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Macomb Math Science Technology Center

The Effect of Temperature and Color on the Chemical Reactions within Glow
Sticks

Abby Girardot, Niki Qureshi & Merna Sana

Table of Contents
Introduction......................................................................................................................................
Review of Literature........................................................................................................................
Problem Statement.........................................................................................................................
Experimental Design......................................................................................................................
Data and Observations...................................................................................................................
Data Analysis and Interpretation....................................................................................................
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................
Appendix A: Glow Stick Box........................................................................................................
Appendix B: Logger Pro................................................................................................................
Appendix C: Randomization..........................................................................................................
Appendix D: Light Sensor.............................................................................................................
Appendix E: DOE Formulas and Sample Calculations.................................................................
Works Cited...................................................................................................................................

Introduction
Technology is and always will be a continuously advancing factor integrating into
society. Technology has become such a prominent focus in life, so much so that the new
inventions created are soon to become an obligatory addition to everyones life. Most
view this as a positive, for it brings about many benefits in fields such as medication and
industry. Unfortunately, along with the benefits of this advancement come a few negative
components. For example, crime is becoming increasingly more advanced and difficult to
control which is partially in relation to the increasing speed of technology and complexity
of crime as a whole.
Although crime has begun to evolve and become more difficult to prevent,
technology that helps identify criminals is progressing along with the evolvement of
crime, thus allowing the rate of crime to remain controlled. Specifically, technology in
forensics is advancing; making the identification of criminals more accessible. Frequently
used in the forensic field to identify criminals or suspects is luminol. A substance
commonly found in the form of a liquid spray, luminol uses chemiluminescence to create
diminished traces of blood visible to the human eye. This type of blood test is unique
from other tests due to its reaction to the peroxidase in the hemoglobin of blood, which
then produces a luminescent glow merely seconds after the initial spraying.
Luminol uses a form of light emission called chemiluminescence, which is the
product of light emittance with the absence of heat, through chemical reactions. Although
luminol is widely used in the forensic field for its accurate readings, there are factors that
can affect its results and reduce the accuracy of its findings. One of these factors is
temperature. Drastically high or low temperatures can affect the rate of reaction of

luminol, which is observed and imperative to analyzing whether the luminol is reacting to
traces of blood, or to some other household substance.
It was through the discovery of this that led to the wondering of what other factors
could affect chemiluminescence. Not only is this form of luminescence used in the
forensic field, but it is also used greatly in other industries and fields as well, such as the
pharmaceutical industry, the alumina industry, and in clinical science.
Chemiluminescence is a used by the general public for a variety of reasons too, such as
childrens toys or decoration. It is additionally used by the public for times when natural
disasters arise and lighting is needed. This is because unlike candles, glow sticks can emit
extremely bright lighting and for long durations of time, without imposing the danger of
fire hazards. The understanding and control of the factors that could potentially affect and
alter the results of chemiluminescence would undoubtedly prove to be beneficial to these
fields and community of people.
Two common factors known to affect chemiluminescence are temperature and
color. To discover the extent and technicalities of the effect of these factors, an
experiment was performed using glow sticks. Similarly to luminol, glow sticks use the
process of chemiluminescence to emit light. Glow sticks were chosen because they are an
easily accessible tool to the public, which also uses the same process of
chemiluminescence that many industrial mechanisms and medical devices use. The
experiment's purpose was to discover which combination of color and temperature
provided the greatest emission of light, hoping to bring greater advantage to the public
and industries that use this form of light emittance. The glow stick colors that had been
used were blue, green, and red, which represent the three different areas and ranges of

wavelength on the visibility spectrum. The blue had the shortest range of wavelength
size, the average of about 475 nm. The green had a moderate wavelength size, averaging
about 510 nm. The red had the greatest wavelength size, averaging about 650 nm. The
temperatures used were 10 C, 20 C, and 30 C. This simulates room temperature and
the temperatures a room can reach depending on its environmental influences. This is
because the use of chemiluminescence is typically in indoor settings, such as for clinical
tests at a hospital. By collecting data on the effect of color and temperature on
chemiluminescence, the discovery of the best possible conditions needed to ensure the
greatest light emission was found, which allows the general public and industries to be
cost effective and take full advantage of the chemiluminescent tools that are purchased
and used in the multitude of industries and fields.

Review of Literature
The experiment performed below inspected glow sticks, and the effect of
temperature and color on its luminescence. Luminescence is the emission of light by an
object. Three different colored glow sticks were used: red, green, and blue. All three of
which were to be measured at different temperatures. The selected temperatures consisted
of 10C, 20C and 30C. The glow sticks' emittance of light was then measured under the
influence of these factors. Obtaining exact measurements of the luminescence required
the use of a light sensor. Light sensors use photodiodes, which are a type of
photodetectors that convert light intensity into a measurement of voltage, which are lux
(Ambient). Lux measures illuminance in the form of one lumen per square meter.
Lumens, or luminous flux, measure light output (Difference). When light enters a light
sensor, it breaches the top of the photodiode. Most photons, which are a quantum of
electromagnetic radiation, (Photon) pass a thin top layer, and move into the next area
where electron pairs are formed. This then ultimately contributes to the photocurrent. The
photocurrent is proportional to the absorbed light intensity (Paschotta).
The anatomy of glow sticks contributes to its luminescence, or its glow. A
visual of the anatomy is provided in Figure 1 below. As Figure 1 below shows, there is a
liquid chemical inside glow sticks, called dibutyl phthalate (C16H22O4). It is a clear, oily,
colorless liquid that is low in toxicity but can irritate the eyes, skin, and mucous
membranes (Exciting). Some glow sticks dont use dibutyl phthalate, and these have a
small glass vial inside the plastic. The vial contains a mixture of hydrogen peroxide

(H2O2) dissolved in phthalic ester ((C6H4(COOH)2). Around the glass vial is another
chemical called phenyl oxalate ester (C14H10O4). The dibutyl phthalate is the most
dangerous out of everything above, but is not deadly (Cirelli).

Figure 1. How Light Sticks Work


In Figure 1 above, a glow stick is shown, along with the display of it being
fractured, resulting in the release of chemicals that react to create light.
Glow sticks undergo a type of reaction associated with chemiluminescence.
Chemiluminescence is defined as the product of light emittance, with the absence of heat,
through chemical reactions. When the glow stick is broken and the inside glass vial has
been ruptured, the chemical reaction produces chemical energy which is then absorbed.
While this chemical reaction occurs, the electrons inside of the glow stick enter a higher
energy state, as shown in Figure 2 below. Then, the electrons begin to slow down into a
lower energy state, and light energy is emitted. This is a result of the electrons reaching

its ground state, which is when chemicals are nonreactive, or in the least reactive state
possible. All of this then results in the transmittance of light. In the process of this,
Hydrogen Peroxide, H2O2, oxidizes the different chemicals in the stick. Oxidation occurs
when the hydrogen peroxide mixes with the phthalic ester and decomposes, leading to the
emittance of light. Varying colored glow sticks contain different configurations. These
diverse chemical structures result in the emittance of different amounts of energy
(Anatomy).

Figure 2. Electron States


The diagram above shows the cycle that an electron goes through in a
chemiluminescence reaction (Exciting).
When examining the visible light spectrum, the fact that energy correlates with
color can clearly be realized. (shown in Figure 3 below). The visible light spectrum is the
referencing scale of which colors are more visible and emit the most light. Each color
transmits different sized wavelengths. The wavelength sizes are affected by what state the
electrons are in. As mentioned in the previous paragraphs, when an electron is in an
excited state, or state of greater movement, it has greater energy which therefore helps
increase the wavelength size. The length of the wavelengths directly affects light
emittance, which is why colors that have a large span of difference in the visible light
spectrum were chosen for this experiment. Wavelengths that are spread out, or thought to
fit within the left region of the visible light spectrum, are known as the colors that shine

the brightest. Thus being said, violet/blue is the brightest, while green colors are midrange and red colors are to be categorized as barely perceptible.

Figure 3. Visible Light Spectrum


In the diagram above, the relationship between wavelength and the color/visible
light spectrum is shown (Exciting). As the colors deviate from the middle of the spectrum
to the left, the wavelengths increase.
In the experiment that was conducted, there was a selection of three varying
colored glow sticks: blue, green, and red. As previously stated, these three colors were
specifically chosen for their ranges on the visible light spectrum. In Figure 4 below, the
chemical configurations of all three of these particular colored glow sticks are shown
(Compound). Each individual colored glow stick obtains different structures. This, in
turn, means that each different colored glow stick has a different vibrancy (Garcia). The
different vibrancies occur due to the different sized wavelengths as discussed in the above
paragraphs. The red, Rhodamine B (C28H31ClN2O3 ), colored glow stick formation is very
complex compared to that of the blue one, Diphenylanthracene (C26H18). Thus putting the
green, Bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (C30H18), colored glow stick directly in between the

two, based on the simplicity and complexity of the structure of each. The simplicity and
complexity is referring to the difficulty or level of energy spent to create the structure.

Figure 4. The Chemistry of Glow Stick Colors


The diagram above shows the different structures for each color in glow sticks.
These different molecular constructions contribute to producing the different colors.
Color is not the only attribute that affects the light intensity of glow sticks.
Temperature makes a significant impact on this as well. An experiment was conducted
previously, pertaining to the effect of temperature on glow sticks. In this experiment,
several glow sticks were submerged in different temperatures of water, for an unspecified
amount of time. The water temperatures were 10C for cold, 30C for hot and 20C for
room temperature. The same method was used for the experiment performed and
discussed below, but the amount of time the glow sticks were submerged in the water was
2 minutes. Furthermore, the executors of the prior experiment fractured the glow sticks
in a darkened area, and merely took pictures as a comparison for the luminescence of
these objects. In the experiment performed below, a different method was used. The glow

sticks were placed in a darkened container, and the comparison for the emittance of these
items were analyzed from the measurements of light, taken from a light sensor (Light).
......................The correlation between temperature and the light intensity of glow sticks is easily
comprehensible.
The luminosity of glow sticks is a result of various chemical reactions, which were
previously explained. These chemical reactions, that the glow sticks endure, are a result
of a multitude of molecules shifting and colliding. As stated in the Kinetic Molecular
Theory, particles are in a state of constant, random motion that is continually colliding
with each other and the walls of their container. An increased temperature induces an
increased supply of energy for these molecules; thus, resulting in faster and greater
collisions. This then ultimately leads to a greater light intensity (Batema). The opposite
effect occurs for when a temperature is lowered. In whichever case, temperature directly
affects the rate of reaction of the molecules that produce the luminescence (2.1). These
scientific findings and aspects from the experiments previously mentioned were applied
for the research experiment conducted below. Due to this, the data collected in this
experiment was able expand on previously collected data and provide greater insight to
chemiluminescence.

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Problem Statement
Problem:
The purpose of this experiment is to identify the effect of different colors and varied
temperatures on the light output, or the luminescence, of glow sticks.

Hypothesis:
If provided with various glow sticks that are the colors of red, blue, and green, awhich
are submerged in different temperatures of water, the water with the highest temperature
of 30 C, along with the color that is the most rightward on the visibility spectrum,
which is blue (450 to 495 nm), will result in the greatest amount of luminescence from
the glow sticks, ranging around 140 lux.

Data
The independent variables of this experiment were the color of the glow sticks, and the
temperature of the water the sticks were submerged in. The colors were red (ranging from
620 to 750 nanometers), green (495 to 750 nm) , and blue (450 to 495 nm). This variable,
having been measured before the experiment was conducted, was based off the
wavelengths of each color on the visibility spectrum. The temperatures were measured in
degrees Celsius, and were measured to be 10 C, 20 C, and 30 C. The dependent

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variable was luminescence, which was measured in lux. A two factor DOE was used for
the statistical analysis of this data.

Experimental Design
Materials:
Light Sensor (0.1)
10 Omniglow blue glow sticks
10 Nite Lite red glow sticks
12 Nite Lite green glow sticks
Timer
0 C Freezer

Thermometer (0.1)
100 ml Graduated Cylinder
30 Solo cups (532 mL)
Glowstick Box
Logger Pro
30 C Incubator

Set-Up:
1. Randomize the trials for each run.
2. Pour 400 mL of water into a solo cup and place it in the 30 C incubator, leave in for 24 hours.
3. Pour another 400 mL of water into a solo cup and place the cup in the freezer, leave in for
roughly 10 minutes before experiment.
4. Place glow stick box within a dark or dimly lit room (refer to appendix).
5. Have Light Sensor positioned properly by pushing the wand through the hole on
top of the box and the Logger Pro connected (refer to appendix).
Procedure:
1. Take the solo cup from either the incubator or fridge depending on the desired
temperature of water.
2. Measure the temperature of the water with a thermometer. If the temperature has
reached the temperature needed, proceed. Otherwise, give the water time to cool
down or warm up.

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3. Without activating the selected glow stick, immerse the glow stick into the water
all the way for 2 minutes.
4. Remove the glow stick from the cup, and wipe it thoroughly to remove any water
droplets.
5. Holding the glow stick, bend it until it cracks and then shake it for 15 seconds.
6. In a swift motion, place the glow stick within the glow stick box directly under
the light sensor and remove your hands to ensure complete darkness.
7. Begin to collect data using the Logger Pro, measuring the amount of
luminescence (lux), for 30 seconds.
8. Record the data in the organized data table.
9. Repeat steps 1-8 for the next set of trials.
Diagram:

Light Sensor

Glow Stick Box

Glow sticks

Logger Pro

Thermometer
Solo cup filled
with 400 mL of
water

Timer

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Figure 1. Experimental Setup/Materials


Figure 1 above displays the materials needed and the basic set up of the
experiment conducted.
Table 1
Experimental Factors of Incubation Temperature and Color

Table 1 shows the factors that are going to be tested throughout the experiment.

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Data and Observations


Table 1. Experimental Factors of Incubation Temperature and Color

The table shows the factors that were tested throughout the experiment.
Table 2. Run 1 Trial Observations between Color and Temperature

The table above shows the observations that were made during the first run. In
this run, different researchers cracked the glow stick each time. Furthermore, it had been
conducted throughout the span of 2 days. Also, the timing of shaking the glow sticks
were taken by counting to 15.

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Table 3. Run 2 Trial Observations between Color and Temperature

The table displayed above shows the observations that were made throughout the
second run. In this run, the same person cracked and shook the glow stick each time. This
run had been completed in one day. In addition, a stopwatch was used to time the 15
seconds for the shaking, resulting in better consistency.

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Table 4. Run 3 Trial Observations between Color and Temperature

The table for run 3 shows the observations that were made throughout the third
run. In this run, the same person cracked and shook the glow sticks each time. This run
also had been conducted throughout 2 days, because the incubators had stopped working
on the initial day. The shaking was timed for 15 seconds on a timer for this run as well.

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Table 5. Lux Measurement for Glow Sticks

The table above shows the recorded amount of lux taken from the red, green, and
blue glow sticks, all of which had varying temperatures.

Data Analysis and Interpretation


The data that was collected for this experiment was the measure of lux emitted
from glow sticks under the influence of the two factors. These factors were color and
temperature. Different colored glow sticks were immersed in different temperatures of
water, and then the light was measured with a light sensor. To understand the difference
in each result throughout the experiment, controls were set up and practiced. These
controls were untreated glow sticks of each color, all three of which were measured for
its light output. After the measurements were taken, the three controls were used to
compare to each trial. This allowed for the degree of difference in lux for each treatment
to be made clear. Also included within this experiment were the standards. Standards are
a crucial section of any experiment, and that is because they are meant to check for any
lurking variables or environmentally altered results. Inconsistent standards indicate the

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presence of lurking variables throughout the experiment, and could mean questionable
data was collected.
Throughout the experiment, multiple steps were taken to assure that valid data
was collected. The first step taken to ensure validity was repetition. Three runs with
seven trials each were conducted. Each trial in a run had different treatments. This was
vital in determining if the results of the experiment were in fact due to the factors, and not
lurking variables that may have appeared in one run. Another method used to ensure
validity was randomization. The order of the trials were determined by using the random
integer function on the calculator, refer to Appendix C. This reduced any bias which
consequently resulted in a higher validity in the collected data. Replication was also a
method used to create valid data. All of the trials were conducted with the same
procedure and setting, which would ensure no environmental effects upon the data except
for any consistent variables.
Based on the design of the experiment and the data that was collected, the most
appropriate analytical test was the two factor DOE, or the design of experiment, because
it compares the effect of two different factors on the measure of a subject. In this case, the
subject was the lux emitted from each glow stick and the factors were the three different
colored glow sticks along with three different water temperatures. The lux emittance was
measured as a quantifiable value, which further supports using a DOE, which considers
quantifiable values and is specific in analyzing these values. The objective of a two factor
DOE is to identify the factors that have a significant effect as well as finding the effect of
the interactions. A few basic conditions have to be met in order to have a successful two
factor DOE. The first condition being to repeat the experiment over and over until

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proving a relative similarity in results. This is very important because replicated results
dampen uncontrollable variation, also known as lurking variables or noise. Another
condition is to randomize the order of the trials. Randomizing each run, or series of trials,
also helps to determine any effect noise has on the results.
Table 1
Experimental Factors of Incubation Temperature and Color

The table above shows the factors that were tested throughout the experiment.
As seen for both factors of the table, there are two symbols, a (-) and a (+). The first of
the two represents the low value of each factor, and the second symbol represents the
high value of each factor. The incubation temperature is measured in degrees Celsius. For
incubation temperature, the low was 10C, the standard or middle value was 20C, and
the high value was 30C. The colors used were red, green, and blue, because all of these
colors had different sized wavelengths on the visibility spectrum. Following the same
example of the incubation temperatures, the colors were represented with low, standard,
and high values based on the varying sizes of wavelengths.
Table 2
Average Amount of Lux Emitted

The table above shows the results of the emittance of lux for each combination of
factors. The combinations were a 30 C temperature blue glow stick(+, +), a 10 C red

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glow stick(-,-), a 10C blue glow stick (+,-), and a 30 C red glow stick (-, +). It also
displays the averages of these combinations throughout the three runs. The grand average
is included as well, which is the overall average. (Refer to Appendix E for its
calculation.) In this case, the grand average was 67.69 lux.

Table 3 above shows the high and low averages of lux for the effect of
temperature, and Figure 1 shows the graph of these averages, which is reveals the effect
of temperature on the glow sticks.
Figure 1 and Table 3 show that as the temperature of the glow sticks increase, the
amount of lux emitted increases. It shows that when the incubation temperatures changes
from 10 C to 30 C , the amount of lux emitted from the glow stick increases on
average by 19.15 lux. To know how this value was determined, refer to Appendix E. This
means that the higher the temperature of the glow stick, the brighter the glow stick will
be.

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Table 4 above displays the high and low averages of lux for the effect of color.
Figure 2 shows the graph of these averages, which represents the effect of color on the
glow sticks.
Figure 2 and Table 4 reveal that as the wavelength of the color increases, the
amount of lux emitted increases. It shows that when the color changes from that of a low
wavelength (red), to a color with a high wavelength (blue), the amount of lux emitted
from the glow stick increases on average by 44.78 lux. The calculation to find this value
can be found in Appendix E. What this means is that blue glow sticks, or glow sticks that
are a color that have a similar size in wavelength to blue, will shine brighter than glow
sticks that are red, or any other color that have a similar wavelength size to red.

Table 5 shows the interaction effect of color and incubation temperature, and
figure 3 shows the graph of the interaction effect between the two factors.
Table 5 and Figure 3 reveal that there is a probable likelihood of there being an
interaction between the two factors. This can be seen in Figure 3 which shows that both
the dotted and solid segment are not parallel and therefore could intersect. The slope of
the solid segment is 30.2. The slope of the dotted segment is 14.585. Knowing these
values, the interaction effect can be found (see Appendix E). The interaction effect of the

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two factors is 15.6150. It should be noted that when temperature is held high (Table 2),
on average it is 77.27 lux. Look at the solid segment above which also represents
temperature held high with the interaction of color. Notice that when color is low, the
high amount of lux emitted is 47.07 on average, which is lower than expected.
Furthermore, when temperature is held low (Table 2), on average 58.12 lux emitted. Look
at the dotted segment above which also represents temperature held low with the
interaction of color. Notice that when color is held low, the low amount of temperature
yields 43.53 lux on average, which is very close and within range to what was expected.
These findings imply that the two factors do have an effect when on each other.
Table 6
Data of Standards

This table shows the nine standards of the experiment. All of these trials used the
green glow stick, with 20 C water. The range of these nine standards, or the difference
between the highest and lowest standard, is 131.70 lux. This is a high value, therefore
revealing that the research conducted had errors and possible lurking variables.

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Figure 4. Standards Plot


This figure shows the plotted standards found throughout the experiment. The
range for the standards is between 92.20 and 223.90. Contrary to what was expected, the
standards were not within a close range of each other, and were not a consistent value.
The first four standards seem to be within a fairly close range. However, the fifth
standard is a much higher value than the previous four. The following standard falls back
down to be near the range of the first four. After this, the next three standard values start
increasing. Even though there is not a specific trend that the standards are following, it is
clear that these values are not consistent, revealing that there may have been a few human
errors or lurking variables that affected the data.

Figure 5 shows the three effect values as well as the boundaries for double the
range of standards. In this experiment the range of standards was 131.70, and double that
is 263.40, which is represented by the boundaries-the solid gray lines on both sides of the
dot plot-in the figure above. These boundaries were used to determine which factors were
significant. Since none of the effects fall outside of the boundaries, the effect of
temperature (T), color (C), and the interaction effect of temperature and color (TC), are
all statistically not significant.
Y = 67.6917 + noise
Figure 6. Parsimonious Prediction Equation

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The figure above shows the parsimonious prediction equation, which is an


equation that can be used to discover the outcome of the experiment if the factors were
changed.
The parsimonious prediction equation includes the grand average, significant
factors, and noise. Only the grand average is included in this instance, because none of
the factors were proven to be statistically significant. Noise is also included, which is an
unqualifiable factor that accounts for any inaccuracies.

Conclusion
The purpose of the experiment conducted was to determine the effect of
incubation temperature and different colors on the luminescence, or light output, of a
glow stick. The hypothesis stated that when provided with various glow sticks that are the
colors of red, blue, and green, all of which are submerged in different temperatures of
water, the water with the highest temperature of 30 C, along with the color that has the
highest amount of energy on the visibility spectrum, which is blue (450 to 495 nm), will
result in the greatest amount of luminescence from the glow sticks, ranging around 140
lux. The hypothesis formed prior to this experiment was rejected. Determining the
rejection of this hypothesis was obtained by conducting an experiment, where the
luminescence of the different colored and incubated glow sticks were recorded using a
light sensor.
After analyzing these recorded results, the effects of the factors were identified.
The effect of temperature was discovered to be 19.15 lux, implying that as temperature
increased, the luminescence had increased on average by this amount. The effect of color

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was 44.78 lux, again implying that on average, the luminescence increased by this
amount as the wavelength of the color increased through the visibility light spectrum. The
interaction effect of these two factors was 15.62. This implies that there is a likelihood of
these two factors having an effect on each other, meaning the different colors and
different amounts of temperature effect the outcome performance of a glow stick. Upon
further analyzation, it was discovered that none of the factors were statistically
significant; defying what was expected from the hypothesis.
The result of the experiment that was conducted does not agree with current
research being performed. Research shows that color and temperature do in fact have an
effect on the luminescence of glow sticks, while the statistical analysis of this experiment
showed that these two factors were not statistically significant, or had no effect. However,
disregarding the aspect of significance, the results of this experiment did have
corresponding results to other research. In an experiment conducted, the results showed
that the glow stick immersed in the highest (66C) temperature of water glowed brighter
than the one in the coldest (5C) water (Temperature). Similarly, in this experiment, the
glow stick with a higher temperature had a greater amount of lux. The blue glow stick
with the 30C incubation temperature had an average of 107.47 lux. The blue with the
10C water had an average of 72.70 lux emitted. This revealed that the glow sticks that
pertained a higher temperature glowed brighter, which is supported by scientific
evidence. The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Heat states that particles in a fluid increase in
speed as temperature increases. These particles continuously collide with each other and
the glow stick, transferring energy. A higher temperature provides the particles with
greater energy, resulting in faster moving particles, and an increase in the rate of the

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collisions. This leads to a faster chemical reaction and conducts a greater emittance of
light (Temperature).
The experiment conducted had further results that correspond with other research
being performed. The experiment showed that as the wavelength of the color increased,
the amount of lux emitted increased. This can be clearly seen when observing the range
of lux of the blue glow sticks, in comparison to the red glow sticks. The amount of lux
emitted for the blue glow stick ranged between 58.6 lux and 155.6 lux. The light
emittance for the red glow stick ranged between 37.1 lux and 63.3 lux. Comparing this
data to the visibility spectrum, it was determined that a color with a greater wavelength
would result in greater luminescence. As aforementioned, the visibility spectrum proves
that each color transmits different amounts of lux due to the different sizes in
wavelengths. The different sized wavelengths not only affect the color that is given off,
but also affect the amount of energy being used. The tighter or shorter the wavelength is,
the higher the frequency/energy. In other words, wavelength and frequency have an
inverse relationship. Based on this finding, the color red should have the least energy, the
green should have greater energy, while the blue should have the greatest energy.
Regarding the colors of red and blue, this information remains true and was proven with
the collected data.
Even though these results were true, the hypothesis could not be accepted due to
the fact that the standard trials with the green glow sticks had extremely higher results of
lux than the blue. As previously mentioned, the green should have had the second greatest
amount of energy, not the overall greatest. The results did prove that the blue, which was
the high, emitted more lux than the red, the low of the experiment. However, the standard

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with green glow sticks shined brighter than the blue, which research proves cannot be
true. Even with the lights on in the room, it was visibly noticeable that the green glow
stick was shining brighter than any of the other glow sticks. This became even more
apparent when the standard trial results were observed. The green glow stick had a range
of 82.2 to 223.9 lux, which is distinctly higher than the range of lux for blue glow stick.
As previously explained, this should not be possible because the color blue has the
shortest wavelength, giving it the highest energy due to the inverse relationship of
wavelength and energy.
Due to the analytical result that the effects of color and temperature were not
significant, it is apparent that errors were made during the performance of this
experiment. One of the errors during the procession of the experiment was the time
differences. Some trials were interrupted, causing time delays, which could have allowed
for the water temperatures to slightly change. These interruptions consisted of other
research groups entering the room where the experiment was conducted without
knocking. These multiple interruptions also resulted in the exposure of additional,
external light to the light sensor. Another error that was made was inconsistency. In the
first set of trials, different researchers shook the glow stick each time, and the timing of
the shaking was taken through counting, instead of using a timer. All of these errors could
have had a large impact upon the results found from this experiment. The greatest error
that could have had an impact on the results was the differences in the colored glow
sticks. All of the glow sticks were obtained from the same website and on the same day to
ensure consistency. Unfortunately, a major aspect of the glow sticks was overlooked. The
blue glow sticks that had been bought seemed to have belonged to a different company

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than the red and green glow sticks. It is most likely due to this that the green glow sticks
appeared to glow immensely brighter than the blue. This is why it is believed that the
company with the red and green glow sticks created more chemically enhanced glow
sticks than the company of the blue, meaning the green glow sticks could possibly have
had chemical alterations to improve its light output. It has been determined that this is the
cause of the insignificance of the factors. The extremely high amount of lux for the
standards caused the remaining factors to be deemed insignificant during the statistical
analysis of this experiment.
While there were plenty of places that the experiment could have been improved
upon, there were just as many good qualities that made it as good as it had been. For
example, the experimental design of the experiment, a DOE, positively influenced the
performance of the experiment by directly analyzing the results and data in an easy and
understandable way. Also, the DOE helped keep all of the recorded data as well as the
effects of each factor, neat and organized given the many tables and/or charts used whilst
recording results. Among the positive sections of the experiment was the environment.
Although the placement of the room may have induced some incidents that could have
affected the data, the room used was very effective in keeping the experiment within near
darkness. The rooms lighting really helped create a perfect environment, especially in
combination with the taped and clothed box used to cover the glow stick while in the
measuring process, if not for the few interruptions.
The applications that could be applied to better understand the effect of color and
temperature on glow sticks would be collect more data by conducting more trials. An
increased population of data would provide more accurate results, as well as the higher

29

probability of a better controlled environment and more control over lurking variables,
such as exterior light. The experiment could have been conducted in an area with fewer
interruptions, which caused exterior light to enter the room and alter the results.
The application of chemiluminescence could prove to be beneficial to a multitude
of industries and fields. For example, glow sticks can be used by the public for power
outages, and even work places where electricity is rare or hard to come by. Its extremely
bright lighting for a long duration of time makes it ideal for these types of situations.
Glow sticks can also be used in the military. The use of glow sticks is not a new concept
in the military and has been apparent throughout history. For decades, glow sticks have
been used to assist in the lighting of night operations with assured safety. Law
enforcement, search and rescue teams, and many other groups have also been using glow
sticks to help perform hard tasks as well as any tactical drills or missions. In addition,
chemiluminescence is used in a variety of industries and fields such as the
pharmaceutical industry, the alumina industry, and in clinical science. It is greatly used in
the forensic field as well, through the use of luminol, a chemiluminescent spray that
detects traces of blood. With the variety of applications that chemiluminescence can be
applied to, it is evident that the research conducted on the effect of the different factors
influencing chemiluminescence, such as color and temperature, will prove to be
beneficial to society and an abundant amount of industries and fields, for it will allow
cost effectiveness and full advantage to be taken over the chemiluminescent tools that are
purchased and applied.

30

Appendix A: Glow Stick Box


Materials:
Cardboard Box (10.5in x 6in x 9.5in)
Black Permanent Marker
Black Duct Tape

Elmer's Cement Glue


Black Poster Paper
Black Felt

Procedures:
1.

Have cardboard box standing vertically with the shortest side resting face down
on the table.

2.

Using measurements of diameter of the light sensor (see Appendix D), create a
hole on the top of the box for the light sensor to sit through during experiment.
Refer to Figure 1.

3.

With the black poster paper, cut out a piece to fit over the surface area of the box
on the inside. This will assist in avoiding light reflection on the cardboard from lit
glow sticks.

4.

Set aside cut out pieces and prepare to use the Elmers Cement Glue. Spread the
glue on the paper as well as the section of the box the paper is being applied to.
Once completed, press the pieces of paper against the box to ensure a lasting
stick.

31

5.

Before proceeding, confirm that the entirety of the inside of the box is covered
with paper, allowing no light to enter. Figure 2 shows the exact demonstration.

6.

Proceed to cut or use the pieces of black felt and with the black duct tape, secure
the felt to cover the open side of the box. Allow this felt to be flexible so as not to
get in the way of the experiment.

7.

Following the same process, tape a piece of black felt to cover the hole used for
the light sensor. Allow this felt to be flexible so as not to get in the way of the
experiment. The flexibility of the cloth can be seen in both Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 1. Top View of Glow Stick Box


The above photo displays the view of the hole cut into the box for the use of the
light sensor. It also provides a visual example of what was done to create the box for use
in the experiment.

32

Figure 2. Frontal View of Glow Stick Box


As referenced in the procedure for how to make this box, the picture above
gives a clear view as to how each step stated had been followed. This also shows that risk
of light affecting the results was not to be an issue due to the immense covering of the
inside as well as the outside of the box.

33

Appendix B: Logger Pro


The Vernier Lab Quest Logger Pro is the appropriate device used in the
experiment to collect data. The Logger Pro was used in cooperation with the light sensor
(Appendix D). The setting on the device was placed at 30 samples collected in 30
seconds. The figure below shows the Logger Pro with the correct settings intact and in
addition to what the screen appeared to be when collecting data.

34

Figure 1. Logger Pro


This figure shows an image of the Logger Pro screen while collecting data in this
experiment.

Appendix C: Randomization
Materials:
Ti-Nspire CX calculator
Procedure:
1. Turn on the calculator and open a calculator page.
1. Press the menu button.
2. Scroll down to 5: Probability and press enter.

35

3. Scroll down to 4: Random and click enter.


4. Select 2: Integer and press enter.
5. The display of randInt() should now be on your screen. Enter the first number
wanted for the range of numbers that the randomization includes. For example, if
the numbers 1 through 7 are to be randomized, enter 1.
6. Enter a comma and then the last number desired for the range of numbers that the
randomization includes. For example, in the randomization of 1 through 7, 7
would now be entered.
7. Press enter. A number will appear, representing the trial that will go first.
8. Continue pressing enter until all trials are accounted for. If a number repeats,
ignore it.
9. Repeat steps 1-9 for each run.

Appendix D: Light Sensor


A light sensor was used to capture the data of lux emittance from the glow sticks
throughout the experiment. The light sensor was connected to the top of a logger pro
(refer to Appendix B). The setting for the light sensor was placed at the middle range of
0-600 lux.

36

Figure 1. Light Sensor


The figure above displays a light sensor (right) connected to a logger pro (left)
with the appropriate setting.

Appendix E: DOE and Sample Calculations


A DOE analyzes the effect of factors. To analyze the effect of a single factor, its low
average must be subtracted from its high average.
Effect = (+)Avg- (-)Avg
Shown in figure 1 below is a sample calculation using this formula.

37

Effect = (+)Avg- (-)Avg


= 70.29 - 30.80
= 39.49
Figure 1. Single Factor Effect Equation
Figure 1 shows the sample calculation of finding the effect of a factor.
The analysis of the interaction effect of two factors is also needed in a DOE. This
calculation requires the slopes of the dotted and solid segments. (Refer to Figure 3 on the
Data Analysis). The slopes are found by subtracting the low Y value (y ) from the high Y
1

value (y ), and dividing by 2.


2

m =y2-y12
Shown in figure 2 below is a sample calculation for the formula above.

m =y2-y12
= 62.55 lux - 47.98 lux2
=14.57 lux2
= 7.29 lux
Figure 2. Slope Equation
Figure 2 above shows an example of a calculated slope equation.
The interaction effect is then calculated by subtracting the slope of the dotted segment
(S ) from the slope of the solid segment (S ).
2

Interaction Effect = S1 - S2
Shown in figure 3 below is sample work of the interaction effect.
Interaction Effect = S1 - S2

38

= 7.29 lux - 2.09 lux


= 5.20 lux
Figure 3. Interaction Effect
The figure displays the interaction effect equation with sample numbers.
A prediction equation is used in a DOE to interpolate results. For this equation, the grand
average must first be taken, then added to that would be the effect of the temperature
divided by two followed by the addition of the effect of color divided by two and all
finished with the addition of the interaction effect of both the temperature and color,
divided by two. Noise is added as well, which accounts for any errors or lurking
variables. For the parsimonious prediction equation, the same formula is followed, but
with only significant factors.

A sample of the formula is shown below.

Figure 4. Prediction Equation


The figure above displays the prediction equation along with sample work.

39

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