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ISSN 0976-0814

9 770976 081006

Bi-Annual
THE LITERARY

POST

JOURNAL OF MODERNISM

Labyrinth
Vol.1 / No.1

March 2010

Editor
LATA MISHRA

Labyrinth

The Bi-annual Literary Journal of Postmodernism

Vol.1 - No.1 March 2010

ISSN 0976-0814
Board of Advisors
Dr. Bran Nicol - Reader in Modern & Contemporary Literature, Director of Centre for
Studies in Literature, University of Portsmouth (UK)

Albert Russo - Fictionist and Poet in English and French, recipient of The American
Society of Writers Fiction Award, The British Diversity Short Story Award, New York
Poetry Forum Awards, Amelia Prose and Poetry awards and the Prix Colette.
Dr. TS Chandra Mouli - Poet, Translator, Critic, Associate Professor (Retd.), Railway
College, Secunderabad, AP
Dr. Amrendra Sharma - Dept. of Linguistics, Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of
Oman

Dr. Rajkamal Shiromani - PG & Research Department of English, TM Bhagalpur


University, Bihar

Prof. OP Budholia - Critic & Scholar, Gwalior, MP


Dr. KV Dominic - PG & Research Department of English, Newman College,
Thodupuzha, Kerala
Dr. Jaydeep Sarangi - A Poet-academic, HOD (English), Seva Bharati
Mahavidyalaya (Vidyasagar University), WB
Dr. P Raja - Author and Freelancer, Associate Professor, Tagore (Govt.) Arts
College, Pondicherry
Aju Mukhopadhyay - A bilingual poet, essayist, and fiction writer, Pondicherry
Dr. Binod Mishra - Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT Roorkee, UK

Editor
Dr. Lata Mishra
Assistant Professor, PG Dept. of English Studies & Research
Govt. KRG (Autonomous) PG College, Gwalior, MP

Associate Editor
Dr. Gavarappan Baskaran
Associate Professor, Research Centre in English
VHNSN College, Virudhunagar, TN

Table of Contents
Smile for Sale: A Study of Relational Truths
in Shashi Tharoor's The Five -Dollar Smile

- 07

- Amrendra K Sharma

The Fluid and the Fixed: Subject in Lacan


and Delueze
- Bilal A. Shah
Image as Meaning: A Study of the Select
Poems of Vikram Seth
- L Judith Sophia
Debating Multiculturalism: A Study of the
Fictional Narratives of Jhumpa Lahiri and
Sudha Murthy
- Dhishna Pannikot
In Search of a 'Balming Climate': A Feminist
Reading of Kamala Das's Select Poems
- KS Anish Kumar
Changing Trends in Translation Studies
- T Sai Chandra Mouli
Immortality through Nature in Temsula Ao's
Laburnum for My Head
- A J Sebastian Sdb
What about our own roots?: Problematising
Education and Philosophy in R.K.Narayan's
The English Teacher
- Arun Kr. Mukhopadhyay
I don't know nothing about teaching students
who use double negatives: The Big Grammar
Use Questions for Teachers in Writing
- Abha Gupta
A Dissect on the Imagery of Women in Amitav Ghoshs
The Glass Palace and The Hungry Tide
- N. Jaishree
Quest of Modern Man: From Angst to Love
- Devasree Chakravarti, G.A. Ghanshyam
Ruskin's Practical Criticism: A Modernist's Approach
- Krishna Singh
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala's The Householder:
A Comic Vignette of Indian Society
- M. Meena Devi, Bhaskaran Gavarappan
A Study of Globalisation, Nationalism and Subalterns
(Women) in the Novels of Amitav Ghosh
- Anju Bala Agrawal

- 13

- 25

- 33

- 40
- 49

- 57

- 64

- 81

- 89
- 96
- 104

- 119

- 126

Suffering Precedes Spiritual Enlightenment:


A Study of R. K. Narayan's The English Teacher
- Amandeep Rana
Dimensions of self-imposed sufferings during the
freedom struggle. A Critical Study of Chandramoni
Narayanaswamy's Novel The Karans Of Penang
- P C K Prem
Colonial Child - Caught in the Cross Fire of
Cultural Conflict
- Lakshmi Sistla
Womanism in Ngugi's Devil on The Cross and
Nwapa's One is Enough
- S.S.V.N. Sakuntala
Whose Tradition and Whose Individual Talent:
A Paradigm of Indian English Novels
- Binod Mishra
Interview with Sunil Sharma
- Jaydeep Sarangi

- 136

- 144

- 159

- 167

- 173
- 180

Short Stories
The Wounds of A Sister - Albert Russo
The Sinner - P. Raja

- 191
- 196

Poetry
Shanta Acharya - Hunger
- 199
Sukrita P Kumar-High and Low, Ambers in the Pacific
- 200
Arbind Kumar Choudhary - Love, Nature
- 201
Aju Mukhopadhyay- At the river bank, The Train
- 39, 201
Farzana Quader- Dear Neruda
- 202
Prof. Pashupati Jha - Civilization: A Progress Report
- 203
P. Raja - Oh, To be a Poet, Lessons in Love
- 48, 172
Hemang A Desai Dusk, An Old House, Dream...Web
-166, 204

Book Reviews
Acceptance, Rejection, Compromise: Three One Act Play
(Trilogy) by Pranab Kumar Majumder - K. V. Dominic
- 205
The Treatment of The Themes of Mortality in The Poetry of
the Bronte Sisters by Yana Rowland - Rajni Singh
- 208
Explorations in Indian English Drama by T. Sai Chandra Mouli
and M. Sarat Babu - Ram Sharma
- 210

List of Contributors

- 213

Smile for Sale:


A Study of Relational Truths in
Shashi Tharoor's The Five-Dollar Smile
Amrendra K Sharma
Manju Roy
Wallace Stevens finds 'thirteen ways of looking at a
blackbird.' Likewise, someone may discover one hundred and
thirteen ways of looking at a truth. Or maybe there are just as many
truths and not 'the truth'. In fact, the multiplicity of truth, in a
subtle way, reminds us of a 'correspondence theory of truth.' This
theory states that truth is related to a fact - a view that was
advocated by Russell and Moore early in the 20th century. However,
according to some perceptive researchers (working in
Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University ) this
label is usually applied much more broadly to any view explicitly
embracing the idea that truth consists in a relation to reality, i.e.,
that truth is a relational property involving a characteristic relation
(to be specified) to some portion of reality (to be specified).
This article would try to explore the relational (or
corresponding) nature of truth in Shashi Tharoor's story titled The
Five-Dollar Smile through the following:
1) People's perception of the marginalised other (here
represented by Joseph Kumaran)
2) Joseph's desire for assimilation with the 'others', and
through it, his attempt to forge an identity, and the 'others''
response to it
3) The other boys' attitude to the 'five-dollar smile' poster
4) The other face of NGOs
Here it may sound apt to explain the process of 'othering.'
Kayyal defines it as a process in which society creates a 'we' and a
'they,' resulting in the majority dominating over the minority. It is
the majority that thrives and their ideas and opinions are passed
from one generation to the next. At times, it is also viewed as having
opposite or radically different ideas. As different people are
brought up in different atmosphere, they grow up with different

13

The Fluid And The Fixed:


Subject In Lacan And Deleuze
Bilal A Shah
Abstract:
The paper proposes a threefold comparison and contrast between the
Lacanian and the Deleuzian views on the subject. First, I argue that
both Lacan and Deleuze problematize the Liberal Humanist Cartesian
notion of an autonomous, transcendental subject that the Humanists so
valued and took for granted. Second, Lacan highlights and focuses the
lack in the constitution of the subject while Deleuze`s focus is on the
productive desire. Finally, Deleuze's project in Anti-Oedipus is to attain
the production of desiring-machine through scrambling and
demolishing Lacan's Oedipal triangulation of Daddy-mommy-me.

One of the most intriguing questions haunting the literary


theory in the wake of poststructuralism is that of identity and the
definition of subjectivity. Poststructuralist thinkers as various as
Roland Barthes, Jacques Lacan, Michel Foucault, and Jacques
Derrida argued, not so long ago, that the autonomous subject of the
humanist tradition, a subject capable of knowing both the world
and itself, was a utopian dream of the European Enlightenment.
Humanism believed in what is now called the transcendental
subject, the long standing belief that individual (the subject) is
antecedent to, or transcends, the forces of society, experience and
language (Barry 18). This view of human subjectivity was severely
questioned and revised in many different ways in a period that
recognized the existence of an unconscious mind, the opacity of
language, and the role of discursive practices in the dissemination
of social power.
This revision of the idea of subjectivity has had important
reverberations for the conception of knowledge generally and the
notion of history in particular. If subjectivity is conceived of as
something unstable, groundless, fluid and changing rather than
stable, transcendental, fixed and constant, then human knowledge
can no longer be viewed as something fixed and permanent.
Instead of regarding knowledge as an edifice to which positivistic
scholarship could continue to contribute so that the scope of its

25

Image as Meaning:
A Study of the
Select Poems of Vikram Seth
L. Judith Sophia
Image, one of the most common terms used in criticism
significantly contributes to the meaning of the text. The meaning of
a particular text differs from one reader to the other depending on
the mental pictures evolved by the readers based on their previous
experiences. Vikram Seth (1952), one of the contemporary Indian
English poets, a novelist, travel writer, children's writer, biographer and memoirist employs different patterns of images in his
poems in the collection, Beastly Tales from Here and There
(1992). This paper attempts to identify the poet as a bricoleur
who has borrowed from texts of different heritages to illuminate
the readers and to study the different patterns of images employed
which appeal to the sense perception of the readers. The poems
chosen for analysis are, 'The Crocodile and the Monkey,' 'The
Louse and the Mosquito' and 'The Hare and the Tortoise' from The
Collected Poems (1995).
Derrida, a poststructuralist, borrows from the French
Anthropologist, Claude Levi-Strauss the term bricolage. It is not
a new device or invention but a discourse of method which affirms
that it utilizes those instruments which already exist. In his book,
The Savage Mind, Strauss emphasizes the mytho-poetical nature
of bricolage (17). To the poststructuralists, a text is a system of
signs. Text in literary studies refers to the poem, plays and novels.
Some of the theories offered by poststructuralists seem to be very
difficult to digest and apply to the texts and they make the readers
feel how difficult it is to read a book (Jackson 15). In the
postmodern scenario, text and discourse are used as synonymous.
Discourse occupies a larger semantic space than the text. In
Derrida's words, If one calls bricolage the necessity of borrowing
one's concepts from the text of a heritage which is more or less
coherent or ruined, it must be said that every discourse is
bricoleur(202). To Strauss the engineer differs from the bricoleur
and in this sense says Derrida the engineer is a myth (202).
With brilliant audacity Frye, in his Anatomy of Criticism,
identifies myth with literature, and asserts myth is a structural
organizing principle of literary form (341). Myth as Frye

33

Debating Multiculturalism:
A Study of the Fictional Narratives of
Jhumpa Lahiri and Sudha Murthy
Dhishna Pannikot
Multiculturalism is a topic that has relevance in the postmodern narratives. When world itself becomes a global village,
multiculturalism bridge the borders between different cultures
and make cultures permeable to humanity. Multiculturalism
enables people across the cultural borders to taste unfamiliar
cultures. Many writers have explored the possibilities of
presenting different cultures through their narratives. Most
noteworthy among the contemporary writers are Jhumpa Lahiri
and Padma Shri Sudha Kulkarni Murthy.
Jhumpa Lahiri (1967-) the renown contemporary novelist
and short story writer presents varied themes through her works.
She presents stories on love, death, varied human relationships
and thereby creates a fictionalized world full of energy and vitality.
Lahiri as a short story teller could be seen as in her best in the
collection of stories The Interpreter of Maladies and in the
Unaccustomed Earth which had won her an established position
in English literary circle which had won her many remarkable
awards for her contributions.
Padma Shri Sudha Kulkarni Murthy (1950-) a benevolent
social worker born in Shiggaon, Karnataka, is popular through the
Infosys Foundation which was jointly developed with her husband
Narayan Murthy. She has written a collection of short stories,
fiction and non-fictions. Her most popular work is the Dollar Sose
(Dollar daughter-in-law), wrote in Kannada and translated to
English as Dollar Bahu.
Her other popular works are Mahashweta (in Kannada
and English), Wise and Otherwise, Dollar Bahu (English), Paridhi
(Kannada) Gently Falls the Bakula, The Magic Drum and other
Favorite Stories, How I Taught My Grandmother to Read and
other Stories, The Old Man And His God and .
Jhumpa Lahiri, the London born writer shows in herself
elements of a multicultural upbringing. She was brought up in

40

In Search of A Balming Climate:


A Feminist Reading of
Kamala Das's Select Poems
K.S. Anish Kumar
The postmodern creative environment has paved the
way for the need to deconstruct power oriented roles and this in
turn led to rethinking of the socially constructed and
historically conditioned roles. In the mean time questioning the
so-called accepted norms, that has been marginalizing 'the
other', has become an inevitable creative process. To Linda
Hutcheon
postmodernism denaturalized
the traditional
historical separation of the private and the public and the
personal and the political (142) In fact binary oppositions that
are maintained by the dominant forces stood as stumbling
blocks for the sustainable development of humanity. Politicizing
personal desires is one of the major tenets of contemporary
writings and hence women writers explicitly
portray their
sufferings and the violence that are exercised on them and their
resultant impact.
The literary texts authored by male writers treat women
as mute objects in which women
are
submissive,
domesticated creatures who lack the essential 'selves'. Like
fundamentalists male writers often declare 'holy mantras' of
controlled way of living for women through their images of women.
Critics are not exceptions to this mindset as Atwood opines in her
book Second Words that a text by a woman writer is criticized in
terms of her sex. Further traditional notions, try to annihilate
both the text and the author by creating 'an imaginary unneeded
link' between the author and the events in the text. It is
remarkable to note that the craftsmanship of such criticism
attempts to exclude the female writer from the literacy scenario. In
contrast to this texts by males are always praised for their
perception and presentation. Unlike the female protoganists of
women novelists, and poets the male writer takes the role of the
representative of the society and advocates rules and regulations
for the womenfolk through their personae or characters.

49

Changing Trends in
Translation Studies
TS Chandra Mouli
Translation is an integral part of human life. Verbal
communication connects people, non verbal communication plays
an equally significant role in cementing and reinforcing interpersonal relationships. It is translation of the said and unsaid that
makes it possible to bring people and their cultures together. In
fact, translation or transcreation is a very important aspect of
comparative literature.
Translation as a sub-text of the original text is
comparatively a modern concept. Maybe it is the
later requirement of straight jacketed faithfulness
to the original which had a debilitating effect. In
Indian tradition it never used to be so as the
transference of text from one language into another
was more of the nature of adaptation, retelling and
redoing which went on over a period of time. [Gopi
Chand Narang, 2005].
Serious practitioners and lovers of translation are exposed
to countless theories and counter theories of translation.
Unequivocally it is accepted as inspiring, as creative as the original
writing in the source language (S.L.). In this context terms like
source language(S.L.), source text(S.T.), target language(T.L.) and
target text(T.T) assume significance.
Early theories of translation focused attention on literal
translation only. Shift in focus generated diverse theories
subsequently. It is often said if a translation is beautiful it is not
faithful and if it is faithful it cannot be beautiful. One wonders
whether male chauvinism influenced such an idea. A close scrutiny
of the history of translation and the methodology followed reveals
that the emphasis was more on retaining loyalty to the source
language(S.L.) and the source text(S.T.). No attention was paid to
the target reader(T.R). The translator took delight in exhibiting his
extraordinary comprehension and communication skills
(linguistically). The aesthetic value of S.L text was given greater

57

Immortality through Nature in


Temsula Ao's Laburnum for My Head
A.J. Sebastian sdb
Padma Shree Temsula Ao, poet and fictionist from
Northeast India, in her latest collection of short stories entitled
Laburnum for My Head, examines various aspects of human
condition in interpersonal relationships. In the title story of the
collection, she examines how Lentina's longing to be buried beside
a laburnum tree with its buttery yellow blossoms, instead of a
headstone, is fulfilled. Her longing to be buried in the lap of nature
draws attention to our innate desire to be immortalised through
nature.
It is a traditional practice in Christian graveyards, to erect
headstones known also as memorial stones, gravestones or
tombstones, made of granite, marble or other materials. These are
erected vertically above the ground to keep the sacred memory of
the departed soul. They also symbolize wealth and prominence
of a person in society. Such stones are marked with epitaphs in
praise of the deceased or quotations from religious texts, such as
"requiescant in pace." William Shakespeare's inscription reads:
Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear,
To dig the dust enclosd here.
Blest be the man that spares these stones,
And cursed be he that moves my bones
(Headstone. http://www.answers.com).
Such traditional style of cemetery known as monumental
cemetery, are being replaced by lawn cemetery; and in recent
times by natural cemetery or eco-cemetery or green cemetery. In
the natural cemetery an area is set aside for natural burials among
eco-conscious people to become part of the natural environment.
This is with the idea of one decaying into nature to be one with her.
Hence, in natural cemeteries there is no conventional grave
markings such as headstones, instead, a tree or a bush is planted
to commemorate the faithful departed. (Cemetery. http://en.
wikipedia.org).
Plants are used to mark rites of passage both in human and

64

Labyrinth | Vol.1 No.1 (March-2010)

What about our own roots?


Problematising Education and Philosophy in
R.K. Narayan's The English Teacher
Arun Kumar Mukhopadhyay
The very concepts of alienation and 'rootlessness', the loss of one's own
cultural moorings, can justifiably be claimed to be characteristic, more
or less, of any realist fiction writer of a nation that inscribes an
experience of colonisation leading to a distinctive cultural
marginalisation. In the case of R.K. Narayan, who is essentially a writer
of the 'individual', the idea of 'roots' is, interestingly, not confined to the
search of his characters only. Instead, it is also seen to form a major part
of his writerly self. It is pertinent to note that Narayan once said to Ved
Mehta that having roots in family and religion are the essential qualities
of being a good writer. Thus the protagonist's search for roots in this
novel, far from being an overt manifestation of a nativist attempt at
constructing an Indian view of life in a society of bi-cultural hybridity,
becomes technically a strategy of resistance, a strategy of postcolonial
reverse-narrative.

Narayan's The English Teacher (1945) is the story of


Krishnan, the protagonist whose search for his cultural roots takes
him along a process of evolution to forge independently a
philosophy to assimilate his emotional, intellectual and spiritual
ties with his country or society. In fact, the writer's treatment of
education and philosophy in this novel actually forms a derivative
part of an abiding quest of the protagonist for the truth of his
identity in his native cultural roots. In course of the novel,
Krishnan, the English teacher of Albert Mission College in Malgudi,
where he was once a student, finally resigns his post in favour of an
option for teaching in a nursery school of an indigenous model.
What is significant is that, such an evolution in him being initiated
primarily though by his ingrained antipathy for the system of
English Education in colonised India, is necessitated in the
ultimate reckoning, by some sort of spiritual enrichment gained
after a strenuous meditation and psychic communion with the
spirit of his dead wife. Maturity in Krishnan can be traced in terms
of his tension between his conventional modes of existence and the
ideal sort of a harmonious existence, sensed in his quest for the

81

I don't know nothing about teaching


students who use double negatives:
The Big Grammar Use Questions
for Teachers
Abha Gupta
Abstract:
Language is central to literacy and
reading/writing skills. The primary focus of
this article is on instructional strategies that
teachers can use in the classroom when they
encounter repeated patterns of grammatical
inconsistencies, specifically double negatives
and subject verb agreement issues in
students' writing that diverge from the norms.
Instructional approaches are provided to
address the issue of linguistic divergence.
For many teachers it is an endless process of 'correcting
mistakes' with no long term sustained effects in students' writing.
Common instances in the classroom include recurring syntactic
corrections of sentences using double negatives or pronominal
subjects, such as, I don't know nothing or Them girls made noise.
Use of multiple negation (it ain't no cat), negative inversion (don't
nobody know), mismatch of subject-verb agreement (she don't go
there), and dropping third-singular /s/ inflection are common in
students' formal writing samples. Majority of these students are
proficient language users who can code-switch from formal to
informal writing styles if they are explicitly taught the skill in
classrooms.
Additionally, with the growing numbers of students who
bring linguistically diverse needs in our schools, teachers
encounter challenges when it comes to students' written language
skills on a daily basis. In addition to linguistic diversity, students
differ in other traits such as age, background experiences and
knowledge, and level of educational attainment. Teachers face
educational issues related to identity, language, and culture

89

A Dissect on The Imagery of Women


In Amitav Ghosh's
The Glass Palace and The Hungry Tide
N. Jaishree
Amitav Ghosh is a humanist who through his novels has
raised his powerful voice against all kinds of tyranny and
oppression. He disapproves of domination of man by man at all
levelspolitical, military and economic. Ghosh is a social anthropologist, and therefore it is not surprising that he brings to his
writing an exactitude of construction and a clarity of language and
style .
Feminism encompasses certain central dilemmas in
modern experience. Its internal disagreements are part of its
continuing power, which involve people in discussion far beyond
the movement itself. Most feministic thought grapples unavoidably
with some aspect of the equality-difference problem. The
question is, do women want to be treated as equal as men or do
they see biology as establishing a difference that will always
require a strong recognition and that might ultimately define quiet
separate possibilities inside 'the humans'. Equality theory tends to
de-emphasize the body to place faith in each individual's capacity
to develop a self not ultimately circumscribed by a collective law of
gender. But difference theory tends to emphasize the body and the
unconscious, where the body's psychic meaning develops off.
Amitav Ghosh portrays his women sensitively and in fact
they are the leading spirits in his fiction. They are distinct
portrayals of a cultural construction. Cultural constructs also
helps to juxtapose feminine positions and feministic
interpretations can emerge even through absence and negation. He
never presents his women as overt radical feminists nor as the
stereotypical images of Sita and Savitri. The Glass Palace is an
extraordinary achievement, a spectacular work of Amitav Ghosh.
The novel is a sincere and sustained effort to present a historical
document through a series of characters, time and space, i.e., three
interconnected parts of the British Empire : Burma, with its

180

An Interview with

SUNIL SHARMA
Jaydeep Sarangi
Sunil Sharma is a trend-setter in new fiction in India
and a perceptive bilingual critic. His short stories have
already appeared in New Woman (Mumbai), Indian
Literature (of Sahitya Akademy, New Delhi), Indian
Literary Panorama (Mumbai), Contemporary Vibes
(Chandigarh), Seva Bharati Journal of English Studies
(Medinipur) and Indian Journal of Post-colonial
Literatures (Kerala). Besides that, he is a freelance
journalist in English. His areas of strength are
Marxism, Literary Theory and Cultural Studies. His
book on the Philosophy of the NovelA Marxist Critique
is already published. Minotaurdealing with
dominant ideologies and socio-political realities of the
20th century is also recently published from Jaipur
(India). The novel has been favourably received and
reviewed in India and abroad. Frank Joussen, the
noted German poet and scholar, comments, if
fiction wishes to regain its former importance in
today's discourse make sure it is politically poignant
and artistically brilliant as this astounding debut novel
by Sunil Sharma. Shaleen Singh, the Editor of
Creative Saplings calls Sunil Sharma as a great story
teller with lots of promise. He is currently the Viceprincipal and Head of the Department, English, Model
Collegean A-grade college affiliated to the University
of Mumbai, MumbaiMIDC, Dombivli (East) in District
Thane, state of Maharashtra.

JAYDEEP: How do you want to be introduced to the reading


world?
SUNIL: An extremely ordinary guy--- middle-class, suburban and
small-town, not much to look at and heavily out-of-shape; a
Bellowian character on a curious search for meaning and personal
connectivity in an indifferent universe, often feeling terribly lonely
in crowds; an odd man out in an increasingly commercialized
culture where bonds are disappearing fast, like rupees/dollars in
the recessionary economy. He is a guy who is grounded and often
kind, with an extraordinary interest in life, and its deeper aesthetic

191

SHORT STORIES
THE WOUNDS OF A SISTER
Albert Russo
from his Eur-African novel And there was David-Kanza which will
appear in his own French version as Exiles Africains - Et il y eut
David-Kanza Ginkgo Editeur, Paris, March 2010

During our stay in Riccione, on the Adriatic coast of Italy,


Massimo and his sister Liliana paid us a visit; they were my
husband's first cousins. He had the litheness and the nobility of a
Gregory Peck, and eyes that pierced through you to the soul,
whereas she, a head shorter than him, could have seemed quite
pretty if she didn't frown so much. It was only later that I
understood why such a woman, still young, bore the wrinkled
mask of a lady in her forties.
Unlike their parents, Massimo and Liliana had
miraculously escaped from the concentration camp. Upon their
return, they found their home in Pisa, luckily, untouched and
unoccupied. Massimo had resumed his medical studies at the
city's reknown university and became a pediatrician with a
reputation of efficiency and of great benevolence, whilst Liliana, a
degree in hand, taught junior highschool, taking care, at the same
time, of the household. She doted on her brother, like a mother
hen. There was between them the tacit understanding that they
should never speak of the horrors they had suffered during the
war, and especially not of the loss of their beloved parents.
What had brought the young people to the Adriatic coast
was not to have, like most holidaymakers, a good time at the sea,
but to meet with their cousin. Considering Sandro like a family
elder, they needed to hear his opinion on a serious and urgent
matter which disturbed them profoundly.
At university, Massimo had met a young girl with whom he
had fallen passionately in love. She in turn reciprocated with the
same intensity, to the point where they reached the conclusion
that, once they had both accomplished their studies, they would
marry.
They had known each other for three years, but Massimo
had always concealed their relationship to his sister, for Eva, that

CONTRIBUTORS
?
Amrendra K Sharma is an Asst. Professor of Linguistics,

Dhofar University, Salalah, Oman and has been teaching


English Language & Literature for the last 30 years. He
specializes in Linguistics and ELT but has published research
articles in IWE and American literature. He is connected to two
international journals in different editorial capacity.
?
Manju Roy is Senior Lecturer in English, C M College
Darbhanga- Bihar with a number of research articles in various
journals of repute.
?
Bilal A. Shah is a Research Scholar in the Department of
Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur, WB, INDIA.
?
L Judith Sophia is an Assistant professor of English, Scott
Christian College, Nagercoil, TN, INDIA. She has several papers
published in reputed journals and anthologies.
?
Dhishna Pannikot is Lecturer in Department of English,
University of Calicut, Kerala, INDIA. She has published several
articles in reputed journals.
KS Anish Kumar a poet-critic and a translator is Assistant
?
Professor at Bharathidasan University College, Perumbalur,
TN, INDIA. Apart from having published several articles in
reputed journals and anthologies, his recently published book
of poems in Tamil has received wide critical acclaim. He is
currently editing a critical volume on Commonwealth Literature
with Dr Chandra Mouli.
T Sai Chandra Mouli, a poet, translator and critic is a former
?
Associate Professor (English), Railway College, Secunderabad,
AP, INDIA . He has so far published 6 Vols. of Literary Criticism
on Indian Writing in English; 2 more Vols. are in press. Dr
Mouli's areas of interest include Indian Writings in English,
Translation Studies, Linguistics and Comparative Studies.
A J Sebastian Sdb is Associate Professor, Department of
?
English, Nagaland University, Kohima Nagaland and has to his
credit several articles in reputed journals.
?
Arun Kumar Mukhopadhyay is an Assistant Teacher at K. M.
Institution Bankura, WB, INDIA. He has published several
articles in reputed journals.
?
Abha Gupta is an Associate Professor, Darden College of
Education (Old Dominion University), Department of Teaching

214

Labyrinth | Vol.1 No.1 (March-2010)

and Learning, 5115 Hampton Blvd., Norfolk, VA 23529


?
?
Jaishree N. is Lecturer in English, Sri Eshwar College of
Engineering, Kinathukadavu, Coimbatore.
Devasree Chakravarti is Research Scholar, Guru Ghasidas
?
Central University, Bilaspur (C.G.) India.
G.A. Ghanshyam is Assistant Professor at Govt. M.L. Shukla
?
College, Seepat, Bilaspur (C.G.) He has several papers
published in International and National Journals and Edited
Books. He has edited two books. He is also Editor-in-Chief of
online journal Journal of Teaching English Literature and
Research, Cultural Secretary of The Association for English
Studies of India (AESI), Convener of Literature SIG, ELTAI,
Executive Member-ELTAI and Co-ordinator of ELTAI, Bilaspur
Chapter.
?
Krishna Singh is Asst. Professor at Govt. PG College, Shahdol,
MP. She has published several research paper in journals and
anthologies and is pursuing her D. Litt.
?
M. Meena Devi is Assistant Professor at Research Centre in
English, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar, TN.
?
G. Baskaran is Associate Professor at Research Centre in
English, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar, TN.
Anju Bala Agrawal is Reader in the Deptt. Of English, R.C.A.
?
Girls' P.G. College, Mathura. She submitted her thesis of D. Litt
on Nature and Man in Wordsworth and Seamus Heaney.
Besides many published articles she has authored William
Wordsworth: A Collection of Critical Essays and edited Post
Independence Indian Writing in English in two volumes.
Amandeep Rana is Lecturer, P. G. Department of English, JC
?
DAV College Dasuya. Distt. Hoshiarpur, Punjab.
?
PCK Prem (IAS, Retd.) An academician-turned-bureaucrat, a
bilingual novelist, short story writer, poet and critic based in
Palampur, Kangra, HP.
?
Laxmi Sistla is an Assistant Professor of English at Govt.
College Visakhapatnam, AP.
?
SSVN Sakuntala is Associate Professor, Department of
English, Dr. L.B. PG College Visakhapatnam, AP
?
Binod Mishra Assistant Professor, Dept. of Humanities &
Social Sciences, IIT Roorkee (UK) has published several articles
in reputed journals and edited several anthologies.
Jaydeep Sarangi, Poet-academic, is Head of the Department of
?
English, Seva Bharati Mahavidyalaya (Vidyasagar University),
W. B. (India) and the author of a number of significant

215
publications (including 21 books) on postcolonial issues,
?
Indian Writing in English, Australian Literature and Linguistics
and ELT in reputed journals/magazines in India and abroad. He
has been awarded with Sahitya Gaurav 2009. He edits Seva
Bharati Journal of English Studies.
Albert Russo who has published worldwide over 65 books of
?
poetry, fiction and photography, in English and in French, his
two mother-tongues, is the recipient of many awards, such as
The American Society of Writers Fiction Award, The British
Diversity Short Story Award, several New York Poetry Forum
Awards, Amelia Prose and Poetry awards and the Prix Colette,
among others. His work has been translated into a dozen
languages, including German, Italian, Spanish, Greek, Turkish,
Bengali and Polish, and broadcast by the World Service of the
BBC, publishing on the five continents, in 22 countries. He has
also garnered several prizes for his photography books, Indie
Excellence awards, among others. He was also a member of the
1996 jury for the prestigious Neustadt International Prize for
Literature which often leads to the Nobel Prize of Literature.
?
P. Raja an author and freelancer is Associate Professor at
Tagore Govt. Arts College, Pondicherry. He has to his credit
several collections of short stories, essays and poems.
?
Aju Mukhopadhyay is a bilingual poet, essayist and fiction
writer, Pondicherry.

Labyrinth | Vol.1 No.1 (March-2010)

216

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A futuristic Bus Terminus in Israel | by Albert Russo


Published by: Digital EFX, Gwalior on behalf of
Lata Mishra, Editor, Labyrinth, A Biannual Literary Journal of Postmodernism.