

he

of these

manuscripts

light collections
Gorlitz

that

In

century.

theological essays.

asserts

libraries

the

dating

Staricius, issued

autograph,

as

existence

sixteenth

the

cart-load

all these

exist

in

are

I43

found.''

be

may

as

of

of these

WRITER.

THEOLOGICAL

publisher, Johann

containing a

to

theological writings

from

1618

AS

earlv

lists.'
The

manuscripts

library
be
That

the

Neuburg

at

used

in

they

the

the

part printed
of

of the

or

his

and
of

not

Roman

Catholic, and

by
2

Cf.

For

these

contents

abstracted

the

they

Huser

his

have

to

works.

been

in the

in

and

the

second
spoken
out-

their

cisms
criti-

observances
a

works

under

in

very

himself

was

undertaken

intended

are

heretical

publication of
was

Roman

celsus
of Parathe

patron-

op. cit.,
p. 127.

Netzhammer,

manuscripts,

Sudhofif

as

institutions

the

Church.

Huser

statements

by
For

the

easily explained by

such

frankly

of

is

from

of

of

Versuch.

indeed

many

collection

used

so

Huser

by

manifestly

were

published

were

of

tenor

volume

borrowed

as

to

the

cf. Sudhoff,

evidence

of

Versuch,

etc., II, Introduction,

authenticity of

many

of

44

PARACELSUS.

and

age

the

with

Salzburg
and

as

of the

doctrines

circulation
the

the

or

leave

to

It is certain

Luther,
critical

spiritof

to

independent

of

the

be

for

the

revolt

kept

hands

print

to

of

congenial

posterity.
of

his

contemporary

Zwingli

exercised

well

as

as

the

great influence

natural

ment
tempera-

thinking and

was

time

Protestant

of

chiavelli

the

to

piety

nor

Church,

of

that

warrior's

that

criticism

about
the

Church
the

most

experiment
strength

In

the

Italy Ma-

freely

"Should

and

before

even

thus

1500

cism
criti-

severe

its observances

Reformation.

Switzerland,

countries,

also

quite prevalent

writing

corruption

Curia

in mind

orthodox

corruption

of

them

free

quite probable

effort

no

little

authority.
It should

the

in the

and

Even
had

It is

predisposed by

"

upon

publication, preferring

them

Erasmus

brought
have

made

his countryman

Paracelsus

upon

of

and

that

wide

any

Church.

view.

their

avoided

place

to

the

and

support

have

would

himself

rather

merely

of

point

Paracelsus

but

thinkers

his

essential

that

evident

party

at

radical

so

the

such

would

buried

to

publication could

their

that

writings

clerical

with

of

many

disciplineof

Lutheran

them

were

it is

Indeed,

severest

that

his views

possible under

of his

sympathy

was

of

Church,

been

have

supervision.
him

critical

severely

so

hardly

Catholic, yet

and

died

Co

allegiance

claimed

and

Church

Catholic

the

of

Archbishop

the

Paracelsus

Though

logne.

of

support

criticizes
send

we

the

religiousand

martial

would

that

could

prove

resist

the

no

papal

PARACELSUS

AS

corruption
Rome

and

have

least

peoples

The

intrigue.

I45

WRITER.

THEOLOGICAL

We

religion

nearest

Italians

have

to

....

thank

the

Church

and

irreligiousand
So

also

writing in
"Go

and

of the

busy

themselves

with

Go

you

how

hands

guide

souls

With

their

the

so

desires

"

all beasts

because

and

evil

there

also

same

accord.""
Whatever

unorthodox

W.

they

give

may

be

and
find

free

they

rein

theology

all

to

and

of

der

ury,
lux-

courts

of

the

are

earth,

These

stream

and

citement
in-

their

boundless

what

is

who

join

been

have

Paracelsus

fur Geschichte
des

and

worse,

....

may

stead
in-

rola,
Savona-

opportunity

churchmen

seen

about

is contained

monsters

there

they

teach

not

and

palaces

criminals.

passions

Paulsen, GescKichte
sic, 1896-97, I, pp. lOf.
Cf.

and

stimulus

Dilthey, Archiv

Petrarch

prelates, said

"their

princes

knew

Cicero.

ambition," shamelessness

for all rascals

to

The

they

and

in which

one

oric.
rhet-

themselves

do

Why

life."

in

of

refuge

thither

the

the

asylums

'

Horace

trouble

not

books, that

many

sunk

and

do

and

if

as

in the

humanistic

with

it will appear

lords, they

poetry

will find them

of souls.

and

law
are

but

by Virgil,

and

ears

salvation
of

the

the great

nothing

of Paracelsus

Aristotle, Plato, Virgil and

feed
the

see,

monk,

all Christendom

great prelates and

in their
to

of the birth

throughout

houses

and

come
be-

have

we

great Dominican

the

the year

1493,

priests that

corrupt."*

Savonarola,

to Rome

books

the

by

given
the

2d

to

the

Protes-

Philosophie, IV,

gelehrten Unterrichts,

in the

pp.

636f.

ed., Leip-

146

PARACELSUS.

evidenced

by

many

to

the

refers

he

false

prophets,

him

those

Thus

fool

praises

the

Pope

the

his

Luther

above

four

is with

them

grafted

and

bears

opposes

them

die.

How

caused

to

pairs

"They

acceptable

not

they

"

'

'

Here

in

the

for

it

"

"

Ghost,
doubtless

Sudhoff,

they
that

all

they

denoting

Versuch,

boast
are

any

etc., 11, p.

411.

on

depends
all

deem
one

cloth.

has

been

It

twice
ever
Who-

pears.

truth,

he

must

and

years.'"
but

their

founded
heretic.

prayer

nothing,

means

that

great

depends

they strangled

recent

temples

God,

to

the

have

on

one

yellow

speaks

depends

heretics, and

altogether. Papists, Lutherans,

Zwinglians
Holy

and

true

denounce

and

that

man,

Every

who

and

with

They

from

tree

in

he

reed.

heathens

and

strangled

pray

who

other,

thousands

many

he

the

white

him

who

He

ground,

hold

deceived.

are

with

as

be

as

also

righteous

hold

breeches

of

Arian"

who

on

Antichrists,

as

but

are

hollow

on

each

another

him

those

-sand,

the

depends

themselves

consider
the

motley.

on

Zwingli depends
upon

day

with

him

people

own

rests

Pope

Luther

with

stand

prophet.

man,

consider

likewise

who

the

stand

who

righteous

Zwingli

with

stand

living saint, those


hold

is

etc.

who

"Those

This

his

of

leaders

Protestant

Lu4heran

writings wherein

in his

passages

less

no

Catholic.

the

toward

interpretation than

was

the

toward

unsympathetic

and

critical

he

that

it is evident

Reformation,

tant

is

and

Anabaptists,

they

are

on

the

of

the

Gospel.

PARACEXSUS

Therefore

AS

they

me,

I declare

His

word

brings

you

among

Pharisees

his

the

of

from

be

abomination

an

the

judged

doctrines

the

the

"

by clergy

of his

and
the

no

Devil, opposed
?

reasons

lica and

The

is the

coming

Christ

the

wishes

is called

Holy

iides

Ecclesia

is

of

dance

in the

of

the

the

merit.

The

Schubert

from

the

and

is

an

"

and

love

from

no

displays."

invention

in the churches

churches

the

"does
the

ing
givonly

comes

the

of

neighbor

Pilgrimages, dispensations,

saints"

monastic

no

it

devils")

blessedness," and

Catholic

neighbor.

to

of alms

eternal

credulity and

"running

'

in

alms

for

nor

giving

toward

serve

churches"

are

in

heart

Fasting

The

These

prayers

holiday observances, oflferingsor

the Devil.

their

structure."

walled

devilish

"walled

Catho-

catholica, and

contrite

and

service

in Latin

public
("a

all

"

Holy Trinity.

Spirit.

is in the

humble

and

believers, and

all true

condemns

he

and

church

excepted
will

to

all the

of

none

"

church-festivals

churches,
"God

laity

is in the

But

Continuing,

observances

Church

faith, that

location.

no

from

Church

and

fruits, the

spiritof

together

all in the

not

of

extent

own

daily churchgoing

and

with

work

of the

has

what

who

he

am

following:

vain

The

me,

and

this is."*

genuflection, bowing

See

Gospel.'

"It is vain

rules

follow

is with

is Christ

God, here

"

specificallymay

departure

in the

word

I47

WRITER.

right, the right

am

I tell it you

as

More

'I

cry

the

THEOLOGICAL

are

all in vain

and

have

orders, the religiousorders

Sudhoflf, Paracelsusforschungen,

II,

p.

153.

no

of

148

PARACELSUS.

and

knighthood

"Who

the

is blessed

water

fish,to
Devil

his

earth, blessed

It is God's

earth.

earth,

the

water

God

by

breed

quench thirst,to

to

the

banish

sprinkle to

to

not

fruit ;

forth

bring

to

the

bless

and

consecrate

to

presume

can

Devil.

the

is from

sword

the

by

faith

the

Spreading

honor.

Devil

of the

inventions

are

in his

maintained

and

Hke

the

holy water.""

as

Similar

points

printed

works

view

of

found

are

tail
less of de-

with

though naturally

in

expressed

in his criticism.
Thus
the

God

from

heart,

and

God.

But

of his

hands

and

does

surrenders

depends
way

other,

that

of

despair

in

but

but
and

our

that

we

might,

neighbor.

our

toward

"

"De

Versuch,
1"

then

that,
septem

he

falls
For

if

it is

should

should

love

soul, and

If that

which

all ceremonies

it in
no

with

that

has

will be

punctis Idolatriae

etc., 11, pp.

again
and
is the

and

sees

it for

he

it

seeks

we

to
not

he

anything,

us

God

given

anything

he

gives

has

ceremony

employ

he

out

ceremonies

into

have

given

has

and

God

hearts

our

For

what
and

his

up

this power

every
we

take

to

gives

another

For

we

work.

our

keep

is with

man

every

have

only

will

power

man

not

it to

If he
that

wish

....

God

ceremonies.
not

if

despair.

upon

from

full

has

with

from

For
....

affairs

him, but

"God

ceremonies

not

neighbor

Paramirum

the

ceive
re-

the
does

ceremonies
other

all

our

should

given

us

pose
purheart

help
helps

forgotten."^"

Christianae," quoted

by

Sudhoff,

338ff.

O/i. fol, I, 114-115, "Liber

de

origine morborum

invisibilium.''

PARACELSUS

That
be

AS

expressions

such

harmonized

which
The

he

order,
thus

with

claimed

Rev.

"Far

in the domain

medicine, does
Doctor

Sacred

authority,but

no

philosophizing
this

principle

informed

he

did

fathers:

and

He

devotions.

should

but

the

on

possessed
mystical
as

with
of

its

the
"

very

of

however,

high, though
of

many
of

Op. cit.,pp.

128f.

lishment
estabits

keys,

public
arnong

and

faith

the

the

from

apostles

ciple
prin-

its practical

hierarchical

its

from

well-

this

from

power

every

every

only by

the

prayers

tians,
Chris-

tures,
Scrip-

preachers
not

that

be

doctrines

to

denied,

Theophrastus

unfortunately
and

too

ments,
sacra-

hereditary sin, of baptism

inextinguishable symbols,

communion.

with

departed

himself

emphasized

instance

That

doctrine

themselves

must,

concept
for

he

ceremonies,

the

contrary
a

the

teach

.It

heathen.

for him.

the

and

thinking

rejected preaching

banished

and
the

separate

its

recognize

to

own

not

in

even

calls himself

through

more

Church,

orders,

who

But

combated

he

of the
monastic

Catholic

still

such, but

development

his

Church,

knows.

person

as

of his

of

than

investigation,denying

that of the

foundations

Paracelsus,

sometimes

consider

free

obvious.

point :"

theology

authoritative

of

of

Scripture, seem

to

as

authority, even
the

of

Paracelsus, who

of

to

of the Benedictine

this

upon

to

Church

appear

biographers

recent

not

are

of the

Netzhammer

himself

more

above

allegiancewould

of the

expresses

the

as

I49

WRITER.

doctrines

the

Raymund

one

THEOLOGICAL

Baptism

and

and

notably

communion

also
are

PARACELSUS.

150

him

for

the

lead

which

roads

principal

two

to

Heaven."

question

The

differently by

viewed

hold

him

religion, because

in

inclined

to

unjust, for,
that

he

and

not

the

it, as
bear

his

Catholicism.

"Some

suspicion

and

of

City

died

he

Christian,

and

Catholic

in

in

and

of

his

in

position
op-

known

obedience

to

Salzburg

the

can

1541,

year

honorably

was

is

Catholic

holy

remained

but

where

it is well

the

are

this

opinion

my

from

separate

speaks

he

faith,

his

Archbishopric

witness,

in

abuses:

account

on

places

various

Church,

Roman

His

concerns

as

did

biographers.

in

certain

to

editor

his

defends

mildly

Huser

been

has

orthodoxy

his

to

as

terred."
in-

{Op. fol.,Preface.)'
Schubert
their

studies
thus

"If
.

into

the

consider

of

the

before

years
the

Sudhoff

in

1531

the

character

far

so

attitude

we

may

he

felt

of

results
of

of

sus
Paracel-

also

sympathy

domain

of medicine

find

religious

that

with

in

those

ancient

his

natural

in the

toward

Zwingli, perhaps

and

with

and

the

inclination

some

presumed

of faith

greater

toward

perhaps

Luther

he

as

in matters

broken

life and

his

time,

Reformation

only

summarize

:
we

parties

and

who

had

authorities, a

reform

ideas

science

in

Later

the
"

....

after

the

sparing

the

combated
of

year

worship

531"

Protestants.

the
and

Roman
other

there
On

is
the

further

no

talk

contrary, 'if he

hierarchy, the
ceremonies,

he

external

of
also

forms

yet rejects all

PARACELSUS

AS

THEOLOGICAL

dissenting religious parties

'sects,'almost

as

even

violently."^^

more

Though

from

manuscript
and

Evidence

were

the

collection

in

large part

pressions,
ex-

evidently brought

upon

him

the

pleasure
dis-

in

it forms
his

or

his

volume

the

most

the

on

and
to

and

below

the

published

is

point

of

nently
emi-

so

view

of

illustrates

well

so

among

manuscripts

Paracelsus's

of

time

manuscript

translated

extract

authorities.

Catholic

Sudhoff

by

matters

of

one

of

appear's in

characteristic

the

either

less known,

or

is

as

oral

The

at

far

free

this

theological

life,so

his

copies,

examined

Paracelsus.

celsus
of Para-

from

to

as

relation

more

disapproval

and

in

his

published during

yet his views

known,

theological papers

of the

none

were

orthodox

his
that

theology,

of

interesting expressions

spiritual experience.
"Your

me

of

sometimes

times

several

spoken against

festivals,vain

luxurious

and
of

taverns,

and

preacher
12

the

for

Schubert

"

accused

truth

Why
and

"

do

Sudhoff,

are

and
you

of

me

op.

held

that

do

that
inns

churchgoing,
fasting,giving

and

this has

the taverns

upon

taverns,

priestlyrules

all other

this, because

account

places

and
have

attacks

confession, partaking

....

sacrament,

in

useless

praying

alms, ofiferings,tithes,

of the

sharp

truth-speaking, namely,

my
and

roadhouses

and

and

daily disputations

account

on

have

of

I51

WRITER.

this to

cit..11,

pp.

be
call

you

servance
ob-

drunkenness

taken
to

and

me

lS2f.

on

place

in

the

inappropriate
me

at

corner-

this

time,

PARACELSUS.

152

when

to

follow

I would

then

false

giving

to

usurped

Devil's

the

through
that

which

power

just

I have
You

where
not

shottld

Know
their

come

but
will

forth

never

came

will send

end

teaching
a

and

lie will

send

be

amongst

born

is not

Netherlands

language,

their

not

to

he

mine,

to

will

those

for

other,
an-

Christ
never

vicar; St. Peter

is her

patron

is not

it is from

my

Christ.

if I cannot

messenger

and

ogy.
-of theol-

Christ

that

come

those

eyes,

I, it will be

not

is His

of Vienna

countrymen,
them

this

them.

overcome

I do

ants
peas-

my

witnessing

my

yet Rome

me

doctors

the

masters

to

If it be

and

with

under

but

Cologne, yet

to

if in the

r"or the

and

Rome,

to

the

teaching

the

of

say

reason

persons

answer

my

equals.

own

my

come

came

;md

then

of

Ingolstadt, Cologne,

tradesmen,

not

peasants,

real

have

are

exercised

you

amongst

go

Paris, Vienna,

Louvain,

at

I should

say

....

Also
to

selves
your-

you,

long

....

enough

sense

you,

who

from

away
have

you

power

with

no

again speak

never

taking

of

and

deceivers

and

I would

but

you,

spoken
believer

was

you^

people, 'Guard

same

prophets

Devil.'

the

by

these

to

say

is

the inns

into

came

to

in Christ

believer

if I

And

against
sent

am

inns

the

? If that

you

truth

the

and

you

service

of

was

that

in

there

now

in you.

longer

and

now

you

For

but

you,

speak against

inns

the

give offerings to

to

to

not

please

inns.

in the
in

in

let it

then

and

you

proper

was

people

I advised

taverns

in the

when

pleased

well

and

silent

were

you

and

through

and

the
them

saint,
fault.
He

speak

Ingolstadt
truth

will

willcome

PAkACELSUS

lightand

to

the

count

I believe

them

by

as

For

Christ

Nor

does

is

punish

as

does

not

punish

if I had

and

Christ

be

it must

alone,

and

be

the

make

offerings and
if my

Consider;
would

follow

and

me

Spirit

not

I have

said

which

them

is from

that
and

has

been

Cain

from
The

day.

condemns
Old

Gospel

from

old,

Testament

fully good
it

1'

"De

Versuch,

Ghost.

the

from

and

your
the

from

to

is

never

all.

at

follow

Holy

recognize

old,

the

old

the

you

true, Christ

I have

The

all your
not

"

bishops.
new

Were

new.

would

Gospel

of Christ

and

false.

take

For

ancient

more

hypocrites
the

which

have

the

what

time

the

is true,
not

not

It is the

trickery
old

they

that

them

great falsehoods.

Holy

But

and

the

teaches

the

[Gospel]

new

than

It

abroad.

they

as

anything myself"

....

till this

other

time.

any

Devil, they

the

But

trickery and

invented

not

np

presence.

or

you

me.

me.

heard

be

that

that

from

were

not

believe

you

is in

and

you

not

spread

so

little for

care

speech

character,

your

contumacious,

peasants

you

forward.

go

be opened to it.
Everything must
"You
and
complain much
loudly
made

which

lost at

hidden, it must

Paris

at

in their

spoken

let his word

he let it lie
one

Christ, who

upon

"

dead

am

speaking to-day will

my

well

it is of
Louvain

at

were

but

that

for

not

for

when

53

WRITER.

And

me.

would

would

they

"

if I

they

me

THEOLOGICAL

live on,

And

it is not

Yet

will

not.

through

not

doctrine

dieth

AS

the

tions
decephave

newed
re-

again.""

punctis Idolatriae
septem
etc., II, pp. 333ff.

Christianae," quoted

by Sudhoff,

PARACELSUS.

154

of

doctrines

The

his

throughout
of

the

of

Christ.

authority

to

interpret to

of his

with

impressed

and

helpfulness

sick

are

the
is

for

toward

his

neighbor,

the

man

the

themes

of

in

internal

and
in

written

Copenhagen,
For

that

evidence

was

deeply
Christ

of

in

the

experiences

is

the

Sudhofif

Latin

has

later

produced
re-

years,

facts

the

The

sible
pos-

script
manu-

between

later
the

the

strongest

made

date

British

so

of

1590
also

exist

Museum,

version.

estinifitionof the personality and


of

the

ical
autobiograph-

an

known

copy

and

and

poor

genuineness.
a

Love

introspective,and

of somewhat

Salzburg

fellow.

in his

it bears
of

and

Copies

latter

with

accord

Leyden

1610.

the

he

rectness
cor-

appeals.

containing

retrospective and

Paracelsus,

is at

his

which

manuscripts
sermon

so

completely
life of

to

teachings

fragment, manifestly
is

the

as

spiritof

frequently

Among

which

their

him

That

the

for

asked

rendering.

of

service

the

to

the

He

tion
itself,particularly in its practical rela-

shows

often

own

own

doubts

no

pretation
inter-

literal

teachings

entertained

and

meaning,

ment
state-

extracts

numerous

his

to

cepted
ac-

strong

be

works

intermediate

no

from

consistently

but

above

the

from

only

not

appear

Paracelsus

which

theology

Paracelsus,

it is too

mental

important

to

be

omitted.
"As

life of

attempt

I have

Christian
to

Therefore
.

undertaken

faith, it has

portray
I have

that

write

to

not

without

undertaken

of

seemed
this
to

the

blessed

proper

to

introduction.

write

this

pref-

PARACELSUS

ace

AS

the .blessed

to

I may

excuse

I have

Why

time,
should

not

await

the

all progress.

have

that

prevented
and
is

that

to

the

in

that

so

Sacred

lesser

have

only
much
in

have

from

great

poverty
to

me

has

been

has

For

that

men

built

lain

to

one

so

kinds

but
for

and

me

that
rather

hold

have

to

but

are

two
not

of

there

finished

people

for

shield
have

little

work

for

cuted
perse-

and

me

For

sition
oppo-

alone, and

and

hindered
had

not

desires.

my

back

but

grew

private, much

contempt.

chattering

and

have

shoulders

my

end

and

resources

nearly

and

well

But

me.

raised

my

be

delay arisen,

was

had

on

strange

accused
me,

is not

no

very

and

among

afifairs,
public

in my

the

according

when

These

influenced

that

so

act

even

which

me.

this

the

to

first.

has

harvest

might

they

of

Light

later

postponed

causes

more

"And

there

been

cine
medi-

described,

the

for

that

strongly

these

from

permitted

arose

leave

to

my

profession

be

to

we

only

my

concerns

things completed

that

reasons

I had

Writings;

ripened, they
the

which

which

astronomy,

had

philosophy

that

say,

that

but

time,

not

of

matters

namely

me,

works

Nature,

up

other

its proper
its

reason,

not

is this that

toward

hour

another

has

delayed

before

appear

determined

For

but

youth,

should

as

[1520].

year

before

forwar"i

come

book,

of these

One

reasons.

nothing

as

and

long postponed

so

this

writing

55

that

experience

it in the twentieth

upon

should

in

WRITER.

Christian

delay

without

happened
youth

life of

my

began working

THEOLOGICAL

credited
dis-

reputation
my

tongue

and

for the

156

PARACELSUS.

is the

That

truth.

philosophy

medicine,

display

and

pomp

rich

the

meiner

likewise,

world

the

it has

as

not

to

"Nor

in

it is held

as

courtly

is

and

still is to

is the

that

writing

from

because

blood

and

in the

new

make

philosophy]

but

am

faction
a

least

delay

"

say,

pertain

"

me

considered

redeemed

God,

seemed

it

For

severely.

me

food

His

by
and

sufficient

against

'Thou

to

us

to
"

shouldst
us

hardly

as

drink

to

the
to

listen
alone

dared

!'
to

not

Sacred

what

we

to

another

me

layman,

shouldst

man,

anything except
a

has

describe

hindered

been

received

arisen

common

and

of

it have

has

listen

that,

has

troubled

other

hardly

not

The

to

me

Christian.

who

as

have

been

has

day.

which

creature

there

shouldst

has

true

things

that

birth, that

me

as

men's
trades-

by

That

can

cause

that

through

"But

to

"

Christian

true

and

greatest

all diseases,

over

natural

this

itself,

for

except

power

the

that

great

so

mented
tor-

to.be gained

[reason]

greatly

is not

manners.

all this been

has

have

[der PUug

contempt,

and

me

that, and

and

bread

little value

it has

as

wealth
cross

my

by philosophy [i.e.,

nor

of

princes

for

has

also

So

their

Also

like

nothing

in

medicine

by

speeches

For

Nahrung]

by astronomy,
nor

fine

winning

the

me

astronomy.

forsaken.

been

therefore

and

been

I have

"

and

counted

not

dialecticians

and

logicians

the

with

much

for

I have

that

reason

no
was

stir for

crowd

as

speak

of

ant,
peassuch

Scriptures,
tell you

others
thus

they

and

hold

nor

read

forced
were

but

into

power-

AS

PARACELSUS

ful in this

THEOLOGICAL

world, I had

lie under

the

Christendom

and

of the

against

for

manifest

and

truth

than

the

that

the

in

abuse

would

the

not

of the

truth

finished
there

world

the

broke
it

as

division

the
is

now

and

took

autumn

and

harvest.

to

make

the

fruits

the

beginning.

of the

the

Christians

relation

so

to

of Christians

with

write

I had

then

much

hope,
of this

close with

the

one

good

these

with

been

in

work

life and
unblessed

to

books,
from

me

the

lation
re-

likewise
life.
.

Those
"

thev

in the
own

unblessed
the

world,

life

are

great,

it is theirs

So

it till another

seemed

blessed
to

to

kingdom

now

has

the

they
abides,

began

When

the

included

to

when

Reformation?].

has

which

seed

postponed

"

It

I have

"Therefore

of

pause

end, and

an

the

[i.e.,

delayed

me

then

of

in

man,

life most

concluded

and

writing

I then

scornfully), the

life in Christ.

of the

out

others,

I let

accepted

common

Christian

blessed

Christ

As

most

opponents

all in those

at

and

they employ

name

the

unright

rather

corner-stone.

the

necessary

than

contradiction

in

and

difference

the

perceived

putation
dis-

accept rather

darkness,

layman,

their

perfection of
and

the

and

miller

righteousness

without

(which

peasant

I should

Christian

the

like

other), it became

that

opposition go

found

must

the corner-stone

preaching

(it was

each

When

myself

the

light than

rather

Satan.

for

who

one

as

I read

heard

lies,rather

eousness,

than

when

others

coal-heaver
me

it

stairs.

"But, nevertheless,
of

endure

to

57

WRITER.

"

are

they

arrogant
are

the

158

PARACELSUS.

of

children
have

they

the

are

together,

the

riches
those

in

and

storm

earth.

have

held

of

whom
been
this

for

"

the

Sudhoff,

have

the

have

have

in

kept

I
not

brought

have
troubled

they

are

with

ashamed

and

This

despised.

has

work.""

Versuch,

etc.,

11,

it

pp.

406-408.

the

been

that

the

to

me

this
but

them,

people

common

myself
my

lain

till

forward

have

has

strike

about

myself

companionship

what

not

though
al-

greatly

closed,

should

are

And
have

me

mouth

my

life

Those

world.

suspected

not

blessed

the

third.

this

dom
king-

Eternal,

the

of

of

opposed

thunderbolt

Thereby
and

day

pen;

Christ

have

they

but

two

their

have

they

where

have

they
who

me,

my

is

there
that

hindered

blessed

the

"

world

this

of

not

Eternal

the

with

and

but
"

is

which

But

world.

the

world

the

not

of

Hght

fore
there-

preparation

THE

LATER

YEARS

OF

STRENUOUS

LABOR.

PARACELSUS

WHEN
his

his

flight from

that

Basel

henceforth

"I

his

and

heretic

'"^

He

he

than

public

of the

the

"Nevertheless,
this

overthrow

to

old

and

and

obstinate

however,
matter

that,
different

very

as

Op.

shall

structure

to
not

who

hope,

not

e.,

in

of

will

medical

theory

to

wider

and

time

my

fables, for
learn

to

be

able

they

are

nothing

their

new

folly. That,

much,

but

men

will

young

Preface.

of

students.

'schlupfen']

fol, I, 201, "Paragranum,"

versities,
uni-

realization

appeals

[werden

character

the

misleader

physicians

very
the

the

of

upon

recognize

matter

schlieffcn, i.

Haut
""

does

of

or

ties.
facul-

university

for

medical

of

dogs

ashamed

are

that

scholastic

sympathy

member

reform

depend

generation

younger

the

profession,

the

must

or

by

realized

evidently
little

rejected

for

he

expect

recognized

ambitions

practice

1528,

profession

teacher

university

could

called

arn
a

scholars.

the

as

in

he

from

support

of

career

nated
termi-

summarily

so

in

eine

when

it does
be

of

andere
the

old

l6o

PARACELSUS.

passed

have

ones

and

their superstitions

forsake

will

[of medicine]

foundation

the

thus

will

and

away,

progress.""

make

On

he

Basel

leaving

subsequent life,comprising

His

with

devoted

was

thirteen

some

persistency

and

energy

years,
to

possible to publishing his many


natural
philosophy,
medicine, surgery,

when

writing

and

treatises

upon
and

theology

great

thirty-fifth
year.

in his

was

nous
volumi-

his

subjects comprising

other

works.
This

work

and

the

by

the

of

residence,

The

opponents,

led

he

seek

to
a

in

detail

dates

of his various

and

occasional

Such
and

data

have

been

and
record

thus

sifted

period

It is not

the

Chir.

'

Cf. Hartmann,

Bucher,

may

purpose

It appears,

etc., Preface
op. cit. The
be

of his

found

in

however,

(firstprinted
detailed
Stoddart's

in

records.
local

with
R.

J. Hart-

been

to

rect
cor-

structed.^
recon-

follow

that

or

ten
writ-

were

probably

life has
here

his

in

local

notably by
and

pieced

prefaces

compared

connected

very

and

life.

notes

letters

or

and

records

of this

story in detail.

embellishment

books

as

own

labor

been

has

contemporary

contemporaneous

mann,

of

places where

and

his

by

wandering

wanderings

dedications
from

and

well

as

frequent changes

autobiographical

from

from

works,

bread,

scenes

new

lonely

story of these

to

stacles
ob-

many

by poverty

doubtless

often

impelled

restlessness

experience,

out

his

hostilityof

native

his

necessity for earning

of

spite
Driven

opposition.

much

and

in

pursued

was

no

this
year

1536).

story with some


imaginative
Life of Paracelsus.

THE

for

passed
of

LATER

YEARS

Paracelsus

residence, and
After

whence

Neckar,
with

letters

which

him.

after

these

permission

had
been

had

of protests
of
is

Leipsic

of the

writings

author

him
of the

and

city

claims

March

be

is

There

granted

1530,

ulty
facThere

collection

in his

He

stands

for

before

thus

nying
de-

truth,

the
to

his

prove

tions
publicadate

bears

letter

Beratzhausen.

at

that

this

the protest

be made

This

the

against

justiceof

is dated

his

appeal

was

consideration.

Interesting evidence
in

the

evidence, however,

no

cause
be-

the letter in which

disputation
and

and

censors

revoked.

authorities

prohibited.

It appears

medical

the

was

should

opponents

deavoring
en-

printing, when

Huser

challenges

in open

i,

works.

public

from

permission

provoked

Nuremberg

his

for

the

on

experiences

some

privilege of publication on

his

should
of

the

university faculty.

says,

their

the

passed

printed by

it he

In

of

the

his friend

to

"

at

certain

emanating

to

in Colmar

time

physicians who

of Paracelsus,

appeals

decision.

he

and

preserved

his home.

Esslingen

at

left after

granted

the

called

for

find him

we

changes

more

or

be

was

later

local

publish

to

that

the

one

could

l6l

LABOR.

still extant

"

he

place

Shortly

he

Basel;

at

patient and

place

no

wrote

Amerbach

B.

without

leaving Basel,
he

STRENUOUS

OF

1529

contemporary

Chronica,

and

of

as

the

to

impression

writer, is found

Zeytbuch

his presence

und

in

he

in Nuremberg

made

upon

in the

passage

Geschichtsbibel

of

tian
Sebas-

Franck:

"Dr.

Theophrastus

von

Hohenheym,

physician

62

"

PARACELSUS.

alte;r(v$

yiovL

srr

"

qyi

/^AVEUEQU ^THEOPEHIR/VSTI

PARACELSUS
This

THREE

portrait and

tlie

following

1503-1569), engraved
underneath

Heiligen

Schrift

YEARS

und

one

are

sketches

reads

/vfi^MOHEM.'^

HIS

DEATH.

probably by A. Hirschvogel
from

"Theophrastus
Arzneien

poirsTf

esse

BEFORE

after

beider

svvs

life.
von

Doctor."

The

signature

Hohenheim,

(c.
produced
re-

der

LATER

THE

and

to

who

man,

of

OF

In

the year

astronomer.
came

medicine.

Nuremberg

ridicules

IN

in

public

opposition to

in the

to

have

LAST

men

and

in

the Doctor

tioned
men-

writers

and

burned

63

ful
wonder-

and

all doctors

HIS

theory,

LABOR.

strange

University;

all medical

diagnosis,medical

1529
a

"

nearly

is said

He

PARACELSUS

cenna

STRENUOUS

YEARS

the

Avi-

YEAR.

is

his

quite

alone

in

prescriptions,

maintains

many

dif-

164

PARACELSUS.

ferences

with

tnit vilen

helt]."
allusion

The

This
a

much

publications was

of

class

later

these

active

of

his

occasional

letter
he
"

the

From

the

written

in

Gallen,

"

date

this
of

the

on

1529

bed

for

than
a

in

Internal

Latin

writing
evidence

1530.*

or

spent

about
a

1534-35

citizen

time,

some

of

we

St.

learn

laborious, sleeps little,

throws
some

In

labor

diary. of

is most

"

undressing

spurred,

at

his

from

correspondent

by Joh. Riitiner,

"Theophrastus

without

unnamed

an

the

unsuccessful

printed.

works

years

from

but

work,

often

Paracelsus

where

tronomers
"as-

were

only

not

pleasures.

leaves

Latin

know

more

for
of

Paracelsus

his continuous

to

time

no

at

even

physicians and

authentic

to

refers

taking

Europe.

common

very

of

we

his

get

Paracelsus

himself

that

to

in

events

many

years

struggles,

of

locates

later

evidently

successful,

tications
prognos-

them.

authorship,

of

mass

and

period,
issued

That

other

politicaland

of

"astronomer"

an

as

publications of

his occasional

justifiedby

is

Paracelsus

to

vil wider sinns

[und

them

of

many

himself, booted
three

hours, and

and
lessly,
cease-

ceaselessly,writes."^
The

preface

dated

was

is

he

said

to

the

third

Gall

in

in

St.

by

Staricius

theological writings
*

See

Ibid., I,

Schubert

p.

63.

and

to

Sudhoff,

to

the

book

of the

1531.

It'was

have
Abbot

Paramirum

dedicated
of

here

that

-various

St. Gall.

Paracelsusforschungen,

II, p. S3.

THE

In

LATER

he

1534,

refused
of

clothing at

in the

sun

City

of

at

is the
Pf

But

apparently

mineral

his

of

Greater

Thence
obtain

to

made

to

Villach

to

feel the

his

where
while

In

the

by Erastus,
chest

of

books,

him,

with
In

1538,

he

1535

his

same

part of which

dictated
to

the

the

same

that

year.

again

failed

and

in

1534,

in

while

fession.
prohome

ently
appar-

Innsbruck

(1537),
had

was

medical

left in
he

often

boyhood's

died

year

treatise

works

of the

absent

was

in

he

certain

had

presented

good

work

in

it appears

Paracelsus

part he had

Tyrol,

cities editions

appeared

father

to

in

as

and

which

revisited

Paracelsus

vicinity.

resort,

of

publish

he

went

and

published

unfriendliness

1537

the

the

long,

Ulm

at

both

where

consent

In

that

in

in

Joh. Jakob Russingen

that

is

Surgery

Vienna

to

honor

and

at

he

1536

Augsburg,

at

year

obtained

wrote

springs

In

reprinted.

he

he

in

Abbot

the

in

Paracelsus
Pestilence

for

in

broiling

princes, not

Meran

not

master
burgo-

doctors

Innsbruck

to

he

that

apparently

seen

remarks

From

us

of

of

Austrian

"The

city.

treatise, "The

tells

guest

the

rags,"

thence

affers,where

the

on

and

where

probably

courts

Stertzingen.'"

fortune.
he

the

his

to

he

where

he

has

in tattered

Stertzingen,

and

rags,

Innsbruck

Preface

in the

65

LABOR.

Innsbruck

privilegesof

silken

the

to

and

the

STRENUOUS

OF

came

in poverty

Tyrol,
was

YEARS

as

or

is

"a

Kromau

brought

corded
re-

there

there."

authorities

of

the

Archduchy of Carinthia, with the request that they


be published, four
of the
manuscripts: Chronicles
"

op. fol, I, 356.

l66

PARACELSUS.

Physicians, Tartaric

Diseases

His

Enemies.

of

Slanders

the

and

of acceptance

served

his

brief

The

years

from

Later

relieved

rate

in

where

cases

failed

the

afford

to

On

reputation
of

the

disappointment

in his honor
of

the

the

Stadtrichter

Taken

by

Cf. Franz

as

even

in 1537
of

Blasius

whole,

sus.
Paracel-

for

these

Strunz, Theophrastus
Personlichkeit, Leipsic, 1903, p. 73.

at

or

any

cumstance
cirerally
gen-

were

in

quently
fre-

quite

physicians
as

his

he

fortunes

that

his

in these

Pressburg

tuated.
fluc-

popular

later

dinner
at

had

more

was

discouragements.

town

have

to

appear

attendant

it is evident

and

at

distinguished patients

treatment

instance, that

for

or

considerable

was

arriving

called

According

whole

brief

comfortable

more

was

regular
in his

less successful

or

before

physicians

he

relief.

have

to

for

comfortable

of

wealthy

treat

also

poverty

the

him,

to

Huser

589-1 590.

seem

1534

more

by periods

opposed
to

to

grinding

Though

letter

Salzburg.

at

were

years

years,

1531

of

period

later

residence

last

been

his

during

the

Paracelsus

of

resting-places

as

intervals

Gratz,

Munich,

Augsburg,

and

energetic

the
of

collection

his

in

published

and

acquired by

were

fulfilled,

not

was

cepted
ac-

should

they

promised

manuscripts

the

afterward

long

authorities

The

promise

the

published, though

be

Defense Against

and

and

courteously

these

the

of

Errors

Labyrinth of

The

of Carinthia,

Land

It
was

the

years
is

corded,
re-

given
house

Beham.'
later years

of Paracelsus

Paracelsus, sein Leben

und

seine

THE

LATER

be

may

and

practice.
in

The

indeed

his

though
rather

conservative

measure

their

fears

and

of

the

of these

books
This

began

about

years.

The

the

to

1560
last

and

spite of

many

the

time

and

and

this

of

by

the

the

in

was

some

collection

works

his works

best

one

of his

hundred

works
at

met

known

consequent
of

in

appear

about

imperfections

were

popularity

to

1658, published
is the

That

influence

great

for

the

prevent

publication of

generally.
popularity and
of

efforts

potential influence.

extended

printed

circulation

to

party

of active

in

great

medical

successful

they finallybegan

of

The

the

was

barbers

Paracelsus,

shown

version

world

gery,
Sur-

art

an

by

esteem

extent

when

period

of

their

to

Latin

medical

the

for

Greater
as

surgery

largely

works

tribute
as

works

except

his

of

medical

entirely justifiedis

upon

the

scholarly training.

the

widest

under

his

largely practised by

determined

which

ceeded
suc-

all works

from

great

than

contempt

The

publication of

time,

the

was

less

of

others

in

not

was

popularity

at

and

doctors,

the

he

accomplishment,

obtained

he

life

own

considerable

print.

his

was,

eliminating

even

theory

which

work

limited

recognition

during

held

medical

to

authenticity.

The

very

of

to

possible to print,

as

manuscript

to

which

remarkable,

doubtful

of

volume

committing

circumstances

far

so

philosophy,

to

message

struggle

continuous

and

writing,

to

new

as

167

LABOR.

STRENUOUS

OF

summarized

commit
his

YEARS

Paracelsus

was

Geneva,
with
to

the
the

influence
is evi-

68

PARACELSUS.

and

hundred

and

the

fierce

and

remedies

to

Arabian

authorities,

that

is not

the

opposition

oath

and

remedies,
to

students

that

initiated

of

Paracelsus.

It

of

many
so

revolt

those

long

chapter
it to

this

discredited

way
the

berg
Heidel-

eliminate
the

of

use

Paris

of

and

and

the

was

opposition

medical

long

reports

say

and

of

to

oppose

the

the

made

legislation by

during

was

Greek-

this

University

of

by

party,

Suffice

University

members

so-called

faculties

to

gressive
pro-

utmost

remedies

student

the

Paracelsus.

upon

medical
The

the

and

that

dwell

science.

similar

cancel

of

candidates

pledging

struggle

of

celsus
Para-

the

of

followers

to

profession.

party.

were

of

influenced

the

chemical

compelled by

was

forced

dred
hun-

the

resisting to

the

place

the

gradually

such

three

conservative

dogmas

medical

of

history

conservative

among

the

of
less

or

the

and

of

innovations

against

the

of

between

use

more

traditional

the

holding

This

the

and

theories,

Paracelsan

the

record

works

contest

favoring

party
chemical

medical

the

of

circulation
initiated

of

of

ninety.

The

radical

about

reached

had

printed publications

year

the

collection, the

Latin

above-mentioned

the

tions
transla-

reprints,
1658,

By

works.

collected

and

two

before

appearing

as

editions,

comprise

than

less

no

recorded

fiftyare-

These

1600.

which

in

Sudhoff,

by

compiled

works

printed

his

of

bibliography

the

by

denced

gressive
pro-

bitter
rumors

reputation

LATER

THE

^cuLvx

OF

YEARS

i6q

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ON

BROADSIDE
Before

1606.

Engraved

by

twe^e_yeres

"

PARACELSUS.

Balthasar

Hirschvogel.

Jenichen

after

originals by

PARACELSUS.

170

reactionary influences
of the

many

notions

his

reputation with

his

own

disregard

of

followers

for

the

physicians

Greek

with having been

and

supernatural
them

considering

beliefs

supernatural

often

endeavored

with

century

for

and

the

attempts
nature

he

which

belonged.

describing

of

to

any

deed
in-

neo-

That

he

hand,

nature,
the

relates

other

of natural

illustrated.

seen

may

sixteenth
say

his

then

these

works.

and
in the
have
acelsus,
Par-

complete system

naturally
by

also

visionaries

and

present

credited

were

He

than

popular

other

domain

inspiration in

systematize

to

the

in the

we

mystics

"

found

philosophy

the

people.

on

the

that

and

"

endeavoring
of

he,

already

it is true

centuries

nineteenth

sought

have

we

Nevertheless,

rather

bring supernatural ideas, which

to

effect

seventeenth

; that

mystical

fashionable

and

credit

full and

of

the

credited, within

others
and

cause

of

to

of the

very

record

of his time
true

"

cient
an-

critics

appear

writings,

were

and

philosophy

superstitiousis

was

he

they

as

his

encyclopedic

almost

Platonic

of

of

great

Later

originator

the

ideas

often

too

the

too

followers.

Paracelsus, however,

him

of

in

shared

was

his

vitality,and

new

achievements

enthusiastic

his

degree by

his

in

weight

the

through

received

doubtless

writings,

For

true.

contained

and

time

his

to

common

even

superstitious

and

theories

fantastic

more

is also

exerted

were

and

progressive

less

other

exerted,

ideas

his

which

influence

really progressive

the

with

That

includes
facts

accepted

the

people

just

accepted facts

as

and

to

if he

of nature.

of

which
were

The

LATER

THE

YEARS

following illustration
it reads

though
from

the

whether

have

"For

in
and

times

water

here

"

earth

He

here

"

He

For

other

no

the

is

fourth

Venus

herself

has

was

now

with

her

kingdom

perished

and

her

her

ceased

and

anything

heard
when

Tannhauser

is

fable

no

folk

who

are

love

Therefore
them

such

them,
to

him

him

and

who

we

the

under

the

pygmies.
misdeeds
third

and

that

the

has

since

hate

and

those

old

story.

they

those

binds

have

true

that

or

pledges

we

days

And
For

love

that

riches

away

when

there.

she

But

passed

were

all

hate

that
those
those

them.

himself

enough.

for
has

Venusberg

paradise.

or

them

others

they give knowledge

the

For

but

that
in

less true

exist.

nature

the

kingdom

of

and

about

of

to

more

unto

and

to

compared

such

His

peopled by these,

nymph,

visits

it is not

Italy {sic'\was

in

and

children

And

generations.

Ventisberg

been

the

upon

nor

"

sylphs

and

God

in

neither

Him,

the

who

these

us

Moses

nymphs

the

and

indeed

is

of

all four

considered

warned

has

but

gods

jealous

fathers

it

And

means

Fire]
often

were

God

means

He

who

day

in

live

who

first tablet

the

on

have

nature

Almighty

commandment

of his

Earth,

gods.

as

whom

against

of

of

worshiped

shall

beings

real

are

[i. e., Air, Water,

former

It

century.

many

were

tellect
in-

clearer

the

into

it absurd.

found

there

elements

there

transplanted

twentieth

the

of

example,

an

^htn

strangely enough

atmosphere
would

as

sixteenth

IJl

LABOR.

serve

may

superstitious

is doubtful

STRENUOUS

OF

to

They

PARACELSUS.

172

know

easily influenced

be

may

With

others
the

with

day

dared

commit

to

with

For
"

when

he

has

those

is

knows

And
find

think
For

....

from

every

is it
While
op.

in having

be

for

Where

theories
of

,No

when

no

advance

foundation

one

be

neither

to

the
know
the

Where

persist
manifest

and

all
nor

in

into God's

skulls,

empty

Devil,

is

foundation.

is made

Devil

been

ever

who

that

of

superstitions?

in their

from

should

he

farther

knowledge

of

edge.
knowl-

of

lack

no

the

to

ideas

man

those

not

condition

the

who

occult

of knowledge?

own

has

nor

pected
sus-

all,is

nothing.

with

Only

of

relative

proper

of

hardly

being

after

his

are

those

and
so

had

misled,

among

writers

particular state

also

tempt
at-

to

even

other

And

understand

it must

God,

peculiar

possession

nothing?

who

folly?

can

than

fear

for

peculiarity

times

which

the

that

wisdom

own

it

"

"Can

Only

wisdom.

they

of

superstitious.

pride?

and

belief

remained

ever

Among

their

at

One.

Paracelsus

superstition

Where

and

current

credulous

"superstition" purely

and

knowledge

for

Evil

the

of

concept

found

was

writing

to

punished

connection

man

he

that

of

the

not

purely mystical

more

and

the

records

explain phenomena

to

his

such

more

record

to

courage

us."*

to

was

time, but

his

of

he

they

that

so

come

perhaps

it is

that

Paracelsus

to

many

beliefs

supernatural
of

to

respect

also,

thoughts

and

minds

our

sorcery.

help
to

any

comes
cerer
sor-

possible."
it has

been

fol, II, 291, "De

the
occulta

fortune

of many

philosophia."

prominent

THE

LATER

in

names

thoughts

YEARS

the

history

have

been

and

that

emphasized

the

And

the

the

In

this

of

his

of

such

be

may

with
method

"Experientia

his

freely

and
est

of

acceptance.
the
not

admitted,

foreseeing

Scientia."

of

of

as

dependence
in-

of

tive
authorita-

was

realization

some

self
it-

free

that

was

among

method

when

scholasticism.

centuries

was

That

science

credited

that

Paracelsus

century.

be

by

to

judging

and

mized.
mini-

ideas,

medieval
idea

questioning

sanctioned

respect

modern

of

were

distinguished

was

struggling

was

of

fate

merits

revolutionary

revolutionary
in

the

was

his

activity

of

bondage

most

dogmas

his

of

nesses
weak-

shortcomings

and

modernism

of

from

his

exaggerated

period

their

and
it

best

their

that

overlooked,

development

spirit

the

civiUzation

centuries

173

LABOR.

remembered

for

and
The

by

of

vagaries

Paracelsus

STRENUOUS

OF

yet
the

he

greatest
that
he

of

may

necessity
preached

restless

THE

close

in

his

last

this

stricken

of

years

or

three

took

September,
his

drunken

It

murdered

by

professional
have

shown

brought

to

the

the

had

basis

suffered

would
of age.

it

doubtless

of

of

examination

for

that

in

he

had

instigation

of

researches, however,
these
in

remains

childhood
account

two

causes

died

he

said

evideftce

of his exhumed

from

that

the

at

groundlessness

expert

within

various

also

was

Modern

light positive

of

most

twenty-fourth

attributed

assassins

enemies.

Investigation
on

and

legends, originating,

alleged

was

of

his

from

made

the

on

Current

debauch,

been

place

1541.

death.

scarcely forty-

death.

long afterward,

however,
for

his

before

Probably

appearance

drawings

"

death

the

found

had

he

judge

may

we

portraits

years

His

if

age

poverty-

harbor.

restful

presented

he

age

authenticated

most

failing. Though

was

advanced

more

that

seems

and

quiet

health

his

nine

it

In

Austria.

in

his

town,

its

to

came

Salzburg

of

residence

comparatively
also

city

days past,

Paracelsus

of

career

the

PARACELSUS.

OF

DAYS

LAST

THE

from
the

and

rumors

contradiction.

gives
that

evidence

Paracelsus

rickets, which

early

appearance

THE

LAST

Three

This
attested

three

by

It

the

witnesses

sudden

or

of

his

day

preserved

and

death,

to

and

God,

Amen.

he

ment.
testa-

duly

us,

the notary.

signed by

formal

75

pated.
unantici-

his last will and

been

has

in 'the

begins

not

pubhc notary

document

PARACELSUS.

was

before

days

the

to

OF

his death

Evidently
dictafed

DAYS

seology
stately legal phra-

:^
"In

the

known

and
read

see,

manifest

the

on

of

St.
of

twenty-firstday
of the

year
in

Lord
pope

of

God,

September,

in

the

Arts

of
a

and

spirit.

In

this

world

without
the

same

From

Appendix.

the

text

done

of the

h'e may

the

third

and

in the

and

and

Dr.

under

as

there

has

learned

of

the

eral
Lib-

in

body,

take

mind

leave

ordering

of

Theophrastus,
with
no

performed

testament

cially
espe-

in reason,
not

free

said

of
his

with

will

compulsion
his

enth
sev-

and

very

Doctor

words,

right knowledge,
has

and

the

Father

therefor

worthy

testament

plainly comprehensible

one,

in the

witnesses

named

that

our

forty-one,

Medicine, although weak

order

temporal goods,

any

holy

couch, yet quite sound

sittingupon

with

and

providence

Hochenhaim,

ment,
instru-

of Christ

midday,

most

besought

personally appeared
von

may

my"public notaryship

and

Theophrastus

who

holy Apostle,

at

God's

hereinafter

summoned

and

of the

in

Paul,

the

of

the

Matthew,

made

public

birth

the

it be

one

every

five hundred

reign

that name,

presence

after

thousand

one

day

all and

to

in this year

Lord,

Let

read, this present

hear

or

that
dear

of

name

and

from

necessary

given by Netzhammer,

op. cit.

176

PARACELSUS.

business

and

measure

and

last
form

all

contained:

hereinafter

as

in

pertaining

thereto

wishes

"viiiiiii"iiiiiiir"iiiiiiH^^^
,'jiV'ii
1.1J1,'
li|i!LiLn''iiM""liMlillU
BUST

By Ildephons
vogel

and

OF

PARACELSUS

Kuriger.

Early

Jenichen.

"First, he
soul

to

the

The

commits

shield

and

EINSIEDELN.

AT

19th

socle

century,
shows

his

after

drawings

Paracelsus's

life, death

protection

of

coat

and

by Hirschof

arms.

his

Almighty

poor

God,

THE

in the

LAST

confident

God

will not

and

death

the

His

of

PARACELSUS.

the

77

of

everlastingmercy

bitter

suffering,martyrdom

only begotten

Son

unfruitful

lost to

be

to

OF

that

hope

suffer

Christ

Jesus

DAYS

nor

Saviour

our

erable
mis-

him,

creature.

"Then,
the

by
the

that

said

Doctor

be

to

given

Saint

shall

ancient

in hand

every

cording
ac-

tieth
thir-

and

singings

poor

of

church,

seventh
first,

all three

to

selected

this side

in the

sung

the

at

been

has

Sebastian's

be

usage,

and

[Psalms],
is

burial-place
at

There

bridge.
to

his

penny

before

person

the

door."
Then

of money

sums

designated
instance
books

also

the

and
other

in

distribution

necessities

by

the

notary

cataloging
silver

and

clothing

there

and

interesting to

that

of his modest

or

cups

similar
notice

sums

"

and

ings
belong-

the
be

no

that

directs

neither
and

wants

considered.

possessions attested
circumstantial,

of money

other

in

gold

presence

or

vessels, articles of

personal belongings.
the

poor,

have

shown

is very

witnesses
small

be

shall

people

poor

finally

who
he

And

only

barber

heirs, the

people

shall

but

various

coins, silver

needy

for

as

and

And

goods
his

as

provision."

of such

inventory

names

the

disfavor

nor

The

and

to

professional

Salzburg.

of his

all other

nor

favor

of

and

citizen

Wendl,

surgeon)

stipend
this

plasters

Andre

institutes

wretched

of srhall

particular purposes,

medicines,

"Fifthly, for
he

for

or

Master

(therefore

bequests

articles of personal belongings

or

persons

his
to

various

enumerated

are

of

copy

It
of

is
the

178

PARACELSUS.

one

printed

medical

treatises

Evangelists,

also

manuscripts

Hieronymus

several

of

assumed

theology

the

umes
vol-

various

and

ten
writ-

been

have

to

lections,
col-

similar

"various

the

on

manuscript

seven

and

"collection

on

and

of

concordance

of

Interpretations

Bible, the

of

Testament,

New

Bible, of the

by Theophrastus."
That
executed

(the birthplace

siedeln
items

his

of

It is

satisfaction

last

days

from

the

and

that

been

to

him

know

in

died

seriously

so

he

It is
of

confusing
for

reproach
a

man

research

nothing
the

and
to

that

and

the

to

groundless,
our

present

esteem

shown

and

that

but

to

allegiance.

have

been

of

severely

that

know

to

to

many
so

yet claimed

of

tions,
fic-

and

served
unde-

cast

Paracelsus

by

modern

there

knowledge

inscription originally engraved

lier
ear-

who

corruptions,

reputation

have

of

some

he had

centuries

physician
be

relieved

discreditinglegends

three
upon

he

in his

Church

satisfaction

yet greater

which

as

faith

istration.
admin-

satisfaction

the

as

for

slight

yet found

observances

Ein-

certain

hardships
in

corded
re-

for

extent

It is also

denounced

fundamental

whose

of

Paracelsus

held

accepted by

and

doctrines

but

mass

he

that

whose

estimation.

Bishop

some

and

though

by professional colleagues
held

and

him

to

that

know

distressing poverty

years,

signed

Paracelsus),

of

to

have

to

seems

the

bequeathed

property

faithfully

were

Wessner,

Peter

receipt by

will

in

evidence

have

we

his

of

provisions

the

upon

exists

contradicts
his

tomb

THE

in

the

LAST

which,

"Here

is

cured

other

to

September,

goods
the
he

year

which
of

exchanged

guished.
distin-

with

who

and

body,
obtained

he

our

wonderful

dropsy

gout,

the

Lord
life

in

Theophrastus,

of

79

Sebastian

St.

reads

leprosy,

diseases

of

Medicine,

wounds,

the

poor
In

of

of

contagious
the

Hospital

Philippus

buried

dire

PARACELSUS.

OF

translated,

Doctor
art

the

of

cemetery

Salzburg,

DAYS

for

who
and

1541,
death."

the

and

gave
mulated.
accu-

24th

BIBLIOGRAPHY/

WORKS

RELATING

FriedrichMook,
die.
Karl

ESPECIALLY

Schubert
2

Franz

Schddcl

Paracelsus.

and

Karl

The

York,
Arthur

Edward

Theophrastus

Karl

Sudhoff,

P.

Versuch

Part

II:

This

His

the

Nawie

of

Teachings,

translator),

Writings of
2

Aureolus

of Hohenheim,

etc.

bast
Bomcelsus,
ParaNew

einer

Kritik

The

metic
Her-

Philippus

Called

celsus
Para-

1894.

vols., London,

Bibliographia

der

Echtheit

Paracelsica.

Paracelsushandschriften.

Netzhammer,

Wissenswerteste

1887-89.

der

Para-

Schriften.

Part

Raymund

of

Bombast

Great.

Qelsischen

by

(editor and

Alchemical

the

Paracelsusforschungen.

Known

Substance

Waite

and

1887-91.

(1887).

d.

n.

Salzburg,

Life of Philippus Theophrastiis

the

Stu-

Abbi'ldungendes

und

Sudhoff,

of Plohenheiwi,
and

kritische

Frankfort-on-the-Main,

pamphlets,

Hartmann,

eine

1876.

Grabdenkmal,

Theophrastiis
Eduard

PARACELSUS.

Theophrastus Paracelsus,

Wurzburg,

Aberle,

TO

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Berlin, 1899.
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und

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82

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Theophrastus

Strunz,

Franz

Das

Paracelsus:

Sein

Theophrastus

Strunz,

P ersonlichkeit

seine

Buck

Paracelsus:

Para-

Leipsic, 1903.

granum.
Franz

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gen.

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die neuesten

und

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und

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,

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mirum

John

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Theophrastus

Strunz,

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Bibliotheca

Ferguson,

Jena, 1904.

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Opus

und

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Hugo

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9th

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der

in

ed.

(1885).
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( Abhandlungen

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XVI).

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eine

in

A.

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Joseph Bauer,
Heinrich

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Traumspiel

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Bartscherer,

Agnes

The

Munich,

Geschichte

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Stuttgart,1859.

3d

der

1870.

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und

ed., 3 vols., Jena,

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und

der

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des

drztlichen

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lin,
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BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Pagel, Handbuch

and

HISTORIES

F.

Medizin.

der

CHEMISTRY.

OF

Histoire

resnoy,

de

philosophichermetique.

la

vols., Paris, 1762.

Joh.

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1902-05.

vols., Jena

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alter Zeiten.

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Die

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from

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MISCELLANEOUS

Christoph Sigwart,

English

(translated by

Schriften.

1st

and

2d

series, 2d

B., 1889.

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Hough).

vols.,London,

(English
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