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Nutritional Facts:

Serving size: 1 Semester (16 weeks)

Servings per container: many problems and solutions

Problem set 2

Problem # 1

In class, I derived the relationship between the luminosity and mass of stars under the assumption that

energy is transported by radiative diffusion and that the opacity is due to Thomson scattering. We will

carry out many related estimates so it is important to become familiar with this process. Consider a star

in hydrostatic equilibrium in which energy transport is by radiative diffusion. The star is composed of

ionozed hydrogen and is supported primarily by gas pressure.

(a). Derive an order of magnitude estimate of the luminosity L of a star of mass M and radius R if the

opacity is due to free-free absorption, fo which 1023 T 7/2 cm2 g1 ( is in cgs).

We know that the radiation flux is given by

Frad

caT 3

T

where we know that a is the radiation constant, c is the speed of light, T is the temperature, is the

opacity, which in our case is given by free-free absorption, is the mass density and T is the temperature

gradient. We have the following relationships

M

R3

dT

TR Tc

TC

dR RR RC

R

1023 T 7/2

Frad

caT 15/2 R5

M2

L = 4r2 Frad Frad =

L

4r2

which gives us

caT 15/2 R7

M2

we can find the temperature by using the virial theorem which can be written as

L

GMm p

3Rk

1

where k is now the boltzman constant. Substituting this expression into the above equation yields

L caR

1/2

11/2

Gm p

k

15/2

this gives us an order of magnitude estimate of the luminosity of a star with mass M and radius R.

(b). If all stars have roughly the same central temperature, and are supported by gas pressure, what is

the mass-luminosity scaling (proportianality) relationship for stars?

we now know that the luminosity scales as

L M 11/2 R1/2

we can find the relationship between the mass M and the radius R of a star by using hydrostatic

equilibrium.

dP

GM

= 2

dr

r

M

Pc

R

M

T

R

M R

since T is constant, substituting this into the luminosity relationship yields

L M5

(c). Give a quantitative argument as to whether free-free opacity dominates electron scattering opacity

in stars more massive that the sun or in stars less massive that the sun.

We can solve this problem by looking at the defenition for the opacity in free-free absorption, which

can be written as with T constant

M

3 MR

R

thus we find

1

2

M

this expression tells us that the lower the mass of the star the higher the opacity, thus in lower mass

stars the free-free opacity dominates.

Problem # 2

The central density and temperature of the sun are c 150 g cm3 and Tc 1.5 107 K. For the

conditions at the center of the sun, answer the following questions. Assume that the sun is composed

solely of ionized hydrogen.

(a). What is the mean free path of an electron due to electron-electron Coulomb collisions? What is

the typical time between collisions?

2

1

ne

l=

ne n p

mp

= r2

where r is the Coulomb radius found comparing the thermal energy to the Coulomb energy

e2

kT

r

e2

kT

e4

(kT )2

mp

l

c

kT

e2

2

tcol =

l

ve

3

1

kT = me v2 v =

2

2

3kT

me

te =

me m p

3kT c

kT

e2

2

(b). What is the mean free path of an proton due to proton-proton Coulomb collisions? What is the

typical time between collisions? Which occurs more rapidly, electron-electron or proton-proton Coulomb

collisions?

The mean free path of proton-proton collisions would be the same as for the electron-electron collosion

because the gas is completely ionized. The mean free path is given by

mp

l

c

kT

e2

2

The collision time would be the same except now that the mass is the mass of the proton not the

electron. i.e

tp =

mp mp

3kT c

3

kT

e2

2

we can now see the collision times for the electron-electron collision occurs more rapidly due to the

mass being so much smaller.

te t p

(c). Which opacity is more important for photons, Thomson scattering or free-free absorption?

We know that

T =

and

2T

ne T

=

0.80

c

mp

free-free absorption dominates the opacity for photons in this case? not sure why this is. We know that

Thomson scattering is the primary way that photons move the energy out.

(d). What is the mean free path of a photon? How does this compare to the mean free path of an

electron (this should give you a feel for why photons are far more effective at moving energy around in

stars)? What is the typical time between photon absorptions/scattering?

we know that the mean free path of a photon is given by

2

1

e2

8

l=

where T =

= 6.65 1025 cm2

ne T

3 40me c2

which yields

mp

8.3 103 cm

2T

m p kT 2

8.9 107 cm

=

c e2

l photon =

lelectron

t=

lp

2.8 1013 s

c

(e). For a photon undergoing a random walk because absorption/scattering, how long would it take to

move a distance Rsun given the results in (d)? For comparison, it would take 2.3 seconds moving at the

speed of light to travel a distance Rsun in the absence of scattering/absorption.

We know that the diffusion time can be acquired with

tdi f f =

R2 nk

thermal energy R2 nkT

R2 2k

L

lc aT 4 lcaT 3

m p lcaT 3

we know that the average time for a photon to leave the star is given by

tdi f f

R2sun

104 yr

l ph c

4

Problem # 3

How old is the sun? In this problem we illustrate how the naturally occuring radioactive isotopes of

uranium, U 235 and U 238 can be used to determine the age of the rocks. Both isotopes decay via a sequence

of -decays and -decays to form stabel isotopes of lead: the decay chain of U 235 ends up with Pb207 , and

the decay chain of U 238 ends up with Pb206 . As a result, the number of uranium nuclei in a rock decays

exponetially with time in accord with:

N5 (t) = N5 (0)e5t and N8 (t) = N8 (0)e8t

To avoid clutter, the last digit of the mass number of the isotope has been used as a subscript label. The

decay constants 5 and 8 for the two isotopes corresponds to half-lives of

T5 =

ln 2

ln 2

= 4.5 109 yrs

= 0.7 109 yrs T8 =

5

8

The magnitudes of these half-lives are ideally suitable to the determination of the ages of the rocks

which are over a billion years old. Now consider a set of rock samples which were formed at the same

time, but with different chemical compositions. They differ in chemical composition because different

chemical elements are affected differently by the processes of rock formation. However rock formation

processes do not favour one isotope over another. For example, on formation, the relative abundances of

U 235 and U 238 should be the same in every sample. But these abundances will change with time as the

deacy of U 235 and U 238 produce nuclei of Pb207 and Pb206 .

Consider the ratio of the increase in the number of Pb207 nuclei relative to the increase of Pb206

nuclei. Show that this ratio is the same for all rock samples which were formed at the same time,

and that it is given by

N7 (t) N7(0) N5 (t) e5t 1

=

N6 (t) N6(0) N8 (t) e8t 1

We know that the ratio of the two isotopes can be written as

N7 (t) N7(0) N5 (t) N5(0)

=

N6 (t) N6(0) N8 (t) N8(0)

and given the first expression given in this problem, which can also be written as

N5 (0) = N5 (t)e5t and N8 (0) = N8 (t)e8t

substituting this into our previous expression yields

N7 (t) N7(0) N5 (t) e5t 1

=

N6 (t) N6(0) N8 (t) e8t 1

which is what we were asked to show.

Consider a graph in which the measured abundances in the rock samples of Pb207 and Pb206 are

plotted, N7 (t) along the y-axis and N6 (t) on the x-axis. Show that a straight line will be obtained if

all the samples were formed at the same time.

We know that

N7 (t) =

where

N5 (t) e5t 1

N6 (t)

N8 (t) e8t 1

N5 (t) e5t 1

= constant

N8 (t) e8t 1

Given that the current ratio of naturraly occurring U 235 to U 238 is 0.0071, evaluate the gradient of

the straight line for rock samples of age (a) 1 billion years, (b) 3 billion years and (c) 5 billion years.

We know that the gradient of the straight line is just the constant in front of N6 (t) so we just have to plug

in numbers

(a). t = 1 billion years.

We know that

5 9.90 1010 yr1 8 1.5 1010 yr1

given these and the fact that we know the ratio between U 235 and U 238 we can find the gradient, for 1

bilion years we get

e5t 1

0.0071 t

= 0.0715

e 8 1

For 3 billion years we get

e5t 1

= .231

0.0071 t

e 8 1

and finally for 5 billion years we get

0.0071

e5t 1

= .891

e8t 1

In this problem we will solve for the structure of the outer part of a star assuming that energy is

transported solely by radiative diffusion (which is not the case in the sun, but is the case in stars more

massive than the sun). The star has a mass M and a luminosity L. Assume that the luminosity and mass

are approximately constant at the large radii of interest, that gas pressure dominates, and that the opacity is

due to electron scattering. Do not assume that the atmosphere is thin (i.e even though Mr constant = M,

because rchanges, the gravitional acceleartion is not constant).

Write down the equations for hydrostatic equlibrium and energy transport by radiative diffusion. Use

these to calculate dPrad /dP, the change in radiatio pressure with pressure in the atmosphere. What does

this result imply for how the ratio of gas pressure to radiation pressure changes as a function of the

distance in the atmosphere? Show that your result for dPrad /dP implies that T 3 and P 4/3 for

radiative atmospheres (in the language that we will use in the next week, this means that the radiative part

of the star is an n=3 polytrope).

since we know what the radiation pressure is we can find what the change is with respect to r

1

Prad = aT 4

3

1 d

4

dPrad

= a (T 4 ) = T 4 T

dr

3 dr

3

F=

thus we can write

F=

4 caT 3

T

3

dPrad

=F

dr

c

dPrad c

dr

dP

GM

= 2

dr

r

deviding these two expressions yield

Fr2

dPrad

=

dP

cGM

we know that the Flux and luminosity are related by

L = 4r2 F

F=

L

4r2

thus we find

dPrad

L

=

dP

4cGM

this result implies that the ratio of the gas pressure to radiation pressure is independent of the distance

in the atmosphere. To show T 3 we can just use scaling arguments

Prad

L

T4

L

Pg

M

T M

since we assumed that L and M are constant than this gives

T3

To show that P 4/3 we can also use scaling argument, we also know that the radiation pressure

scales as some constant times the gas pressure

Prad

L

Pg

M

thus we find

Pt = Pg + Prad Pg = Pt Prad

Pr

1 Pr Pg

Pt Pr

Pg T

T 1/3 Pg 4/3

Pg Pt Pg

Pt 2Pg 4/3

7

Problem set 3

Problem # 1

(a). Show that heat transfer by radiative diffusion implies a non-zero gradient for the radiation pressure

which is proportional to the radient heat flux. Bearing in mind that the magnitude of the force per unit

volume in a fluid due to the pressure is equal to the pressure gradient, find the radient heat flux density

which can, by itself, support the atmosphere of a star with surface gravity g. Hence show that a star of

mass M has a maximum luminosity given by

Lmax =

4cGM

where is the opacity near the surface. Obtain a numerical estimate for this luminosity by assuming

that the surface is hot enough for the opacity to be dominated by electron scattering. (This maximum

luminosity is called the Eddington luminosity.

To show that the heat transfer by radiative defusion implies a non-zero gradient we must begin with

Fr =

4 aT 3

T

3

Fr Prad

1

Prad = aT 4

3

dPr 4 3 dT

dT

3 1 dPr

= aT

=

dr

3

dr

dr

4 aT 3 dr

To show that

4cGM

we must begin with the equation derived from problem 4 in the last problem set, i.e

Lmax =

dPr

L

=

dP

4cGM

but since we know that

P = Pg + Pr

Pg Pr P Pr

dPr

=1

dPr

4cGM

3.3 104Lsun

L=

M

Msun

We cannot obtain a numerical estimate because we do not know tha mass. We could use Msun but this

would not be correct.

(b). Assume that radiative diffusion dominates energy transport in stars and that the opacity is due to

Thomson scattering. Use a scaling argument to estimate the mass M (in Msun ) at which the luminosity of

a star is Ledd .

We can do an order of magnitude estimate with respect to the sun by

LM

L

=

Lsun

M

Msun

3

M=

4cGM

Lsun T

1/2

3/2

Problem # 2

The physical quantities near the center of a star are given in the following table. Neglecting radiation

pressure and assuming the average gas particle mass m is 0.7 amu, determine whether energy transport is

convective or radiative.

r

0.1Rsun

m(r)

0.028Msun

Lr

24.2Lsun

Tr

2.2107 K

(r)

3.1 104kg m3

0.040 m2 kg1

L(r)

m(r)

crit

1 16Gc Pr

1

(r)

Pr = aT 3 P Pg =

kb T

3

m

5

T = 0.04 m2 /kg

3

we find

2 16Gc aT 3 m

5 T 3(r)kb

crit

W

W

> .07

0.175

kg

kg

L(r)

m(r)

which implies that the energy transport of this star is primarily due to convection.

Problem # 3

The surface of a star (the photosphere) is the place where the mean free path of the photons is

comparable to the scale-height h of the atmosphere . At smaller radii (deeper in the star), the density is

higher and h , which implies that the photons bounce around many times; at larger radii is smaller,

h, and the photons are rarely absorbed and so travel on straight lines to us. Thus h is a good

approximation to the place in the atmosphere of a star where most of the light we see originates.

a) The temperature at the photosphere of the sun is 5800 K. Estimate the mass density in the photosphere. Assume that Thompson scattering dominates the opacity.

n = =

nT

T

1

kb T

=h=

n

mg

=

mg

kb T T

b) In reality, the surface of the sun is so low that hydrogen is primarily neutral. There are thus not that

many free electrons to Thompson scatter off of. The opacity at the surface of the sun is instead due to the

H ion and is given by 2.5 10311/2 T 9 cm2 g1 . Using this (correct) opacity, repeat the estimate

from a) of the density at the photosphere of the sun.

Substituting the opacity given into the above expression yields

3/2

mg

=

2.5 1013kT 10

b

mg

2.5 1031kb T 10

2/3

c) Just beneath the photosphere, energy is transported by convection, not radiation, for the reasons

discussed in class (in fact, the photosphere is the place where photons travel so freely out of the star that

energy transport by radiation finally dominates over convection). Estimate the convective velocity near

the photosphere given your density from b).

The convective heat flux is given by

1

Fc = v3c

2

vc =

2F c

1/3

Fc =

L

4r2

vc =

2L

4r2

1/3

d) What is the characteristic timescale for convective blobs to move around near the pho-tosphere?

How does this compare to the observed timescale for granulation on the surface of the sun, which was a

few min in the movie we watched in class?

since we know that the characteristic time scale is given by

tblob =

vc vc

h=

kT

= 1.7 107 cm

gm

10

tblob 15.6 s

which is a lot shorter than the timescale given by the movie which was approximately 2 minutes.

e) Is the assumption ds/dr 0 valid near the surface of the sun? Why or why not?

Since we know that the temperature gradient near the surface of the sun is very high and energy is

mostly transported by photons impies that we cannot make the assumption ds/dr 0 .

Problem # 4 Convective atmospheres

In HW 2, you calculated the structure of a stellar atmosphere in which energy is transported by radiative

diffusion; you showed that such an atmosphere satisfies P 4/3 . Here we will consider the problem of

a convective atmosphere, which is much more relevant to sun-like stars. For simplicity, assume that the

atmosphere is composed of fully ionized hydrogen. The solar convection zone contains very little mass

(only 2of the mass of the sun). Thus, lets consider a model in which we neglect the mass of the

convection zone in comparison to the rest of the sun. For the reasons discussed in class, we can model

the convection zone as having P = K with = 5/3 and K a constant. Rc is the radius of the base of the

convection zone.

a) Solve for the density, temperature, and pressure as a function of radius in the convection zone. Do

not assume that the convection zone is thin (i.e., even though Mr = constant = M , because r changes

significantly in the convection zone, do not assume that the gravitational acceleration is constant).

To solve for the Pressure we can begin with

GM

dP

= 2

dr

r

thus we find

P = K

1/

P

=

K

3/5

GM

P

dP

= 2 dr

K

r

Z P

P

Prc

dP

3/5

Z R

GM

Rc

r2

dr

i

5 h 2/5

1

1

2/5

= GM

P Pc

R Rc

2K 3/5

P=

5/2

2 3/5

1

1

2/5

+ Pc

K

GM

5

R Rc

To solve for the density we can just plug this solution into

3/2

3/5

1

2 3/5

1

1

P

2/5

= 3/5

+ Pc

K

GM

=

K

5

R Rc

K

11

P = nkb T =

2

kb T

mp

T (r) =

m pP

2kb

m p K 3/5 2 3/5

1

1

2/5

T (r) =

+ Pc

K

GM

2kb

5

R Rc

b) In detailed solar models, the pressure at the base of the convection zone is 5.2 1013dyne/cm2

and the density is 0.175 g cm3 . Using your solution from a), estimate the radius of the base of the

convection zone Rc . Compare this to the correct answer of Rc 0.71Rsun

If we solve the density equation for Rc we find

i 5K 3/5

1 h

1

2/5

= (K 3/2 )2/3 Pc

Rc R

2GM

1

= 1.998 109m1

Rc

c) In your model, what is the temperature of the sun at 0.99Rsun , 0.9Rsun , and at the base of the solar

convection zone. This gives you a good sense of how quickly the temperature rises from its surface value

of 5800 K as one enters the interior of the sun.

To find the temperature as a function of radius we would use the temperature equation derived from

part (a). i.e

m p K 3/5

2 3/5

25

2/5

T (r = 0.99Rsun) =

4.1 104 K

K

GMr

+ Pc

2kb

3

66 Rsun

m p K 3/5

15

2 3/5

2/5

5.1 105 K

+ Pc

K

GMr

T (r = 0.90Rsun) =

2kb

3

18 Rsun

T (r = 0.72Rsun) =

m p K 3/5 2/5

Pc 1.8 106 K

2kb

Problem set 4

Problem # 1

I mentioned in class that there are two ways to estimate the energy carried by convection. The first is

that the energy flux is Fc 1/2v3c Fc,1 where vc is the characteristic velocity of the convective motions.

12

This is the KE flux carried by moving blobs. The other estimate is that Fc Evc where E is the

difference in the thermal energy of a rising hot blob (or sinking cool blob) relative to the background star

(where E is per unit mass). I claimed in lecture that these two expressions are equivalent, to order of

magnitude (which is the accuracy of mixing length theory). In this problem, you will prove my claim.

(a). Calculate the acceleration a due to buoyancy of a rising hot blob (or sinking cool blob) in terms of

the fractional density difference / relative to the background star. Dont worry about the sign of the

acceleration or ?, just their magnitudes.

We know that the accelaration of the blob due to bouyancy is given by

b

ab = g

1 = g

since b .

(b). Use (a) to calculate the convective velocity vc in terms of /. Recall that in lecture we estimated

vc using the work done by the buoyancy force.

We know that the work done by the bouyancy force can be found by

1

W = mv2c =

2

Z l

0

s

vc =

F dl = aml

2g

v2c

=

2gl

v2c = 2g

kb T

kb T

=2

mg

m

(c). Use (b) to calculate E, the difference in the thermal energy (per unit mass) of a rising hot blob

(or sinking cool blob) relative to the background star, in terms of vc .

We can write the last expression as

T = v2c

m

2kb

E =

1 kb T

( V )

m

where ( V ) is the mass. Using these two expression and what we found from part (b) we can see

that

1 2 E

E v2c

E

= vc =

V

2

m

m

2

13

From (a) we know that

1

E

Fc,1 v3c Fc,2 vc

2

m

E

1

E

1 3

vc vc v2c

2

m

2

m

Problem # 2

Estimate the convective velocity vc and the dimensionless entropy gradient (ds/dr)(H/c p) in the convection zones of 0.1 and 10 Msun stars. Assume that the material undergoing convection is at about the

mean density of the star and that gas pressure dominates. You can either use a scaling argument to estimate

the density, temperature, luminosity, etc. of such stars or look up in a book (e.g., Carrol & Ostlie) any

properties of 0.1 and 10M? stars that you need to make your estimate (e.g., radius and luminosity). But

you cant just look up vc and (ds/dr)(H/c p).

From class we know that

Fc =

but we know that

H ds 3/2

C p dr

3Cs3

thus

Fc

H ds 1/2

vc = Cs

C p dr

L

4R2

2/3

H ds

L

1

=

C p dr

2

4R

Cs2

which reduces to

2/3

H ds

mp

LR

C p dr = 3M

kb T

where

Cs2 =

kT

mp

3M

4R3

H ds 1/2

LR 1/3

=

vc = Cs

C p dr

3M

from Carrol and Ostley we find that for 10Msun and .1M sun we find that the radius, and luminosity are

approximately

M 10Msun R 6Rsun L 5700Lsun

M 0.1Msun R 0.2Rsun L .0034Lsun

given these values we find

M = 10Msun

M = 0.1Msun

H ds

6

vc 5.3 104 cm/s

C p dr 3.61 10

H ds

10

vc 698 cm/s

C p dr 5.8 10

14

Problem # 3 Polytropes

(a). The mass M of a star is given by

M=

Z R

0

4r2 (r)dr

Use the Lane-Emden equation for polytropes, and the dimensionless density and radius defined in lecture,

to rewrite this in terms of the central density of the star as

3M

n=

an

c = a

4R3

where an is a dimensionless number, the ratio of the central density to the mean density of the star. an is

a function that you should determine that depends only on the solution to the Lane-Emden equation (you

cannot actual evaluate an in general without numerically solving for [], so your answer will just be in

terms of the solution to the Lane-Emden equation).

Since we know that

=

given these two relations we can find

(r) = n c

(r)

1/n

r

a

r2 = a2 2 a = R dr = Rd

d

2 d

= 2 n

d

d

given these following relationships we find that

M=

Z 1

0

Z 1

d

2 d

4R c d = 4R c

d

3 2

1

an =

3

Z 1

d

2 d

d

0 d

c =

3M

an

4R3

4G2c a2

n+1

where a 6= an is the constant (with units of length) defined in lecture (note that the polytropic relation

P = K can be used to write K = Pc c . Use this result and (a) to derive an expression for the central

pressure of a polytropic model of the form

GM 2

Pc =

cn

R4

Pc =

15

where cn is again a dimensionless function that you should write down. Also show that the central

pressure of a polytrope can be written as

4/3

Pc = dn GM 2/3 c

where dn depends on an and cn . The values of an , dn , and dn can be determined by numerically solving the

Lane-Emden equation. The most useful cases for our purposes are = 4/3 (n = 3) and = 5/3 (n = 3/2)

polytropes. For n = 1.5, an = 5.99 and cn = 0.77 while for n = 3, an = 54.183 and cn = 11.05. We will use

these quite a bit during this course. Note how, as mentioned in class, the results for the central pressure and

density of polytropes above are very similar to what you would get from an order of magnitude estimate,

except that for polytropes we get an exact correct numerical factor given by an , cn and dn .

We know that

K = Pc

c

and also

#

1/n1 1/2

"

(n + 1)Kc

a=

4G

given these relationships we can now find

a2 4G

1/n1

1/n1

= Pc

= Kc

c c

n+1

but since we know that = 1/n + 1 we find

1/n1

Pc

c c

(1+1/n) 1/n1

c

= Pc c

= Pc 2

c

Pc =

a2 4G2c

n+1

Pc =

which becomes

a2 4G2c

GM 2

= 4 cn

n+1

R

a2 4Ga2n

Pc =

n+1

3M

4R3

2

GM 2

cn

R4

9a2 a2n 1

cn =

4R2 n + 1

now looking at

4/3

Pc = dn GM 2/3 c

and from (b) we find

2/3 4/3

a2 4Gc c

Pc =

n+1

a2 4G

=

n+1

16

an 3M

4R3

2/3

4/3

which becomes

4/3

Pc = GM 2/3 c cn

4

an

4/3

92/3

and after some fun algebra, which will be omitted here we find

dn = cn

4

3an

4/3

(c). What are the values of dn for n = 3 and 1.5 polytropes, respectively?

using the above result we find

n = 3 an = 5.99 cn = 0.77 dn = 0.477

n = 3/2 an = 54.183 cn = 11.05 dn = 0.363

(d). Use your expressions for the central pressure and density to give an expression for the central

temperature of a polytrope. Assume gas pressure dominates.

to find these expression we will assume that gas pressure dominates, i.e

Pc =

c

kb Tc

m

thus

1/3

dn GM 2/3 c m

Pc m

=

c kb

kb

and skipping some algebra we find that the central temperature is given by

Tc =

dn GM

Tc =

Rkb

3an

4

1/3

mp

2

dn GM

Tc =

Rkb

3an

4

1/3

mp

2

Pc =

GM 2

cn

R4

c =

3M

an

4R3

(e). Calculate the central temperature, pressure, and density for = 4/3 (n = 3) and = 5/3 (n = 3/2)

polytropes for M = Msun and R = Rsun (i.e., for the sun). Assume fully ionized hydrogen for simplicity.

Which polytrope better approximates the true interior temperature, pressure, and density of the sun? Can

you explain physically why this is the case?

using the above expressions for temperature, density and pressure we find for

=

we find

5

an = 5.99 cn = 0.77 dn = 0.477

3

and for

=

4

an = 54.183 cn = 11.05 dn = 0.363

3

17

we find

thus we can see that the = 4/3 polytrope best represents the values observed in the sun, this is mainly

due to the fact that the center of the sun is radiative and not convective. Since we now know that

P 4/3 radiative

P 5/3 convective

Problem # 4

Consider a pre-main sequence star (gas cloud) of mass M undergoing Kelvin-Helmholz contraction.

In class, we showed that fully convective stars move down the Hayashi line with Te f f constant. But

stars with M > 0.3Msun do not end up fully convective on the main sequence and so must go through

a phase of KH contraction in which energy transport is dominated by photons. Assume throughout this

problem that gas pressure dominates and that free-free ab- sorption dominates the opacity (because the

temperature is lower during KH contraction than on the main sequence, free-free absorption tends to

be even more important). Motivated by HW #2 Problem 1, assume that the luminosity of a star in

which photons carry the energy out and the opacity is dominated by free-free absorption is given by

L Lsun (M/Msun )11/2 (R/Rsun )1/2 .

(a). Determine how the radius, luminosity, and effective temperature vary as a function of time and

mass M for a radiative star undergoing KH contraction. Dont worry about the constants in these relations;

all you need to calculate are proportionalities (i.e., how do the various quantities depend on time and mass

M). Do the luminosity and effective temperature increase or decrease as the star contracts?

since we know that

Pg > Pr = f f

L f f Lsun

M

Msun

11/2

R

Rsun

1/2

Lrad

1 GM 2 dR

2 R2 dt

M2 R

M 11/2 R1/2

2

R tT

so we find that the radius scales as

R

plugging this into

1

M 7t 2

L M 11/2 R1/2 M 9t

thus

L M 9t

L

R2 Te4f f

Te f f

18

L

R2

1/4

M 23/4 t 5/4

thus

Te f f M 23/4 t 5/4

We can see that as time and mass increase the luminosity increases as well as the effective temperature.

(b). Estimate the radius of a star (in Rsun ) of a given mass M (in Msun ) at the time when energy transport

by photons takes over from convection during the KH phase. At what luminosity does this occur (again as

a function of mass M)? Assume based on lecture that the luminosity of a fully convective star is

L 0.2Lsun (M/Msun )4/7 (R/Rsun )2

if we set the free-free luminosity equal to the convective luminosity we find

Lsun

M

Msun

11/2

R

Rsun

1/2

R 5

5/2

M

Msun

69/35

Rsun

(c). Sketch the paths of 1Msun pre-stellar gas clouds during their KH contraction phase in the HR

diagram. Include both the convective and radiative parts of their evolution and the correct transition point

between the two based on b). Be sure to properly label your axes (L in Lsun and Te f f in K). Note that on

the main sequence a 3 Msun star has L 40Lsun and Te f f 10000 K (you know the values for the sun).

The KH contraction phase ends when the star contracts to the point where its luminosity and temperature

have these values.

since we now have a relationship for the radius we can find what the luminosity is by

L 0.2Lsun

M

Msun

4/7

R

Rsun

2

2/5

0.2Lsun

which yields

L(Msun) 0.724Lsun

and a plot is given by

19

M

Msun

4/7

M

Msun

128/35

Figure 1: We plot the path that a 1 solar mass star would trace when moving from the Hayashi track

to the main sequence.

Problem set 5

Problem # 1

In lecture we discussed the slow, nearly hydrostatic, contraction of pre-stellar gas clouds as they approach the main sequence - Kelvin Helmholz (KH) contraction.

(a). Argue that, for KH contraction to occur, the timescale

for KH contraction tKH must be longer than

p

the gravitational free-fall time of the cloud, t f f 1/ Ghi, where hi is the mean density of the cloud.

What happens if tKH < t f f ?

Since we know that

1

tf f p

Ghi

tKH

"

M

Msun

20

1/2

Rsun

R

#3

(2 107yrs)

froma a purely physical argument we know that things cannot fall faster than gravity can pull it. Thus

tKH t f f

and saying t f f tKH would be an unphysical statement due to the knowledge we have about gravity.

We also know that when things collapse that the radius gets smaller, hence collapse and from the relationships of time in both free-fall and Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction we can see that as R that t f f thus the

only possible solution is that tKH t f f .

(b). Estimate the critical radius Rc (inRsun) at which tKH t f f for a given cloud of mass M (in Msun ).

Assume, as we did in class, that the cloud is fully convective at early times. Show that for R < Rc , the

cloud undergoes KH contraction according to your criterion from a). Recall that the luminosity of a fully

convective star is L 0.2Lsun (M/Msun )4/7 (R/Rsun )2 .

We can find the critical radius by setting the above expression equal to each other, i.e

"

#3

1

M 1/2 Rsun

p

=

(2 107 yrs)

Msun

Rc

Ghi

re-arranging this expression for Rc we find

M 1/2

Rsun (Ghi)1/6 (2 107 yrs)1/3

Rc =

Msun

and letting

hi =

3M

M

3

3

4Rc

Rc

we find

Rc

2/3

7

1/3 G1/9

4/9 Rsun (2 10 yrs)

M

1/3

Msun

Rc 4.79 1010cm

Since we know that

t f f R3/2

tKH

1

R3

R

R

tKH t f f

tKH t f f

from these two relationships we can see that for KH contraction to occur that tKH t f f and also that

R < Rc .

(c). What is the central temperature of the (fully convective) cloud (in K) as a function of its mass M

(in Msun ) when R = Rc ?

We know that the temperature of a fully convective object is given by

dn GM 3an 1/3 m p

Tc =

Rkb

4

2

21

and since we know that fully convective stars have a polytropic index of = 5/3. Knowing this we

find

n = 3 an = 5.99 dn = 0.477

thus

M

Rc

2.79 1015 M 5/9

Tc 2.16 1015

and if we want the temperature of a collapsing gas cloud with respect to Msun we get

Tc 1.9 104K

Problem # 2

The globular cluster M13 in Hercules contains about 0.5 million stars with an average mass of about

half the solar mass. Use Jeans criteria to check whether this cluster could have formed in the early universe

just after the time when the universe was cool enough for the electrons and nuclie to form neutral atoms;

at this time the density of the universe was 1027 kg m3 and the temperature was T 104 K .

Using the Jeans mass equation

Mj =

kb

Gm p

3/2

T 3/2

M j 1.37 1042 g

and the mass of M13 is

M13 0.5 106 Msun 9.95 1038 g

and we can see that

M j M13

which means that this cluster could not have formed in the early universe. Things only collapse if the

mass is greater than the Jeans mass

Problem # 3

The binding energy per nucleon for 56 Fe is 8.8 MeV per nucleon. Estimate the energy released per

kilogram of matter by the sequnce of reactions which fuse hydrogen to iron.

We know that the enery released will be given as

Etot =

Eb

Nnucleon

nucleon

1 kg

M

Nnucleon =

mp

mp

thus

Etot 5.27 1027 MeV

(b). Consider two hypothetical stars of the same mass M and the same luminosity L (that is constant in

time). The stars are initially pure hydrogen. In star A, fusion proceeds until the entire star is converted into

22

He. In star B, fusion proceeds until the entire star is converted into Fe. Which star has a longer lifetime,

and by how much?

We know that

EHe

EFe

LFe =

tHe

tFe

and since we know that these two luminosities are theoretically equal

LHe =

EHetFe = EFetHe

which gives

tHe =

6.4

EHe

tFe =

tFe 0.72tFe

EFe

8.5

tHe < tFe

we can see that the time for all of the hydrogen to fuse into helium is less then the time for all of the

hydrogen to fuse into iron so the star that is converted to iron has a longer lifetime.

Problem # 4

(a) What is the classical distance of closest approach for two protons with an energy of 2 keV (the

mean thermal energy at the center of the sun)? Estimate the probability that the protons tunnel through the

Coulomb barrier trying to keep them apart. Answer the same two questions for two 4 He nuclei and for a

proton and a 4 He nucleus with the same energy of 2 keV.

The classical distance of closest approach is given by

rc =

e2 Z1 Z2

7.2 1011 cm

E0

1/2

E

EG

P=e

where

EG .493 MeV

thus the probability is given as

P 1.51 107

for a He-He interaction we find

e2 Z1 Z2

rc =

2.8 1010 cm

E0

EG = 322 2 2m p c2 31.6 MeV

and the probabilty is given by

P 2.50 1055

23

rc =

e2 Z1 Z2

1.44 1010 cm

E0

EG 3.15 MeV

P 5.8 1018

(b) What energy E would be required for i) the two 4 He nuclei, ii) the proton and the 4 He nucleus, and

iii) two 12 C nuclei to have the same probability of penetrating the Coulomb barrier as the two protons?

For particles with energies equal to the mean thermal energy of the plasma, what temperatures do these

correspond to?

Since we know that

E=

EG

(ln P)2

EHeHe 0.125 MeV

for the proton-He interaction we find

E pHe .013 MeV

for the carbon-carbon interaction the Gamow energy is given by

EG 259222 6m p c2 7.7 GeV

and thus

Ecc 31 MeV

we know that

E

kb

T

so

THeHe

1.45 109K

TpHe

1.5 108K

Tcc

3.6 1011K

Problem # 5

Calculations of nuclear reaction rates are done in the center of mass (COM) frame, so it is useful to

remember a few results about the COM. Consider two particles of mass m1 and m2 with positions x1 and

x2 and velocities v1 and v2 .

(a) .What is the velocity of the COM?

We kbnow that the center of mass is given by

com =

m1 r 1 + m2 r 2

m1 + m2

24

vcom =

m1 v1 + m2 v2

m1 + m2

(b). What are the velocities of each of the two particles in the COM reference frame (i.e., in the frame

for which the COM is at the origin)?

We know that the relative velocities are given by

vrel1 = v1 vcom

vrel2 = v2 vcom

a bit of algebra yields

vrel1 =

vrel2 =

m2

(v1 v2 )

m1 + m2

m1

(v2 v1 )

m1 + m2

(c). What is the total KE of the two particles in the COM frame? Show that this is equal to the KE of

the reduced mass moving at the relative velocity, as claimed in class.

We know that the total kinetic energy is given by

1

1

m1 v2rel1 + m2 v2rel2

2

2

m1 m2

=

(m2 (v1 v2 )2 + m1 (v2 v1 )2 )

2(m1 + m2 )2

m1 m2

(v1 v2 )2

=

2(m1 + m2 )

Ktot =

Ktot =

1

mr (v1 v2 )2

2

Problem set 7

In this problem we will determine the main sequence for fully convective low mass stars. We showed

in lecture that fully convective stars have Te f f 4000(L/Lsun )1/102 (M/Msun )7/51 K (I actually derived a

coefficient of 2600 K in lecture but commented that more detailed calculations get something similar but

with the coefficient closer to the value of 4000 K used here). We can also write this result as

25

Lsun Lconv

I called this luminosity Lconv since it is derived from the properties of energy transport alone (convective interior + radiative atmosphere with H opacity). The luminosity of a star is also given by

L f usion = 4r2 (T, )dr

where is due to the proton-proton chain for low mass stars (this was given in lecture). As discussed in

class, the main sequence is determined by the requirement that the energy escaping the star (in this case by

convection) is equal to the energy generated in the star (in this case by pp fusion), i.e., that Lconv = L f usion

.

a) Use scaling arguments to derive the power-law relations R(M), L(M), Tc (M), and L(Te f f ) (the HR

diagram) for fully convective stars, like we did for other examples in lecture. Approximate T with

an appropriate choice of (recall that low mass stars will have somewhat lower central temperatures than

the sun, closer to 106 K, as you will see in part b).

We know that

L f us R3 (, T ) R3 2 T

Lconv M 4/7 R2

EG 1/3

2

= +

3

4kT

given that we know what the temperature is and also what EG for p-p reaction

T 5 106 K

EG 500 keV

we find that

= 5.92 6.0

we also know

M

R3

L f usion = Lconv

thus we can find

M2

M R R

Tc6 T 6 M 5/21 R5/6

R6

we know from the Virial temperature, assuming gas pressure dominates

4/7 2

M

R

thus we find

Tc M 25/77

knowing this we can now find

R M 52/77

with this and the relationship for the convective luminosity we find

L M 4/7 R2 M 148/77

26

with this we can now find what the effective temperature as a function of mass is, i.e

L R2 Te4f f

thus

Te4f f

L

M 4/7

R2

which yields

Te f f M 1/7

to find what the luminosity as a function of the effective temperature is (HR diagram)

M Te7f f

which yields

148/11

L Te f f

In a) you just determined a scaling relation between stars of different mass, but not the absolute values

of L, Te f f , etc. In class, we did the latter by scaling to the sun. Note, however, that it is not reasonable

to estimate the properties of low mass stars by scaling from the properties of the sun, since the sun is not

a fully convective star! Instead we need to actually determine the structure of some fully convective star.

This is what we will do in the rest of the problem. We can significantly improve on the above scaling

arguments by using the fact that fully convective stars are n = 3/2 polytropes. It turns out that for a

polytrope, in equation (1) can be Taylor expanded near the center to yield

L f usion

2.4c M

(3 + )3/2

where I have again approximated T and where c is evaluated at the center of the star. I am not

asking you to prove equation (2). You will have to trust me. Note that for a typical value of for the pp

chain, equation (2) says that L f usion 0.1c M . This makes sense because fusion only takes place at the

center of the star (not all of the mass participates).

b) Use the results for n = 3/2 polytropes from HW 4, Problem # 3, to write the central temperature of

the star Tc , central density c , and pp energy generation at the center of the star c in terms of the mass

M and radius R. Assume X = 0.7 and = 0.6 (typical for stars just reaching the main sequence). Note

that you should give expressions for Tc , c , and c here, with constants and real units, not just scaling

relationships. So that the constants in front of your expressions are reasonable, please normalize M to

Msun and R to Rsun .

The general expressions given by HW 4 problem #3 are

dn GM

Tc =

Rkb

3an

4

1/3

m p

Pc =

GM 2

cn

R4

c =

an = 5.99 cn = 0.77 dn = 0.477

27

3M

an

4R3

m pGMsun

Tc = 0.322

kb Rsun

M/Msun

R/Rsun

Msun

c = 1.43 3

Rsun

M/Msun

(R/Rsun )3

M/Msun

Tc 7.43 10 K

R/Rsun

6

we also know

M/Msun

c 8.41

(R/Rsun )3

2/3 15.7T71/3

c = 5 105 c X 2 T7

c = AT7 X 2 = AT76 X 2

setting this two expressions equal to each other we can find what A is, i.e lettingT 107 K we find

A = 5 105 e15.7 0.076

thus we find

c 0.076cT76 X 2 0.037cT76

M

c 0.053

Msun

7

Rsun

R

9

c) Use equation (2), the results of b), and Lconv = L f usion on the main sequence to determine the R(M),

L(M), Tc (M), and L(Te f f ) relations for fully convective stars. If you use the same , your expressions here

should be the same as in a) except that you should now be able to determine the absolute normalization

for R(M), L(M), etc., i.e., you have determined the true luminosity and radius of a ful ly convective star

from first principles. In doing this problem, remember that is temperature dependent so make sure you

check that your value of is reasonable given the resulting central temperature that you calculate.

Using the results from b and also

L f usion

2.4cM

.09cM

(3 + )3/2

( 6)

Lcon = L f usion

M

0.2

Msun

4/7

R

Rsun

2

Lsun

M

= 0.0047

Msun

7

Rsun

R

which yield

R

Rsun

11

Msun

= 0.023

Lsun

M

Msun

R

M 52/77

0.67

Rsun

Msun

28

52/7

9

M

Msun

Msun

M/Msun

Tc 7.43 10 K

R/Rsun

6

M

Tc 1.1 10 K

Msun

7

25/77

M

Lconv = 0.2

Msun

4/7

R

Rsun

2

Lsun

148/77

Lsun

148/77

M

Lconv = 0.09

Msun

for the effective temperature we find

L = 4R

Te4f f

M

0.09

Msun

M 148/77

M 104/77 4

18

0.09

Lsun = 1.56 10

Te f f

Msun

Msun

thus

Te f f

M

= 3868 K

Msun

M

=

Msun

Te f f

3868 K

1/7

7

148/11

d) What are your predicted luminosities, radii, and effective temperatures for main sequence stars with

M = 0.1 and 0.3Msun ? Compare your values to the values of L = 0.01Lsun , R = 0.3Rsun , and Te f f = 3450

K for M = 0.3Msun and L = 103 Lsun , R = 0.11Rsun, and Te f f = 3000 K for M = 0.1Msun that I found in a

graduate textbook (based on detailed models).

Given our relationships we find for

M = 0.1Msun L = 1.1 103Lsun R = 0.14Rsun Te f f = 2783 K

and for

M = 0.3Msun L = .009Lsun R = 0.298Rsun Te f f = 3256 K

29

Consider very massive stars with M 50 100Msun . Recall that I showed in lecture and you showed

on HW 3, Problem # 1, that in such stars, radiation pressure due to photons (a relativistic particle) is more

important than gas pressure. Fusion is by the CNO cycle. Assume for now that energy is transported

primarily by photons and that the opacity is due to Thomson scattering (reasonable for hot massive stars).

a) Use scaling arguments to derive the power-law relations R(M), L(M), Tc(M), and L(Te f f ) (the HR

diagram) for very massive stars, like we did for other examples in lecture.

Using radiative diffusion along with

1

Prad = aT 4

3

we also know

thus

dPr 4 3

= aT

dT

3

4

dT

GM

dP dP dT

=

= aT 3

= 2

dR dT dR 3

dR

R

M

dT

3 2

dR T R

dT

M

L

3 2

2

3

R T

dR T R

which gives us

LM

using the Virial theorem, where Prad dominates rather than Pgas we find

T4 M

Tc

M 1/2

R

where the left hand term is from the radiation pressure, but since we know that is an energy density

we must devide by the density to find what the energy is per particle. Now using the steady state for

luminosity we find

L MT 18

where we chose = 18 as a more appropriate value rather than the value given for the sun = 20, this

is motivated by the fact that more massive stars have somewhat higher temperatures, thus reducing . We

find

1 R3

T 18

M

and using the result from Virial temperature we find

M 9 R3

R18 M

thus we find

R M 10/21

and we also find for the central temperature

Tc M 1/42

30

Te4f f

L

M

2 M 1/21

2

R

R

simplifying gives

Te f f M 1/84

and finally the luminosity as a function of Te f f is given by

L(Te f f ) Te84

ff

b) Estimate the fraction of the mass in the star that is undergoing convection (recall that fusion by

the CNO cycle is very concentrated at small radii because of the strong temperature dependence). For

comparison, detailed calculations show that the fraction of the mass that undergoes core convection

increases from 10 % at 2Msun to 75% at 60Msun .

The condition for convection is given by

d ln T

1 Ptot L Lr /L

1

>

d ln P 4 Prad LEdd Mr /M

=

4

Ptot Prad

3

gives us

1 Lr M

1

>

4 LEdd Mr 4

which simplyfies to

Lr

Mr

>

Ledd

M

we know that in the limit that M 150Msun Lr LEdd ,

Mr

<1

M

which means that the fraction of the mass of the star that is undergoing convection approaches 1, which is

100% of the mass is undergoing convection. Its a little strange that stars that are much less massive than

the sun and the stars that are much more massive than the sun are both almost fully convective.

n=3/2 polytrope

The previous case yielded a result for a n=3 polytrope, we find that for

n = 3/2 polytrope

Mr 5 Lr

<

M

8 LEdd

Lr Ledd

Mr 5

<

M

8

31

5

3

This seems rather strange in the sense that stars that are approximately 60Msun have a convective core

that encompasses 75% of the mass, which means that the convective core decreases after M > 60Msun ?

c) Calculate the main sequence lifetime of a very massive star as a function of its mass M . Be sure to

take into account the results of b).

We know that the main sequence lifetime of a star is given by

tMS

Etot

LEdd

where

Etot = NQ

Q 7 MeV

Mr

M

=

(n = 3 polytrope)

mp mp

Mr 5 M

=

(n = 3/2 polytrope)

N =

mp 8 mp

N =

4cGM

T

so we find the main-sequence lifetime to be given as

LEdd =

T Q

(n = 3 polytrope)

m p 4cG

5T Q

(n = 3/2 polytrope)

m p 32cG

tMS

tMS

we know that

T 0.4 cm2 /g

thus we find that the main-sequence lifetime for both types of polytropes are given by

2.21 106yr < tMS < 3.39 106yr

seems reasonable.

Problem set 8

32

a) Above what density is a gas of room temperature fermions degenerate? Below what temperature

would gas with the density of air be degenerate?

as

We know that if the density of the gas is ng nQ where nQ is the quantum concentration, nQ is defined

nQ

2mkT

h2

3/2

(1)

ng nQ =

2mkT

h2

3/2

1.46 1026cm3

where we used

T = 300K

m = 28m p

due to the fact that air is mostly composed of N2 . If we assume that the questio is only speaking about

free electrons we get

2me kT 3/2

ng nQ =

1.25 1019 cm3

2

h

using the same temperature as before.

To find the temperature at which gas with a density of air would be degenerate can by using the above

expression, except now we must find what the density of air is at STP and use this, i.e

nair =

P

= 2.52 1019 cm3 = nQ

kT

2/3

T=

nQ h2

2mkT

9.2 103 K

using m = 28m p

b) Compare the relative importance of the thermal energy, the electrostatic (Coulomb) energy between

electrons and ions, and electron degeneracy (electron Fermi energy) in room temperature silver (Z = 47;

10g cm3 ). Which dominates?

We can write the thermal energy as

3

Eth kT .039 eV

2

We can write the Coulomb energy as

Ecoul Z 2 e2

we know

r n1/3

33

1

r

1/3

m

thus

2 2

Ecoul Z e

1/3

12.43 keV

m

using 10 g/cm3 and m 100m p . The Fermi energy can be written as

Ef =

3

8

2/3

h2

2me

47

m

2/3

75 eV

where we used m 100m p and the 47 comes from the fact that there are 47 electrons in a silver atom.

We can see that

Ecoul E f > Eth

for room temperature silver.

Problem # 2 Deuterium Fusion in Contracting Protostars

Small amounts of Deuterium are made in the Big Bang. D is destroyed in the interiors of stars via

the reaction p + D 3 He + . The S value for D-burning is2.5 104 keV-barn = 4 1037 erg cm2 ,

each reaction releases 5.5 MeV, and the cosmic abundance of D from the Big Bang is nD 2 105 nH .

Lets focus on a low mass fully convective star undergoing KH contraction; such a star can be reasonably

well modeled as an n = 3/2 polytrope. Assume that the star has cosmic composition ( 0.6). Note that

in this problem, you should not use the approximation T . Instead, you will need to keep the full

expression for .

a) What is the Gamow energy for D fusion? Write down the resulting thermally averaged cross-section

hvi for D fusion.

The Gamow energy can be written as

EG = Z12 Z22

mr

MeV

mp

EG .67 MeV

The thermally averaged cross-section is given as

1/6

hvi =

e

k2/3 T 2/3

using all the constants given and the Gamow energy we find

hvi =

e

K2/3 T 2/3 s

hvi =

e

K2/3 T 2/3 s

b) In class we derived a quantitative model for the Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction of a low mass star as

it approaches the main sequence. Use these results to calculate the local contraction time tc R/|dR/dt|

34

as a function of the mass and radius of the star. This is the amount of time that a star of a given mass M

spends at a given radius R. Does the contraction time get shorter or longer as the star contracts?

From lecture we derived the following relationship

3 GM 2 dR

= 0.2Lsun (M/Msun )4/7 (R/Rsun )2

L=

7 R2 dt

thus we find

Msun 2

R 2

M 4/7

R 2

M

Rsun

Msun

Rsun

10/7

4

Msun

R

= 3.34 105cm/s

M

Rsun

dR

7 0.2 R2sun Lsun

=

dt

3 GM 2sun

tc = Rsun

R

Rsun

1

M 10/7 Rsun 3

7

= 6.7 10 yr

(dR/dt)

Msun

R

c) What is the lifetime tD of a D nucleus at the center of the star in terms of the local density and

temperature (the lifetime is the average time before a D nucleus is destroyed by fusion into 3 He)? Use the

properties of n = 3/2 polytropes to write tD as a function of M and R. Does the D lifetime get shorter or

longer as the star contracts?

We know that average lifetime of a deuteron is given by

tD =

l

1

=

v n p v

which gives us

htD i =

but we also know

c =

thus we find

htDi =

we also know

m p

1

=

n p hvi c hvi

3M

M

an = 1.43 3

3

4R

R

m p R3

m p

1 R3

=

= 7.019 1025 g

c hvi 1.43hviM

hvi M

dn GM

Tc =

Rkb

3an

4

1/3

m p = 2.60 1016

cm M

K

g R

thus we find

htD i = 7.019 1025 g

3

1/3 R

1 R3

gs

= 1.89 1010 3 T 2/3 e3742(K/T )

hvi M

cm

M

35

R

htD i = 1.23 10 s

Rsun

6

7/3

Msun

M

1/3

1/3

e19.19((Msun /M)(R/Rsun ))

d)For any mass M show that there is a critical radius RD at which tD = tc . This represents the radius

(time) at which D starts to undergo significant fusion. Give the numerical value of RD for M = 0.03 and 0.1

Msun . For each of these two cases, also determine the central temperature of the star Tc and the D lifetime

tD when R = RD . Does D fusion occur before or after the star reaches the main sequence?

We know that

tD = tc

which yields

R

1.23 10 s

Rsun

6

7/3

Msun

M

1/3

M

= 6.7 10 yr

Msun

7

10/7

Rsun

R

3

and so we find

RD

Rsun

16/3

= 1.71 10

21

M

Msun

37/21

1/3

e19.19((Msun /M)(R/Rsun ))

RD = 0.44Rsun

RD = 1.11R

M = 0.03Msun

M = 0.1Msun

M

Tc = 7.4 10 K

Msun

6

Rsun

RD

we find

Tc 5.0 105 K M = 0.03Msun

Tc 6.67 105K M = 0.1Msun

and to solve for the deuteron lifetime we find

RD 7/3 Msun 1/3 19.19((Msun /M)(R/Rsun ))1/3

6

htD i = 1.23 10 s

e

Rsun

M

so we find

tD 4.67 106yr M = 0.03Msun

tD 4.1 105yr M = 0.1Msun

e) Can D fusion halt (at least temporarily) the KH contraction of the star? Explain your answer quantitatively.

36

=

Qrd

d

d = md n d

L = M =

rd =

nd

tD

MQ

MQrd

=

d

2m ptD

M(8.8 106ergs)

L=

2m ptD

so for M = .03Msun we find

thus we can see that for both of these stars deuteron fusion can stop the KH contraction temporarily.

Problem # 3 The R(M) Relation for Degenerate Objects

Consider an object supported entirely by the pressure of non-relativistic degenerate electrons. Because

P = K5/3 such an object can be modeled (rigorously) as an n = 3/2 polytrope.K is a constant that depends

on the electron mean molecular weight e .

a) Use your results for how the central pressure Pc and density c of an n = 3/2 polytrope depends

on the radius R and mass M of the object to derive the R(M) relation for degenerate objects (the radius

also depends on e ). Note that you should give an expression with proper constants and not just a scaling

relationship. Normalize the mass M to Msun and the radius R to Rsun (this should sound pretty familiar by

now).

We know that

h2

Pdeg = Pc =

5me

rearranging this equation for c yields

1/3

c

h2

=

5me

3

8

2/3

3

8

c

e m p

2/3

5/3

1

m p

4/3

= dn GM 2/3 c

5/3

1

dn GM 2/3

M

c = 8.41

Msun

Rsun

R

3

R

M 1/3

5/3

= 0.04e

Rsun

Msun

b) Use a) to estimate the radius of Jupiter. How does your result compare to the correct value?

Using part a) with e 1.17 which is the value given for the sun on Google and M = MJ , we find

R 0.30Rsun

37

c) The results you have derived in a) should show that as M 0, R . This is not correct, however,

because Coulomb interactions become important in the equation of state of low-mass objects (brown

dwarfs and planets). Estimate the density at which the Coulomb energy per particle becomes comparable

to the Fermi energy. What mass and radius does this correspond to? Explain why this is a very rough

estimate of the maximum radius of a degenerate object.

If we know

E f = Ecoul

then

1 e2

=

40 r

but we know that

3

8

2/3

h2 2/3

n

2me

1

n1/3

r

thus

1 2 1/3

e n =

40

2/3

3

8

3

8

2

h2 2/3

n

2me

n=

2me 2

e

40 h2

3

6.15 1028 m3

c = nm p = 1.43

M

R3

1.43

Msun (M/Msun )

= nm p

(0.03Rsun)3 (M/Msun )1

M

=

Msun

nm p (.03Rsun)3

1.43Msun

1/2

M 190Mearth

using this we can now find the radius to be

R 0.361Rsun

Problem set 9

38

5.7 104

Problem # 1

Use the chemical potential for a non-degenerate, non-relativistic gas (derived in class; also 2.21

in Phillips) to show that in the limit n nQ (the non-degenerate limit), the full quantum mechanical

distribution function reduces to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. A good check that

you have things correct is that the QM dist. fcn you start with has some h s in it (Plancks constant), but

the classical dist. fcn you end up with should, of course, be independent of h.

We know that the chemical potential is defined as

n

= mc + kT ln

gnQ

2

(2)

n(p) =

g/h3

e(E p )/kT 1

e(E p )/kT 1

We can write Equation 1 as

nQ 1 (mc2 )/kT

= e

n

g

2 )/kT

e(mc

n nQ

n(p) =

g/h3

e(E p )/kT

p2

E p = mc +

2m

2

nQ =

2mkT

h2

3/2

n(p) =

g/h3

(mc2 +p2 /2mmc2 kT

ln(nQ /n))/kT

gn

h3 eE/kT n

which after some simplification reduces to the Classical Boltzman distribution function

1

n(p) = n

2mkT

3/2

eE/kT

Problem # 2

Consider a cloud of gas that has a total mass M . Assume that all of the gas in the cloud is converted

into stars with the initial mass function given in class dN/dm m where = 2.35 and where this

formula is valid between m = 0.5Msun and m = 150Msun . Note that dN/dm has units of number of stars

per unit mass.

39

a) What is the ratio of the number of stars formed with masses within dm m1 of m1 and masses

within dm m2 of m2 ? What is the ratio of the number of 150Msun stars formed to the number of 0.5Msun

stars formed?

We know that the Initial Mass Function IMF is given as

dN

m m2.35

dm

= 2.35

1

dN(m1 ) = m

1 dm1 m1

1

dN(m2 ) = m

2 dm2 m2

dN(m1 )

=

dN(m2 )

m1

m2

1

b) Estimate the mass of a cloud M so that approximately one 150Msun star forms in the cloud. If the

temperature of the cloud at the time of formation was 10 K, what was the density of the gas out of which

the cloud formed?

From part a) we found that

Ns 2208Nb

where Nb is for stars that are the number of 150Msun and Ns is for stars that have 0.5Msun and to

get the total mass we must multiply the total number of small stars to the average mass of the stars, and

from lecture we are told that

hM i 0.5Msun

Mcluster = Ns hM i 1104Msun

to find the density of the gas in which this cloud formed we can use the Jeans density

3kT 3

3

3.14 1022 kg m3

J =

4M 2 2Gm

Problem # 3

A stellar atmosphere consists almost entirely of hydrogen. Assume that 50 % of the hydrogen molecules

are dissociated into atoms and that the pressure is 100 Pa. Given that the binding energy of the hydrogen

molecule is 4.48 eV, estimate the temperature. Set all degeneracies to 1. As the hint at the back of the book

suggests, you should derive the Saha equation for the dissociation of H2 into hydrogen, i.e., the reaction

+ H2 H + H .

We know that

+ H2 H + H

(H2 ) 2(H)

40

nQ,H gH

nQ,K2 gH2

2

2

(H) = mH c kT ln

(H2) = mH2 c kT ln

nH

nH2

where

mH c2 = m p c2 + me c2 H

thus we find

mH2 c2 = 2m p c2 + 2me c2 H2 2H

nQ,K2 gH2

mH2 c kT ln

nH2

2

which becomes

H

2 = ln

kT

"

nQ,H gH

2

= 2 mH c kT ln

nH

nQ,H2 gH2

nH2

nH

nQ,H gH

2 #

gH2 = gH = 1

nQ,H2 nQ,H

thus we find

nH H /kT

nH2

=

e 2

= nH

nH

nQ

h2

2mkT

2mkT

h2

3/2

3/2

eH2 /kT

nH =

P

3kT

1

nH2

=

nH

2

h2

2mkT

3/2

thus

P

1

=

2 3kT

eH2 /kT

this can only be solved analyticaly, we find that the temperature is given by

T 2260 K

Problem # 4 Lines from Hydrogen

Consider a pure hydrogen gas. In this problem we will calculate the fraction of H atoms that have

an electron in the n = 2 state (a result I plotted in class), and use that to understand some aspects of the

observed lines of H from stars. Recall that the energy levels of the H atom are given by E = 13.6/n2 eV

and the degeneracies are gn = 2n2 .

a) Use the Saha equation to solve for the fraction of hydrogen atoms that are ionized as a function of

temperature T . If n is the total number density of hydrogen atoms (both neutral and ionized) then what

we are after is n p /n since an ionized hydrogen atom is just a proton. Your result for n p /n will depend

on n (because, as discussed in class, the ionization of a gas depends weakly on density in addition to the

primary dependence on temperature). For densities appropriate to the photosphere of the sun, make a plot

of n p /n as a function of temperature T . If you are familiar with graphing using IDL, Mathematica, etc.

feel free to use that. Otherwise, you can just plug values into your calculator and make the plot by hand. In

your calculation, assume that all of the neutral hydrogen atoms are in the n = 1 (ground) state. The reason

this is an ok approximation is as follows. According to the reasoning in class, which you will confirm

here, Hydrogen is 1/2 ionized at T 1.5 104 K. At that temperature, nearly all of the neutral H atoms

41

are in the ground state (check it if you dont believe me!), so for temperatures at which H is largely neutral

(T 1.5 104 K), it is reasonable to say that almost everything is in the ground state.

We know from the Saha equation

ne n p ge g p

=

nH

gH

we know

2mkT

h2

3/2

e/kT

ne n p n = nH + n p 13.6 eV

thus

and so

n2p

=

nH

2mkT

h2

3/2

ge g p

=1

gH

e/kT

n2p = nH = (n n p)

n2p + n p n = 0

with the solution of n p being

2 + 4n

np =

2

and since we know that this must be a positive thus we will take the positive solution

+ 2 + 4n

np =

2

and finally we are looking for

n p + 2 + 4n

=

n

2n

42

np vs ntotal

0.8

np/n

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

5.0103

1.0104

1.5104

Temperature

2.0104

2.5104

3.0104

we can see that at a temperature of T 1.4 1.5 107K roughly 50% of the hydrogen atoms are

ionized.

b) Use your result from a) to calculate the fraction of all H atoms that have an electron in the n = 2

state of hydrogen. If n2 is the number density of atoms with electrons in the n = 2 state, then what we

are after here is n2 /n. You will need to use the Boltzmann factor in addition to your result from the Saha

equation in a). For densities appropriate to the photosphere of the sun, make a plot of n2 /n as a function

of temperature T . If you are familiar with graphing using IDL, Mathematica, etc. feel free to use that.

Otherwise, you can just plug values into your calculator and make the plot by hand.

We know that

n np

np

nH

=

= 1

n

n

n

and from the Boltzman equation we know that

n2 g2 (E2 E1 )/kT

= e

n1 g1

we also know

nH = n1 + n2

and

n2 = nH n1

nH

n1

= 1+

n2

n2

n1 1

n2

= 1+

nH

n2

np

n2

n2 nH

n1 1

1

=

= 1+

n

nH n

n2

n

43

thus we find the fraction of all H atoms that have an electron in the n = 2 state of hydrogen given by

!

np

n2

+ 2 + 4n

n1 1

g1 (E2 E1 )/kT 1

1

1

= 1+ e

= 1+

n

n2

n

g2

2n

where has been explicitily defined already. The plot is given by

n2 vs ntotal

4105

np/n

3105

2105

1105

0

1.0104

1.5104

2.0104

2.5104

Temperature

3.0104

3.5104

4.0104

We can see that the fraction of hydrogen atomes in the energy state n = 2 peaks at 1.5 104 K.

c) The Balmer lines of hydrogen are produced by transitions between the n = 2 states of Hydrogen and

the n = 3, 4, .... states. What are the wavelengths of the H(n = 2 3)and H(n = 2 4) lines of H?

Use your result from b) to explain why A stars show the most prominent H lines of hydrogen (relative to

more massive stars such as O stars and less massive stars such as M stars).

We know that

E = h =

thus

=

and

hc

hc

hc

=

E (E2 E1 )

E=

13.6 ev

n2

=

hc

656.3 nm

(3.4 1.51)eV

44

=

hc

486.7 nm

(3.4 0.85)eV

From the plot given in part b) we can see that the fractional number of atoms in the n = 2 energy state

peaks at around 1.5 104K, which is approximately the surface temperature of A stars, we can also see

that for O type stars that have surface temperatures much greater than 15,000 K that there are 0% of

hydrogen atoms in the n = 2 energy state, most of the atoms are already ionized. The situation is similar

for M stars that have surface temperatures that are much lower than 15,000 K. We can see that at these

temperatures there are approximately 0 atoms with electrons in the n = 2 energy state.

d) The Lyman lines of hydrogen are produced by transitions between the n = 1 states of Hydrogen and

the n = 2, 3, 4, .... states. What is the wavelength of the Ly (n = 1 2) line of H? Roughly what fraction

of H atoms have electrons in the ground (n = 1) state of H in the atmosphere of an M-star? Would you

expect to see prominent Ly lines from an M-star? Why or why not?

Using

=

we find

=

hc

hc

=

E (E2 E1 )

hc

hc

=

121.6 nm

E (13.6 3.4)eV

We would not expect to see any Ly lines from M stars, even though all of the hydrogen atoms are in

the ground state, there is not enough thermal energy to excite the electrons from n = 1 to n = 2.

Problem set 10

Problem # 1

Consider a gas with total mass density and temperature T . Recall that the mean molecular weight

is defined by P kT /m p where P is the total ideal gas pressure (ions and electrons), while the electron

mean molecular weight e is defined by ne /e m p .

Since we know that the total pressure is given by

kT

PT = PI + Pe =

mp

and thus

1

1

+

I e

1

1

1

= +

I e

X

1

=

I

A

XZ

1

=

e

A

45

kT

m p

where X is the mass fraction of the species, Z is the number of electrons, and A is the atomic number

of the species, thus we find

A

1 A

e =

(3)

=

X 1+Z

XZ

a) What are the values of and e if the gas consists of

i) ionized H,

Since we know that

X =1 A=1 Z=1

then

=

1

e = 1

2

We have to treat this case seperately since we have two species contributing to the mean molecular

weight

X = 0.75 Y = 0.25 A = 4 Z = 2

thus

1

X Y

1

13

= + = (X +Y ) =

I

A A A

16

Z

7

1

= (X +Y ) =

e A

8

and so we find

=

8

16

e =

27

7

Since this is a pure fully ionized gas we can use Equation 1 with

X =1 A=4 Z=2

we find

=

4

e = 2

3

iv) ionized O,

Using Equation 1 with

X = 1 A = 16 Z = 8

we find

=

16

9

e = 2

v) ionized Fe

Using Equation 1 with

X = 1 A = 56 Z = 26

we find

=

56

27

e =

46

28

13

b) Which gas has the largest ideal gas pressure? Which gas has the largest electron degeneracy pressure? Assume that and T are the same in all cases.

Since we know that gas pressure goes as

1

than the smallest will give us the highest pressure, thus the element that has the highest gas pressure

Pg

is

=

1

2

Hydrogen gas

5/3

Pd ne

1

e

5/3

thus the gas that gives the highest degeneracy pressure is the one with the lowest value for e and this

is

e = 1

Hydrogen gas

In certain stages of stellar evolution, stars are largely composed of He and He fusion dominates the

stellar luminosity. One can approximate such stars as lying on a He main sequence. In this problem

we will calculate the properties of the He main sequence assuming that a star is composed of pure He,

that energy transport is via radiation, that electron scattering dominates the opacity, and that gas pressure

dominates. The energy generation rate for He fusing to Carbon is

= 5 1011 2 T83 exp(44/T8 ) ergs s1 g1

and 7.65 MeV is released converting 3 He nuclei into 1 C nucleus. Note that throughout this problem

you should not just give scaling (proportionality) laws for the desired relations; you should also determine

reasonable normalizations.

a) Calculate the relationship between mass M and luminosity L for the He main sequence.

For a star that has the given properties: energy transport is via radiation, electron scattering dominates

the opacity ( = T ), and that gas pressure dominates (P Pg ) we find the luminosity given as

L M 3 4 e

This equation gives the evolution of the lumunosity on the MS as chemical composition changes. We

can scale this to the sun to find

4

e

M 3

L = Lsun

Msun

sun

esun

we also know that

4

e = 2 sun = 0.6 esun 1.14

3

and so we find that the lumonosity for the Helium main sequence can be expressed as

He =

L 42.7Lsun

47

M

Msun

3

b) Estimate

the core temperature of a 1 solar mass He star. You do not need to do the full integral

R

L f usion = dM , but can approximate this as L f usion 0.1M(r = 0).

In steady state we can express the lumunosity of energy transport be equal to the luminosity due to

fusion

L f usion Ltransport

where we can use part a) and the approximation given to find

42.7Lsun

M

Msun

3

if we let

we find

T83 e44/T8 = 1.36 1013

solving this numerically yields

Tc 1.5 108 K

T8 1.52

c) Given your result for Tc for a 1 Msun star from b), calculate the power-law relation Tc (M) by imposing

the steady state requirement that L f usion = L photons and using T (where L photons is the energy carried

out of the star by photons from a).

Since we know that

L photons M 3

we find

L f usion M

M 2 T

=2

= 3 +

44

26

T8

M

R3

M

R

gives

M

2

M

R3

2

M

R

26

R M 13/16

using this along with our expression for the temperature gives

T

M

M

13/16 M 3/16

R M

M

T 1.5 10 K

Msun

8

48

3/16

d) Use your results above to determine the R(M)and Te f f (L)relations for the He main sequence. Then

sketch the relative positions of the H & He main sequences in the HR diagram.

From the Virial temperature we know

Tc =

Gm p M

k R

Gm p Msun

M

Rsun

Tc =

k Rsun Msun

R

using the result from c) and plugging in all the constants along with = 4/3 gives

M

1.5 10 K

Msun

8

3/16

M

= 3.08 10 K

Msun

7

Rsun

R

and we find

R

Rsun

M

= 0.21

Msun

13/16

To find the relationship between the luminosity and the effective temperature we can use

L = 4R2 Te4f f

but we know from our previous expression

2

R = (0.21Rsun)

M

Msun

13/8

L = 4(0.21Rsun)

M

Msun

13/8

Te4f f

M

Msun

L

42.6Lsun

1/3

Lsun

L

Lsun

= 4(0.21Rsun)

L

42.6Lsun

13/24

Te f f

L

2.1 10 K

Lsun

4

49

11/96

Te4f f

which seems rather odd, We would expect this main sequence He buring star to be above the main

sequence line. This can be explained by our initial assumption that went into deriving this relationship.

We assumed that this was a pure ball of He gas.

e) At what mass does the luminosity of the star exceed the Eddington luminosity?

We know that the Eddington luminosity is given by

LEdd

4cGM

=

L f usion = 42.7Lsun

M

Msun

3

4cGMsun

=

thus

=

1

T

e m p

M

Msun

= 42.7Lsun

ne T

e = 2

M

Msun

3

ne =

e m p

T

0.2 g/cm

2m p

M 38.95Msun

is the mass that will exceed the Eddington luminosity

f ) What is the He main sequence lifetime as a function of stellar mass? Compare this to the corresponding H burning lifetime.

50

t=

E

L

E = NQ =

0.1M

0.1Msun M

(7.65MeV) =

(7.65MeV )

12m p

12m p Msun

thus

0.1Msun

t=

12m p (42.7Lsun )

Msun

M

2

Msun

(7.65MeV) 2.34 10 yrs

M

7

2

Msun

t 2.34 10 yrs

M

7

2

this is much much shorter than the H burning lifetime which is t 1010 yrs for M 1Msun . Also can

be written as

tHe 0.2% the time of the main sequence Hydrogen burning

Problem # 3 The Thin Shell Instability

As we discussed in lecture, during several phases of stellar evolution, fusion takes place in a thin shell.

Consider such a shell located a distance Rs from the center of a star. The mass interior to Rs is M , the

mass of the shell itself is Mshell and the thickness of the shell is H dR R, where H is the scale-height

at radius Rs (recall that H is the distance over which the density, pressure, temperature, etc. change).

a) Use hydrostatic equilibrium to show that the pressure at the base of the shell is given by

P(Rs)

GMMshell

4R4s

HE gives

dP

GM

= 2

dr

R

which can be written in differential form

P(Rs + dR) P(Rs)

GM

= 2

dR

Rs

but we know that

s =

Ms

Ms

Vs

4R2s dR

and since we know that H dR R (this comes from the definition of H) then P(Rs + dR) P(Rs)

than

GMMs

P(Rs)

=

dR

4R4s dR

which simplifies to

P(Rs) =

GMMs

4R4s

b) Use your result in a), together with the strong temperature dependence of fusion reactions, to explain

why fusion in a thin shell is unstable and will runaway, as in a bomb. Hint: How will P, , T, and dR of the

shell change if there is a small perturbation that increases the amount of fusion in the shell?

51

M

dR3

If we apply a small pertubation that increases fusion then we know T , , and dR and since the

energy generation has such a high power temperature dependence we know that in order for this to be stable

than the density must decrease to compensate (assume constant pressure). But we can see that the density

dependence is a function of the radius and cannot decrease by 20 orders of magnitude to compensate, and

thus this becomes a runaway reaction, i.e like a bomb.

L M2 T 44/T8

This unstable fusion occurs primarily when stars are on the asymptotic giant branch (fusion of He in

a thin shell outside a C/O core) and may be part of the reason that such stars lose so much mass on their

way to becoming white dwarfs.

Problem set 11

Problem # 1

Consider a 0.5 Msun WD. Approximate it as an n = 3/2 polytrope, reasonably appropriate since we

are below the Chandrasekhar mass. Estimate the ratio of the energy transported by photons (radiative

diffusion) to the energy transported by degenerate electrons (thermal conduction) at the center of the WD.

Scale the central temperature of the WD to 108 K, an appropriate number for a newly formed WD. Assume

that the opacity is due to electron scattering. Show that the energy transported by electron conduction

dominates that transported by photons.

We know that the radiative flux for photons is given by

4 acT 3

T = r T

Fr =

3 0

where o is the opacity and r is the conductivity (any process that transports energy). We also know that

flux due to thermal conduction of degenerate electrons is given by

Fdeg = deg T

where deg is the conductivity due to degenerate electrons, thus the ratio of the energy transported by

photons (radiative diffusion) to the energy transported by degenerate electrons (thermal conduction) is

given by

Fr

r

=

Fdeg deg

we have defined the degenerate electron conductivity to be

deg cls

EF

kT

3/2

k 2 h3 T ni

k 2 h3 T c

=

32e4 m2e

32e2 m2e i m p

52

ni =

c

i m p

4 acT 3 4 acT 3 4 acT 3 e m p

=

=

3 o c

3 neT

3 c T

r =

c =

M

4M

an 1.43

3

3R

R

an = 5.99

R 0.013Rsun

M

Msun

1/3

e 5/3

2

m

me

1

0.016Rsun

128acT 2 e4 m2e m2p e i

r

=

deg

3k2 h3 T 2c

we also know

1

1

1

= +

i e

n

1

Xi

=

i i=0 A

(4)

n

1

Xi Z

=

e i=0 A

where we find

96

e = 2

7

assuming 50% C and 50 % O. If we use a temperature of T 108 K on Equation 1 we find

i =

r

0.084 deg 11.9r

deg

Thus we can see that the energy transported by electron conduction dominates this process.

Problem # 2

Assume that stars are formed with the Salpeter initial mass function (dN/dM M 2.35 ) between 0.5

and 150 Msun , that stars with Mi < 8Msun become 0.5Msun WDs, that stars with 30Msun > Mi > 8Msun

become 1.4 Msun NSs, and that stars with Mi > 30Msun become 7Msun BHs (the typical WD, NS, and BH

masses chosen here are well-motivated observationally). Assume further that all NSs and BHs are formed

via SN explosions.

a) What fraction of stars undergo SN explosions at the end of their lives?

We know that the Salpeter initial mass function is given as

dN =

M 2.35 dM

Thus the fraction of the stars that undergo SN explosions would be given by the sum of the fractions

of the stars that become NS and BH, this is given by

R 150

SN explosions = R8150

0.5

M 2.35 dM

M 2.35 dM

53

= 2.3%

The fraction of stars that become WD is given by

R8

M 2.35 dM

WD stars = R 0.5

= 97.7%

150 2.35

dM

0.5 M

The fraction of NS is given by

R 30

2.35 dM

8 M

NS stars = R 150

= 1.97%

2.35 dM

M

0.5

R 150

BH = R30

150

0.5

M 2.35 dM

M 2.35 dM

= 0.35%

c) Estimate the fraction of the mass of a stellar population that is returned to the interstellar medium

(via stellar winds or explosions) after 10 Gyrs. You do not need to do a rigorous, accurate to many

significant digits, calculation.

We know that the total mass of a specific type of star can be calculated using

M = dNM dN = AM 2.35 dM

where A is a normalization constant

MT = A

Z b

a

M 1.35 dM

we also know that the total mass that is redistributed to the ISM can only come from the fraction of stars

that have M Msun and for WD this means that the total mass that is redistributed to the ISM (mass loss)

is given by

Mloss = A

this becomes

1

Mloss = A

0.35

Z b

1

a0.35

1

b0.35

Mend

1.35

1

a1.35

1

b1.35

(5)

we chose integration limits motivated by the knowledge that the sun M = Msun has an approximate lifetime

of 10 Gyr, thus stars wiuth this mass range are the only ones contributing to this enrichment of the ISM.

The mass fraction is given by

Mloss

M f rac =

Mtot

where

Z b

A

1

1

1.35

Mtot = A M

dM =

(6)

.35 a.35 b.35

a

Using

a = 1Msun b = 8Msun Mend = 0.5Msun

on Equation 2 and

a = 0.5Msun b = 8Msun

54

on Equation 3 gives

M f rac (W D) 48%

This tells us that approximately 48 % of the mass from these stars is given back to the ISM, since we know

that this population comprises 97 % then the total contribution to the ISM will be

f rac(W D) = 0.48 97.7 47%

For NS we can say

a = 8 b = 30 Mend = 1.4Msun

Using this in equations 2 and 3 we find

M f rac (NS) = 65%

this tells us that approximately 65 % of this mass is given to the ISM and since we know that this population

comprises 1.97 % then the total mass fraction contribution to the ISM will be

f rac(NS) = .65 .0197 1.2%

and finally For BH we can sa

a = 30 b = 150 Mend = 7Msun

Using this in equations 2 and 3 we find

M f rac (BH) = 87.5%

this tells us that approximately 87.5 % of this mass is given to the ISM and since we know that this

population comprises 0.3 % then the total mass fraction contribution to the ISM will be

f rac(NS) = .875 .003 .2%

Thus we can conclude that the total fraction of the mass that is redistributed to the ISM is given by

f racT 48.4%

Problem # 3

Consider a white dwarf with a mass of M = 0.5Msun and an effective temperature of 104 K.

a) Estimate the radius, luminosity, central temperature, and age of the WD. You are free to use any of

the results on WD cooling quoted in lecture.

We know that the radius of a WD can be estimated using

M 1/3 e 5/3 m 1

0.016Rsun 1.11 109 cm

R 0.013Rsun

Msun

2

me

The luminosity can be calculated using

L = 4R2 Te4f f = 5.83 1030erg s1 = 2.3 103Lsun

The central temperature is given by

L Msun

Tc = 10 K

5Lsun M

8

2/7

55

= 1.35 107 K

L Msun

t = 10 yrs

5Lsun M

6

5/7

= 1.49 108yrs

b) Estimate the thickness of the photosphere of the WD. What is the number density in the photosphere? Assume for simplicity that the opacity in the photosphere is approximately equal to the electron

scattering opacity.

We know that the thickness of the photosphere is given by the scale height

R2 kT

R2 kT

=

1.5 104cm 1 105 RW D

h=

mGM

H m p GM

we used H 1 since we assume that the atmosphere of the WD is comprised primarily of hydrogen. We

know that the mean free path is equal to the scale height in the photosphere, thus

l=

thus

n=

1

=h

n

1

9.75 1019 cm3

hT

c) Use the Saha equation for the ionization of hydrogen to estimate the temperature at which hydrogen

is 1/2 ionized at the surface of a WD. Is this larger or smaller than the temperature at which hydrogen is

1/2 ionized for photospheric densities appropriate to MS stars?

We know that the Saha equation can be written as

n p ne g p ge

=

nQ,ee/kTe f f

nH

gH

we know that in a gas of 1/2 ionized hydrogen ne = n p = nH and also g p = 1 ge = 2 gH = 2 and =

13.6 eV. The quantum density is given as

nQ,e =

3/2

2me kT

h2

nH =

2me k

h2

3/2

3/2

Te f f e13.6/kTe f f

we know that for every hydrogen atom there are both a proton and electron, thus the hydrogen density

accounts for 1/3 the total density

n

nH = =

3

2me k

h2

3/2

3/2

Te f f e13.6/kTe f f

5 /T

ef f

3/2

56

1 = 0

Te f f 2.6 104K

which is a higher than the 1/2 ionization temperature for the solar photosphere T 1.3 104K. This is

due to the differences in the densities.

Problem # 4

Consider the late stages of evolution of a 25Msun star. Focus on the core which has a mass 1Msun

and a radius 108 cm. The stars photon luminosity is 3 105 Lsun . You might find some of the numbers

in Table 4.2 of Phillips useful.

a) Estimate the temperature at which cooling by neutrinos (which are optically thin and leave the core

directly) exceeds cooling by photons (which random walk out of the star). Use the expression for the

neutrino luminosity from class. At what stage of nuclear fusion (H, He, C, O, Ne, Si, ....) does neutrino

cooling become dominant?

We know that the luminosity given by the neutrinos is given by

L 1012 T93

Rc

2

10 Rsun

3

e11.9/T9 Lsun

L ph = 3 105 Lsun

we can find the temperatures at which this are approximately equal by setting these expressions equal to

each other and solving it numerically, i.e

L = L ph

1012 T93

Rc

2

10 Rsun

3

this simplifies to

3.3 106 T93 e11.9/T9 1 = 0

solving this numerically yields

T9 .794 T 7.93 108K

Neutrino cooling becomes important after Helium fusion and before Carbon fusion due to the temperatures

given in table 4.2 of Phillips for these reactions.

b) If neutrino cooling were unimportant (and thus the photon luminosity determined the energy lost by

the star), estimate the time it would take the 1Msun core of the star to fuse from 20 Ne to 56 Fe. Compare

this to the true time of about 1.5 years (from Phillips Table) set by neutrino cooling. Assume that the

luminosity of the star is independent of time and that fusion of heavy elements releases 0.7 MeV per

nucleon ( 10 times less the fusion of H to He because the binding energies of heavy nuclei are closer to

each other.

We know that the time is given by

t=

NQ

E

=

L ph L ph

57

N=

Msun

mp

Q 0.7 MeV/nucleon

thus we find that the time is

t=

Msun Q

3.6 104 yrs

m p L ph

We can see that neutrino cooling is very effective in killing a star. Due to the fact that the star would

exist for much longer if it were not for those pesky neutrinos.

Problem set 12

Problem # 1

The Energy needed to dissociate one 4 He nucleus into two neutrons and two protons is Q = 28.3 MeV.

Derive an expression relating the numbers of 4 He nuclei, neutrons and protons coexisting at a temperature

T in an equilibrium set up by the reactions

+4 He 2n + 2p

Calculate the temperature for 50 % dissociation when the density is 1012 kg m3 . [Note :This is a simple

example of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) discussed in class, i.e., the balance of nuclei determined

when nuclear reactions go both ways at high temperatures (because photons have enough energy to photodisintegrate nuclei into their more basic constituents).] In addition to calculating the temperature for 50

% dissociation of He, also show explicitly that at high temperatures, NSE favors the nuclei being broken

apart (n and p in this case) while at low temperatures it favors nuclei being bound (He in this case).

We can use the Saha equation, which is given by

() + (4He) = (2n) + (2p)

which can also be written as

g p nQ,p 2

gn nQ,n 2

gHe nQ,He

2

2

2

= 2mn c kT ln

+ 2m p c kT ln

mHe c kT ln

nHe

nn

np

58

c2 (mHe 2mn 2m p ) = kT ln

gHe nQ,He

nHe

n2n n2p

(gn nQ,n )2 (g p nQ,p )2

!!

c2 (mHe 2mn 2m p ) = 28.3 MeV

thus

n2n n2p

=

nHe

gHe

(gn g p )2

nQ,He

(n2Q,n n2Q,p

e28.4MeV/kT

gHe = 1 gn = g p = 2

and the quantum concentration is defined as

nQ,A =

2mA kT

h2

3/2

nQ,n = nQ,p =

it follows that

2m p kT

h2

3/2

nQ,He =

8m pkT

h2

3/2

n4Q,p 28.4MeV/kT

n2n n2p

=

e

nHe

nQ,He

n2n n2p

2m p kT 9/2 28.4MeV/kT

e

= 16(8)

nHe

h2

(7)

1

2

nn = n p = n nHe = n

5

5

for every helium nuclei there are two neutrons and two protons, giving a total of five particles. We also

know that

mHe + 2mn + 2m p 8

5

n=

m =

mp n =

m

5

5

8 mp

Using this along with plugging in all the constants into Equation 1 gives us

9/2

solving this equation numerically yields a temperature of

T12 = 0.0109 T 1.09 1010 K

59

T

1012 K

To show explicitly that at high temperatures, NSE favors the nuclei being broken apart (n and p in this

case) while at low temperatures it favors nuclei being bound (He in this case) we must consider Equation

1 along with assuming

n = nHe + nn + n p nHe + 2n p

we can see that

nHe n 2n p

putting this into Equation 1 gives

n2n n2p

2m pkT 9/2 28.4MeV/kT

e

= 16(8)

n 2n p

h2

(8)

If we consider the case where T (very high temperatures) we can see that Equation 2 goes to infinity,

this only happens if the denominator is 0

1

n 2n p = nHe = 0 n = n p

2

thus there are no bound nucleus only protons and neutrons in equal numbers. If we now consider the case

where T 0 we can see that Equation 2 goes to 0 this can only happen in

n p = nn = 0 n = nHe

and thus it favors nuclei being bound.

Problem # 2

Compare the total energy released by a 25 Msun star during (a) its pre-main sequence evolution (KH

contraction), (b) its time on the MS, (c) its post-main-sequence-evolution, and (d) the supernova explosion

to form a neutron star.

To calculate the total energy released during the pre-main sequence we can assume can just calculate

the total gravitational energy relesed from contraction in the star. We know that the energy for a bound

system is given by the Virial theorem as

U

E

2

is given by

GM 2

U

E |Ei | |EF | |EF |

2

2RMS

where RMS is given by the main sequence radius which is defined as

RMS Rsun

M

Msun

6/7

M = 25Msun

we find the radius to be

R = 15.78Rsun

60

G(25Msun )2

7.45 1049 ergs

2 15.78Rsun

E preMS =

To calculate the total energy of a 25Msun star during the main sequence we need to multiply total

luminosity by the total time that the star spends on the main sequence

E = LMStMS

where the luminosity is given by

L = Lsun

M

Msun

3.5

= 7.8 104Lsun

tMS = 10

10

M

Msun

2.5

EMS 3.08 1052 ergs

we can compare this to the value derived by nuclear energetics, we can say that the total energy is given

by

M

E 0.1NQHe = 0.1 QHe

mp

where we know

M = 25Msun QHe 7 MeV/nucleon

Where QHe is the nuclear binding energy per nucleon of helium. We find the energy to be given as

E 3.33 1052 ergs

which is almost them.

To find the total energy during the post main sequence stage we need to consider the energy to be given

as

E = 0.5NQ

where Q is the difference in the binding energy of iron to the binding energy of helium and we assumed

that 50% of the star will undergo fusion. The binding energy per nucleon of iron and helium are QFe

8.78 MeV/nucleon and QHe 7 MeV/nucleon, thus

N=

25Msun

mp

Q 1.78 MeV/nucleon

E postMS 4.24 1052ergs

61

To find the total energy released during the supernova explosion can be estimated using the same

equation as part a) except now the final radius is given by the radius of te neutron star.

E

GM 2

2RNS

where the mass that we will consider will be the mass of the core

M 1.4Msun

R 10 km

ESN 2.59 1053ergs

this energy release is much greater than all other processes.

Problem # 3

Consider an ideal degenerate gas of electrons, protons and neutrons, and the equilibrium established

by the reactions

n p + e + e and e + p n + e

Assume equal numbers of electrons and protons and assume that the density is so high that all the degenerate particles are ultra-relativistic. Show that the number densities of the particles are in the ratio

ne : n p : nn = 1 : 1 : 8

Using the Saha equation, along with the knowledge that all of the particles are now reletavistic we find

(n) + (e) = (p) + (e)

and we know that the Fermi momentum is given by

pF =

3n

8

1/3

F = pF c

thus we find

3ne

8

1/3

3n p

hc +

8

1/3

3nn

hc

8

1/3

hc = mn c2 m p c2 0

ne = n p

thus we find

1/3

2n p = nn

1

ne = n p = nn

8

Problem # 4

62

Assume that a hot, bloated neutron star emits thermal neutrino radiation from a surface of radius R at

an effective temperature equal to TE . Assume that three types of massless, or nearly massless, neutrinos,

e , , and their antiparticles, are emmited in equal numbers, in thermal equilibrium with zero chemical

potential. Show that the luminosity is given by

L =

21 4

TE 4R2

8

where is Stefans constant. Find an expression for the average energy for a neutrino in this radiation.

[Hint: Look back at Chapter 2 and reconsider Problem 2.5]

If we refer to Philipps problem 2.5 we find that the energy density of fermions is given by

7

uF = aT 4

8

(9)

u p = aT 4

(10)

the differences in these two expressions comes from solving the following two integrals

3 Z

Z

kT

x2

1

N(p)d

p

=

8

dx

n=

x

V 0

hc

0 e 1

this is the number density of particles with momentum p and p + d p, the is to differentiate between

bosons and fermions. Since neutrinos are fermions. And the energy density is given as

3 Z 3

Z

1

kT

x

u=

p N(p)d p = 8

kT

dx

x

V 0

hc

0 e 1

from Equationquations 3 and 4 we can see that the solution to the energy density for a fermion is given by

7

uF = aT 4

8

this was using the assumptions that the polarization of the fermion is 2, but we know that the polarization

of neutrinos is 1. We also need to take into account the 6 different species of neutrinos, thus for neutrinos

we find that the energy density is given as

u =

6 7 4 21 4

aT = aT

28

8

=

ac

4

21 4 4

T

8 c

but we know that the flux due to the neutrinos is given by

u =

F =

21 4

T

8

63

where the factor of 4/c was taking care of the fact the intensity radiated at a particular frequency is c/4

times the photon energy density at this frequency. We know that the luminosity of neutrinos is given by

L = F 4R2

and we just derived the flux for neutrinos, thus the luminosity is

L =

21 4

T 4R2

8 E

Problem # 5

In this problem we will calculate the properties of the neutrinos emitted by a newly formed neutron

star (a proto-NS). The neutron star is formed during a supernova explosion and its gravitational binding

energy ENS is released in the form of neutrinos on a timescale tKH , so that the neutrino luminosity of

the NS is L = ENS /tKH . Assume that the NS has a mass of 1.4Msun and approximate it as an n = 3/2

polytrope supported exclusively by neutron degeneracy pressure. The initial central temperature of the NS

is 1011 K.

a) Calculate the radius and central density c of the NS.

We know that the relationship between the radius and the mass of a NS is given by

M

RNS = 15 km

Msun

1/3

RNS = 13.41 km

the mass density can be found by using the central density of a n = 3/2 polytrop which is given as

c =

3M

an

4R3

c 1.43

M

R3NS

c 1.65 1015 g/cm3

b) Show that the neutrinos are initially degenerate in the core of the NS. Use this fact to estimate the

typical energy E of a neutrino in the core of the NS. The neutrinos are relativistic.

we know that

E EF (e)

where

EF (e) =

we know that

3ne

8

1/3

1

1 c

ne nn

8

8 mp

64

hc

E EF (e)

3nn

64

1/3

hc 303 MeV

E ET

where ET is the thermal energy, we find that for relativistic particles is

ET 3kT 25.8 MeV

thus we can see that

E ET

c) The cross section for neutrinos interacting with matter is

10

44

E

me c2

2

cm2

Estimate the optical depth = n R R/ of the NS to neutrinos, where is the neutrino mean free

path in the core of the NS.

Since we know that the optical depth is given by

= n RNS

where we have defined n to be the total number density

n

c

9.86 1038cm3 RNS 13.41 km me c2 0.508 MeV

mp

we find

4.71 106

and we know that the neutrino mean free path is given by

=

RNS

0.284 cm

d) The timescale tKH for the NS to radiate away its binding energy in neutrinos is the time for the

neutrinos to random walk out of the NS. Use your result from c) to estimate the time tKH and the neutrino

luminosity L of the NS.

we know that the time it takes for a neutrino to random walk out of the NS is given by

R2NS R2NS

=

t=

v

c

given the radius of the NS and the mean free path we find the time to be

t 210 s

65

E

t

using the neutrino energy in part b) and the time we find that the neutrino luminosity is

L =

e) Look at Problem 4 Note Phillips hints at the back of the book for problems 6.3 and 2.5.

f ) Use your results from d) and problem 4 to calculate the effective temperature of the neutrino radiation (in K) and the average energy of a neutrino emitted by the newly formed NS (in MeV). For comparison

to the results you have calculated in this problem, the observed timescale of neutrino emission was 10 s

for SN 1987A and the typical neutrino energy was 20 MeV.

The effective temperature is given as

TE =

8L

21 4R2

1/4

1.48 1010 K

the energy of a neutrino can be calculated by knowing the energy density and the number density. The

energy is given by

u

E

n

where the number density is given by Philips equation 2.42 with a modification coming fro the fact that

we are dealing with fermions

6

8k3

n = bT 3 where b = 1.803 3 3 = 45.48K3 cm3

2

h c

thus we know that the energy of a neutrino is given by

E =

21 a

T 6.24 MeV

8 b

66

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