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Le Chatelier's Principle

31 terms by susan_marcan

When the forward and reverse reaction


occur at the same rate, the reaction is
said to be in ___________

equilibrium

Le Chatelier's principle states that

if a system at equilibrium is disturbed,


the equilibrium position will shift to
counter the effects of the disturbance

What happens to the equilibrium if a


reactant's concentration is increased?

Favors the forward reaction

What happens to the equilibrium if a


reactant's concentration is decreased?

Favors the reverse reaction

What happens to the equilibrium of an


exothermic rxn if heat is added? Why?

The reverse rxn is favored because


heat is a product.

What happens to the equilibrium of an


endothermic rxn if heat is added?

The forward rxn is favored because


heat is a reactant.

For the rxn A + B <> C + D, what


happens if C or D are reduced?

Forward rxn is favored

For the rxn: 2A (g) + 3B (g) <> C (g) +


3D, what happens if pressure is
reduced?

The reverse rxn is favored because the


equilibrium shifts toward the larger
moles of gas which are on the left side.

How does the equilibrium change if a


catalyst is added?

No change in equilibrium (catalysts


only change rate at which equilibrium is
reached)

When you take something away from a


system at equilibrium the system shifts
in such a way as to _________ some of
what you've taken away

replace

When you add something to a sys at


equilibrium the system shifts in such
way as to _______ some of what you've
added

use up

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TEACHER





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Define Le Chatelier's principle

any change in a system at equilibrium


results in a shift of equilibrium in
direction which minimizes (opposes)
change. "dynamic equilibrium concept"

Define dynamic equilibrium

When the rate of the forward reaction


is equal to the rate of the reverse
reaction and concentrations of
reactants and products remain
unchanged.

Define position of equilibrium

The ratio of the concentration of


products to reactants

Consider the following exothermic


reaction in equilibrium:
4HCl(g) + O(g) 2Cl(g) + 2HO(g)
State, with a reason, what would
happen to the amounts of chlorine and
hydrogen chloride if water is removed.

The [HCl] and [Cl] as system moves


to right to oppose removal of water

Consider the following exothermic


reaction in equilibrium:
4HCl(g) + O(g) 2Cl(g) + 2HO(g)
State, with a reason, what would
happen to the amounts of chlorine and
hydrogen chloride if the temperature
of the container was increased.

The [HCl] and [Cl] as system moves


to left to oppose increase in
temperature and moves in
endothermic direction.

Consider the following exothermic


reaction in equilibrium:
4HCl(g) + O(g) 2Cl(g) + 2HO(g)
State, with a reason, what would
happen to the amounts of chlorine and
hydrogen chloride if a catalyst is
introduced.

NO CHANGE in [HCl] or [Cl] as a catalyst


speeds up the rate of both the forward
and backward reaction.

State whether a high or low


temperature and a high or low
pressure should be used to maximize
the yield of product:
2SO(g) + O(g) 2SO(g), H = -kJ
(exo)

Low temperature (Opposes decrease


by moving in exdothermic direction)
High pressure (Opposes increase by
moving to side with least moles)

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/H&KDWHOLHU
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Q. The Haber process involves an


equilibrium reaction:
N(g) + 3H(g) 2NH(g), H = -kJ
The reaction is carried out at 450 C
and 250 kPa with an iron catalyst.
Give one reason why a higher
temperature is not used.

System would oppose change move


backwards in endothermic direction
and yield of NH would decrease.

Q. The Haber process involves an


equilibrium reaction:
N(g) + 3H(g) 2NH(g), H = -kJ
The reaction is carried out at 450 C
and 250 kPa with an iron catalyst. Give
two reasons why a lower pressure is
not used

System would oppose change move


backwards in favor of more moles and
yield of NH would decrease. Collision
frequency would decrease so rate
decreases.

Q. The Haber process involves an


equilibrium reaction:
N(g) + 3H(g) 2NH(g), H = -kJ
The reaction is carried out at 450 C
and 250 kPa with an iron catalyst. Why
is a catalyst used?

To lower the actiavtion energy and


speed up the reaction.

CO(aq) CO (g) H = -kJ (exo) Use


Le Chatelier's principle to explain what
happens to the CO concentration in
water when a can of soft drink is
shaken up and then opened.

The system is no longer just the bottle


but the universe. The [CO] in the
universe is much lower so the system
will move to the right to oppose the
change. Dissolved COdecreases and
so the drink goes 'flat'.

CO(aq) CO (g) H = +KJ (endo) Use


Le Chatelier's principle to explain why
is it important to serve "fizzy" drinks
chilled rather than warm?

If fizzy drink gets warm the system will


oppose the change by moving in the
enothermic direction. Less COis
dissolved and drink will go flat.

increasing concentration of reactants


causes___________

shift right (forward)

increasing concentration of products


causes_________

shift left (reverse)

decreasing volume causes __________

shifts towards fewer moles of gas


particles

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increasing volume causes __________

shift towards greater moles of gas


particles

exothermic: increasing temperature


causes ________

shift left (reverse)

exothermic: decreasing temperature


causes __________

shift right (forward)

endothermic: increasing temperature


causes __________

shift right (forward)

endothermic: decreasing temperature


causes __________

shift left (reverse)

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