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January 2010

Use of Deadly Force


Investigations
January 2010
Volume 79
Number 1
United States
Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Washington, DC 20535-0001

Robert S. Mueller III


Director

Contributors’ opinions and statements Features


should not be considered an
endorsement by the FBI for any policy,
program, or service.

The attorney general has determined Police Investigations of The use of force and the police
that the publication of this periodical
is necessary in the transaction of the
public business required by law. Use
the Use of Deadly Force
By Shannon Bohrer
1 investigation of such action can
have far-reaching consequences.
of funds for printing this periodical has
been approved by the director of the and Robert Chaney
Office of Management and Budget.

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Operation Spring Cleaning Partnering with the media led to a
(ISSN-0014-5688) is published
monthly by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania
By Shawn Schwertfeger 12 positive interaction for one law
enforcement agency.
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20535-0001. Periodicals postage paid
at Washington, D.C., and additional
The FBI’s National Law The FBI has expanded its Law
22
mailing offices. Postmaster: Send
address changes to Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Officers Killed and
Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy, Enforcement Safety Initiative
Quantico, VA 22135. Assaulted program to help prevent
By Charles E. Miller III,
the death or serious injury of this
Editor Henry F. Hanburger, nation’s sworn personnel.
John E. Ott Michael Sumeracki,
Associate Editors and Marcus Young
David W. MacWha
Bunny S. Morris
Art Director
Denise Bennett Smith Departments
Assistant Art Director
Stephanie L. Lowe

The Training Division’s 8 Notable Speech 16 Bulletin Reports


Outreach and Communications Unit Honoring the Fallen Victim Assistance
produces this publication with
assistance from the division’s People with Mental Illnesses
National Academy Unit.
Issues are available online at 11 ViCAP Alert Drug Control Budget Summary
http://www.fbi.gov. Unidentified Homicide Criminal Victimization, 2007
E-mail Address Victim
leb@fbiacademy.edu 18 Police Practice
Cover Photographs The Anatomy of a
© stockxpert.com Police Pipe Band
Send article submissions to Editor,
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135.

ISSN 0014-5688 USPS 383-310


Police
Investigations
of the Use of
Deadly Force
Can Influence
Perceptions
and Outcomes
By Shannon Bohrer, M.B.A., and Robert Chaney

© Photos.com

B
asic law enforcement The law enforcement profes-
“When a police officer kills training covers using sion spends considerable time
someone in the line of duty— force, including deadly and resources training officers to
or is killed—it sets in motion a force, and investigating crimes, use firearms and other weapons
series of internal and external
reviews and public debate that even those involving assaults and to understand the consti-
normally does not end until and shootings by police. The tutional standards and agency
several years later when the relationship between these two policies concerning when they
civil and criminal court trials events—the use of force and the can employ such force. Society
are over.”1 police investigation of this use expects this effort because of the
of force—can have far-reaching possible consequences of of-
consequences, both good and ficers not having the skills they
bad, for the public, the depart- need if and when they become
ment, and the officers involved.2 involved in a critical incident.

January 2010 / 1
In addition to receiving of officer-involved shootings does not necessarily take into
instruction about the use of that can help ensure fair and account what can occur after-
force, officers are taught inves- judicious outcomes. ward. Just because the officer
tigative techniques. They must had the right to shoot and the
reconstruct the incident, find PERCEPTIONS OF evidence supports the officer’s
the facts, and gather evidence DEADLY FORCE actions may not guarantee a
to prosecute the offenders. And, All law enforcement train- positive, or even a neutral, re-
historically, they have done ing is based on the two elements ception from the public.
this extremely well. But, is the of criticality and frequency. In addition, who the police
same amount of attention paid Skills that officers need and shoot seems to mold some per-
to examining the investigative are required to have to perform ceptions. For example, a bank
process of the use of deadly their duties fall into both: robber armed with a shotgun
force and how this can af- 1) how often they use them presents a different connotation
fect what occurs after such an and 2) how crucial it is to than a 14-year-old thief wield-
event? Are there any reasons have them. Training officers ing a knife.3 Sometimes, it is
why the police should approach to handle potentially lethal who the police shoot that also
the investigation of an officer- incidents, by nature, is vitally can set the tone for the direction
involved shooting differently? important. Investigating officer- of the investigation surrounding
To help answer these questions, involved shootings constitutes the incident.
the authors present an over- a critical function, but, for most
view of perceptions about these departments, it does not occur The Officer’s Perception
events and some elements that that frequently. Only examining Interviews conducted with
law enforcement agencies can training needs from the perspec- officers who have been involved
incorporate into investigations tive of preparation for the event in shootings have revealed that
while many were well trained
for the event, they often were
not prepared for the investiga-
tion afterward.4 Some believed
that these investigations cen-
tered on finding something that
officers did wrong so they could
be charged with a crime or a
violation of departmental poli-
cy.5 Others felt that the investi-
gations were for the protection
of the agency and not necessar-
ily the officers involved.6
Officers can have broad
perceptions that often depend
Mr. Bohrer, a retired Maryland Mr. Chaney, a retired homicide
State Police sergeant, is the detective, currently serves as the
upon their experiences of being
range master for the Maryland deputy director of the Office of involved in a critical incident
Police and Correctional Training Intergovernmental and Public or knowledge of what has
Commissions in Sykesville. Liaison, U.S. Department of Justice.
happened to other officers.

2 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


A trooper with the Arizona including civil unrest, to what conversely, can the investiga-
Department of Public Safety was perceived as an unjusti- tive process influence this close
commented, “I did not choose fied police shooting. At various observation of the incident?11
to take that man’s life.... He levels, however, administrators With these issues in mind,
chose to die when he drew a may feel that a full and fair the authors offer six elements
gun on an officer. It was not investigation will clear up any for investigating officer-in-
my choice; it was his.”7 negative perceptions by the volved shootings. While they
public. While not all-inclusive, are not meant to be all-inclusive
The Public’s Perception departmental perceptions in- or broad enough to cover every
Perceptions by the public of clude many instances when an conceivable situation, they can
officer-involved shootings usu- officer-involved shooting was be useful as a guide.
ally are as wide and diverse as viewed with clear and objective
the population, often driven by clarity before, during, and after The Investigators
media coverage, and sometimes the investigation.10 The first element involves
influenced by a long-standing investigators who have correct


bias and mistrust of govern- and neutral attitudes. Not all
ment.8 Documented cases of officers are suited to conduct-
riots, property damage, and loss ing police-shooting investiga-
of life have occurred in com- Perceptions by tions. Examining such incidents
munities where residents have requires open-minded, experi-
the public of enced investigators who have
perceived a police shooting as
unjustified. Some members of
officer-involved empathy toward the involved
the public seem to automati- shootings usually are officers and members of the
cally assume that the officer did as wide and diverse as general public. Starting with the
the population....


something wrong before any right investigators will ensure
investigation into the incident that the process has a solid
begins. Conversely, others foundation.
believe that if the police shot If possible, at least two
somebody, the individual must primary investigators should
not have given the officer any ELEMENTS OF THE oversee the case from the begin-
choice. INVESTIGATION ning until the end. They should
Few events in law enforce- be responsible for such ac-
The Department’s Perception ment attract the attention of the tivities as supervising the crime
Departmental perceptions media, the political establish- scene investigation, reviewing
can prove diverse and difficult ment, and the police adminis- witness statements and evidence
to express. For example, when tration more than an officer- and laboratory reports, and
interviewed, one chief of police involved shooting. In some coordinating with the criminal
advised that “it is sometimes instances, such intense interest justice system. They should not
easier to go through an offi- can affect the investigation. Is be heavily involved in the initial
cer being killed in the line of this scrutiny related to the inci- routine investigation except for
duty than a questionable police dent, the investigation, or both? handling the interaction with
shooting.”9 The chief was refer- Does it affect the focus and out- the involved officers, including
ring to the public’s response, come of the investigation? And, taking statements.

January 2010 / 3
The Crime Scene constitute the third element. The It is important to keep the
The second element entails investigators need to explain to involved officers informed.
the appropriate response to and the officers that these actions Someone should contact them
protection of the crime scene. will help maintain the integrity on a regular basis. In many
Homicide or criminal investi- of the case. They also should agencies, the officers have
gators should protect the site. invite the officers to stay within advocates, including peer
They need to take their time a protected area to participate support, union representation,
and broaden the protected area, in the follow-up investigation. and legal aid. Keeping the of-
possibly adding a safety zone When possible, they should ficers advised may require the
beyond the immediate vicinity. only take statements from the investigators to go through the
They should establish a press involved officers once they advocate.14
area with a public information clearly understand all of the
The Civilian Witnesses


officer available to respond to
media inquiries. The fourth element high-
Before inspecting the crime lights the importance of inves-
scene, the investigators should tigators gaining the confidence
videotape it and the surround- and respect of civilian wit-
Interviews conducted nesses. After all, they need their
ings and then periodically vid- with officers who
eotape the area, along with any assistance. In most cases, inves-
crowds and parked vehicles,
have been involved tigators should handle them the
during the course of the exami- in shootings have same way as involved officers.
nation. Such information may revealed that...they Before interviewing the
prove valuable later in locat- often were not witnesses, investigators should
ing additional witnesses. They prepared for have a full understanding of
should use up-to-date technol- the investigation the crime scene and the facts of
afterward.


ogy and evidence-gathering the shooting. If any statements
methods, calling on experts conflict with the crime scene ex-
as needed. amination or information from
Before releasing the crime other people who observed the
scene, the investigators should incident, investigators should
consult with the criminal justice facts and crime scene informa- have the witnesses view a crime
officials who will be responsible tion. Moreover, in the initial and scene videotape or take them
for the case. It can be easier to early stages of the investigation, back to the site to help them
explain the circumstances of the authorities never should re- recall events. They may wish to
incident while still in control of lease the names or any personal consult with the criminal justice
the location where it occurred.12 information of the involved investigating authority before-
officers.13 hand to ensure that the revisit
The Involved Officers Sometimes, it is beneficial does not invade the privacy or
Removing the involved of- for involved officers to revisit cause harm to the witnesses.
ficers from the scene as soon as the crime scene later to help And, of course, investigating
possible and taking them to a them recall events. If at all pos- authorities never should release
secure location away from other sible, the investigators should any information concerning the
witnesses and media personnel accompany them. witnesses.

4 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


The Criminal Justice the media. By informing the on past shootings, simulator
Authorities public through press releases experiences, and the perspec-
The fifth element, the need and interviews, the agency tive of the reasonable objec-
to have these cases vetted shows that it is investigating the tive officer can help develop a
through the criminal justice pro- incident and that as information cooperative association.17 Such
cess as soon as possible, proves can be released, it will be. De- a collaborative effort between
critical to the involved officers, partments should remember that the police and the media is not a
their families, and their employ- the proverbial “no comment” magic pill and will not alleviate
ing agencies. Sometimes, back- often gives the impression that all of the public misperceptions
logs may delay report comple- the police are hiding something. and problems. However, it may
tion but should not hinder reduce or prevent false percep-
clearance procedures.15 Close tions, especially with officer-
consultation with the appropri- involved shootings.18
ate criminal justice authority Finally, investigators should
may alleviate the need for a review all of the related printed
completed formal report if a materials and media interviews
written statement for the proper to identify further witnesses
authority confirms the facts. For and, if needed, interview them
example, medical examiners as soon as possible. Sometimes,
and ballistic experts can provide these individuals may not un-
their findings to investigators derstand why the police would
with formal reports to follow. want to interview them after
Presentations of the investi- they have talked to the media,
gation should include all video- so a diplomatic approach can
tapes, photographs, and copies © iStockphoto.com prove helpful. This highlights
of all statements, investigative the importance of a positive
reports, and other necessary Without a positive rela- working relationship that often
documents. Throughout the tionship with the media, poor can result in shared informa-
criminal justice proceedings, communication between the tion between the media and the
investigators should update public and the police can de- police.
the involved officers and their velop, creating a lack of faith
departments about the progress in the management and op- CONCLUSION
of the case. erations of the department and Often, it is not a law en-
mistrust from all parties. The forcement shooting that gener-
The Media time to prepare press releases ates negative consequences, but,
As the final element, the for officer-involved shootings is rather, it is how the involved
department’s public information before one occurs. agency handles the incident that
officer should contact the media In addition, agencies should can foster and feed mispercep-
before their representatives ap- encourage the media to print tions. As a Santa Monica, Cali-
proach the agency.16 In the early and air stories on the responsi- fornia, police officer pointed
stages of the investigation, the bilities of officers and the train- out, “No one knows about the
department should demonstrate ing conducted to enhance their hundreds of instances when a
that it wants to cooperate with abilities. General information police officer decides not to

January 2010 / 5
shoot. Perhaps, no one cares. Enforcement Bulletin, April 2002, 6-13; 7
American Association of State Troop-
After all, people say we’re and George T. Williams, “Reluctance to ers, AAST Trooper Connection, September
Use Deadly Force: Causes, Consequences, 2008.
trained to handle such things, and Cures,” FBI Law Enforcement 8
U.S. Department of Justice, Com-
as if training somehow removes Bulletin, October 1999, 1-5. munity Relations Service, Police Use of
or dilutes our humanity.”19 4
Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F. Excessive Force: A Conciliation Handbook
While the six elements Davis, and Charles E. Miller III, U.S. for the Police and the Community (Wash-
presented in this article may Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of ington, DC, June 1999). This publication
Investigation, In the Line of Fire: Violence provides options for addressing contro-
not be all-inclusive, they offer Against Law Enforcement (Washington, versy surrounding the use of excessive
an outline that may reduce the DC, 1997); and Violent Encounters: or deadly force and offers guidelines for
negative events that sometimes A Study of Felonious Assaults on Our resolving community disputes. Readers
occur in these situations. Hav- Nation’s Law Enforcement Officers can access http://www.usdoj.gov/crs/pubs/
(Washington, DC, 2006). pdexcess.htm for the June 2002 updated
ing the appropriate investigators


version.
and a positive working relation- 9
In 1993, Edward F. Davis was an
ship with the media constitute instructor in the FBI Academy’s Behav-
the bookends of an effective ioral Science Unit when he interviewed
process. After all, the right the chief about police and the use of force.
investigators are the foundation Few events in The chief’s comment could be miscon-
for a thorough investigation, law enforcement strued because it was part of a larger
dialogue about police use of force and
and a cooperative connection attract the attention community relations, although it demon-
with the media forms the basis of the media, the strates perceived and sometimes real
of public understanding. Joining political establishment, concerns. Specifically, the chief was
and the police referring to the fact that the department
together and sharing informa- seemed to pull together when an officer
tion can help both the police administration more is killed and the opposite often occurs
and the media deal with officer- than an when the shooting is questioned in the
involved shootings in a fair and officer-involved media.
judicious manner. 10
Because of Robert Chaney’s (one of


shooting. this article’s authors) extensive experience
in investigating police shootings while
Endnotes serving with the Washington, D.C., Met-
1
Darrel W. Stephens, foreword to ropolitan Police Department and then re-
Deadly Force: What We Know, by William viewing such incidents for final disposition
A. Geller and Michael S. Scott (Wash- 5
Interviews with students attending when later employed by the U.S. Attor-
ington, DC: Police Executive Research the Management Issues: Law Enforce- ney’s Office for the District of Columbia,
Forum, 1992). ment’s Use of Deadly Force course taught he understands the value of the process
2
For an overview of legal concerns, at the FBI’s National Academy from 1995 and how this can affect public perceptions
see Thomas D. Petrowski, “Use-of-Force through 1999. The FBI hosts four 10-week and investigative outcomes.
Policies and Training: A Reasoned Ap- National Academy sessions each year 11
William A. Geller and Michael S.
proach,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, during which law enforcement executives Scott, Deadly Force: What We Know
October 2002, 25-32 and Part Two, from around the world come together to (Washington, DC: Police Executive
November 2002, 24-32. attend classes in various criminal justice Research Forum, 1992).
3
Shannon Bohrer, Harry Kern, and subjects. 12
Robert Chaney’s (one of this article’s
Edward Davis, “The Deadly Dilemma: 6
Feedback from students attending the authors) experience includes a close
Shoot or Don’t Shoot,” FBI Law Enforce- Instructor Training Liability Issues course working relationship with the criminal
ment Bulletin, March 2008, 7-12; Larry taught at the Firearms Instructor Schools, justice authority (in his case, the criminal
C. Brubaker, “Deadly Force: A 20-Year Sykesville, Maryland, from 2001 through justice authority was the U.S. Attorney’s
Study of Fatal Encounters,” FBI Law 2009. Office). The close working relationship

6 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


can be critical with shootings that have Florida Counties,” Orlando Sentinel, “Media Trends and the Public Information
the potential for negative publicity. November 11, 2007; Todd Coleman, Officer,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
13
U.S. Department of Justice, Com- “Documenting the Use of Force,” FBI Law March 2001, 10-13.
munity Relations Service, Police Use of Enforcement Bulletin, November 2007, 17
Brook A. Masters, “Under the Gun:
Excessive Force: A Conciliation Handbook 18-23; and Geller and Scott. I Died, I Killed, and I Saw the Nature of
for the Police and the Community. 16
For additional information, see Deadly Force,” Washington Post, February
14
Laurence Miller, “Officer-Involved Brian Parsi Boetig and Penny A. Parrish, 13, 2000.
Shooting: Reaction Patterns, Response “Proactive Media Relations: The Visual 18
Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward Davis,
Protocols, and Psychological Interven- Library Initiative,” FBI Law Enforcement Shannon Bohrer, and Robert Chaney,
tion Strategies,” International Journal of Bulletin, November 2008, 7-9; James D. “Law Enforcement Perspective on the Use
Emergency Mental Health 8, no. 4 (2006): Sewell, “Working with the Media in Times of Force: Hands-On, Experiential Training
239-254. of Crisis: Key Principles for Law Enforce- for Prosecuting Attorneys,” FBI Law
15
Henry Pierson Curtis, “Deadly Force ment,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Enforcement Bulletin, April 2009, 16-21.
Investigations Can Take Years in Some March 2007, 1-6; and Dennis Staszak, 19
Geller and Scott, 1.

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Editor
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

January 2010 / 7
Notable Speech

Honoring
the Fallen
By Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr.

I t is a true honor to be here tonight for this


solemn service. Although I have been
attorney general for only a few short months,
I have worked in law enforcement for more than
safety and to defend our freedoms. They are for-
ever bound together by an unbreakable bond of
valor. They each gave, as Lincoln said, the “last
full measure of devotion” to the country we love
30 years. If I were to serve for 30 more, it would so dearly.
only confirm that there is no greater burdennor To the husbands, wives, parents, children,
greater honorthan to bear the loss of a friend, a siblings, friends, and fellow officersall of those
colleague, or a loved one in service to our nation. here tonight who have been touched by the lives
Tonight, we dedicate 387 names to the walls we honoryou have been called upon to bear a
of this memorial. Two hundred fifty-four of these
men and women were lost in years pastin some
cases, long before any of us were born. It is a trib- Attorney General Holder
ute to the National Law Enforcement Officers Me- delivered this speech at the
National Law Enforcement
morial Fund that you have worked so diligently to Officers Memorial Fund
uncover their names and make their heroic stories Candlelight Vigil on
known to all. Because of your efforts, the legacies May 13, 2009.

of these unsung heroes will receive the place in our


nation’s history that they rightly deserve.
One hundred thirty-three of the names we
honor today were lost to us in the past year. This
is a stunning number133. It is a number that
truly should give us pause to reflect. One hundred
and thirty-three brave officersmen and women
whose backgrounds and stories are as diverse as
our nation itselfgave their lives to protect our

8 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


© Photographs by Shane T. McCoy, US Marshals, OPA

special burden. And, though there is no speech or every visit with a parent, means a little bit more.
ceremony that can ease your pain, no tribute or sa- So, I ask that you honor the lives of your fallen
lute, tonight we join together in a candlelight vigil colleagues by giving as much of yourself to your
to honor their courage and to fill your hearts with loved ones as you give every day in service to
our nation’s gratitude. your country. We all know that without their love
The word vigil derives from the Latin word and support, your service would not be possible.
for “wakefulness.” It means, literally, “a period of Family is everything.
purposeful sleeplessness.” That is, in a sense, what It is up to all of us to bear true witness to the
we are here tonight to do: to refuse to sleepto bravery and sacrifice made by the heroes we honor
refuse to forget the heroes we’ve lost or their work today by remembering that we all have a personal
that remains undone. role to play in keeping our neighborhoods safe and
Though we may grieve, we must emphatically our nation secure. We must take responsibility for
reject despair. Unlike most other careers, the brave the problems we face in our communities and take
men and women who embark upon a life in law a stand against crimes both large and small. We
enforcement know fully that they might one day must help each other in times of need, and we must
be called upon to lay down their lives in the call teach our children the difference between right and
of duty. Those we honor tonight made that choice wrong.
willingly. Indeed, they embraced it. And, that is The candles we light tonight will not burn for
why their ultimate sacrifice means so much. They long, but they remind us that we must all be the
servedand sacrificedfor a purpose far greater keepers of the flame once borne by our fallen he-
than themselves. I can think of no truer definition roes. Let us bring this light back to our cities, our
of a hero. neighborhoods, our streets, and our homes. Let us
For all of those here tonight who answer the light the darker corners of our country where crime
call to keep our country safe, you know that every still thrives, where children live in fear, and where
kiss from your spouse, every hug from a child, law enforcement is threatened.

January 2010 / 9
“ They served—and
sacrificed—for a
purpose far greater
than themselves.
I can think of no truer
definition of a hero.


Tonight, we hold a vigil, but, every day, we friends.” Let us remember these words today and
must be vigilant. So, let us bind ourselves together always. And, in deepest gratitude, let us be secure
with a new bond of serviceto make our country in the knowledge that our dear friends rest in peace
brighter, safer, and more hopefuland, in so do- and in a place of honor.
ing, let us honor the memory of our fallen heroes May God bless you and the men and women
every day. who have given their lives in service to our
We read in the Scriptures, “Greater love has no nation. Thank you.
one than this, that a man lay down his life for his

Wanted:
Notable Speeches

T he FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin seeks transcripts of presentations made by criminal


justice professionals for its Notable Speech department. Anyone who has delivered a
speech recently and would like to share the information with a wider audience may submit
a transcript of the presentation to the Bulletin for consideration.
As with article submissions, the Bulletin staff will edit the speech for length and clarity
but, realizing that the information was presented orally, maintain as much of the original
flavor as possible. Presenters should submit their transcripts typed and double-spaced on
8 ½- by 11-inch white paper with all pages numbered, along with an electronic version of
the transcript saved on computer disk or e-mail them. Send the material to: Editor, FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy, Outreach and Communications Unit, Quantico, VA
22135, or to leb@fbiacademy.edu.

10 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


ViCAP Alert

Attention
Homicide, Missing Persons
and Crime Analysis Units

Unidentified Victim
Race and
Ethnicity: Black/Middle
Eastern/Caribbean
Sex: Male
Age: 30s
Hair: Black
Height: 5' 8"
Weight: 98 lbs.
Clothing: Brown pants, brown belt,
white T-shirt, white socks, multicolored
boxer shorts, black flip-flops

N=Natural tooth, no filling


#17 and #32 Horizontal impactions

O n September 3, 2008, the unidentified


victim was discovered lying under a park
bench in Peoria, Arizona. An examination of the
Any relevant information can be directed
to Detective Mike Connolly of the Peoria
Police Department at 623-773-8046 or Crime
Analyst Courtney Fitzwater of the FBI’s Violent
victim determined he did not suffer any trauma
or injuries, and the death was ruled to be from Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) Unit at
natural causes. 703-632-4162 or cfitzwat@leo.gov.

January 2010 / 11
© shutterstock.com

Media as
Teammate
Operation
Spring Cleaning
By Shawn Schwertfeger

F
or some in the law Challenge Faced
“Individual commitment to a enforcement and media Albemarle County en-
group effort—that is what makes professions, the phrase
a team work, a company work,
compasses 720 square miles
a society work, a civilization work.” media as teammate may seem in central Virginia and has a
like an unusual concept. For the population of about 94,000. It
—Vince Lombardi1 Albemarle County, Virginia, surrounds the city of Charlottes-
Police Department, however, ville, which contains approxi-
this idea led to an initiative that mately 10 square miles with a
became a positive interaction population of 40,000 and has its
between the two entities and own police agency. The Univer-
helped reduce the number of sity of Virginia has most of its
outstanding warrants the depart- facilities located in the county,
ment had accumulated.2 adding an additional 20,000 to

12 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


the population during the school a plan to address this problem. newspaper. Although somewhat
year. The chief had read about an uncertain of whether the paper
Although the Albemarle initiative conducted in 2004 by would consider getting involved
County Police Department is the Newport News, Virginia, with such an undertaking, the
one of the larger law enforce- Police Department that involved department realized at this first
ment organizations in the placing an advertisement in the meeting that its plan would
region, it still has the feel of local print media naming the come to fruition.
a smaller agency with only persons wanted by the jurisdic- The newspaper’s advertise-
around 150 employees. Be- tion.3 This successful endeavor ment staff agreed wholeheart-
cause its six divisions are taxed planted the seed for Operation edly with the idea. But, as
with primary responsibilities, Spring Cleaning. imagined, the department would
the department often faces a need to pay for the advertise-
problem common to many law Partnership Formed ment. The paper approached
enforcement agencies: serv- The commander of the some sponsors for future en-
ing outstanding warrants on a Community Support Divi- deavors but, due to the time
timely basis. sion and his staff began the constraints, could not secure
necessary planning and re- any sponsorship for this first
Plan Devised search. After discovering that operation. The department
During the first few months the Roanoke, Virginia, Police would have to handle the costs,
of 2006, the Albemarle County Department had conducted a which would run $8,000 for
Police Department held around similar successful project in a full-page advertisement and
1,100 outstanding warrants March 2006, they consulted this $4,000 for the half-page ver-
and juvenile detention orders. agency, along with the Newport sion. The reporters were equally
Of those, 281 were felony News Police Department. Then, excited to get involved, and the
warrants. Also, members of they met with the area’s largest planning began moving along
the department or other lo-
cal law enforcement agencies
had obtained 97 percent of the


1,100 warrants. Hence, these
warrants identified local crime
potentially committed by local For some in the
people. The department found law enforcement and
this unacceptable and believed media professions,
that it was negatively impact-
ing the community. Department
the phrase media as
leaders felt that they owed it teammate may seem
to their citizens to actively and like an unusual
progressively attempt to lower concept.


the number of outstanding war-
rants. In April, the chief and the
commander of the Community Lieutenant Schwertfeger serves with the
Support Division came up with Albemarle County, Virginia, Police Department.

January 2010 / 13
© Photos.com

necessary volunteers also took


time and effort. In addition, the
department assigned an officer
to review the plans for safety
and policy adherence.
Project Launched
The department’s initial
reservations about the news-
paper’s willingness to become
involved proved completely
groundless. The paper’s person-
nel exhibited the highest level
of professionalism. The adver-
tisement branch was energetic
at a rapid pace. The depart- misdemeanants, and place the and did a tremendous amount
ment agreed to set a deadline same list of names on its Web of work. The graphics team,
of implementation no later than site. This would prove more paramount to the operation’s
June 1 and eventually settled on than enough for the inaugural success, faced several last-
May 21. enterprise. minute changes and possessed
Next, the department had Finally, a wide range of the flexibility to make these
to resolve multiple logistical other logistics and variables happen. Because the team had
issues—most of all, the fund- had to be managed in advance to have the actual advertisement
ing. The chief decided to use of the operation. One serious finished 5 days prior to May 21,
some asset-seizure monies for concern was that names of per- members added a disclaimer
the advertisement, along with sons not actively wanted would stating that the list was accurate
financial assistance through inadvertently appear. To avoid as of May 16, 2006. The final
the Edward Byrne Memorial this, personnel checked and advertisement listed around
Justice Assistance Grant Pro- rechecked the wanted persons 180 persons wanted for felonies
gram to pay for the overtime.4 list and put into place a system with the remainder of the page
The department settled with the to flag anyone arrested between naming those wanted on serious
newspaper to do a half-page ad- the review and the actual date misdemeanors. In addition to
vertisement for the first list and of the venture. Other logistics the names, a “top seven” list of
to only include the majority of included notifying the regional subjects wanted on murder and
its felony warrants. But, about 2 jail, the commonwealth attor- serious sexual assault charges
weeks prior to implementation, ney, the magistrate, the Emer- appeared in the upper portion of
the paper offered to provide a gency Communications Center, the page. Between May 16 and
full-page advertisement for the other local law enforcement the actual date of publication, a
price of a half-page one. So, the agencies, and Crime Stoppers few persons on the list had been
department decided to include in advance. Procuring the ap- arrested. Again, the graphics
the names of the wanted felons, propriate vehicles, food, dedi- team made the appropriate last-
along with the more serious cated telephone lines, and the minute changes.

14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


The newspaper and other jurisdictions, and the appropri- all media representatives of its
media representatives were ate paperwork had not arrived role as the lead agency in future
eager to cover the operation in at the Albemarle County Police undertakings of this nature.
advance, and this provided the Department.
other piece of needed cooper- In a few instances, lack of Conclusion
ation—anticipation within the personnel caused some backlog. Working with the media in
community. The advertisement For example, volunteers han- such a positive way, along with
appeared in the Sunday, May dled most of the phone calls. the willingness of the communi-
21, 2006, edition, and by 7 a.m., Even though they had detailed ty to get involved, made Opera-
the phones started ringing. The instructions and “lead sheets” tion Spring Cleaning a monu-
local media provided continuing to follow, their inexperience in mental success. This endeavor
coverage of the operation, re- conducting this type of call also clearly made a statement


porting positively on the efforts. to the community and to the
The department allowed some victims of the crimes commit-
members of the media to ride ted that the Albemarle County
along with several of the arrest Police Department will employ
teams, providing a close-up Working with the progressive efforts to address
view of the initiative. media during this area of concern. For the
Overall, the interaction this operation was officers involved, the operation
with all representatives of the necessary to its demonstrated that the depart-
media was extremely positive success and turned ment was proactively trying to
and helpful. Working with the out to be very make a difference by teaming
media during this operation was with the community and, more


rewarding.
necessary to its success and important, capitalizing on a pro-
turned out to be very rewarding. fessional relationship with the
Ironically, a media source—a media, a true teammate in the
law enforcement magazine— success of a common goal.
spawned the idea, and the hard proved difficult to overcome in
work of a newspaper that the some situations. Additionally, Endnotes
department thought might not future operations should include 1
http://www.heartquotes.net/team-
want to participate turned out officers who speak Spanish, work‑quotes.html
to make an enormous contribu- along with the services of the 2
This article is excerpted from an as-
tion. Operation Spring Cleaning local probation and parole signment the author completed for Media
office. Relations for the Law Enforcement Execu-
could not have happened with- tive (CJ 523), FBI National Academy,
out media involvement. Finally, the department did Session 236, Penny Parrish, Instructor.
not receive as much positive 3
James D. Fox and Michael S. New,
Lessons Learned coverage as it could have. This “‘The List’: A Warrant Service Strategy,”
A few problems occurred occurred because it dealt mostly FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, November
during the project. At least with the one newspaper, rather 2005, 22-24.
4
For additional information on the Ed-
four names of people no longer than with all media outlets. ward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance
wanted appeared on the lists. While a minor disappointment, Grant Program, see http://www.ojp.usdoj.
Most had been served in other the department intends to advise gov/BJA/grant/jag.html.

January 2010 / 15
Bulletin Reports

Volunteers Provide Victim Assistance


Good Samaritans: Volunteers Helping Victims Program Handbook and Training Guide,
a new e-guide from the Office of Victims of Crime, is designed to train volunteers to provide
services that include securing victims’ homes after a break-in, offering emotional support, and
linking victims with community services. Before the Good Samaritans program began in Mobile
County, Alabama, many vulnerable crime victims had no one to turn to. Since 2003, however,
these victims have been able to call on these volunteers to help them feel more secure in their
homes after a crime and to refer them to the services they need.
A community initiative led by the Mobile County District Attorney’s Office and supported
by the Office for Victims of Crime, Good Samaritans has been replicated in several communities
in Mobile County, Alabama, and Jackson County, Mississippi. The program unites law enforce-
ment and faith-based and community organizations to train and mobilize volunteers who can
help the most vulnerable victims of crime. “This is an important service to the community be-
cause serious crime continues to plague Mobile County,” said District Attorney John Tyson, Jr.
“According to state and federal crime statistics, our countywide crime rate is substantially
higher than the rest of the nation. There are far too many crime victims and not nearly enough
law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and victim service professionals to help them all.” To
obtain more information about the training guide (NCJ 225703), access the National Criminal
Justice Reference Service’s Web site, http://www.ncjrs.gov.

People with Mental Illnesses


Law Enforcement Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: A Guide to Research-Informed
Policy and Practice, a Bureau of Justice Assistance-sponsored guide, examines studies on law
enforcement interactions with people with mental illnesses and translates the findings to help
policymakers and practitioners develop safe and effective interventions. Some specialized law
enforcement strategies presented in the guide include improving officer safety; increasing
access to mental health treatment, supports, and services; decreasing the frequency of these
individuals’ encounters with the criminal justice system; and reducing certain costs incurred by
law enforcement agencies. The research contained in the guide serves as a useful foundation for
making data-informed decisions about policies and practices related to law enforcement
encounters with people with mental illnesses. But, it is just that—a starting point. Each com-
munity still must conduct an analysis of its unique strengths and challenges. Once policymakers
identify programmatic goals that specifically respond to the findings from this analysis, they
can design, implement, or modify a program that best fits their community’s needs. To view
the guide (NCJ 226965), access the National Criminal Justice Reference Service’s Web site,
http://www.ncjrs.gov.

16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Drug Control Budget Summary
The National Drug Control Strategy: FY 2010 Budget Summary from the Office of
National Drug Control Policy identifies resources and performance indicators for programs
within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President’s drug control policy. The admin-
istration’s plan for reducing drug use and availability includes substance abuse prevention and
treatment, domestic law enforcement, and interdiction and international counterdrug support.
The drug control programs of the Departments of Education, Health and Human Services, Inte-
rior, Veterans Affairs, and the Small Business Administration principally focus on demand
reduction activities, such as substance abuse prevention and treatment. The Departments of
Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, State, Transportation, and the Treasury are involved in
supply reduction operations, such as domestic law enforcement and interdiction and interna-
tional counterdrug support. The Office of National Drug Control Policy conducts activities in
both areas. Each agency is an important partner in the drug control mission. For additional
information, readers can view the summary (NCJ 226765) at the National Criminal Justice
Reference Service’s Web site, http://www.ncjrs.gov.

Criminal Victimization, 2007


This Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) bulletin features estimates of rates and levels of per-
sonal and property victimization for 2007 and describes the substantial fluctuations in the survey
measures of the crime rates from 2005 through 2007. These do not appear to be due to changes
in the rate of criminal activity during this period but, rather, to variations in the sample design
and implementation of the survey. BJS and the Census Bureau are continuing to research the
impact of the differences, and readers should focus on the comparisons of the 2005 and 2007
rates until these issues are resolved. A technical report discussing these matters is expected at a
later date. The estimates were drawn from the National Crime Victimization Survey, an ongoing
household survey that includes the results of interviews conducted of about 73,600 persons in
41,500 households two times in 2007. The report includes data on violent crimes (rape/sexual
assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault), property crimes (burglary, motor ve-
hicle theft, and property theft), and personal theft (pocket picking and purse snatching), along
with the characteristics of victims of these crimes.
Specifically, violent crime rates in 2007 (20.7 per 1,000 persons age 12 or older) were not
significantly different from those in 2005 (21.1 per 1,000 persons). U.S. residents age 12 and
older experienced an estimated 23 million crimes of violence and theft. The violent crime rate
was 20.7 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older; for property crimes it was 146.5 per
1,000 households. The bulletin (NCJ 224.390) can be found at the National Criminal Justice
Reference Service’s Web site, http://www.ncjrs.gov.

January 2010 / 17
Police Practice
The Anatomy of a Police Pipe Band
By James VanBrederode

T
© Photographs by Bob and Glenda Melville; Sue Weller

he mournful sounds of the bagpipes led the undesirable because of low pay and benefits.2
hearse making its way through the columns Many Irish immigrants undertook these profes-
of blue uniforms. The young officer had died in a sions to establish themselves and become part of
tragic traffic accident while responding to a bur- America. The Irish police and firefighters brought
glary alarm. Over 2,000 colleagues lined the front with them the tradition of playing the bagpipes at
of the cathedral sidewalk to greet the casket. parades, ceremonies, and funerals. The New York
How did bagpipes become the adopted instru- City Police Department formed the first Police
ment of the law enforcement community? How Emerald Society to preserve the Irish heritage in
does a department begin a ceremonial bagpipe 1953.3 Today, Emerald Societies exist across the
unit? The author addresses such questions by shar- country, and many sponsor their own pipe band.
ing firsthand experiences of the Gates Keystone
Club Police Pipes and Drums Band, which formedDEVELOPING A BAND
in 1998.1 Celebrating over 10 years of existence, The Gates Police Department, located in up-
the band has grown to 50 members. state New York, has 32 sworn officers. In 1998,
six employees committed to starting a police cer-
APPRECIATING THE HISTORY emonial pipe band. Prior to that time, no police
In the late 1800s, many people considered pipe bands were available in that region. Rather,
law enforcement and other public service jobs organizations hired a member of the local Scottish

18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


band to pipe comrades to their final resting place and festivals, only growing in size as the revenues
the most intimate part of the funeral service was increase, and maintains over $100,000 worth of
conducted by a nonlaw enforcement-related equipment.
person. Participants must research the cost of needed
equipment. A set of bagpipes made of African
Mission Statement blackwood costs about $1,200; drums run from
One of the first steps members took included $550 for a snare to $700 for a bass; and kilts,
developing a mission statement, which helps doublets, sporrans, belts, and hats require approxi-
participants remain focused on the purpose of the mately $2,000. Pipers usually purchase their own
band. It defines the significance bagpipes, while the band pro-
of the band’s existence and what vides drums and uniforms.
it intends to accomplish. The The command presence
Gates Keystone Club’s mission and appearance of a pipe band
statement reads, “The purpose proves just as important as the
of the Gates Keystone Club Po- music it plays, and the uniform
lice Pipes and Drums Band is to should represent the police en-
provide a prim and proper cer- vironment. Selecting a tartan
emonial piping unit for funerals for the kilt is among the first
of active public safety members decisions to make. Members
who pass away in the greater can choose from hundreds of
Rochester area and beyond. We tartans or create their own. The
will strive to bring together our Keystone Band chose the Earl
brothers and sisters of differ- of St. Andrew tartan with blue
ent agencies in a sense of unity checkers and white and black
through the playing of tradition- stripes. Blue symbolizes the
al bagpipe hymns while at ap- emergency services, represent-
propriate gatherings.” An effec- ing peace, loyalty, wisdom, and
tive mission statement should integrity. For a hat crest, Gates
be short, use simple words, and designed its own badge with
show motivation and commit- the band’s name engraved on
ment. Further, band members should routinely it. Members wear holsters on their belts, and they
review it to determine whether they are meeting created a band patch for summer uniform shirts.
their mission or if their goals have changed. For formal ceremonies, participants wear a doublet
dress coat with patches on both shoulders and a
Finances and Equipment full-feather bonnet. To maintain the quasi-military
The Gates Keystone Club, started through the appearance, the band incorporated white spats for
police union, administers their finances through their black shoes.
the union accountant. Otherwise, a band must Club members realized that many people can-
become incorporated and register as a nonprofit not identify particular pipe bands. Therefore, they
organization. To generate initial funding, the created a banner that displays their logo and name
Gates Keystone Club conducted a press release to during parades, and their bass drum exhibits them
announce the band’s formation. Today, it is finan- as well. The uniform bands select proves vital for
cially self-supported by marching in local parades showmanship and reputation. Participants should

January 2010 / 19
choose quality uniforms and explore what mem- police officers, the Gates Keystone Club began
bers of other pipe bands wear. accepting civilian membership and found the com-
munity partnership a great asset. The club conducts
Recruitment and Community Involvement background checks on new civilian members and
In 1998, none of the Gates Keystone Club holds them to the highest standards. High school
founding members had played bagpipes. Thus, and college students, retirees, and professional
they took lessons from an older Scotsman and residents who admire their local police comprise
learned the instrument. A new piper starts on the band. Civilians feel proud to be part of this dis-
a chanter (approximately $70); learns the nine tinctive group of 30 percent police and fire fighter
notes, doublings, and grace notes; and, after 8 or personnel and 70 percent citizens, and such in-
9 months, graduates to the bagpipes, which most volvement has proven an enormous building block
members find easy to play. The instrument has no for community relations. To accommodate fami-
sharps, flats, or volume control, but students must lies, band members created a color guard unit for
master the ability to finger, squeeze, and blow at the nonmusicians. Additionally, four families have
the same time. To recruit prospective participants, multiple members who have joined the band.
the Gates Keystone Club provides free piping and Inviting the public and outside law enforce-
drumming lessons. Members have discovered that ment agencies, fire departments, and ambulance
individuals who become musicians when they start corps to “open houses” constituted an effective
with the band prove more loyal and apt to stay recruiting tool. Members conduct demonstrations
onboard. and exhibit photo displays and video footage of
Once the band began making public appear- various events.
ances, the community embraced theminterest As the Gates Keystone Club band grew in
in joining the band or having it perform at public talent and size, it became more than just a police
events became overwhelming. Although some ceremonial bandit averages 50 events each year.
police pipe bands are open only to active or retired Members usually select police-related events,
such as promotion ceremonies, law
enforcement graduations, memorial
services, police-sponsored Special
Olympics, and those directly connect-
ed with the Town of Gates communi-
ty. They volunteer to play during local
Memorial and Veteran’s Day services
and at military funerals related to the
conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, as
well as in local high school musicals.
Such events are important to building
a relationship with the community.
The ability to play bagpipes is a spe-
cial talent few individuals have and
should be shared during appropriate
occasions. Community events serve
as an excellent opportunity for agency

20 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


and band publicity and encourage
residents to view the officers in a more
friendly light.

MANAGING A BAND
An effective manager proves vital
to a band’s success. The band man-
ager works behind the scenes and in
the community promoting the band,
finding public venues in which to
participate, negotiating paid events
for fundraising, and serving as the
band’s spokesperson. The manager
should know the band’s capabilities,
especially when it is just establish-
ing itself. The Gates Keystone Club found that as in official ceremonial events. Because the Gates
the community began to learn about the band, the Keystone Club took the time to learn how other
manager’s job became extremely busy and time departments established a successful band and has
consuming. The position requires a person who remained dedicated to its mission, it has grown to
has both the time to devote and the necessary com- over 50 members. Today, participants include not
munication skills to handle various situations. Of- only police officers but firefighters, high school
ten, as a band grows, in-house personnel conflicts students, and local citizens as well.
arise, and an effective manager can quickly resolve Members report that the experience of playing
any problems. in a police pipe band has changed them personally
Showmanship is an important piece of the and professionally, and they realize it is a talent
puzzle in a successful band, from playing tunes only a few possess. The Gates Police Depart-
that the public recognizes, having special march- ment encourages other agencies to investigate the
ing maneuvers, and engaging the crowd with em- possibility of establishing a pipe band in their
bellishing swing tenors to having a parade vehicle community for the abundant rewards it can bring
accompany the band. The Keystone Club pur- not only to participants but also to those who hear
chased a 1966 fire truck for a nominal fee, named the thunder of the drums and the sounds of the
it “Amazing Grace” (perhaps the most requested pipesa distinctive tone revered by many.
tune on the bagpipes), and discovered the vehicle
to be a great crowd pleaser. Further, establishing a Endnotes
Web site and displaying a banner during parades 1
See, http://www.gateskeystoneclub.com.
greatly enhances publicity for the band. 2
For more information, visit http://www.nvemeraldsociety.org.
3
http://www.nypdemeralds.com/
CONCLUSION
The Gates, New York, Police Department
started a ceremonial pipe band, the Gates Key- Lieutenant VanBrederode serves with the Gates,
stone Club Police Pipes and Drums Band, over 10 New York, Police Department.
years ago to honor fallen comrades and participate

January 2010 / 21
The FBI’s
National Law
Enforcement
Safety Initiative
By Charles E. Miller III, Henry F. Hanburger,
Michael Sumeracki, and Marcus Young

© iStockphoto.com

I
n December 1952, at ap- enforcement officer stopped a approaching a motor vehicle.
proximately 2:30 a.m., a vehicle occupied by a lone male Sadly, the officer in the first
law enforcement officer for exceeding the speed limit. incident died from his wounds,
stopped a vehicle occupied by When the officer approached but the officer in the second one
a lone male for exceeding the the vehicle, he was shot twice sustained only minor injuries.
speed limit. When the officer in the upper chest with a What are some of the common-
approached the vehicle, he was 9-millimeter semiautomatic alities and differences between
shot twice in the upper chest handgun. The officer fell to the these two felonious attacks?
with a .38-caliber revolver. The pavement, and the vehicle sped Are there specific, identifiable
officer fell to the pavement, and away. The driver was arrested factors that would explain why
the vehicle sped away. Several several hours later, convicted of one officer died and the other
days later, the driver was ar- this offense, and sentenced to a survived? Although the circum-
rested, convicted of the offense, lengthy prison term. stances of the encounters are
and sentenced to life in prison. In both of these incidents, similar, they occurred 50 years
In December 2002, at the officers were shot in the apart. Was the officer in the
aproximately 3 a.m., a law same area of the chest while second incident better equipped

22 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


Mr. Miller, a retired police Mr. Hanburger, a retired Mr. Sumeracki, a retired chief Mr. Young, a 20-year veteran
captain, is the program coor- FBI special agent, serves of police, serves as an instruc- of law enforcement, serves
dinator of the Law Enforce- as an instructor with the Law tor with the Law Enforcement as an instructor with the Law
ment Officers Killed and Enforcement Officers Killed Officers Killed and Assaulted Enforcement Officers Killed
Assaulted Program in the and Assaulted Program in Program in the FBI’s Criminal and Assaulted Program in
FBI’s Criminal Justice Infor- the FBI’s Criminal Justice Justice Information Services the FBI’s Criminal Justice
mation Services Division. Information Services Division. Division. Information Services Division.

or mentally prepared for the enforcement organizations. on law enforcement officers that
encounter than the first? Did Other advantages the officer occur at the state or local level?
their agencies train them differ- from the 2002 incident enjoyed And, finally, what role, if any,
ently? If so, did the training the included better communica- does the FBI play in addressing
officers received possibly have tions, better lighting, and prob- law enforcement safety issues
a significant influence on the ably better training. When asked on a national level?
outcomes of these shootings? his intent at the time of the 2002 To answer these ques-
Upon examining these attack, the 15-year-old offender tions, the authors present the
incidents in greater detail, it stated that because he knew establishment, the role, and the
becomes clear that the officer most law enforcement officers evolution of the FBI’s Uniform
who conducted the traffic stop wear protective body armor, he Crime Reporting (UCR) and
in 2002 had several significant was attempting to kill this one Law Enforcement Officers
advantages when compared by shooting him in the head. Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA)
with the officer from 1952. The Relating why he thought he programs. They also discuss
officer in 2002 was protected was not successful, the teenager approximately 20 years of
from serious injury due to his said, “He wouldn’t give me research conducted by the FBI
department-issued body armor. a good shot. He stood too far that focused on incidents where
This particular agency mandat- back. I had to stretch around to officers were feloniously killed
ed that patrol officers wear body fire. Because of that, my shots or assaulted in the line of duty
armor, strictly enforcing this went low, and I missed.”1 and resulted in three special
policy and disciplining officers How did the FBI obtain in- studies published by the U.S.
who failed to comply. In 1952, formation about these two inci- Department of Justice in 1992,
affordable body armor was dents? Further, what is the FBI’s 1997, and 2006. Based on this
not readily available to law interest in the felonious attacks research, the FBI’s Criminal

January 2010 / 23
Justice Information Services The UCR program operates personnel of the Strategic Sup-
(CJIS) Division offers free of- under the “shared management” port Section (SSS), handle the
ficer safety training to federal, concept. This means that the actual day-to-day operations of
tribal, state, and local law en- general policy concerning the the program.
forcement agencies throughout philosophy, concept, and opera-
the United States. The increas- tional principles of the program THE LEOKA PROGRAM
ing number of law enforcement is based upon the recommen- From 1937 through 1971,
departments requesting this dations of the CJIS Division the UCR program included the
training has necessitated the ex- Advisory Policy Board (APB) number of law enforcement
pansion of the LEOKA program to the director of the FBI. It also officers killed in the line of
into the FBI’s National Law ensures that the concerns of the duty in the annual Crime in the
Enforcement Safety Initiative. program’s stakeholders (i.e., United States publication. In
law enforcement entities) are 1972, the FBI began collecting
THE UCR PROGRAM considered in making program detailed data on law enforce-
Since 1930, the FBI has ad- modifications and additions. ment officers killed in the line


ministered the UCR program at of duty and publishing the
the request of the International information in annual reports.
Association of Chiefs of Police To ensure the comprehensive
(IACP), assuming the task of collection of these statistics,
collecting, verifying, analyzing, ...what is the FBI’s the FBI’s field offices notify
and disseminating crime data interest in the the LEOKA program when an
on a national level. In 1937, the felonious attacks officer within their jurisdiction
UCR program began publishing on law enforcement is killed in the line of duty. The
the annual Crime in the United officers that occur program then immediately dis-
States report and disseminating at the state or seminates this information to all
it to all participating contribu- law enforcement agencies via


local level?
tors. Today, the program contin- the National Law Enforcement
ues as a nationwide, coopera- Telecommunications Network.
tive statistical effort of more An FBI agent provides the law
than 17,000 city, university and enforcement organization that
college, county, state, tribal, Besides the CJIS APB, advi- suffered the tragedy with a copy
and federal law enforcement sory groups from the IACP, the of the Analysis of Law Enforce-
agencies voluntarily reporting National Sheriffs’ Association, ment Officers Killed reporting
data on crimes brought to their and the Association of State form to collect all relevant data,
attention. Crime in the United Uniform Crime Reporting along with information on the
States, now solely available Programs foster widespread Public Safety Officers’ Benefits
online, is used by law enforce- and responsible use of crime Program and the U.S. Depart-
ment administrators and manag- statistics and lend assistance to ment of Labor’s Office of Work-
ers, criminologists, sociologists, data contributors when needed. ers’ Compensation Program for
legislators, municipal planners, Members of the CJIS Division’s the victim officer’s family.3
researchers, media representa- Liaison, Advisory, Training, Also in 1972, the UCR pro-
tives, and others interested in and Statistics Section (LATSS), gram created a separate monthly
criminal justice matters.2 along with assistance from form for law enforcement

24 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


agencies to report assaults on information from officers who requested that the LEOKA
sworn personnel that occurred survived felonious assaults. program redesign its collection
in the line of duty. Individual Initially, compliance from form to capture additional infor-
agencies submit the Law En- participating agencies was slow mation regarding accidental and
forcement Officers Killed and but has gradually improved. felonious deaths and assaults.
Assaulted form to their state Although the program feels that The committees also offered
crime reporting program or di- it is capturing the majority of their resources and expertise
rectly to the FBI. For 10 years, these incidents, it has yet to in assisting with the proposed
the UCR program published incorporate the data into the project.
the data in the annual Crime in annual publication. However, To carry this mission for-
the United States. In an effort the information has provided a ward, the LEOKA program
to consolidate publications, rich variety of incidents that coordinator became a member
however, the program incorpo- researchers have examined in of the LESS Subcommittee and
rated information on federal, several officer safety projects. solicited input from all of the
state, and local law enforcement In 2004, the LEOKA pro- members of the IACP’s High-
officers killed and assaulted in gram coordinator met with way Safety Committee and the
the line of duty into its an- members of IACP’s Highway LESS Subcommittee.5 Next,
nual renamed publication Law Safety Committee and the the LEOKA program formed a
Enforcement Officers Killed and Law Enforcement Stops and redesign team of FBI personnel
Assaulted in 1982.4 Safety (LESS) Subcommittee to who consulted with numerous
In 1997, IACP recommend- discuss law enforcement safety outside entities throughout the
ed collecting additional data on issues, specifically the rapid rise redesign process.6
officers assaulted with a firearm in the number of officers dying In May 2008, the LEOKA
or knife or other cutting instru- in accidents. After thoroughly redesign team completed the
ment because it appeared that examining and assessing the final drafts of both Analysis
the law enforcement commu- LEOKA program’s statistical of Law Enforcement Officers
nity could glean additional data, these IACP committees Killed and Assaulted forms;

Officer Safety/Awareness Training Requests


Forward written requests for Officer Safety/Awareness training to Section Chief
Robert J. Casey, FBI Complex, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Clarks-
burg, WV 26306-0150, rocasey@leo.gov and also provide a copy to Melissa Blake at
mblake1@leo.gov. The letter should contain the law enforcement agency or group, the
proposed date of the event, the location, and the anticipated number of law enforcement
attendees. The FBI provides the training at no cost but does request that the hosting agency
advertise the training so that law enforcement officers from other agencies in the area have
the opportunity to participate.

January 2010 / 25
one is for officers acciden- personnel in the identification of and their killers, along with the
tally killed, and the other is for training issues for preventing circumstances that brought them
officers feloniously killed or line-of-duty deaths and serious together. Victim officer profiles
injured with a firearm, knife, or injuries to law enforcement contain data on age, sex, race,
other cutting instrument during personnel. physical attributes, years of ser-
a felonious assault. The team vice, and other relevant infor-
then field tested the new forms SPECIAL RESEARCH mation. Situational descriptions
with numerous law enforcement PROJECTS that indicate what particular
agencies to assess any problems The LEOKA program’s tasks the officers were perform-
they could have understanding primary goal involves serv- ing at the time of their deaths,
and completing them. The team ing federal, tribal, state, and such as making an arrest, trans-
preselected cases and assigned local law enforcement agencies. porting a prisoner, handling a
them to the agencies to disturbance call, or mak-
ensure a healthy mixture ing a traffic stop, are por-
of incident types. None trayed. Also addressed are
of the agencies experi- weapons used and type
enced major problems and geographic location
completing the forms, of the victim officers’ law
and all commented posi- enforcement agencies.
tively on their utility. The Information about the of-
time needed to complete fenders includes physical
either the accidental or the characteristics and crimi-
felonious form averaged nal histories.
approximately 1 hour. In Yet, even these de-
November 2008, IACP tailed data cannot answer
passed a resolution en- what is likely the most
dorsing the implementa- important question. Why
tion of the new forms did the incident occur?
at its annual conference.7 Speculation ranges from
The importance of this discussions of possible
project cannot be over- procedural mistakes to as-
stated. The quantity and sessments of the adequacy
quality of the new data of law enforcement train-
captured will improve the ing and analyses of the
CJIS Division’s service to personality types of both
the law enforcement offenders and officers
community, and, likewise, involved. Many serious
the profession will benefit from Each year, the Law Enforcement questions arise when consider-
the additional information. It Officers Killed and Assaulted ing the possible causes for these
is anticipated that the annual publication presents extensive events. What factors turned a
LEOKA publication will double data provided by slain officers’ petty thief or a drunk driver into
in size and assist law enforce- employing agencies, including a killer of a law enforcement
ment managers, trainers, and information about the officers officer? Why would a person

26 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


arrested on numerous occa- study did not produce all of the factors combined into a “deadly
sions without exhibiting any answers sought, it provided sev- mix” of an easy-going officer
violent tendencies suddenly use eral important findings regard- who would use force only as a
deadly force against an arresting ing the outcome of an in-depth last resort with an offender of
officer? Did the victim officer examination of the offenders, aberrant behavior in an uncon-
perform or omit some type of victims, and events. First, while trolled, dangerous situation.
behavior that may have precipi- no single, absolute offender Published in 1992, Killed
tated the violence? Was there profile emerged, most killers of in the Line of Duty: A Study
anything that the officer could law enforcement officers had of Selected Felonious Killings
have done to prevent the fatal been diagnosed as having some of Law Enforcement Officers
attack? sort of personality disorder. contained extensive information
After conducting law en- on the victims, offenders, and


forcement training through- incidents studied. It identified
out the nation and repeatedly personality types of offenders,
hearing these questions, UCR provided guidance in assessing
instructors formulated a plan In 1972, the FBI how those of a given type will
in 1989 to study the felonious typically interact with authority
killings of officers through an
began collecting
figures, and offered styles or ap-
interactive and integrative ap- detailed data on law proaches in questioning or inter-
proach. The study would ad- enforcement officers rogating them by law enforce-
dress the psychology of offend- killed in the line of ment. It pointed out specific
ers, the behavior of officers, and duty and publishing areas where law enforcement
the circumstances that led to the information in training and procedures may be
annual reports.


lethal attacks. Clearly, such an improved. It provided some sig-
integrative study could practi- nals for law enforcement man-
cally and substantially add to agers about officers who may be
the current base of knowledge more likely to become a victim
on the felonious killings of law in a potentially deadly situation.
enforcement officers. While Next, the behavioral descriptors Probably most important, it did
it would not answer all of the of victim officers frequently ap- not answer all of the questions.
questions or prevent all future peared similar, with the officers In fact, the study actually raised
deaths, it would examine the characterized as generally good- as many as it answered and
complex situations in a differ- natured and more conservative identified areas that required
ent manner than previously than their fellow officers in the more extensive study and thor-
accomplished.8 use of physical force. Finally, ough evaluation at all levels of
the incidents themselves re- law enforcement.
Killed in the Line of Duty vealed that the killings often
The study, conducted over were facilitated by some type In the Line of Fire
a 3-year period, reviewed 51 of procedural miscue (e.g., an A second study, conducted
incidents that resulted in the improper approach to a vehicle over a 3-year period, exam-
line-of-duty deaths of 54 law or loss of control of a situation ined 40 cases, which had 52
enforcement officers and in- or individual). In short, the re- victim officers and 42 offend-
volved 50 offenders. While the searchers determined that these ers. Unlike the first one, which

January 2010 / 27
explored the topic of officers failed to keep in mind that their same incidents said that they
killed in the line of duty, the own safety must come first so were unaware of the impending
second study included officers that they remain alive and able assault.
who survived felonious assaults to protect the community. What causes these percep-
and, thus, could explain their The additional insight tual differences? Even though
actions or offer reasons why gained from the involved of- clearly life-and-death situations,
they chose not to act. ficers triggered more questions. these events could not have
Published in 1997, In the How and why do offenders and been processed in a more strik-
Line of Fire: Violence Against officers have different percep- ingly opposite manner. What
Law Enforcement, A Study of tions about a situation? The was it in the histories, train-
Felonious Assaults on Law discrepancy proved noteworthy. ing, and experiences of these
Enforcement Officers officers and offenders
presented findings that that produced such wide
proved strikingly similar discrepancies?
to those in the first study
in terms of the various Violent Encounters
threats officers faced as Beginning in 2000,
they performed their du- the final study, conducted
ties. Law enforcement over a 6-year period,
officers continued to examined 40 cases, which
become unwitting compo- involved 43 offenders and
nents of the deadly mix. 50 victim officers. The
Both studies found that of- major theme that threaded
ficers frequently neglected throughout this study
their own safety when derived from the concept
performing their duties. of the deadly mix, discov-
When officers received ered in the first study and
calls for service, as well fully explained in the final
as when they initiated installment of the tril-
contacts, their mental and ogy on law enforcement
physical reactions were safety, Violent Encoun-
geared toward responding, ters: A Study of Felonious
helping, clearing the call, Assaults on Our Nation’s
and returning to service Law Enforcement Offi-
for the next call. By their cers, published in 2006.
own admission, they often were Two-thirds of the offenders The term deadly mix de-
thinking about the next call stated that they believed the scribes an integrative process
before they cleared the current officer did not know how seri- encompassing all aspects of
one. Consequently, they sacri- ous the situation had become the officer, the offender, and
ficed their own safety for what just before the assault occurred. the circumstances that brought
they perceived as “the greater Without knowledge that these them together at the time of the
good: the safety of the commu- offenders made this assessment, felonious attack. Conceptually,
nity.” The officers sometimes the officers involved in these the deadly mix can provide

28 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


some insight into why law LEOKA TRAINING attacks and in the later retell-
enforcement assaults and deaths “The training you provided ing of them, and all of the grief
still occur on an unrelenting me in your seminar on law en- borne valiantly by the surviving
basis regardless of technologi- forcement street survival helped families and friends of deceased
cal advances, innovative equip- me recognize the presence of a officers will serve a higher
ment, and proactive policing threat and react appropriately. purpose and keep one more
strategies. dedicated member of the
Ideally, contacts U.S. Department of Justice
law enforcement profes-
U.S. Department of Justice

between law enforcement Federal Bureau of Investigation


Criminal Justice Information Services Division sion from succumbing to
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Assistance

officers and offenders the deadly mix.


never would turn violent, Numerous officers
and the number of law who have received the
enforcement officers felo- LEOKA Officer Safety/
niously killed or assaulted Awareness training have
would diminish to zero. stated that it helped them
In practice, however, vio- become more safety con-
lent encounters between scious in their patrol du-
officers and offenders will ties, increasing their alert-
continue to plague Amer- ness to danger signals that
ica, sometimes involving offenders display. It also
the deadly mix that often made them more aware
results in serious injury that they, as officers, emit
or death to those charged signals about their own
with safeguarding its citi- mental readiness to meet
zens. Only when detec- challenges—signals that
tives, use-of-force inves- offenders often are able
tigators, supervisors, and to read.
administrators explore A Study of Felonious Assaults on Our Nation’s Law Enforcement Officers The objective of the
the various components Officer Safety/Awareness
of the deadly mix will a training is to assist law
greater understanding of these The danger signs were pres- enforcement managers, trainers,
encounters emerge. To make an ent. I’m not sure I would have and personnel in the identifica-
objective assessment of each seen them and acted on them tion of training issues for the
case, it is necessary to carefully as quickly as I did if it hadn’t purpose of preventing the death
and completely examine all been for your training.” This or serious injury of law enforce-
aspects of the incident, thereby statement from an officer aptly ment personnel. An instructor
allowing the facts to surface. describes the motivation for presents course content, aug-
Perhaps, a significant part of the publishing the trilogy on law menting lecture and discussion
answer to why these events oc- enforcement safety. If one of- with videotapes of the actual
cur can be found in understand- ficer’s life is saved, all of the offenders and victim law en-
ing the deadly mix as developed work, all of the physical and forcement personnel studied
and explained throughout these emotional pain that assaulted in the research trilogy. Handout
three studies. officers endured during the materials consist of information

January 2010 / 29
Detailed Data Requests
The FBI’s annual Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) publica-
tion is available online and is downloadable at http://www.fbi.gov/usr/usr.htm#leoka. Law
enforcement administrators, trainers, and officers, along with members of the academic
community, can find this information invaluable. The FBI’s Crime Statistics Management
Unit can compile more detailed data to suit specific research needs. Inquiries can be made
via telephone at 304-625-3587 or by e-mail to either fkelley@leo.gov or dkisner@leo.gov.

sheets, officer safety pocket feloniously killed for over 10 In addition, the LEOKA team
guides, and CDs that contain consecutive years. What factors will use the research conducted
all three studies. The length of may have contributed to this in- in an effort to further expand
the training varies from 2 to 16 crease? Is this rise in accidental the answers to questions previ-
hours and is tailored to meet the deaths preventable? If so, what ously posed and hopefully those
specific needs of the requesting type of training or policy chang- not yet conceived.
agency. es should administrators imple- It will be through the
ment to bring these numbers combined efforts of law en-
FUTURE EFFORTS down? The LEOKA researchers forcement agencies across the
Given the enhancements in hope to answer these questions country and their dedicated
the data collection and the addi- in the future. personnel that the LEOKA
tion of instructors, researchers, program will continue to gather,
and personnel to analyze the CONCLUSION disseminate, and analyze data
collected material, it is expected The FBI’s Law Enforcement from incidents of law enforce-
that the LEOKA annual publi- Officers Killed and Assaulted ment officers assaulted and
cation about officer deaths and program will continue working killed while performing their
assaults will increase in size in partnership with agencies duties. With this strong coop-
and value. The ultimate hope is across the United States in erative effort, the knowledge,
that it will prove helpful to law researching violent encounters training, and education of law
enforcement agencies in provid- while publishing material rele- enforcement personnel will con-
ing training and education to vant for the purpose of prevent- tinue and be of benefit to all.
prevent and minimize officer ing the deaths of or serious
assaults and deaths. injuries to our nation’s law Endnotes
Another area of desired enforcement personnel. The
1
Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F.
Davis, and Charles E. Miller III, “The
research to be conducted by LEOKA program will continue Deadly Mix: Officers, Offenders, and
the LEOKA team in the near to evolve in providing cost- the Circumstances That Bring Them
future is the examination of ac- effective regional training for Together,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
cidental deaths of officers while local, state, and federal law en- January 2007, 1-10.
on duty. For the first time in forcement, including resources
2
For specific annual editions, access
http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm#cius.
program history, the number of for the professional develop- 3
For information on the Public Safety
officers dying in accidents has ment of the dedicated personnel Officers’ Benefits Program, access http://
exceeded the number of officers protecting and serving society. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/psob/

30 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


psob_main.html. For information on the Hampshire Department of Public Safety, 7
All four Regional Working Groups,
U.S. Department of Labor, access http:// New York Highway Patrol, Pennsylvania the Federal Working Group, the UCR
www.dol.gov/. State Police, and Washington State Patrol, Subcommittee, and the CJIS Division
4
For specific annual editions, access along with other members of IACP and Advisory Policy Board have voted to
http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm#leoka. such advocacy groups as Mothers Against accept the new versions of the forms.
5
The following committee agencies Drunk Drivers. Approval from the Office of Budget and
submitted written suggestions and recom- 6
These included National Highway Management is being sought.
mendations regarding the redesign of the Traffic and Safety Administration, Centers 8
The three studies referred to in
Analysis of Law Enforcement Officers for Disease Control, National Institute of this article reflect approximately 20 years
Killed and Assaulted form: Alabama De- Occupational Safety and Health, Occu- of research conducted by Anthony J.
partment of Public Safety, California High- pational Safety and Health Administra- Pinizzotto, Edward F. Davis, and Charles
way Patrol, Colorado State Patrol, U.S. tion, Office of Personnel Management, E. Miller III. Hard copies or CDs can be
Department of Transportation, National Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, obtained from the UCR Program Office,
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, American Society of Criminology, West FBI Complex, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,
Florida Highway Patrol, Missouri High- Virginia University, Bowling Green State Clarksburg, WV 26206-0150 or by calling
way Patrol, National Sheriffs’ Association, University, Rutgers University, and the 888-827-6427 or 304-625-4995.
North Carolina State Highway Patrol, New University of Louisville.

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January 2010 / 31
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Author Guidelines

GENERAL INFORMATION leb.htm for the expanded author guidelines,


The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is an which contain additional specifications, detailed
official publication of the Federal Bureau of examples, and effective writing techniques.
Investigation and the U.S. Department of Justice.
Frequency of Publication: Monthly. PHOTOGRAPHS AND GRAPHICS
Purpose: To provide a forum for the ex- A photograph of the author(s) should
change of information on law enforcement-related accompany the manuscript. Authors can submit
topics. photos and illustrations that visually enhance and
Audience: Criminal justice professionals, support the text. The Bulletin does not accept
primarily law enforcement managers. responsibility for lost or damaged photos or
illustrations.
MANUSCRIPT SPECIFICATIONS
Length: Feature articles should contain 2,000 PUBLICATION
to 3,500 words (8 to 14 pages, double-spaced). Judging Manuscripts: The Bulletin judges
Submissions for specialized departments, such articles on relevance to the audience, factual ac-
as Police Practice and Case Study, should curacy, analysis of the information, structure and
contain 1,200 to 2,000 words (5 to 8 pages, logical flow, style and ease of reading, and length.
double-spaced). The Bulletin generally does not publish articles on
Format: Authors should submit three copies similar topics within a 12-month period or accept
of their articles typed and double-spaced on articles previously published or currently under
8 ½- by 11-inch white paper with all pages num- consideration by other magazines. Because it is
bered. An electronic version of the article saved a government publication, the Bulletin cannot
on computer disk should accompany the typed accept articles that advertise a product or service.
manuscript. Authors also may e-mail articles. Query Letters: Authors may submit a query
Authors should supply references when letter along with a 1- to 2-page outline before
quoting a source exactly, citing or paraphrasing writing an article. Although designed to help
another person’s work or ideas, or referring to authors, this process does not guarantee
information that generally is not well known. For acceptance of any article.
proper footnote format, authors should refer to Author Notification: The Bulletin staff will
A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, review queries and articles and advise the authors
and Dissertations, 7th ed., by Kate L. Turabian. of acceptance or rejection. The magazine cannot
Writing Style and Grammar: The Bulletin guarantee a publication date for accepted articles.
prefers to publish articles in the third person Editing: The Bulletin staff edits all manu-
(Point of View and Perspective submissions are scripts for length, clarity, format, and style.
exceptions) using active voice. Authors should
follow The New York Public Library Writer’s SUBMISSION
Guide to Style and Usage and should study Authors should mail their submissions to:
several issues of the magazine to ensure that their Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Outreach
writing style meets the Bulletin’s requirements. and Communications Unit, FBI Academy,
Authors also should contact the Bulletin staff Quantico, VA 22135; telephone: 703-632-1460;
or access http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/ fax: 703-632-1968; e-mail: leb@fbiacademy.edu.

32 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin


The Bulletin Notes

Law enforcement officers are challenged daily in the performance of their duties; they face each
challenge freely and unselfishly while answering the call to duty. In certain instances, their actions
warrant special attention from their respective departments. The Bulletin also wants to recognize
those situations that transcend the normal rigors of the law enforcement profession.

Sergeant Tim Jones of the


McMinnville, Tennessee, Police
Department responded to the scene
of a second-story apartment fire.
Upon his arrival, he noticed a man
in the parking lot screaming that his
two babies were in the apartment.
Sergeant Jones ran to the top of the
stairs and found the front door open
Sergeant Jones Officer Emery Lieutenant Mara
and intense flames and thick black
smoke inside. Quickly, he got on his
hands and knees and crawled down the hallway where he found a 3-year-old girl lying on the
floor. He then helped her outside. Officer Bryan Emery crawled into the apartment and found
his way to a bedroom where his flashlight illuminated a small pink blanket on a bed. Franti-
cally, he sifted through the bedclothes trying to locate an infant until breathing became virtu-
ally impossible. After he exited the apartment for a breath of fresh air, Officer Emery tried to
reenter with Sergeant Jones, but they were directed not to reenter because firefighters now were
on the scene. Recognizing that seconds were precious to the 3-year-old girl, Lieutenant Mark
Mara began mouth-to-mouth resuscitation while Officer Emery performed chest compressions.
Tragically, neither child survived.

Deputy Tim Keen of the Hinds County, Mississippi, Sheriff’s Depart-


ment was the first to respond to an early morning home fire. A male resident
of the trailer alerted him that a woman was trapped in a bedroom. Deputy
Keen broke through the window of the bedroom and felt his way through
thick smoke to find the victim on the floor. Immediately, he picked her up
and pulled her outside to
safety. Both Deputy Keen
Nominations for the Bulletin Notes should be based
and the woman received on either the rescue of one or more citizens or arrest(s)
medical treatment. made at unusual risk to an officer’s safety. Submissions
should include a short write-up (maximum of 250 words),
Deputy Keen a separate photograph of each nominee, and a letter
from the department’s ranking officer endorsing the
nomination. Submissions should be sent to the Editor,
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy, Outreach
and Communications Unit, Quantico, VA 22135.
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Patch Call

Tulsa, Oklahoma, was once known as “the oil The patch of the Russellville, Arkansas, Police
capital of the world.” Its police department’s patch, Department features several symbols significant
in the shape of a yield sign, includes a representa- to the area. These include the arrowhead, atom,
tion of the city’s skyline. landscape, railroad line, ship’s wheel, and cog.