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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

Inverter

What is an Inverter?

An Inverter is a Power Semiconductor Electronic device or circuitry that


converts Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC).

What does an Inverter do?

Converts Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC)

What are the other names of


Inverters?

Phase inverter, Power inverter, DC to AC Converter

What are different types of


Inverters?

How does an Inverter operate


and what is the technology
used?

Where Inverter would typically


be used?

There are basically three types of Inverters: Sine Wave, Modified Sine
Wave, and Square Wave.
In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to
a transformer through the center tap of the primary winding. A switch is
rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC
source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary
winding and then the other. The alternation of the direction of current in
the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in
the secondary circuit.

Common applications of inverter are in d.c. power sources, UPS, electric


motor speed control, induction heating, power grids as grid-tied inverter,
HVDC power transmission, solar for balance of system (BOS), photovoltaic
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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

array, etc,.

What are the benefits of


Inverters?

Who are the manufacturers for


Inverters?

Why would a customer need a


High Speed Semiconductor
Fuse for Inverter?

10

How do you select a High


Speed semiconductor fuse for
an Inverter?

11

Who are the target customers


for High Speed Semiconductor
Fuses used in Inverters?

Static Inverters are highly efficient way of power conversion method from
DC-AC. They are used in speed control AC drive, UPS, Power Grid-Tie,
Renewable energy supply etc,.
Advanced Energy Industries Inc , Advanced Solar Photonics, Apollo Solar,
Carlo Gavazzi, Cobra,
Enphase, ExelTech, GE (General Electric), Magnetek, Magnum, Morningstar,
Outback, Power One, Satcon, Sensata, Sinergex, Solectria Renewables,
Sunpower, Vanner, etc,.
Rectifier are made up of power semiconductors e.g. diodes, MOSFET, IGBT
and silicon controlled rectifiers have very short thermal time constants.
Consequently, extreme current levels and surges caused by load or line
faults, even if only applied over extremely short time periods, may cause the
switching devices to permanently fail. High speed fuses are reliable, quick
reactors that can reduce the amount of short circuit current.
Based on application and power semiconductor device in the circuit the
nominal voltage, current and I2t rating of high speed semiconductor fuse can
be selected for AC/DC bus (after appropriate de-rating)
Manufacturers and end user who are using d.c. power sources, UPS, electric
motor speed control (Conveyer belt, compressors, lifts), induction heating,
power grids as grid-tied inverter, HVDC power transmission, solar for
balance of system (BOS), photovoltaic array, etc,.

Rectifiers
1

What is a Rectifier?

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which


periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one
direction.

What does a Rectifier do?

Converts Alternating Current (AC) to Direct Current (DC)

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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

What are the other names of


Rectifiers?

What are different types of


Rectifiers?

How does a Rectifier operate


and what is the technology
used?

Where Rectifiers would


typically be used?

What are the benefits of


Rectifiers?

Who are the manufacturers for


Rectifiers?

Bridge rectifier, AC-DC converter, Diode rectifier


Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase. Further rectifier can be
classified based on output waveform i.e. Half-wave rectifier or Full-wave
rectifier
A simple example of rectifier is Single phase Half-wave rectifier requires a
single diode. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current;
half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers, and
much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency
from the output.

DC power supplies, Radio signals or detectors, A source of power instead


of generating current, As flame rectification to detect the presence of
flame, High-voltage direct current power transmission systems, Several
household appliances use power rectifiers to create power, like notebooks
or laptops, video game systems and televisions.
Rectifiers are highly efficient method of power conversion from AC-DC.
There primary application is to derive DC power from an AC supply. They
can be used to charge batteries or even replace them.
Dynapower Corporation, Delta Power Solutions,
International Rectifier Corporation, Emerson Network Power, Future
Electronics, GE (General Electric), Vishay Semiconductors, NXP
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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

Semiconductors, Fairchild Semiconductor, ON Semiconductor, etc,.

Why would a customer need a


High Speed Semiconductor
Fuse for Rectifier?

10

How do you select a High


Speed semiconductor fuse for a
Rectifier?

11

Who are the target customers


for High Speed Semiconductor
Fuses used in Rectifiers?

Rectifiers are made up of power semiconductors e.g. diodes, MOSFET,


IGBT and silicon controlled rectifiers have very short thermal time
constants. Consequently, extreme current levels and surges caused by
load or line faults, even if only applied over extremely short time periods,
may cause the switching devices to permanently fail. High speed fuses
are reliable, quick reactors that can reduce the amount of short circuit
current.
Based on application and power semiconductor device in the circuit the
nominal voltage, current and I2t rating of high speed semiconductor fuse
can be selected for AC/DC bus (after appropriate de-rating)
Manufacturers and end user who are using DC power supplies, Radio
signals or detectors, A source of power instead of generating current, As
flame rectification to detect the presence of flame, High-voltage direct
current power transmission systems and household appliances(notebooks
or laptops, video game systems and televisions).

AC Drive

What is an AC Drive?

What does an AC Drive do?

An AC Drive (also known as VFD) is a type of motor controller that drives


an AC electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage supplied to the
electric motor.
An AC Drive is used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC
motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage.
AC drive generally operates on two control platforms: scalar control (V/f
control) or vector control (Flux and Torque control).

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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

What are the other names of


AC Drives?

VFD, Variable Frequency Drive, Adjustable Speed Drive, Adjustable


Frequency Drive, Microdrive and inveter

How does an AC Drive operate


and what is the technology
used?

Where AC Drives would


typically be used?

AC Drive is a solid-state power electronics conversion system consisting


of three distinct sub-systems: a rectifier bridge converter, a direct
current (DC) link, and an inverter. There
AC drives provide the optimum method of controlling the speed of
electrical motors to match load demand. Using an AC drive improves
energy efficiency and provides significant cost savings. They are used in
Pump speed controls, Energy management solutions, Conveyors, Fans
and compressors, crushers, lifts, etc,.

What are the benefits of AC


Drives?

Optimizing motor control system by installing AC Drive (VFD) can reduces


energy consumption and energy cost of AC Motor by 70%

Who are the manufacturers for


AC Drives?

ABB Inc., Danfoss LLC, Delta Products Corporation, Eaton, Franklin Control
Systems, Fuji Electric Corporation of America, GE Industrial Solutions,
Hubbell Industrial Controls, Inc., Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc.,
NORD Gear Corporation, Rockwell Automation, Schneider Electric, SEWEurodrive, Inc., Siemens Industry, Inc., Toshiba International Corporation,
Vacon, Inc., Yaskawa America, Inc. Drives & Motion Division

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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

Why would a customer need a


High Speed Semiconductor
Fuse for AC Drive?

How do you select a High


Speed semiconductor fuse for
an AC Drive?

10

Who are the target customers


for High Speed Semiconductor
Fuses used in AC Drives?

AC drives are expensive and extremely current sensitive device. A small


surges caused by load or line faults, even if only applied over extremely
short time periods, may cause the permanent failure to AC drive. High
speed fuses are reliable, quick reactors that can reduce the amount of
short circuit current.
Based on application and AC drive used in the circuit will determine the
nominal voltage, current and I2t rating of high speed semiconductor fuse
that can be selected for AC/DC bus (after appropriate de-rating)
Nowadays most of the companies are adopting VFDs/AC drives to
improve energy efficiency and it provides significant cost savings.
Manufacturers and end-users using Energy management solutions,
Conveyors, Fans , Pump and compressors, crushers, lifts, etc,. will require
High Speed Semiconductor Fuses

DC Drive

What is a DC Drive?

A DC drive is DC motor speed control systems.

What does a DC Drive do?

A DC drive controls the speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to


armature voltage and inversely proportional to motor flux, either
armature voltage or field current can be used to control speed.

Are there any other names for


DC Drives?

Thyristor d.c. drive, SCR DC drive, DC Variable Speed Drives (VSD)

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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

How does a DC Drive operate


and what is the technology
used?
A DC drive uses two thyristor
one feeding the armature and other thyristor or diode rectifier is used to
supply the field of the motor. By altering the firing angle of the thyristors
the mean value of the rectified voltage can be varied, thereby allowing
the motor speed to be controlled.

Where DC Drives would


typically be used?

What are the benefits of DC


Drives?

Who are the manufacturers of


DC Drives?

Why would a customer need a


High Speed Semiconductor
Fuse for DC Drive?

They are used in Winders/Coilers, Marine Applications, Crane/Hoist,


Mining/Drilling, Extruding, etc,.
DC offers several advantages in applications that operate at low speed.
Other advantages include low speed accuracy, short-time overload
capability, size, torque proving control, load sharing, size and cost.
ABB Inc., Danfoss LLC, Delta Products Corporation, Eaton, Franklin Control
Systems, Fuji Electric Corporation of America, GE Industrial Solutions,
Hubbell Industrial Controls, Inc., Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc.,
NORD Gear Corporation, Rockwell Automation, Schneider Electric, SEWEurodrive, Inc., Siemens Industry, Inc., Toshiba International Corporation,
Vacon, Inc., Yaskawa America, Inc. Drives & Motion Division
DC drives are expensive and extremely current sensitive device. A small
surges caused by load or line faults, even if only applied over extremely
short time periods, may cause the permanent failure to DC drive. High
speed fuses are reliable, quick reactors that can reduce the amount of
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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

short circuit current.

10

How do you select a High


Speed Semiconductor fuse for
a DC Drive?
Who are the target customers
for High Speed Semiconductor
Fuses used in DC Drives?

Based on application and DC drive used in the circuit will determine the
nominal voltage, current and I2t rating of high speed semiconductor fuse
that can be selected for DC bus (after appropriate de-rating)
Manufacturers and end-users using Winders/Coilers, Marine Applications,
Crane/Hoist, Mining/Drilling, Extruding, etc,.

Soft-Starters
What is a Soft-Starter?

A Soft-Starter is a device used with AC electrical motors to temporarily


reduce the load and electric current surge of the motor during start-up.

What does a Soft-Starter do?

Electrical soft starters reduces the torque by temporarily reducing


the voltage or current input, or a device that temporarily alters how the
motor is connected in the electric circuit.

Are there any other names for


Soft-Starters?

Reduced Voltage Soft Starter (RVSS)

How does a Soft-Starter


operate and what is the
technology used?

The idea behind a soft start is


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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101


to gradually allow the motor current to rise until the motor reaches its
steady state. This reduces start-up current but also reduces start-up
motor torque. Soft starters adjust motor voltage through use of back-toback thyristors or triacs in each ac supply line to the motor. The thyristors
are actuated during the start-up phase such that their turn-on is
successively delayed less for each ac half cycle. The delayed switching
effectively ramps up the average ac voltage to the motor until the motor
sees full line voltage. Once the motor hits its rated speed, the thyristor
switching circuit may be bypassed.

Where Soft-Starters would


typically be used?

What are the benefits of SoftStarters?

Who are the manufacturers of


Soft-Starters?

Why would a customer need a


High Speed Semiconductor
Fuse for Soft-Starter?

How do you select a High


Speed Semiconductor fuse for
a Soft-Starter?

Common soft starter applications include: blowers, compressors,


conveyors, chippers, fans, exhausters, pumps, rock crushers.
Soft-Starter help to reduce inrush currents that could be up to 7 times
higher than running current, and starting torque up to 3 times higher
than running torque of induction motors. This helps in reducing the
torque and also reducing sudden mechanical stress on the machine which
leads to a better service life. Moreover, it also prevents the high inrush
current stresses the power supply, which may lead to voltage dips.
ABB Inc., GE Industrial Solutions, Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc.,
Rockwell Automation, Schneider Electric, Siemens Industry, Inc., Fairford,
WEG, Emerson, STAHL, NORD, DOLD, Fanox, Tele, Integra, LQ group, AOiP,
Okimo, Eaton, etc,.
Soft starter are expensive and extremely current sensitive device. A small
surges caused by load or line faults, even if only applied over extremely
short time periods, may cause the permanent failure to soft starter. High
speed fuses are reliable, quick reactors that can reduce the amount of
short circuit current.
Based on application and soft starter used in the circuit will determine the
nominal voltage, current and I2t rating of high speed semiconductor fuse
that can be selected for AC bus (after appropriate de-rating)

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Power Semiconductor Devices: 101

10

Who are the Target customers


for High Speed Semiconductor
Fuses used in Soft-Starters?

Manufacturers and end-users using blowers, compressors, conveyors,


chippers, fans, exhausters, pumps, rock crushers.

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