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kiwifruit

apricot

chestnut

cherry

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

SONATA Sumleta*

48

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

apple

walnut

pear

peach

bush and
cane berries

plum

table
grapes

cherry

lobal production of sweet cherries is approximately 2.2 metric tons annually, 35% of which
from European countries. Italy is the top producer in Europe, with 110-120,000 metric tons
equivalent to more than 15% of continental production.
Among fruit tree crops, cherry has seen the most dramatic innovation in the last 15 years, due
mostly to two factors: a new series of semi-dwarfing and dwarfing rootstocks and a new assortment
of high quality and mostly self-fertile varieties.
The new rootstocks have allowed the use of modern training systems used for high density
orchards with the positive consequences of early bearing, increased yield per hectare and low
production costs.
Two other innovations are worth mentioning: varieties suitable for mechanical harvest by shaking
stem-less fruit and the use of plastic films to protect the trees from rain during the pre-harvest and
harvest period and prevent fruit cracking.
Varieties harvested without stems have been in the European market for some years now and are
destined for increasing success because they can be sold at a much lower price than traditional
cultivars.

Rootstocks for cherry


rootstock
origin

graft
affinity

vigour
induced

soil type
suitability

advantages

disadvantages

Colt
P.avium*
good
similar
all soil types
may be used
slow

P. pseudocerasus
to seedling
in replantings
to bearing
CAB6P
clonal selection good
medium
all soil types,
early bearing, good
suckers

of P. cerasus
(-20%)
even heavy ones fruit size and quality
MaxMa Delbard14 clonal selection good
medium
all soil types,
high yield,
small fruit size

of P. mahaleb*
(-30%)
suffers from
early bearing
on heavy-cropping

P. avium
water-logging
varieties
Gisela 5
clonal selection good
low (-50%)
moist,
early bearing,
only for zones most

of P. cerasus*
irrigated soils
manageable
suited for cherry

P. canescens
from the ground
and for vigorous


medium-yielding

varieties
Gisela 6
clonal selection good
medium-low
moist,
early bearing,
only for zones

of P. cerasus*
(-30-40%)
irrigated soils
manageable
most suited for cherry

P. canescens
from the ground
and for vigorous

medium-yielding

varieties
SL64
clonal selection good
high
loose and
good for dry
not tolerant

of P. mahaleb
(-10% )
light soils
lime-rich zones
of water-logging

or re-planting
Piku 1
complex hybrid good
low (-30%)
all soil types
early bearing,
requires

if irrigated
good yield
irrigation
Piku 4
complex hybrid good
low (-30%)
light or sandy
early bearing,
only for zones most

soils
suitable for areas
suited for cherry

with limited water
and for vigorous

medium-yielding

varieties
P-HL-C*
P. avium*
good
medium-low
moist, irrigated early bearing
poor root anchorage,

P. cerasus
(-30-40%)
soils
requires staking

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

49

CHERRY_VISION

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INTERNTS
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Ultra-delicate technology which provides the best response


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SIZE
COLOR
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EXTERNTS
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to give RESULTS!
UNITEC S.p.A.
Via Provinciale Cotignola, 20/9
48022 - Lugo (RA) Italy
tel. +39 0545 288884
Email: unitec@unitec-group.com

www.unitec-group.com

walnut

pear

bush and
cane berries

peach

CLIMATE

SOIL

Sweet cherry is native to Europe


and is cultivated from Norway
to the Mediterranean countries
where most production is concentrated. Two periods of fruit
development are very sensitive
to weather conditions: bloom
(cold and rain) and harvest (rain).
Starting about 20 years ago in
Norway, plastic films have been
used to protect the trees during these two periods, to eliminate the problem of rain and limit
damage from cold. This technique has been so successful
that now the protection of cherry
trees, particularly during fruit ripening, has become common in
many cherry-producing countries including Italy. Tree coverings are also used to hasten fruit
ripening, but in this case they are
applied in January-February and
left in place through harvest. The
coverings may be used only with
self-fertile cultivars as insects
have trouble pollinating in greenhouses.

cherry

table
grapes

plum

ROOTSTOCKS

With the exception of clay and


anoxic soils, all soil types are
suitable for growing cherries with
a well-chosen rootstock. Among
traditional rootstocks, Santa Lucia (seedling, SL 64) is still useful in the lime-rich, rocky, loose,
dry soils of Puglia, or in Sabina
(Lazio) or the Venetian hills. Colt
has replaced seedling stock in
the fertile and moist soils of the
Po Valley. MaxMa 14 and MaxMa
60, hybrids of cherry seedling
and Santa Lucia, are suited to
various soil types. Selections of
sour cherry such as CAB6P, Weiroot 10 and 13 are well-suited to
heavy soils. Some of the dwarfing rootstocks such as Gisela
5 require very fertile and moist
soil in order to sustain through
the years the high and early
yield that they induce. Among
hybrids with intermediate vigour
are Gisela 6 and 7, Piku 1 and
Ceravium PHLA; these adapt
well to various soil types as long
as they are irrigated.

Many cherry rootstocks are available, thanks to public, private, national and international breeding
programs that have given nurserymen and growers many options
for their specific needs and soil
types. The main development has
been dwarfing and semi-dwarfing
rootstocks which have allowed
the development of intensive
cherry growing. These orchards
achieve full production in few
years from trees managed totally
from the ground and able to produce adequate quantities of high
quality fruit. This requires an adjustment in orchard management
practices, both in terms of choice
of grafting combinations (variety
and rootstock interactions) and in
terms of training systems, pruning, irrigation and fertilisation.
In traditional low-density cherry
orchards (500 trees/hectare) typical of un-irrigated hilled areas,
Colt, MaxMa Delbard 14 and
CAB6P are without a doubt the
rootstocks best able to cope with

Relative vigour of cherry rootstocks

100

100
90

90

80

80
70

65

70

60
50

50

40
30
20
10
0
GISELA 5

GISELA6
P-HL-C*

PIKU 1
PIKU 4
MAXMA DELBARD 14
Brokforest

CAB6P

SL64

Colt
MAXMA DELBARD 60
Broksec*

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

51

kiwifruit

apricot

environments with limiting factors


(water, poor and marginal soils).
MaxMa Delbard 14 allows the
reduction of tree spacing because it is less vigorous, and encourages early consistent bearing in most varieties. For many
areas of southern Italy, as long as
they are not waterlogged or replanted, SL64 promotes good
yields and high graft compatibility. For high-density orchards
the Gisela series of rootstocks
is able to reduce the bulk of the
tree, encourage early bearing,
with trees managed totally from
the ground; this lowers harvest
costs by increasing hourly yield.
Between the two options, Gisela 5 is less vigorous (-50% relative to seedling P. avium), while
Gisela 6 is more vigorous and
thus better adapted to a wider
variety of soil conditions. The Piku
series, P-HL-C* and MaxMa Delbard 14 are suitable for highdensity planting. All of these rootstocks require physical structures
(poles and wires) and fertigation
systems to support the trees
through each phase of development. Even after harvest it is necessary to supply the trees with
adequate water and nutrients to
permit the differentiation of fruiting structures (floral buds) for the
next growing season. Pruning
strategies must also be adapted
to the chosen graft combination,
with the scope of stimulating new
growth while keeping production
near the central axis.

TRAINING
SYSTEMS
AND PRUNING
The introduction of medium-low
vigour rootstocks has sparked
innovation also in training systems and tree management. In
traditional cherry-growing zones
and in hilly and poor soils, the
use of vigorous rootstocks is
compatible with 3-dimensional

52

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

cherry

chestnut

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

SKEENA* pillar

open canopy training systems;


whereas, in fertile foothill areas
or plains, with irrigation water,
the use of medium-low vigour
rootstocks has allowed the development of training systems
for high density orchards such
as slender spindle, pillar and
perpendicular Y.
Since 3-dimensional open training systems are used without irrigation, it is recommended that
the transplanted first-year tree be
topped at 50-70 cm above the
ground to promote the growth of
strong shoots that will become
the main scaffold branches. Multiple rounds of summer pruning
will eliminate shoots that are too
vigorous and tip the ones that
should develop fruiting wood;
any twisting or bending with artificial weights will be performed
on branches that are too vertical or are lacking in side shoots.
For the Catalan vase, a train-

training system
vase
Catalan vase
palmette

ing system started in Spain, the


future branches are repeatedly
summer-pruned (tipping shoots
when they exceed 50-60 cm) in
order to stimulate the growth of
lateral shoots which will make
up the structural skeleton of the
plant, remaining relatively short
and thus easily manageable from
the ground. Later, the definitive
structure will be achieved by
thinning shaded branches in the
centre of the canopy. Once the
tree begins producing fruit, pruning will be limited to thinning fruiting wood and making renewal
cuts to keep the tree within the
desired dimensions. This pruning
should be done in late summer
so that floral buds present on the
remaining branches may mature.
The vertical wall training systems
such as palmette and drapeau Marchand are adopted
in fertile foothills or plains using rootstocks with high vigour

rootstock

tree spacing

trees/ha

Colt, MaxMa Delbard14

5-5,5 x 3-4

450-670

Colt, MaxMa Delbard14

4,5-5 x 2,5-3

670-890

MaxMa Delbard14, Gisela 6

4-4,5 x 3-3,5

740-1000

slender spindle Gisela 5 e Gisela 6, Piku 1 e 4, P-HL-C

3,5-4 x 1,5

1670-2850

pillar

Gisela 5 e Gisela 6, Piku 1 e 4, P-HL-C 3-3,5 x 0,5-1

2850-3330

perpendicular
V or Y

Gisela 5 e Gisela 6, Piku 1 e 4, P-HL-C

1480-2500

4-4,5 x 1-1,5

apple

walnut

pear

bush and
cane berries

peach

plum

cherry

table
grapes

Ripening dates of cherries (relative to Burlat)


in Emilia-Romagna Burlat ripens on May 25th

Variety

May

June

July

ripening date
days relative to Burlat

-7
-3
0
+6
+7
+8
+9
+10
+10
+10
+12
+12
+12
+15
+16
+18
+18
+19
+20
+20
+20
+22
+23
+24
+24
+25
+30
+30
+30
+35
+40
+45

PRIMULAT Ferprime*
EARLY LORY 1789 NV*
BURLAT
LORY BLOOM 1788 NV*
SABRINA SUMN314CH
FEU 5
GIORGIA
FOLFER*
SAMBA Sumste*
LORY STRONG 1786 NV*
BIG LORY 1787 NV*
FERDOUCE*
CELESTE Sumpaca*
FERTILLE*
NEW MOON Sumini*
FERMINA*
SIMCOE Probla*
SONATA Sumleta*
VAN
CANADA GIANT Sumgita*
SATIN Sumele*
FERNIER*
FERROVIA
KORDIA
LAPINS
BIG STAR*
SKEENA*
FERDIVA*
REGINA
SWEETHEART Sumtare*
FERTARD*
LATE LORY

(seedling and Colt), medium vigour (MaxMa 14) or medium low


vigour (Gisela 6, P-HL-C), with
the goal of reducing tree vigour
thus promoting early bearing.
The palmette is obtained by cutting the central axis to stimulate
the growth of shoots that will
form the various tiers, or by using sylleptic shoots (palmetta
anticipata).
The drapeau Marchand is
formed by planting the intact or

barely tipped young tree at a 45


angle along the row and training
the side shoots up perpendicularly, tied to the supporting structure.
The spindle, or slender spindle,
is an intermediate training system between the 3-dimensional
systems and the vertical wall
systems suitable for high-density
orchards and flat fertile areas; it
requires poles, wires and fertigation lines. Dwarfing (Gisela

series, Piku series, P-HL-C* and


MaxMa Delbard 14) or medium-low vigour rootstocks are
preferred, depending on orchard
conditions. The branching structure of the tree is composed of
a basal tier of 4-5 branches at
70-90 cm height. These must
not interfere with mechanized
operations such as harvest or
thinning (the first scaffold must
be below the harvest platform
trailer). Above the basal scaffold

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

53

kiwifruit

apricot

chestnut

cherry

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

BIG STAR*

the central leader is left with wellspaced fruiting branches in order


to favour light penetration. These
branches support the fruiting
wood: spurs, hangers, twigs.
Quality of the nursery trees is
of critical importance, with preference for robust trunks with
sylleptic side branches. In first
year trees without sylleptic side
growth, the tree is topped at 6080cm above the ground, or the
bark is notched above selected
buds to promote their growth. In
the orchards first years, summer
pruning is used to encourage the
growth of the central axis tip and
the lower tier of scaffold branches, removing branches that are
too upright and vigorous, and
heading those which should
develop fruiting wood. On the
scaffold branches, thinning cuts
are made to select lower-angled
shoots and open the canopy.

54

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

One variant of the slender spindle


is the pillar, which is suitable for
modern high-density orchards in
fertile soils with risk of late spring
cold. As with the spindle system,
the pillar requires trellis posts
and wires to support the trees
as well as the irrigation/fertigation system. Low-medium vigour
rootstocks are appropriate for
the pillar system, which reduce
plant size, allowing better light
penetration in the lower canopy
(Gisela 5 and 6, P-HL-C* and
MaxMa Delbard 14), and encourage precocious bearing. The
pillar structure is based on a central axis which supports the fruiting wood (spurs or hangers) directly on it or on short branches,
and does not have a basal scaffold tier. Depending on the planting distance, un-branched or 1to 2-year-old branched trees or
may be used. Trees are allowed

to grow freely, removing only


excess fruiting wood. Topping
weak trees at 30-40 cm from the
ground is recommended, leaving
only one of the resulting shoots
to become the central axis. To
keep the fruiting wood near the
central axis, current years shoots
should be pruned back by 1/3rd
of their length which permits the
remaining buds to mature. At the
end of the winter, dormant pruning is used to further shorten the
branches, leaving only 4-6 buds.
Of these, the basal buds will produce large and well-coloured
fruit while the buds towards the
end of the branch will produce
vegetative renewal growth. This
kind of pruning is very simple,
quick and doesnt require skilled
labour, and it allows adequatelysized fruit to be obtained from
dwarfing rootstocks, which otherwise have a tendency to pro-

apple

walnut

pear

peach

duce fruit of smaller size as the


tree ages.
High-density specialized orchards may also use the V or Y
training system, with the principal branches oriented either
perpendicular to the rows (perpendicular V) or along the rows.
These systems also required
dwarfing or medium-vigour root-

bush and
cane berries

plum

stocks, and are suitable for orchards which will be covered by


plastic anti-cracking films. This
makes the V or Y systems particularly appropriate for very early
varieties that are susceptible to
cracking.

VARIETIES
BIG LORY 1787 NV*
Ripening date: +12 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi, Italy.
Tree: high vigour, open growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (LoryBloom);
constant high yield.
Fruit: very large size (about 13
grams), glossy dark red skin, firm
flavourful flesh.
Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: variety with high and consistent yield of large flavourful
fruit, not very susceptible to cracking and brown rot ; short stem,
large pit; slightly delayed bearing.
BIG STAR*
Ripening date: +25 Burlat

EARLY LORY 1789 NV*

cherry

table
grapes

Origin: DCA-Bologna, Italy


Proprietor: CRPV, Italy
Tree: High vigour, standard upright
growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: early bearing, high and consistent yield, selffertile.
Fruit: large (calibre 28-30 mm),
bright red skin, very firm pink
flesh, pleasant sweet flavour
(RSR>16.5Brix), aromatic; medium
long stem, small pit.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium
Overall: variety of interest for high
and consistent yield; attractive
fruit, firm, large and flavourful.
BURLAT
Ripening date: around May 25 in
Emilia-Romagna, Italy.
Origin: France
Tree: medium-high vigour, tendentially
upright growth habit, slow to bear
Productivity and fruiting: self-incompatible, requires pollinizers (Giorgia,
Lapins and Van* and recommended);
high yield.
Fruit: medium size, heart-shaped, dark
red skin, red flesh, sweet and juicy,
of medium firmness. Medium stem
length.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium.
Overall: old cultivar of French origin,
it has established itself as the first
variety similar to the durone type.
Good flavour, of medium susceptibility to cracking with pre-harvest rain.
The tree is vigorous and slow to bear.

CANADA GIANT Sumgita*


Ripening date: +20 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: high vigour, early bearing
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
pollinated by Burlat, Van and Lapins;
high and consistent yield
Fruit: large size, shiny intensely red
skin, very firm and juicy flesh, good
flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: very low
Overall: interesting for fruit size.
CELESTE Sumpaca*
Ripening date: +12 Burlat
Origin: Summerland, Canada

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

55

kiwifruit

apricot

chestnut

cherry

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

FERROVIA

Proprietor: IPS, France


Tree: high vigour, upright and compact growth habit
Productivity and fruiting: mediumearly bearing, high and consistent
bearing, self-fertile.
Fruit: large (calibre 26-28 mm),
intense wine-red skin, red flesh of
medium firmness; good flavour,
sweet (RSR> 13Brix) and aromatic;
short thick stem; medium-small pit.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium
Overall: interesting for early bearing and consistent high yield ;
attractive firm large flavourful
fruit. Compact growth habit for
easy orchard management from
the ground.
EARLY LORY 1789 NV*
Ripening date: -3 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi, Italy
Tree: medium vigour, early bearing
Fruit: larger fruit than Burlat, dark
red skin; flesh medium-firm, better
than Burlat; good flavour.

56

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

Susceptibility to cracking: like Burlat


Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Lory Bloom);
high yield.
Overall: variet y interesting for
appearance and size of flavourful
fruit; planting with Lory Bloom
maximizes productive potential,
use of covering films advised to
protect fruit from cracking.
FERDIVA* V3115
Ripening date: +30 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France
Tree: medium-high vigour, standardupright growth habit
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires late-blooming pollinizers (Regina is recommended); very
productive if well-pollinated, early
bearing.
Fruit: large size (calibre 26-30 mm),
heart-shaped, dark red skin, firm
pulp, crisp, juicy, balanced flavour
(sweet and acidic); medium-long
stem.

Susceptibility to cracking: low


Overall: very productive variety,
with high potential for fruit size
and low susceptibility to cracking,
good flavour.
FERDOUCE* V3239
Ripening date: +12 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France
Tree: high vigour, open growth habit
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Folfer* recommended); high yield, early bearing.
Fruit: large fruit size (calibre 28-30),
red skin, firm pulp, crisp, balanced
flavour; short stem.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium
Overall: very productive variety
with potential for large fruit; good
flavour.
FERMINA* V3122
Ripening date: +18 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France.
Tree: medium-high vigour, standard-

apple

walnut

pear

peach

bush and
cane berries

plum

FOLFER*- V3387

open growth habit.


Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires pollinizers (Fernier*,
Fertille* and Satin Sumele* are
recommended), high yield.
Fruit: large size (calibre 26-30 mm),
heart-shaped, dark red skin, firm
flesh, crisp, balanced flavour very
sweet and acidic; medium length
stem which detached easily (suitable
for mechanical harvest).
Susceptibility to cracking: low
Overall: very productive variety, with
high potential calibre and low susceptibility to cracking; good flavour.
FERNIER* V2315
Ripening date: +22 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France.
Tree: medium-high vigour, standard
growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Burlat recommended); consistent high yield.
Fruit: medium-large, red skin, firm

cherry

table
grapes

flesh, crisp, balanced pleasant flavour.


Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: variety suited for many
areas of cherry production; high
yield, good fruit size, firm flesh,
good flavour.
FERROVIA
Ripening date: +23 Burlat
Origin: Italy
Tree: high vigour, upright growth
habit, average entrance into production.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Regina, Kordia,
Giorgia) ; if well-pollinated yield is
high.
Fruit: large size, bright red skin, firm
flesh, good flavour, juicy.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium.
Overall: variety well-suited to all
cherry-producing zones of Italy,
reaches high levels of production
when grafted on dwarfing rootstock.

FERTARD* V3382
Ripening date: +40 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France.
Tree: medium-high vigour, standardupright growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers with late bloom
(Regina is recommended); medium
yield, early bearing.
Fruit : large size (calibre 28-30
mm), heart-shaped, dark red skin,
very firm flesh, crisp, sweet; long
stem.
Susceptibility to cracking: low or
none.
Overall: highly crack-resistant
variety, produces very sweet
and firm fruit.
FERTILLE* V3476
Ripening date: +15 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation,
France.
Tree: high vigour, standard-open
growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires pollinizers (Burlat or
Fermina* recommended); high yield
if well-pollinated (bloom is abundant).
Fruit: large size, red skin, firm pulp,
crisp, flavour balance tends towards
acidity.
Susceptibility to cracking: mediumhigh.
Overall: very productive variety,
with the potential for large fruit
size; good flavour.
FEU 5
Ripening date: +8 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France.
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi, Italy.
Tree: medium-high vigour, compact
growth habit, early bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Lory Bloom);
very high yield.
Fruit: large size, dark red skin and
flesh, firm flesh, crisp, well-balanced
flavour (sweet and acidic).
Susceptibility to cracking: medium.
Overall: ver y produc tive variety, well-suited to many cherry-

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apricot

cherry

chestnut

growing areas; of interest for high


density orchards on rootstocks
of medium vigour (MaxMa 14,
Gisela 6, P-HL-C*).
FOLFER* V3387
Ripening date: +10 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France.
Tree: medium-high vigour, standardopen growth habit, early bearing;
good capacity for branching.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, early bloom, requires pollinizers
(Primulat Ferprime*, Early Lory
1789 NV); very high yield.
Fruit: large size (calibre 26-30 mm),
bright red skin, firm red flesh, crisp,
sweet and juicy; medium stem.
Susceptibility to cracking: mediumlow.
Overall: variety of interest for its
extended window of opportunity
for harvest (+8 +12), appearance
and quality of fruit; harvest management facilitated by fruits ability to hold well on tree.

Tree: medium-high vigour, semiopen growth habit, early bearing.


Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires pollinizers (Burlat, Lory
Bloom, Van*); high yield.
Fruit: large size, bright to dark red
skin, very firm pulp, fairly good flavour; long stem.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium
Overall: variety well-suited to various zones, produces fruit that are

GIORGIA
Ripening date: +9 Burlat
Origin: ISF Verona.

SABRINA SUMN314CH

58

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

prized for their size, firmness and


shelf-life; long stem allows faster
harvesting; interest for high density
orchards when on dwarfing rootstock
(Gisela 5 and 6, Piku 1 and 4).
KORDIA
Ripening date: +24 Burlat
Origin: Czech Republic
Tree: medium-high vigour, open
growth habit, early bearing.

KORDIA

apple

walnut

pear

peach

Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires pollinizers (Regina and


Ferrovia); high yield.
Fruit: good size considering the harvest date, bright to dark red skin,
very firm flesh, crisp, holds well on
the tree, excellent flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: valuable medium-late
variety, consistent producer of
attractive, flavourful, high quality
fruit with good post-harvest life;
performs best on dwarfing rootstock (Gisela series and Piku
series, P-HL-C*).
LAPINS
Ripening date: +24 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Tree: medium-high vigour, upright
growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-fertile,
bears also on twigs/hangers.
Fruit: medium-large size, bright red
skin, firm pink flesh, good flavour, juicy.
Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: very productive variety
with good fruit size and quality;
best performance when grafted
on vigorous rootstocks as dwarfing stocks tend to decrease fruit
size.
LATE LORY
Ripening date: +45 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi
Tree: medium-high vigour, compact
growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
pollinated by Sweetheart; consistent high yield.
Fruit: large size, intense bright red
skin, flesh of medium firmness, very
good flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: very low.
Overall: late variety, of interest
for fruit size, vivid red colour and
good shelf life.
LORY BLOOM 1788 NV*
Ripening date: +6 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi, Italia
Tree: medium vigour, upright growth
habit, early bearing.

bush and
cane berries

plum

cherry

table
grapes

REGINA

Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, requires pollinizer (Feu5, Lory


Strong, Big Lory, Early Lory);
high yield.
Fruit: large size, dark red skin and
flesh, firm, good flavour, low acidity.
Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: variety for areas where
fruit ripens early, consistent producer of sizeable fruit which are
resistant to cracking and brown
rot, good pollinizer.
LORY STRONG 1786 NV
Lory Strong 1786 NV
Ripening date: +10 Burlat
Origin: P. Argot, France
Proprietor: Vivai F.lli Zanzi
Tree: medium-high vigour, early
bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile,
requires pollinizers (Lory Bloom);
high yield.
Fruit: large size (11.5 g), dark red
skin, firm pulp, excellent flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium.

Overall: vigorous productive variety with high quality fruit.


NEW MOON Sumini*
Ripening date: +16 Burlat
Origin: Summerland, Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: high vigour, standard-upright
growth habit
Productivity and fruiting: high and
consistent, self-fertile.
Fruit: large (calibre 26-28 mm), dark
red skin, very firm flesh, medium
stem length; pleasant sweet flavour
(RSR 14Brix).
Susceptibility to cracking: low.
Overall: variet y of interest for
flavour, colour and resistance to
cracking; consistent yield.
PRIMULAT Ferprime*
Ripening date: -7 Burlat
Origin: CEP Innovation, France.
Proprietor: CEP Innovation, France.
Tree: high vigour, standard-upright
growth habit.

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

59

kiwifruit

apricot

chestnut

cherry

strawberry

SKEENA*

minor
fruit species

almond

improve the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit.


SABRINA SUMN314CH
Ripening date: +7 Burlat
Origin: Summerland, Canada.
Proprietor: IPS, France.
Tree: vigorous, fairly upright growth,
early bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: excellent
yield, self-fertile.
Fruit: large, kidney-shaped, very firm;
sweet flesh, medium stem length.
Susceptibility to cracking: crackresistant.
Overall: variety characterised by
very large (28 mm) kidney-shaped
fruit, crack-resistant though firm,
early ripening.

Fruit: large size, bright red skin, firm


flesh, crisp, sweet flavour; stem of
medium length.
Susceptibility to cracking: similar to
Burlat.
Productivit y and fruiting : selfsterile, requires pollinizers (Burlat,
Sweetheart Sumtare*); consistent
high yield, early bearing.
Overall: ver y pr oduc tive v ariet y, fruit similar to Burlat but
ripen approximately one week
earlier.
REGINA
Ripening date: +30 Burlat
Origin: Germany
Tree: high vigour, open growth habit,
medium-late entrance into production.
Productivity and fruiting: self-sterile, pollinated well by Ferrovia and
Kordia; medium high yield.
Fruit: medium-large, bright red skin,
pulp of medium firmness, good flavour.

60

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

Susceptibility to cracking: very low.


Overall: late variety, of interest
when grafted on weak rootstocks
that encourage early bearing and

SATIN Sumele*

SAMBA Sumste*
Ripening date: +10 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: medium-high vigour, early
bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: self-fertile,
high yield.
Fruit: large size, glossy dark red skin,
firm flesh, holds well on tree, good
flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: low
Overall: of interest for fruit size
and firmness, low susceptibility to

apple

walnut

pear

peach

LATE LORY

bush and
cane berries

plum

cherry

table
grapes

cracking and good affinity with all


rootstocks.
SATIN Sumele*
Ripening date: +20 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France.
Tree: medium-low vigour, upright
growth habit, tendency to not
branch.
Productivity and fruiting: self-fertile,
high yield.
Fruit: medium-large fruit, bright
red skin, firm flesh, flavour tends
towards acidity.
Susceptibility to cracking: low
Overall: consistently productive
variety with flavourful mediumlarge fruit, of interest for highdensity orchards.
SIMCOE Probla*
Ripening date: +18 Burlat
Origin: USA
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: medium vigour, tendency for
upright growth
Produc tivit y and fruiting : selfsterile, requires pollinizers (Van*
and Lapins); high yield if well-pollinated.
Fruit: large size, dark red skin, very
firm flesh, pleasant slightly acidic flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: low
Overall: variety with large very
firm fruit, appropriate for
orchards with very long rows (tolerates transport for long distances).
SKEENA*
Ripening date: +30 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: high vigour, open growth habit,
early bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: self-fertile,
consistent high production concentrated on spurs.
Fruit: large size, bright red skin,
flesh of medium firmness, good flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: high.
Overall: v er y pr o duc t i v e la t e
variety with fruit of good qual-

ity and size; requires use of covering films to prevent cracking,


and rootstocks of medium-high
vigour.
SONATA Sumleta*
Ripening date: +19 Burlat
Origin: Summerland, Canada.
Proprietor: IPS, France.
Tree: medium vigour, standardupright growth habit.
Productivit y and fruiting : early
bearing, consistent high yield, selffertile.
Fruit: large (calibre 26-28 mm),
bright red skin, red flesh of medium
firmness; full-bodied flavour (both
sweet and acidic); short thick stem;
medium pit.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium
Overall: variety of interest for early
bearing and consistent high yield;
attractive large firm flavourful
fruit.
SWEETHEART Sumtare*
Ripening date: +35 Burlat
Origin: Canada
Proprietor: IPS, France
Tree: medium vigour, open growth
habit, early bearing.
Productivity and fruiting: self-fertile,
consistent high yield.
Fruit: large size, intense bright red
skin, very firm flesh, juicy, good flavour.
Susceptibility to cracking: very low.
Overall: late variety of interest
when grafted on weak rootstocks
that can promote early bearing and
improve the organoleptic quality of
the fruit.
VAN
Ripening date: +20 Burlat
Origin: Summerland, Canada
Tree: medium-high vigour, standardopen growth habit.
Productivity and fruiting: early bearing, consistent high yield; self-sterile,
pollinizers Burlat and Lapins.
Fruit: medium-large (calibre 26-28
mm), bright red skin, red firm flesh,
pleasant sweet flavour; medium
length stem; small pit.
Susceptibility to cracking: medium

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

61

kiwifruit

apricot

chestnut

cherry

strawberry

minor
fruit species

almond

apple

FERDOUCE*

Overall: variety of interest for early


bearing and consistent high production of attractive, firm, medium-large, flavourful fruit.

Nutritional measures to improve the production of Cherry tree

Green shoot
tips

White shoot
tips

Flowering

Fruit setting

Fruit growth

Turning point

soil application
FUNGICROPS

4 l/ha
Cleans the lymphatic vessels and increase the root absorbition
30 l/ha per 1-2 times. Improves
the preservability quality
and shelf-life of fruits.

EVOL
IDROL-VEG

20 l/ha Stimulates vegetative development and increases


the leaves and root systems

20 l/ha
More uniform, sweet and larger fruit size

3 kg/ha Biostimulant, enhances the pollen and the ovary


fertility and facilitates the fertilisation.
Improves the fruit setting

2 kg/ha
Biostimulant, improves the vegetative growth
and increases the size

foliar application
LEVO-ENERGY
ENERFOL
8-10-45

3 kg/ha
Increases the size and improves the colour
5 l/ha per 3-6 times for the fruit enlargement. Improves the
preservation and shelf-life. It reduces the dehydration of the fruit

EVOL
IDROL-VEG

3 l/ha
Improves the absorption and the effectiveness of phytosanitary treatments (acid pH).
Improves color and the sugar content of the fruit

For further information please contact our Technical Department


L.E.A Srl Tel.+39 059 86.38.811 Fax +39 059 86.38.017 Email: info@leaagricoltura.it Web site: www.leaagricoltura.it

62

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

Picking

walnut

pear

bush and
cane berries

peach

plum

cherry

table
grapes

Pest and disease management for cherry


DISEASE / PEST

Commercial Product Name

END OF DORMANCY
TO GREEN BUTTON

600-700 g/hl

COPPER HYDROXIDE 25%

210-230 g/hl

ZIRAM 76%

250-450 g/hl

COPPER OXYCHLORIDE 32%

500-600 g/hl

MOVENTO 48 SC

SPIROTETRAMAT 4,54%

300 ml/hl

Commercial Product Name

Active Ingredient

Dose

Notes

DIQUAT 17%

3,3 - 5 l/ha

Suggestend for young trees


and plant nursery.

GLIFOSATE 27,9%

3-4 l/ha

Just in completely developed


orchards, protecting trees
with suitable tools.

FLUAZIFOP-P-BUTILE 13,4%

1,5-2 l/ha

Grassy annuals and perennials.

Active Ingredient

Dose

Notes

CIPRODINIL 37,5%
+ FLUDIOXINIL 25%

30 g/hl

SIGNUM

BOSCALID 26,7%
+ PYRACLOSTROBIN 6,7%

60-75 g/hl

Commercial Product Name

Active Ingredient

Dose

Notes

THIAMETHOXAM 25%

30-40 g/hl

To be appied after flowering.


To mow or to remove flowering weeds
before the application.

EPIK

ACETAMIPRID 5%

120 g/hl

STEWARD

INDOXACARB 30%

16,5 gr/hl

LAMBDA-CIALOTRINA 9,48%

25-30 ml/hl

BACILLUS THURINGENSIS
var KURSTAKI 6,4%

100 g/hl

DODINA 35%

125-150 ml/hl

LAMBDA-CIALOTRINA 9,48%

15-25 ml/hl

Max 250 ml/ha.

THIAMETHOXAM 25%

30-40 g/hl

To be appied after flowering.


To mow or to remove flowering weeds
before the application.

Active Ingredient

Dose

Notes

DIQUAT 17%

4 - 5 l/ha

Active Ingredient

Dose

COPPER OXYCHLORIDE 32%

600-700 g/hl

MEZENE WG

WEEDS (BROAD-LEAVED
AND GRASSY ANNUALS
AND PERENNIALS)

FROM
BEGINNING OF
FLOWERING
TO PETAL FALL

MONILIA LAXA
(Monilia laxa)
DISEASE / PEST

FROM END OF FLOWERING


TO FRUIT COLOUR CHANGING

APHIDS
(Brachycaudus
persicae, Myzus cerasi)
LEAFROLLERS
(Argyrotaenia pulchellana,
Archips podanus,
Archipis rosanus)

Commercial Product Name

LEPIDOPTERA
(Cydia,Anarsia)
CILINDROSPORIUM PADI
(Cilindrosporium padi)
CHERRY FLY
(Rhagoletis cerasi)

DURING
AUTUMN

DISEASE / PEST
WEEDS
(BROAD-LEAVED
AND GRASSY
ANNUALS
AND PERENNIALS)

LEAVES
FALL

CORINEUM BEIJEINKII
(Corineum beijeinkii)
BACTERIAL DISEASE
(Pseudomonas syringae
pv morsprunorum)

DISEASE / PEST

Notes

COPPER OXYCHLORIDE 32%


CORYNEUM BEJERINCKII
(Coryneum bejerinckii)

DISEASE / PEST

Dose

30-50 g/plant for prevention


CHELATED IRON EDDHA 6,2% 60-150 g/plant for treatment
CHELATED IRON EDDHA 5,5% 60-80 g/plant for prevention
100-150 g/plant for treatment

PREVENTION
AND TREATMENT OF
FERRIC CHLOROSIS

BACTERIAL DISEASE
(Pseudomonas syringae
pv. morsprunorum)
WHITE SCALE
(Pseudaulacaspis
pentagona)

Active Ingredient

SYLLIT 355 SC

*
Commercial Product Name

Commercial Product Name

Add white mineral oil 0,25%.

Max 250 ml/ha.

Notes

PRODUCTS OF THE SYNGENTA GROUP ARE IDENTIFIED WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE LOGOS.
THE FOLLOWING TABLES INCLUDE CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS AUTHORIZED IN ITALY AT THE DATE THIS DOCUMENT WAS CREATED.

VIVAI F.LLI ZANZI

63

ITALIAN SPECIALISTS
IN VINEYARDS AND ORCHARDS
Since 1926 GOLDONI has supplied farmers with specialized equipment for
producing tree fruit and grapes. Super-compact tractors that guarantee
maximum manoeuvrability within rows and absolute safety for the operator
even on difficult terrain. Solid and powerful machines built to last and to
withstand the most challenging work. Proudly Italian from the drawing table
to final inspection, all phases of production meet the highest standards of
quality. These are the guarantees that have brought the name GOLDONI all
over the world and have made GOLDONI one of the trusted builders for the
specialists of the most prestigious brands in the world, such as John Deere.

Supplier to
John Deere
since 1986

Look for the model that is best for your needs at www.goldoni.com and keep in contact with us on facebook.com/GoldoniSpA

QUASAR 90
MAXIMUM GRIP ON THE SOIL:
THE TRACTOR THAT FEELS LIKE IT HAS TANK TREADS
VERSIONS WITH CAB LOW PROFILE SUPER
LOWERED TO 174 CM
DRIVING COMFORT: PLATFORM
ON SILENT BLOCK WITH VARIABLE VISCOSITY

STAR 100
CAPACITY OF THE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT 43
+ 50 LITRES
INNOVATION IN THE TRADITION OF
FRUTTETO GOLDONI
VERSATILITY BETWEEN HIGH
AND LOW VERSIONS
RETENTION OF TORQUE 63%
DRIVING COMFORT:
PLATFORM ON SILENT BLOCK AND
OVERVIEW CAB WITH A/C

STAR 3050
SHORTEST WHEELBASE OF ITS CATEGORY
EXCLUSIVE PATENTED TRANSMISSION
WITH DUAL POWER SYSTEM (16+8 / 8+8)
MINIMUM TURNING RADIUS
MAXIMUM STABILITY AND GRIP ON THE SOIL

Goldoni S.p.A.

Via Canale, 3 - 41012 Migliarina di Carpi - Modena, Italy - tel. +39 0522 640 111 - fax +39 0522 699 002

www.goldoni.com

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