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# Appendix A

## Conversion Factors and Values

of the Gas Constant

Because standard reference books contain data in diverse units, we include Tables A.l and
A.2 to aid the conversion of values from one set of units to another. Those units having no
connection with the SI system are enclosed in parentheses. The following definitions are noted:
U.S. defined foot 3.048 x
m
U.S. defined inch 2.54 x
m
U.S. liquid gallon
U.S. defined pound mass (avoirdupois)
4.535 9237 x
kg
force to accelerate
by 32.1740 (ft)
atm standard atmospheric pressure 101 325 Pa
(psia) E pounds force per square inch absolute pressure
pressure exerted by 1 mm mercury at 273.15 K
and standard gravity
(cal) thermochemical calorie
(Btu) international steam table British thermal unit
(lb mole) mass in pounds mass with numerical value equal to the molar mass
(R) absolute temperature in
(ft)
(in)
(gal)
(lb,)

The conversion factors of Table A.1 are referred to a single basic or derived unit of the
SI system. Conversions between other pairs of units for a given quantity are made as in the
following example:
thus

latm =

750.061
= 760.00
0.986 923

630

Quantity

Length
Mass
Force

Pressure

Volume
Density
Energy

Power

Conversion

I m=

cm

## = 3.280 84 (ft) = 39.3701 (in)

= 2.204 62 (lb,)

N = 1 kg m
(dyne)
=
0.224 809

kg
bar =
=
=
Pa =
= 1 dyne
= 0.986 923 atm
= 14.5038 (psia)
= 750.061 torr

1 m3 =
cm3
= 35.3147
= 264.172 (gal)

= 1 m 3P a =
= 9.869 23 cm3 atm
dyne cm =
erg
=
= 0.239 006 (cal)
= 5.121 97 x
= 9.478 3 x
(Btu)
kg m2
W=
=
= 239.006 (cal)
= 737.562
= 0.947 83 (Btu)
= 1.341 02 (hp)

bar

= 0.737 562
=

## Table A.2 Values of the Universal Gas Constant

R = 8.314 J
= 83.14 cm3 bar
82.06 cm3 atm
(cal)
=
= 0.7302
=

= 8.314 m3 Pa

= 8314 cm3
= 82 363.95 cm3 torr
= 1.986
= 10.73

0.082 06 m3 atm

Appendix B

## Properties of Pure Species

Listed here for various chemical species are values for the molar mass (molecular weight),
acentric factor critical temperature critical pressure
critical compressibility factor
critical molar volume
and normal boiling point
Abstracted from Project 801,
Design Institute for Physical Property Data of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
they are reproduced with permission. The full data compilation is published by T. E. Daubert,
R. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties
Chemicals: Data Compilation, Taylor Francis, Bristol, PA, 1,405 chemicals, extant 1995.
Included are values for 26 physical constants and regressed values of parameters in equations
for the temperature dependence of 13 thermodynamic and transport properties.
Electronic versions by the same authors include:

## Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, ASCII Files,

National Institute of Science and Technology, Standard Reference Data,
Gaithersburg, MD, 1458 chemicals, extant 1995.
Data Compilation, Student DIPPR Database, PC-DOS Version, National Institute of Science and Technology, Standard Reference Data,
Gaithersburg, MD, 100 common chemicals for teaching purposes, 1995.

## APPENDIX B. Properties of Pure Species

Table B.l Properties of Pure Species

Molar
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
n-Nonane
n-Decane
Isobutane
Isooctane
Cyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Methylcyclopentane
Methylcyclohexane
Ethylene
Propylene
cis-2-Butene
trans-2-Butene
Isobutylene
Cyclohexene
Acetylene
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
Cumene
o-Xylene
m-Xylene
p-Xylene
Styrene
Naphthalene
Biphenyl
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Methyl acetate
Ethyl acetate
Acetone
Methyl ethyl ketone
Diethyl ether
Methyl t-butyl ether
Methanol

16.043
30.070
44.097
58.123
72.150
86.177
100.204
114.231
128.258
142.285
58.123
114.231
70.134
84.161
84.161
98.188
28.054
42.081
56.108
56.108
56.108
84.161
56.108
54.092
82.145
26.038
78.114
92.141
106.167
120.194
106.167
106.167
106.167
104.152
128.174
154.211
30.026
44.053
74.079
88.106
58.080
72.107
74.123
88.150
32.042

0.012
0.100
0.152
0.200
0.252
0.301
0.350
0.400
0.444
0.492
0.181
0.302
0.196
0.230
0.235
0.087
0.191
0.205
0.280
0.194
0.190
0.212
0.187
0.210
0.262
0.303
0.326
0.310
0.326
0.322
0.297
0.302
0.365
0.282
0.291
0.331
0.366
0.307
0.323
0.281
0.266
0.564

190.6
305.3
369.8
425.1
469.7
507.6
540.2
568.7
594.6
617.7
408.1
544.0
511.8
553.6
532.8
572.2
282.3
365.6
420.0
435.6
428.6
504.0
417.9
425.2
560.4
308.3
562.2
591.8
617.2
631.1
630.3
617.1
616.2
636.0
748.4
789.3
408.0
466.0
506.6
523.3
508.2
535.5
466.7
497.1
512.6

45.99
48.72
42.48
37.96
33.70
30.25
27.40
24.90
22.90
21.10
36.48
25.68
45.02
40.73
37.85
34.71
50.40
46.65
40.43
42.43
41.00
31.40
40.00
42.77
43.50
61.39
48.98
41.06
36.06
32.09
37.34
35.36
35.11
38.40
40.51
38.50
65.90
55.50
47.50
38.80
47.01
41.50
36.40
34.30
80.97

0.286
0.279
0.276
0.274
0.270
0.266
0.261
0.256
0.252
0.247
0.282
0.266
0.273
0.273
0.272
0.269
0.281
0.289
0.277
0.273
0.275
0.265
0.275
0.267
0.272
0.271
0.271
0.264
0.263
0.261
0.263
0.259
0.260
0.256
0.269
0.295
0.223
0.221
0.257
0.255
0.233
0.249
0.263
0.273
0.224

or

cm3

m3

98.6
145.5
200.0
255.
313.
371.
428.
486.
544.
600.
262.7
468.
258.
308.
319.
368.
131.
188.4
239.3
233.8
237.7
354.
238.9
220.4
291.
113.
259.
316.
374.
427.
369.
376.
379.
352.
413.
502.
115.
154.
228.
286.
209.
267.
280.
329.

111.4
184.6
231.1
272.7
309.2
341.9
371.6
398.8
424.0
447.3
261.4
372.4
322.4
353.9
345.0
374.1
169.4
225.5
266.9
276.9
274.0
336.3
266.3
268.7
356.1
189.4
353.2
383.8
409.4
425.6
417.6
412.3
411.5
418.3
528.2
254.1
294.0
330.1
350.2
329.4
352.8
307.6
328.4
337.9

Molar

## Table B.l (Continued)

cm3

Ethanol

2-Propanol
Phenol
Ethylene glycol
Acetic acid
n-Butyric acid
Benzoic acid
Acetonitrile
Methylamine
Ethylamine
Nitromethane
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloroform
Dichloromethane
Methyl chloride
Ethyl chloride
Chlorobenzene
Tetrafluoroethane
Argon
Xenon
Helium 4
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Chlorine
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon disulfide
Hydrogen sulfide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur trioxide
Nitric oxide (NO)
Nitrous oxide
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide
Water
Ammonia
Nitric acid
Sulfuric acid

for

= 0.79 and

Appendix C

## Heat Capacities and Property

Changes of Formation

Table C.l
Table C.2
Table C.3
Table C.4

## Heat Capacities of Gases in the Ideal-Gas State

Heat Capacities of Solids
Heat Capacities of Liquids
Standard Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation at 298.15 K (25C)

## Table C.l Heat Capacities of Gases in the Ideal-Gas

Constants in equation

Chemical species

Paraffins:
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
iso-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
Ethylene
Propylene

Miscellaneous organics:
Acetaldehyde
Acetylene
Benzene

Cyclohexane
Ethanol
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene oxide
Formaldehyde
Methanol
Styrene
Toluene
Miscellaneous inorganics:
Air
Ammonia
Bromine
Carbon monoxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon disulfide
Chlorine
Hydrogen
Hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide
Nitrogen
Nitrous oxide
Nitric oxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
Oxygen
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur
Water

NH3

CO

HCN
NO
NO2
SO3

BT

T (kelvins)from 298.15 to

1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

4.217
6.369
9.001
11.928
11.901
14.731
17.550
20.361
23.174

1.702
1.131
1.213
1.935
1.677
2.464
3.025
3.570
4.108

9.081
19.225
28.785
36.915
37.853
45.351
53.722
62.127
70.567

-2.164
-5.561
-8.824
-11.402
-11.945
-14.111
-16.791
-19.486
-22.208

1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

5.325
7.792
10.520
13.437
16.240
19.053
21.868

1.424
1.637
1.967
2.691
3.220
3.768
4.324

14.394
22.706
31.630
39.753
48.189
56.588
64.960

-4.392
-6.915
-9.873
-12.447
-15.157
-17.847
-20.521

1000
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500
1500

1.693
6.132
-0.206
2.734
-3.876
3.518
1.124
-0.385
2.264
2.211
2.050
0.290

17.978
1.952
39.064
26.786
63.249
20.001
55.380
23.463
7.022
12.216
50.192
47.052

-6.158

1500
1500
1500
1500

6.506
5.253
10.259
10.720
13.121
8.948
15.993
5.784
4.191
5.547
15.534
12.922

2000
1800
3000
2500
2000
1800
3000
3000
2300
2000
2500
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000

3.509
4.269
4.337
3.507
4.467
5.532
4.082
3.468
4.114
3.512
4.326
3.502
4.646
3.590
4.447
9.198
3.535
4.796
6.094
4.038

3.355
3.578
4.493
3.376
5.457
6.311
4.442
3.249
3.931
3.156
4.736
3.280
5.328
3.387
4.982
11.660
3.639
5.699
8.060
3.470

0.575
3.020
0.056
0.557
1.045
0.805
0.089
0.422
1.490
0.623
1.359
0.593
1.214
0.629
1.195
2.257
0.506
1.056
1.450

-13.301
-8.882
-20.928
-6.002
-18.476
-9.296
-1.877
-3.450
-16.662
-15.716

. . . . ..

. ... . .
.. . . . .
.. . . . .
. . . . ..
. . . . ..
...
. ... ..

......
......
... .
. . . .. .
. . . .. .
.. . ...
. . . .. .
.... . .
.. .. . .
... ...

from H. M. Spencer,
Eng. Chem., vol. 40,
2152-2154, 1948; K. K.
Mines Bull. 584, 1960; L. B.
Mines Bull. 672, 1982.
U.S.

-1.299

-0.016
-0.186
-0.154
-0.031
-1.157
-0.906
-0.344
0.083
-0.232
0.151
-0.725
0.040
-0.928
0.014
-0.792
-2.787
-0.227
-1.015
-2.028
0.121

636

APPENDIX

Chemical species

+ BT +

## T (kelvins) from 298.15 K to

D

C (graphite)
Cu

Na

S (rhombic)
(quartz)

from K. K. Kelley,
Mines Bull. 584, 1960;
Bur Mines Bull. 672, 1982.
L. B. Pankratz,

Chemical species

Ammonia
Aniline
Benzene

+ BT +
A

## T from 273.15 to 373.15 K

Carbon tetrachloride
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
Cyclohexane
Ethanol
Ethylene oxide
Methanol
Sulfur trioxide
Toluene
Water

on correlations presented by
Miller, Jr., G. R. Schon; and
C. L. Yaws, Chem.
vol.
p. 129, 1976.

## Table C.4 Standard Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation at

298.15 K
Joules per mole of the substance formed
Chemical species
Paraffins:

Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
n-Octane
Ethylene
Propylene

Miscellaneous organics:
Acetaldehyde
Acetic acid
Acetylene
Benzene
Benzene
Cyclohexane
Cyclohexane
Ethanol
Ethanol
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene oxide
Formaldehyde
Methanol
Methanol
Methylcyclohexane
Methylcyclohexane
Styrene
Toluene
Toluene

State

(Note 2)

(Note 1)

(Note 1)

638

## APPENDIX C. Heat Capacities and Property Changes of Formation

Table C.4 (Continued)
Chemical species
Miscellaneous inorganics:
Ammonia
Ammonia
Calcium carbide
Calcium carbonate
Calcium chloride
Calcium chloride
Calcium chloride
Calcium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide
Calcium oxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen sulfide
Iron oxide
Iron oxide (hematite)
Iron oxide (magnetite)
Iron sulfide (pyrite)
Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride
Nitric acid
Nitric acid
Nitrogen oxides
Sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur
Sulfur trioxide
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
Water
Water

State

(Note 2)

(Note 1)
-46

-59 800

-1206 920
-795 800

-2607 900
-986 090

CO

HCN

NO

-635 090
-393 509
-110525
-92 307
135 100
-20 630
-272 000
-824 200
-1118400
-178 200
-408 610
-712 580
-1012 650
-1311 300
-174 100
90 250
33 180
82 050
9 160
-1130 680
-4081 320
-411 153
-425 609

-296 830
-395 720
-441 040
-813 989
-241 818
-285 830

(Note 1)
-16 450
-26 500
-64 900
-1128 790
-748 100
-8101900
-898 490
-868 070
-604 030
-394 359
-137 169
-95 299
124 700
-33 560

-742 200
-1015 400
- 166 900

-80 710
-111 250
86 550
51 310
104 200
97 540
-1044 440

-384 138
-393 133
-379 494
-419 150
-300 194
-371 060
-690 003
-744 530
-228 572
-237 129

## TRC ThermodynamicTables-Hydrocarbons, Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A

M Univ. System, College Station, TX; "The NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties,"
Phys. and Chem. Reference Data, vol. 11, supp. 2, 1982.
Notes

## 1. The standard property changesof formation

and
are the changes occurring when
1 mol of the listed compound is formed from its elements with each substance in its standard
state at 298.15 K (25C).
2. Standard states: ( a )Gases (g): pure ideal gas at 1 bar and 298.15 K
(b) Liquids and
solids (s): pure substance at 1 bar and 298.15 K (25C). (c) Solutes in aqueous solution
Hypothetical ideal
solution of solute in water at 1 bar and 298.15 K (25C).