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Exponential Function

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For the general exponential of the form bx and any base

b, see Exponentiation. For exponentially increasing functions of the form cbx , see Exponential growth.

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of

The exponential function is used to model a relationship in which a constant change in the independent variable gives the same proportional change (i.e. percentage increase or decrease) in the dependent variable. The

function is often written as exp(x), especially when it

is impractical to write the independent variable as a

superscript. The exponential function is widely used in

physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematical biology,

economics and mathematics.

9

8

7

as x increases. The graph always lies above the x-axis but

can get arbitrarily close to it for negative x; thus, the xaxis is a horizontal asymptote. The slope of the tangent to

the graph at each point is equal to its y-coordinate at that

point. The inverse function is the natural logarithm ln(x);

because of this, some old texts[3] refer to the exponential

function as the antilogarithm.

6

5

4

3

2

(1,e)

(0,1)

1

0

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

In general, the variable x can be any real or complex number or even an entirely dierent kind of mathematical object; see the formal denition below.

the form

1 Formal denition

x

f (x) = b .

Main article: Characterizations of the exponential funcThe input variable x occurs as an exponent hence the

tion

xc

name. A function of the form f(x) = b

is also considThe exponential function ex can be characterized in a vaered an exponential function, and a function of the form

riety of equivalent ways. In particular it may be dened

f(x) = abx can be re-written as f(x) = bx c by the use of

by the following power series:[4]

logarithms and so is an exponential function.

In contexts where the base b is not specied, especially

xn

x2

x3

x4

x

e

=

=1+x+

+

+

+

tion is almost always understood to mean the natural exn!

2!

3!

4!

n=0

ponential function

Using an alternate denition for the exponential function

leads to the same result when expanded as a Taylor series.

x 7 e ,

x

also written as

x 7 exp(x)

y

1

dt

where e is Eulers number, a transcendental number ap- x =

1 t

proximately 2.718281828. The reason this number e is

considered the natural base of exponential functions is It is also the following limit:[5]

that this function is its own derivative.[1][2] Every exponential function is directly proportional to its own deriva(

tive, but only when the base is e does the constant of prox )n

ex = lim 1 +

portionality equal 1.

n

n

the calculus of the exponential function.[6]

If a principal amount of 1 earns interest at an annual rate

of x compounded monthly, then the interest earned each

month is x/12 times the current value, so each month the

total value is multiplied by (1 + x/12), and the value at

the end of the year is (1 + x/12)12 . If instead interest is

compounded daily, this becomes (1 + x/365)365 . Letting

the number of time intervals per year grow without bound

leads to the limit denition of the exponential function,

exp(x) = lim

(

1+

x )n

n

characterizations of the exponential function; others involve series or dierential equations.

From any of these denitions it can be shown that the

exponential function obeys the basic exponentiation identity,

The exponential function (in blue), and the sum of the rst n +

1 terms of the power series on the left (in red).

Overview

which is why it can be written as ex .

The derivative (rate of change) of the exponential function is the exponential function itself. More generally, a

function with a rate of change proportional to the function itself (rather than equal to it) is expressible in terms

of the exponential function. This function property leads

to exponential growth and exponential decay.

The exponential function extends to an entire function on

the complex plane. Eulers formula relates its values at

purely imaginary arguments to trigonometric functions.

The exponential function also has analogues for which the

argument is a matrix, or even an element of a Banach

algebra or a Lie algebra.

lines show where it crosses the green vertical lines.

3 Derivatives

equations

and

dierential

grows or decays at a rate proportional to its current value. The importance of the exponential function in mathematOne such situation is continuously compounded interest, ics and the sciences stems mainly from properties of its

and in fact it was this that led Jacob Bernoulli in 1683[6] derivative. In particular,

to the number

(

)n

1

1+

n

n

lim

d x

e = ex

dx

3

The rate of increase of the function at x is equal to

the value of the function at x.

The function solves the dierential equation y = y.

exp is a xed point of derivative as a functional.

If a variables growth or decay rate is proportional to

its sizeas is the case in unlimited population growth

(see Malthusian catastrophe), continuously compounded

interest, or radioactive decaythen the variable can be

written as a constant times an exponential function of

time. Explicitly for any real constant k, a function f:

RR satises f = kf if and only if f(x) = cekx for some

constant c.

Furthermore, for any dierentiable function f(x), we nd,

by the chain rule:

d f (x)

e

= f (x)ef (x)

dx

1

the function. From any point P on the curve (blue), let a tangent

line (red), and a vertical line (green) with height h be drawn,

forming a right triangle with a base b on the x-axis. Since the

slope of the red tangent line (the derivative) at P is equal to the

ratio of the triangles height to the triangles base (rise over run),

and the derivative is equal to the value of the function, h must be

equal to the ratio of h to b. Therefore, the base b must always be

1.

x2

x3

x4

x5

ex = 1 + x +

+

+

+

+

2!

3!

4!

5!

)

(

d x

d

x2

x3

x4

x5

e =

1+x+

+

+

+

+

dx

dx

2!

3!

4!

5!

4x3

5x4

2x 3x2

+

+

+

+

=0+1+

2!

3!

4!

5!

x2

x3

x4

x5

=1+x+

+

+

+

+

2!

3!

4!

5!

= ex

of Euler:

ex = 1 +

2x

x+2

x+3

3x

.

x + 4 ..

2z

ez = 1 +

z2

2z+

z2

6+

10 +

z2

.

14 + . .

x

y

ample of a Pfaan function. Functions of the form cex e = 1 +

x2

2y x +

for constant c are the only functions with that property

x2

(by the PicardLindelf theorem). Other ways of saying

6y +

x2

the same thing include:

10y +

The slope of the graph at any point is the height of

the function at that point.

with a special case for z = 2:

.

14y + . .

e2 = 1+

= 7+

COMPLEX PLANE

1

where a and b are real values and on the right the real

functions must be used if used as a denition[8] (see also

22

1Eulers formula). This formula connects the exponen10 +

9+

.

. function with the trigonometric functions and to the

tial

14 + . .

11 + . .

hyperbolic functions.

This formula also converges, though more slowly, for z >

When considered as a function dened on the complex

2. For example:

plane, the exponential function retains the properties

0+

6+

7+

e3 = 1+

7+

6+

10 +

32

.

14 + . .

54

= 13+

32

1 +

5+

22

ez+w = ez ew

9 e0 = 1

9 z

e =

0

14 +

9

18 + d ez = ez

dz.

22 + z. .n

(e ) = enz , n Z

Complex plane

The exponential function is an entire function as it is

holomorphic over the whole complex plane. It takes on

every complex number excepting 0 as value; that is, 0 is

a lacunary value of the exponential function. This is an

example of Picards little theorem that any non-constant

entire function takes on every complex number as value

with at most one value excepted.

Extending the natural logarithm to complex arguments

yields the complex logarithm log z, which is a multivalued

function.

We can then dene a more general exponentiation:

z w = ew log z

dark to light colors shows that the magnitude of the exponential

function is increasing to the right. The periodic horizontal bands

indicate that the exponential function is periodic in the imaginary

part of its argument.

for all complex numbers z and w. This is also a multivalued function, even when z is real. This distinction is

problematic, as the multivalued functions log z and zw are

easily confused with their single-valued equivalents when

substituting a real number for z. The rule about multiplying exponents for the case of positive real numbers must

be modied in a multivalued context:

(ez )w

ezw , but rather (ez )w

= e(z + 2in)w multivalued over integers n

As in the real case, the exponential function can be dened on the complex plane in several equivalent forms.

One such denition parallels the power series denition See failure of power and logarithm identities for more

for real numbers, where the real variable is replaced by a about problems with combining powers.

complex one:

The exponential function maps any line in the complex

plane to a logarithmic spiral in the complex plane with

z

ez =

when

the original line is parallel to the real axis, the ren!

n=0

sulting spiral never closes in on itself; when the original

The exponential function is periodic with imaginary pe- line is parallel to the imaginary axis, the resulting spiral

riod 2i and can be written as

is a circle of some radius.

5

Plots of the exponential function on the complex exponential function for square matrices is a special case

plane

of the Lie algebra exponential map.

z = Re(ex + iy )

z = Im(ex + iy )

z = |ex + iy |

5.1

The identity exp(x + y) = exp(x)exp(y) can fail for Lie algebra elements x and y that do not commute; the Baker

CampbellHausdor formula supplies the necessary correction terms.

are complex

Main article: Exponentiation

The term double exponential function can have two

Complex exponentiation ab can be dened by converting meanings:

a to polar coordinates and using the identity (eln(a) )b

= ab :

a function with two exponential terms, each with a

dierent exponent such as in e3x e4x 2

x

)b

(

)b (

a function f(x) = aa ; this grows even faster than an

ab = rei = eln(r)+i = e(ln(r)+i)b

exponential function; for example, if a = 10, then

f(1) = 1.26, f(0) = 10, f(1) = 1010 , f(2) = 10100

However, when b is not an integer, this function is

= 1 googol, , f(100) = 1 googolplex.

multivalued, because is not unique (see failure of power

and logarithm identities).

makes sense for square matrices (for which the function

is called the matrix exponential) and more generally in

any Banach algebra B. In this setting, e0 = 1, and ex is

invertible with inverse ex for any x in B. If xy = yx, then

ex + y = ex ey , but this identity can fail for noncommuting x

and y.

slower than double-exponential functions. Fermat numm

bers, generated by F(m) = 22 + 1 and double Mersenne

p

numbers generated by MM(p) = 22 1 1 are examples

of double exponential functions.

9 Similar properties of

function ez

and the

Some alternative denitions lead to the same function. two polynomials with complex coecients).

For instance, ex can be dened as

For n distinct complex numbers {a1 , , an}, the set

{ea1 z , , eanz } is linearly independent over C(z).

(

x )n

The function ez is transcendental over C(z).

lim 1 +

.

n

n

Or ex can be dened as f(1), where f: RB is the solution to the dierential equation f (t) = xf(t) with initial

condition f(0) = 1.

Lie algebras

the exponential map is a map g G satisfying similar

properties. In fact, since R is the Lie algebra of the Lie

group of all positive real numbers under multiplication,

the ordinary exponential function for real arguments is a

special case of the Lie algebra situation. Similarly, since

the Lie group GL(n,R) of invertible n n matrices has as

Lie algebra M(n,R), the space of all n n matrices, the

Some calculators provide a dedicated exp(x) function designed to provide a higher precision than achievable by

using ex directly.[9][10]

Based on a proposal by William Kahan and rst implemented in the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator in

1979, some scientic calculators, computer algebra systems and programming languages (for example C99[11] )

support a special exponential minus 1 function alternatively named E^X-1, expm1(x),[11] expm(x),[9][10] or

exp1m(x) to provide more accurate results for values of x

near zero compared to using exp(x)1 directly.[9][10][11]

This function is implemented using a dierent internal

14

EXTERNAL LINKS

allowing both the argument and the result to be near

zero.[9][10] Similar inverse functions named lnp1(x),[9][10]

ln1p(x) or log1p(x)[11] exist as well.[nb 1]

[3] Converse; Durrell (1911). Plane and spherical trigonometry. C. E. Merrill Co. p. 12. Inverse Use of a Table of

Logarithms; that is, given a logarithm, to nd the number

corresponding to it, (called its antilogarithm)

11

ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-07054234-1.

See also

Carlitz exponential, a characteristic p analogue

Characterizations of the exponential function

e (mathematical constant)

Exponential decay

Exponential eld

Exponential growth

Exponentiation

[6] John J O'Connor; Edmund F Robertson. The number

e. School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St

Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 2011-06-13.

[7] A.2.2 The exponential function. L. Lorentzen and

H. Waadeland, Continued Fractions, Atlantis Studies in

Mathematics, page 268.

[8] Ahlfors, Lars V. (1953). Complex analysis. McGrawHill

Book Company, Inc.

[9] HP 48G Series Advanced Users Reference Manual

(AUR) (4 ed.). Hewlett-Packard. December 1994 [1993].

HP 00048-90136, 0-88698-01574-2. Retrieved 201509-06.

[10] HP 50g / 49g+ / 48gII graphing calculator advanced users

root of an exponential function

List of exponential topics

List of integrals of exponential functions

p-adic exponential function

Pad table for exponential function Pad approximation if exponential function by a fraction of polynomial functions

Tetration

12

Notes

[1] For a similar approach to reduce round-o errors of calculations for certain input values see trigonometric functions

like versine, vercosine, coversine, covercosine, haversine,

havercosine, hacoversine, hacovercosine, exsecant and

excosecant.

13

References

and its applications (11th ed.). PrenticeHall. ISBN 013-191965-2.

[2] Courant; Robbins (1996). Stewart, ed. What is Mathematics? An Elementary Approach to Ideas and Methods

(2nd revised ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 448. ISBN

0-13-191965-2. This natural exponential function is identical with its derivative. This is really the source of all the

properties of the exponential function, and the basic reason for its importance in applications

reference manual (AUR) (2 ed.). Hewlett-Packard. 200907-14 [2005]. HP F2228-90010. Retrieved 2015-1010.Searchable PDF

expm1 = exp(x)1 (PDF). 1.00. Salt Lake City, Utah,

USA: Department of Mathematics, Center for Scientic

Computing, University of Utah. Retrieved 2015-11-02.

14 External links

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), Exponential

function, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer,

ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Complex exponential function at PlanetMath.org.

Derivative

of

PlanetMath.org.

exponential

function

at

Weisstein, Eric W.,

MathWorld.

Exponential Function,

at efunda.com

Complex exponential interactive graphic

Derivative of exp(xn ) by limit denition

General exponential limit

15

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15.2

Images

File:Animation_of_exponential_function.gif Source:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Animation_of_

exponential_function.gif License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Almacantar

File:Complex_exp.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Complex_exp.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: made with mathematica, own work Original artist: Jan Homann

File:Euler{}s_formula.svg Source:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Euler%27s_formula.svg License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This le was derived from Eulers formula.png: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:

Euler%27s_formula.png' class='image'><img alt='Eulers formula.png' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/

e/eb/Euler%27s_formula.png/40px-Euler%27s_formula.png' width='40' height='37' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

commons/thumb/e/eb/Euler%27s_formula.png/60px-Euler%27s_formula.png 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/

thumb/e/eb/Euler%27s_formula.png/80px-Euler%27s_formula.png 2x' data-le-width='741' data-le-height='681' /></a>

Original artist: Original: Gunther

Derivative work: Wereon

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Original artist: Peter John Acklam

File:Exp_series.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Exp_series.gif License: Public domain Contributors:

self-made with MATLAB. Original artist: Oleg Alexandrov

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mathematics_blue-p.svg License: GPL Contributors: Derivative work from Image:Nuvola apps edu mathematics.png and Image:Nuvola

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