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January 2005

Volume 74
Number 1
United States
Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Washington, DC 20535-0001
Robert S. Mueller III

Contributors’ opinions and statements Features

should not be considered an
endorsement by the FBI for any policy,
program, or service.
Selecting a Duty-Issue Departments carefully should approach
The attorney general has determined
that the publication of this periodical is decisions concerning the firearms
necessary in the transaction of the
officers will use.
public business required by law. Use By Chad A. Kaestle and
of funds for printing this periodical has
been approved by the director of the Jon H. Buehler
Office of Management and Budget.
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Defending Against Higher-education institutions offer
(ISSN-0014-5688) is published
monthly by the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, 935 Pennsylvania
Cybercrime and Terrorism 14 additional resources to law enforcement
agencies in the fight against terrorism.
By Tony Aeilts
Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20535-0001. Periodicals postage paid
at Washington, D.C., and additional Serial Murder in the Officials in the Netherlands, faced with
mailing offices. Postmaster: Send
address changes to Editor, FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, FBI Academy,
Netherlands 26 their first serial murderer, attempted to
understand how one person could be
Madison Building, Room 201, By Alan C. Brantley and
Quantico, VA 22135. motivated to kill so many people.
Robert H. Kosky, Jr.

John E. Ott
Associate Editors
Cynthia L. Lewis Departments
David W. MacWha
Bunny S. Morris
Art Director
Denise Bennett Smith 9 Book Review 23 Crime Data
Assistant Art Director Problem-Oriented Policing Probation and Parole
Stephanie L. Lowe in the United States, 2003
10 Unusual Weapon
This publication is produced by
members of the Law Enforcement Gun Knife 24 Bulletin Reports
Communication Unit, Training and Firearms
Development Division.
11 Focus on Investigations Web-Based Resources
Internet Address
Homicide Investigative Gangs
leb@fbiacademy.edu Strategies Management
Cover Photo
© John Foxx/Digital Stock
22 Notable Speech
Characteristics of an Effective
Send article submissions to Editor,
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
Law Enforcement Officer
FBI Academy, Madison Building,
Room 201, Quantico, VA 22135.

ISSN 0014-5688 USPS 383-310

Selecting a

© Corel Corporation

H andgun developments,
administration changes,
evolution of equipment
needs, and input from weapons
staff members represent reasons
duty handgun for their officers
will find a number of suitable
models on the market.1 Various
features and options present
departments make choices
based on a consideration of
their needs and the physical
requirements and expertise of
advantages and disadvantages their officers, they will select
why law enforcement agencies for law enforcement. Addition- the best weapons for their
sometimes issue new firearm ally, some agencies may decide personnel.
models to their officers. When that one particular handgun
making this decision, depart- alone cannot meet their needs. SELECTING FEATURES
ments must consider all of the Instead, they may consider a When considering handgun
choices available to them to system of similar models from models, departments must de-
find a particular weapon that a particular manufacturer. cide which features will prove
best fits the needs of the organi- Decisions concerning fire- most useful. Options exist
zation and its personnel. Agen- arms hold importance for any pertaining to action, caliber,
cies seeking to procure a new law enforcement agency. When materials and finish, size and

January 2005 / 1
associated magazine capacity, safety when carrying the weap- safe for carry due to the added
safeties, sights and light on with the hammer cocked. For effort needed to fire the first
mounts, and ease of care and this reason, agencies generally shot.
maintenance. issue these firearms to specially Double-action-only hand-
trained officers, such as emer- guns function in double-action
Action gency response, special weap- mode for every shot, rather than
Each handgun represents ons and tactics (SWAT), or just the initial one. As a result,
one of three categories—single hostage rescue team members. the trigger press always remains
action, double action, or double With double-action hand- the same. These firearms in-
action only. Single-action fire- guns, pressing the trigger during creasingly have become popular
arms feature a hammer that the initial shot both cocks and with law enforcement agencies.
requires manual cocking for the fires the weapon in one motion. As departments switched from
initial firing and a trigger press Because the gun automatically revolvers over the years,
that demands only a few pounds recocks the hammer before each double-action-only handguns
of pressure. After the first shot, subsequent trigger press, shots allowed for a largely seamless
the unassisted cycling of the fired thereafter are single action. transition to semiautomatics
slide, through recoil, automati- Handguns that fire in double- because the double-action-only
cally recocks the weapon. action mode have remained trigger system functions much
Because the shooter only fires popular with law enforcement like a traditional double-action
with the hammer cocked, the agencies for many years be- revolver. As these weapons
gun always functions in single- cause officers can transport only require mastery of one
action mode. The light trigger them with the hammer down, trigger press, rather than two,
press may contribute to an unin- yet ready for action. Many officers can learn to use them
tentional discharge, requiring departments consider the often more easily than other types.
the user to operate a manual heavy and long trigger press Additionally, the fact that few,
if any, external safety or
decocking levers exist makes
them even easier to master.
The weight of the trigger
press on double-action-only
handguns varies by model.
Some manufacturers offer
different trigger options, allow-
ing for either a heavier or
lighter press to suit the require-
ments of a particular agency.
Although some departments
may favor a heavier trigger
press for liability reasons, this
may increase the time it takes
Special Agent Kaestle serves as Detective Buehler is a firearms
an instructor in the Firearms instructor with the Modesto,
for a shooter to fire the weapon,
Training Unit at the FBI Academy. California, Police Department. leading to decreased accuracy if

2 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

the officer rushes the shot under automatic as a powerful car- This cartridge also has greater
stress. tridge with applications in perceived recoil than the 9
Regardless of the trigger military service, law enforce- millimeter but still remains
system selected, departments ment, self-defense, and compe- manageable for many shooters.
must ensure that officers receive tition. A major debate exists The .40 automatic has become a
training to keep their fingers off among officers, and the shoot- popular cartridge for law en-
of the trigger until ready to fire ing community in general, forcement by offering some of
the weapon. Appropriate, about which cartridge holds the benefits of both the 9 milli-
frequent, and documented superiority—the 9 millimeter, meter and the .45 automatic.
instruction minimizes the risk due to less perceived recoil and Finally, the .357 automatic

of and associated liability from offers a cartridge with ballistic
unintentional discharges. performance close to the .357
magnum for use in handguns
Caliber with a larger magazine capacity.
The four main handgun Basically, the .357 automatic
calibers used by federal, state, ...departments represents a .40-automatic case
and local law enforcement must decide which redesigned in a bottleneck shape
agencies today include 9 milli- features will prove for fitting with a bullet similar
meter2 and .40, .357, and .45 most useful. in diameter to a 9 millimeter.

automatic. Although each Because this cartridge features a
differs in terms of cartridge size rim with the same diameter as
and ballistic capability, all can that of the .40 automatic, users
meet the needs of depart- can chamber it in many .40-
ments—if firearms training higher-capacity firearms cham- automatic handguns by simply
emphasizes shot placement bered for the round, or the .45 changing the barrel.
rather than the size or power automatic, with a larger, more
level of one caliber versus powerful round but with heavier Materials and Finish
another. recoil. In the past, the .45 A variety of materials
Handguns in 9 millimeter automatic generally was cham- comprise today’s handguns.
initially became popular with bered in larger-frame handguns Some models feature a form
departments because of the with lower cartridge capacities, of steel—either carbon or
high magazine capacities that though some models now stainless—for both the frame
many of the weapons offer— offer a smaller-size frame or and slide, while others have
generally anywhere from 12 to use a relatively high-capacity steel for the slide and either
17 rounds—which allow offi- magazine. aluminum or polymer for the
cers to carry more ammunition The .40-automatic cartridge frame. Depending on the envi-
than they could while using 6- provides ballistic performance ronment and carry method, duty
shot revolvers. Also, of all the closer to the .45 automatic, firearms often become exposed
aforementioned calibers, the while being chambered in to harsh conditions, such as
9-millimeter cartridge generally handguns with 9-millimeter- water from rain, snow, perspira-
has the mildest perceived recoil. size frames and offering maga- tion, and other sources; dirt and
For many years, American zine capacities higher than sand; or numerous other hazards
shooters have admired the .45 many .45-automatic handguns. that can deteriorate handguns

January 2005 / 3
and affect proper function. For frame components, made out of weight. Further, they may prove
daily carry by either uniformed metal. Handguns with polymer appropriate for general issue if
or plain-clothed officers, the frames offer durability and ease a department desires only one
materials and finish for weap- of maintenance and often firearm because officers more
ons should be durable and easy absorb some recoil from firing. readily can carry compact
to clean. weapons for off- and on-duty
Stainless steel can offer Size and Magazine Capacity use. While normally not the best
more rust resistance than carbon Law enforcement agencies choice for general issue, sub-
steel (depending on the finish can choose between full-size, compact handguns serve well
applied). Although stainless compact, and subcompact hand- for special applications (e.g.,
steel handguns often have a guns. Each has its own uses. use by undercover officers) or
brighter, more reflective appear- The largeness of the weapon as backup and off-duty weap-
ance than those with dark correlates with the magazine ons. Many of these models are
finishes, some models have a capacity. Some models feature the easiest to conceal in a
matte finish to reduce glare. single-stack magazines, which variety of deep-cover holsters

Others even have a blackened (e.g., ankle and ballistic vest).
stainless finish, offering the Often, quality compact and
rust-resistant properties of subcompact handguns on the
stainless steel with the tactical market come with either single-
superiority of a black, nonre- Every department or higher-capacity double-stack
flective finish. Generally, users realizes the magazines, which give depart-
find stainless steel handguns importance held ments more latitude if they find
simpler to clean and maintain. by decisions grip width, as well as overall
Blue finishes generally concerning firearms. weapon size, an issue.

prove the least durable and rust
resistant, although the dark Safety Options
color offers tactical advantages As much as possible, de-
for law enforcement use. Propri- partments must seek to mini-
etary durable black finishes generally allow for a slimmer mize unintentional discharges
form a protective coat over the grip. Others have double-stack by their officers. Coupled with
metal, including hard and rust- magazines that have a higher effective and repeated preventa-
resistant varieties, while also cartridge capacity but generally tive training, handgun safety
remaining nonreflective and feature a thicker grip width as a devices effectively help accom-
relatively simple to maintain. result. plish this goal. Manual hammer
Handguns framed in steel Full-size handguns, in either block, trigger safety, and de-
tend to weigh more, which can high- or standard-capacity cocking levers; internal firing
impact ease of carry on a daily models, can be useful for carry pin, drop, and magazine discon-
basis. Aluminum frames offer by uniformed and plain-clothed nect safeties; and integral lock-
one solution. As another popu- personnel with medium to large ing devices represent available
lar remedy, manufacturers offer body sizes. Compact models options.
handguns with frames made tend to make better concealed- Manual safety devices, op-
from polymer with imbedded carry weapons because of their erated by the shooter, gener-
parts, such as slide rails or other generally smaller size and light ally block the hammer from

4 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

contacting the firing pin, disable handguns have them, regardless magazine during a struggle for
the trigger mechanism, or per- of the action type. Firing pin the weapon with a suspect may
form both of these duties. and drop safeties do not allow have saved the officer’s life.3
Departments should ensure that the firing pin to move forward A recent development with
officers easily can access the until the user deliberately some handgun models is the
safety levers. Generally, single- presses the trigger, thus prevent- addition of an integral locking
action handguns come with ing an unintentional discharge if device, which uses a type of
manual devices that disable the the carrier drops the weapon. key to actively lock the action
trigger mechanism so that users of the handgun and render it
can carry the weapon with the inoperable. This proves espe-
hammer cocked and ready to cially useful if unauthorized
fire but locked so that it cannot users, such as young children,
be activated until the release gain access to the weapon.
of the safety—also known as This option is an alternative to
“cocked and locked.” Model aftermarket trigger or cable
1911 .45-automatic handgun locks, also designed to lock
variations also have a grip a weapon’s action to prevent
safety that makes the weapon unauthorized use. Departments
inoperable until the officer should consider selecting some
holds and manually presses the type of locking mechanism—
lever. Double-action handguns an integral part of the weapon
tend to have either manual or an external device—for issue
safety levers; decocking levers, © Regina Kosicki to their personnel to help offi-
which, when activated, safely Some handguns feature cers maintain control over their
lower the hammer of a cocked magazine disconnect safeties, handgun at all times.
handgun, eliminating the poten- which disable the action of the
tially dangerous practice of weapon with the magazine Sights and Light Mounts
manually lowering it by press- removed; opposing beliefs exist Handgun sights vary by
ing the trigger; or a lever that as to their usefulness in law model. Some weapons have a
combines both functions. enforcement. Many people rear sight featuring a white
Double-action-only handguns consider it best to have the outline and a front sight that is
often have few, if any, manual ability to fire the weapon with either plain black or marked
safety devices because they only the magazine removed and a with a white dot. Other hand-
are cocked during firing. This round in the chamber, particu- guns have three white dots (two
benefit may appeal to some larly if an officer must exchange on each rear post and one on the
departments because no exter- a partially loaded magazine for front). Many manufacturers and
nal levers exist that can snag on a fully loaded one during a lull some aftermarket companies
the clothing of officers who in a gunfight, while still main- offer glow-in-the-dark night
carry the handgun concealed. taining an operational firearm. sights to aid in low-light shoot-
Internal devices, such as Others support their belief in ing. Generally similar to three-
firing pin and drop safeties, also the use of magazine safeties dot systems, these consist of
represent useful features to look with incidents where deactivat- sealed, small glass capsules,
for in duty firearms; many ing a handgun by dropping the containing the radioactive

January 2005 / 5
isotope tritium as the source for interest levels will find easy to reinforcement of proper gun
the glow, fixed into each of the field strip, clean, and maintain. handling techniques, especially
three posts.4 Usually, the cap- Departments should consider checking for an empty weapon
sules have white rubber seals handguns that contain the least and pointing the muzzle in a
around them; this allows for number of component parts as safe direction before pressing
daytime use as a standard three- possible for personnel to disas- the trigger, will mitigate this
dot sight. Because a large semble and clean and that re- problem. Therefore, depart-
number of law enforcement quire minimal lubrication for ments should not remove a
shootings occur in low-light proper functioning. Also, the certain handgun model from
conditions, night sights have less parts a handgun has, the consideration because of this
become popular. They are par- fewer components there will be issue.
ticularly useful to officers at for department armorers to keep
dusk when enough light exists on hand and replace in the event CHOOSING A SINGLE
for them to see the threat yet of wear. MODEL OR WEAPON

not enough for them to properly SYSTEM
aim.5 Just as one size of footwear
Many handgun models also will not fit the feet of every
feature accessory rails on the employee, the same firearm may
frame, which allow mounting …law enforcement not suit the variety of hand sizes
of factory or aftermarket flash- agencies face within an agency. Several years
light, laser, or combination decisions…such as ago, a particular police depart-
attachments. These components which model to use ment decided to change a
can be switched on intermit- and whether to issue relatively open handgun policy
tently or for a period of time a single handgun or and issue all officers a large-
and allow officers to maintain a weapon system. frame, double-column-maga-

both hands on the weapon, zine 9-millimeter handgun. The
rather than, for example, having agency’s union representatives
to hold a separate flashlight sought input from the firearms
with the support hand. training staff because it became
Some handgun models obvious that this firearm, due to
Care and Maintenance require the user to press the its larger size, would not be
Departments should select trigger to disassemble the appropriate for members of that
a general issue handgun that all weapon, while others require department with smaller hands.
personnel, regardless of back- that the slide be locked to the Administrators without
ground, can care for properly. rear before a lever can be knowledge of firearms may not
Because the weapon serves as activated and the handgun have recognized the problems
a tool for officers to employ to disassembled. This represents shooters would experience
save their own lives or others, an important consideration due while operating a handgun too
it must receive appropriate to the danger of unintentional large for them. Range staff in
maintenance to function cor- discharge if an officer has not most agencies can recall inci-
rectly. With this in mind, properly checked the weapon’s dents where officers operating
agencies should seek a firearm condition before pressing the a weapon that did not properly
that personnel of all skill and trigger. Recurring training and fit their hands had difficulty

6 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

manipulating a pistol’s controls, But, problems may occur the inability either to maintain
problems shooting a handgun if the agency hires a new officer a proper grip or to reach and
accurately, or a lack of confi- who cannot demonstrate a suit- activate the control or safety
dence in their ability. able level of proficiency with levers. Likewise, a compact
Wisely, the administration the chosen handgun for physical handgun may present difficulty
viewed the detailed information reasons (e.g., small hand size). for larger personnel. Other
about these potential problems The selection of one firearm issues that departments must
and allowed input from firearms might not allow for a reasonable consider in regard to officer use
personnel. Then, they selected accommodation for such per- include recoil from larger-
a weapon system that offered a sonnel. Also, the weapon may caliber cartridges and the need
basic design from a particular prove inappropriate for carry for weapon concealment when
manufacturer with a variety of by employees in specialized necessary. Many manufacturers
grip and magazine sizes and assignments, such as detectives offer the same type of handgun
calibers, allowing options for or undercover officers. in full-size, compact, and
the officers in the department. subcompact models with varia-
This example illustrates tions chambered in the popular
how agencies can attempt to law enforcement cartridges.
reasonably accommodate the Therefore, when officers have
differences among its personnel. difficulty, for instance, manag-
For other departments, these ing the recoil of a .40 or .357
issues may not be as prevalent automatic, a department could
and a single handgun model issue them a 9 millimeter in a
may be appropriate. In making similar or same-size handgun
this decision, agencies must that they may feel more com-
consider the advantages and fortable with; hopefully, better
disadvantages of both options. marksmanship skills would
Single Model Weapons staff members
© George Godoy
If a department has a small- frequently teach new officers
er number of officers—and all Handgun System who have no prior firearms
are reasonably compatible with Issuing handguns from a experience. Instructors help
a certain firearm for duty is- system of firearms made by a students feel confident enough
sue—it may find the selection manufacturer allows a depart- to use a firearm effectively and
of one specific model advanta- ment flexibility in meeting to conquer the timid feelings
geous. For example, the agency weapons training requirements that may result from a lack of
would only have to train offi- and the needs of physically experience with recoil, muzzle
cers on one handgun, thus mak- different personnel. For ex- blast, and gunshot noise. If
ing the process easier. Also, de- ample, a heavy full-size, high- officers do not overcome such
partments that maintain, repair, capacity handgun with a wider concerns, they may not develop
and keep an inventory of parts grip may not serve a smaller the interest, enthusiasm, and
for a particular model instead of officer well; such an individual commitment toward continuous
several, perhaps incompatible may have difficulty properly development of marksmanship
ones, benefit from lower costs. operating the weapon due to abilities after their initial

January 2005 / 7
training and throughout their whether to issue a single hand- Book Reviews
law enforcement careers. These gun or a weapon system. When
skills will help them maintain going through this process,
a confidence level that will
benefit them in a deadly force
departments should strongly
consider input from their fire-
T he Bulletin invites criminal
justice professionals to
submit reviews of recently
encounter. To this end, depart- arms staff, a readily available published nonfiction books they
ments must recognize that a and economical source of have read on topics relative to
weapon’s caliber and size current information. Weapons their field of expertise for
represent potential obstacles instructors not only have on- possible inclusion in its Book
that may keep personnel from the-job knowledge but fre- Review department. The maga-
continuing to practice on their quently use handguns as a zine publishes only positive
own. hobby in their off-duty time reviews of between 350 and 500
The cost of a firearm system and read publications about words or 1 ½ to 2 pages double-
poses a disadvantage—a depart- the latest updates in firearms spaced. As with article submis-
ment has to purchase parts for technology. sions, the Bulletin staff will edit
book reviews for style, length,
more than one model and Every department realizes clarity, and format.
ensure its armorers can repair the importance held by deci- Book reviewers should
and maintain them as well. sions concerning firearms. include two or three compelling
But, agencies could inquire When an agency bases its points that the author makes,
about weapon systems from choice on the needs of the along with the complete title
manufacturers that offer differ- organization, as well as its of the work; the names of the
ent models with interchangeable personnel, officers will carry authors or editors; and the
component parts. As another weapons that help them do their publishing company, city and
drawback, the agency would jobs effectively and, also, to state, and publication date. As
have to buy inventories of protect themselves. a guide, the staff suggests that
different caliber ammunition, reviewers examine book reviews
furthering the financial burden. Endnotes in past issues of the Bulletin to
acquaint themselves with the
Also, training may become 1
Semiautomatic handguns enjoy the
magazine’s requirements. Re-
most popularity in law enforcement today
more difficult because of the because they hold more ammunition and viewers should submit their book
differences between the weap- easily are reloaded. Therefore, the author reviews typed and double-spaced
ons; therefore, departments may exclusively focuses on them and uses on 8 ½- by 11-inch white paper
wish to consider choosing a the term “handgun” to refer only to with all pages numbered.
system of handguns that have semiautomatics. Reviewers should include an
Also known as 9-millimeter luger or
the same general operating 9-millimeter parabellum.
electronic version of the review
levers and functions, despite 3
Chuck Karwan, The Gun Digest Book
saved on computer disk. Send
the different sizes and calibers. of Combat Handgunnery, 3d ed. book reviews to:
(Northbrook, IL: DBI Books, Inc., 1992),
From time-to-time, law
Ibid., 183. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
enforcement agencies face
Gabriel Suarez, The Tactical FBI Academy
Advantage: A Definitive Study of Personal Madison Building, Room 201
decisions concerning firearms, Small-Arms Tactics (Boulder, CO: Paladin Quantico, VA 22135
such as which model to use and Press, 1998), 97.
telephone: 703-632-1952
e-mail: leb@fbiacademy.edu

8 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Book Review

Problem-Oriented Policing: From Inno-

vation to Mainstream contains original re-
search and papers compiled, written, and con-
tributed by leading scholars on police
activities from around the world and focuses
on implementing the problem-oriented polic-
ing concept into the mainstream of law
enforcement. These various noted authors
present information ranging from the pro and
con of the concept and its successes and fail-
ures to how an agency gets the concept funded
and implemented.
As examples, the book highlights the ef-
forts of the San Diego, California, Police De-
Problem-Oriented Policing: From partment concerning its implementation of the
Innovation to Mainstream by Johannes concept, as well as the outstanding results by
Knutsson, editor, Criminal Justice Press, the Charlotte, North Carolina, Police Depart-
Willan Publishing, Devon, United Kingdom, ment in its concept application against the
2003. crime of thefts from cars in center-city parking
Problem-oriented policing (POP), in some facilities. The book also provides an “A to Z”
locales, has succeeded and supplemented ex- approach on the concept in the United King-
isting crime prevention and community polic- dom as to its application to repeat victimiza-
ing as main areas of law enforcement empha- tion and dealing with and closing drug mar-
sis. POP is a police management philosophy kets. The research papers in the book present
that entails SARA: scanning to identify, an abstract section and contact information for
specify, and describe specific problems to in- the authors, along with cited references. Some
clude analysis in which the causes of the iden- chapters have a proposal to their findings or a
tified problems are explored fully and re- conclusion to the research with final end-of-
sponse that refers to the search for “tailor paper notes to the reader. Overall, the book
made” solutions to remove the specific or gen- has four major strengths: 1) a matrix example
eral causes of the problems through imple- of a question-based, problem-solving protocol
mentation of concepts supported by assess- for beat-level, problem-solving officers; 2) a
ment concerning the process where the POP flow schematic on the sequence of analy-
solutions implemented are evaluated in terms sis and its techniques based on actual situ-
of effectiveness and strategies. Many consider ational scenarios in communities; 3) a study of
POP as a more analytical approach to conduct- the British crime reduction program that fos-
ing law enforcement business with a strategy tered problem-oriented policing and how it
to get away from a reactive, incident-driven received funding to implement the concept
mode to that of a preventive way of doing law through competitive bidding; and 4) a listing
enforcement business in general. of organizational impacting factors in terms of

January 2005 / 9
police staff turnovers, middle management em- police research organizations, government
phasis, and prioritization of police resources as funding agencies, the media, private industry,
obstacles to concept implementation, as well as and local community groups would benefit
front-line factors, such as officer critical think- from reading Problem-Oriented Policing:
ing in decision making, imagination in re- From Innovation to Mainstream.
sponses, partner agency support, and phobias
and syndromes.
The book directly applies to preventive po- Reviewed by
lice patrols, criminal investigations, emergency Larry R. Moore
responses, ancillary public services, prosecu- Lifetime Certified Emergency Manager
tors, and defense bar and judiciary representa- International Association of
tives. Mayors, city managers, other elected and Emergency Managers
appointed officials, and academics, as well as Knoxville, Tennessee

Unusual Weapon

Gun Knife
A small revolver is concealed in the
handle of this knife. The revolver fires six
.22-long rifle caliber cartridges. The blade
is removable and the handle may be carried
alone as a firearm.

10 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Focus on Investigations
Homicide Investigative fact-finding capsule,” a fundamental method illus-
Strategies trated by several investigative tactics completed
By John B. Edwards
under three important rules.
1) Haste: quickly accomplish all tasks to seize
the initiative and promptly develop facts.
2) Specificity: precisely explore all issues to
obtain facts detailed enough to make objec-
tive judgments and correlations.
3) Element of surprise: prevent interviewees
from getting their stories together and deter
the interjection of attorneys into an efficient
interview process.
The tactical steps of a homicide investigation
should include a specific interview, a timeline
documenting the witness’ or suspect’s physical
location, what happened at those places over a
time period necessary and germane to the case, and
a well-documented statement. If the suspect articu-
lates an alibi, investigators immediately should
conduct follow-up verification interviews, observ-
© Charles Sikes ing, inspecting, and documenting the suspect’s

shoes, clothing, and physical appearance, as well
xperienced law enforcement officers as any premises and personal effects involved.
know that the most important objectives in These basic investigatory steps remain critical
all homicide investigations are the ability to iden- to today’s criminal investigations; however, the
tify, collect, analyze, and process information advent of technologies and modern communica-
quickly and effectively and, then, act just as effi- tions creates a need to apply these old strategies in
ciently on that data to achieve maximum results. a new fashion. In today’s world, almost every
The effectiveness of the investigation often de- household has access to or possession of comput-
pends on the investigative team’s ability to quickly ers, and most individuals possess cell phones and
process and complete prioritized leads to swiftly pagers. Every technological asset, whether at
provide answers to the case agent. Uncovering home or work, has records, communications, tolls,
information that establishes clues and generates or billings that may reveal valuable evidence re-
leads that tailor the focus and scope of the inves- garding a person’s lifestyle, friends, associates,
tigative effort are critical issues. Further, inves- enemies, or businesses. This information quickly
tigative teams must be able to locate and interview can identify motives and other articulative
people quickly to lock individuals into state- facts essential to determining an individual’s
ments to provide the maximum indicia of credi- victimology or suspectology. Learning these de-
bility and reliability; locate and preserve valuable tails during traditional interviews proves essential
evidence; and obtain and document the most accu- to the investigative effort. The Fourth Amendment
rate observations and accounts, putting together applies to many technologies and, therefore,
specific timelines. Investigators should use “the investigators oftentimes need consent, court

January 2005 / 11
rders, or search warrants to develop the informa- of the investigation. For instance, at a crime scene,
tion. Experienced officers know that they must certain witnesses may have been present at the
address all issues in an ongoing investigation and time of the crime. Distinctive pieces of evidence
that the first 48 hours prove critical, leading to the may be in plain view, and events or facts may
prompt investigative trilogy. exist that investigators must address. These imme-
diately apparent issues demand specific focus
INVESTIGATIVE TRILOGY whether in crime-scene processing or interviews.
The prompt investigative trilogy has three par-
General Coverage
ticular areas: 1) specific focus (immediate); 2) gen-
eral coverage (immediate); and 3) informative While teams of investigators address those
(pending). Teams of investigators must address specific focus issues, a second team should handle
each area simultaneously during the investigation the general coverage issue, which comprises four
and direct information from all three areas to the areas. First, they should conduct neighborhood
central clearinghouse (e.g., the lead investigator, canvasses, which deal with people in close vicinity
case agent, or detective in the case). At that time,to others, and make observations or assessments
teams should process information, form theories, regarding situational environmental issues in con-
and take steps regarding the focus, scope, and need nection with proximity. Second, interviews
for additional resources. of friends, families, and associates may deter-
mine victimology or suspectology information
Specific Focus while such information is fresh and untainted
Witnesses, evidence, events, and facts make up by the direction of the investigation. Third, co-
the specific focus. These categories apply to those workers or employers may provide other informa-
issues immediately identified at the inception tion regarding victims and suspects. Finally,

Fact-Finding Capsule

Specificity Element of Surprise

Document Verification
statement/alibi interviews
Interview Time line
Inspect person, consent
clothing, and shoes searches

Premises and
personal effects

12 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Prompt Investigative Trilogy

Immediate Immediate Pending

Specific Focus General Coverage Informative

Specific witnesses Neighborhood Cell phone

canvass records

Specific evidence Friends, family, Computer hard

and associates drives

Specific events Coworkers Other records

Specific facts Victim/suspect Private papers

time lines

construction of definite victim/suspect timelines stabilize and organize the effort to gather all facts.
should outline the environment, proximity, loca- Second, teams quickly should educate all investi-
tions, and times. gators with as much information as possible.
Third, investigators expeditiously should investi-
Informative gate the case, establishing focus early. More often
The third and most critical area, the informa- than not, the focus of the investigation (the result
tive, was created by modern technologies. Just of the information gathered and the interpretation
as an inventory of a person’s residence after a of that data) will determine its success.
homicide provides many facts about that
individual, so does the information from the CONCLUSION
numerous technologies available today. This area In today’s world, investigators simultaneously
consists of records of cell phones and pagers, must accomplish multiple tasks and quickly ana-
computer hard drives (e.g., palm pilots, laptops, lyze information to seize the initiative and react
notebooks, desktops, and servers), diaries, notes, timely and accurately to any given scenario. The
and documents. Informative includes data that per- fact-finding capsule, complimented by the prompt
sons of interest in the investigation use that, in investigative trilogy, represents the necessary for-
turn, tell about their lives, interactions with others, mula to factor into the equation regarding investi-
and geographic connections. gatory demands associated with homicide cases
today. Following these protocols will ensure the
THREE-PHASE STRATEGY most efficient use of time in connection with the
All investigations have a three-phase strategy. gathering of facts and seizing of evidence.
First, investigators should ensure the availability
of proper resources to conduct the investigation Special Agent Edwards heads the Statesboro office of the
Georgia Bureau of Investigation.
in the most efficient and competent manner to

January 2005 / 13
Defending Against
Cybercrime and Terrorism
A New Role for Universities

ith the growth of technological infrastructure, and wants reassurance that commu-
technological access, how do we protect against it? nications, financial operations,
systems, and re- The high-tech industry is and technological infrastructure
sources, cyber-related crimes vital to the nation’s economy are closely guarded. The rising
are on the rise in many commu- and its future. Industries, busi- fear of cyber-related crime not
nities. How will local law nesses, government agencies, only inhibits the use of develop-
enforcement agencies address and private households all ing technology but adversely
the growth of high-tech crime in benefit from a healthy and affects national economic
the future? What impact will well-protected technological conditions. The FBI estimates
terrorism have on the nation’s environment. And, everyone that the average loss for a

14 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

technology-oriented crime is facilities and tangible equip- For example, a high-tech related
nearly $500,000, and, further, ment but remote cyberattacks theft of money or resources
the added cost to the consumer that could disable national statistically is identified as a
is $100 to $150 per computer infrastructure as well. theft based upon historical
sale.1 Other estimates indicate definitions; the high-tech com-
that losses related to high-tech DEFINING THE SCOPE ponent of the crime may not be
crimes in the United States are OF THE PROBLEM identified at all. To address this
$10 billion to $15 billion per Headlines regarding the issue, the FBI and the National
year.2 Further, 10 million threat of high-tech crime White Collar Crime Center
Americans were victimized by have become commonplace. implemented the Internet Fraud
identity theft in one year, with Cyberstalking of children, Complaint Center (IFCC) in
estimated losses exceeding $50 child pornography, identity 2000.6 The IFCC tracks com-
billion,3 and the Federal Trade theft, financial fraud, computer plaints it receives and coordi-
Commission reported that of the hacking, computer viruses, and nates with local law enforce-
516,740 complaints received in theft of proprietary business ment agencies regarding
2003, over 41 percent regarded information and intellectual appropriate investigative juris-
identity theft.4 property have become the diction; however, this process
Beyond the implications of prominent crime for those still does not provide consistent
cybercriminal activity, a new with even modest amounts of measurements of cybercrime.
technological threat exists technological sophistication.5 From January 1, 2002, to
pertaining to terrorism. Since Statistics related to the preva- December 31, 2002, the IFCC
September 11, 2001, the nation lence of high-tech crime remain Web site received 75,063
has focused more on the issue unclear. Many law enforcement complaints.7 Additionally, the
of cyberterrorism because agencies do not clearly identify IFCC points out “that Internet
although terrorists typically occurrences of high-tech crime. usage passed the 200 million
have used traditional methods
of physical attack (explosives,
kidnappings, and hijackings),
their attention may move, with

increasing frequency, toward
cyberterrorism. Various forms
of technological infrastructure
may be vulnerable to such This virtual crime
attack; pipelines, power plants, world demands
transportation, and other hard cooperation and
assets rely on cybertechnology. sharing of resources
Further, communication sys- among agencies....

tems used for financial, mili-
tary, police, and corporate pur-
poses suffer from the same
vulnerability. This not only in- Chief Aeilts heads the California State University
cludes threats against physical Police Department in San Luis Obispo.

January 2005 / 15
mark...from just 65 million in cooperation and sharing of multiagency cooperation. “The
1998.” 8 This dramatic threefold resources among agencies: most promising approach so far
increase in Internet usage in just “...although sharing information is a task force in which high-
a few years could indicate the among the courts, the police, tech specialists from city,
possibility of a corresponding and other justice agencies at county, state, and federal law
increase in cybercrime. Some every level of government has enforcement agencies work
experts argue that many “...vic- been a goal of dedicated indi- together and accept assistance
tims may have serious doubts viduals and organizations for from industry.”12 However, one
about the capacity of the police the past several years, the critical component is missing
to handle computer crime September 11 terrorist attacks from that formula—the effort
incidents in an efficient, timely, have given the issue a renewed can and should bring high-tech
and confidential manner.”9 national scope.... The attacks, resources from higher-education
Businesses or other institutions they say, highlighted the lack of institutions to the forefront to
may not report such crimes due information exchange and assist law enforcement and
to concerns of loss of prestige, underscored the importance of national defense. “The White
customers, and financial status. improved coordination among House’s top computer security
Consequently, agencies may agencies....10 official...called on colleges and

not adequately capture cyber- universities to help develop a
related crime statistics, and the national strategy for securing
gross impact of this type of computer networks. ‘I think this
crime, generally, may appear effort—this framework—is
understated. Together, all extremely important because
stakeholders should it demonstrates that the issue
explore the various of network security is a major
JURISDICTIONS AND concern of colleges and univer-
SHARING RESOURCES dynamics of the
high-tech crime sities around the country,’
The difficulty of identifying said...[the] president of the

the impact of cybercrime is not
problem. American Council on Education
the only significant concern— in a statement. ‘Policy makers
jurisdictional issues also are and corporate leaders should
problematic. When a high-tech know that the higher-education
crime occurs, it is not always Most law enforcement community is working together
clear which law enforcement agencies simply do not have constructively to address this
jurisdiction is responsible for its the resources to adequately challenge.’”13
investigation and prosecution. deal with the myriad of poten-
Cyberincidents can cross re- tial cybercrimes.11 The ability LINKING WITH
gional, state, and even interna- to track criminals in multiple HIGHER-EDUCATION
tional jurisdictional boundaries. jurisdictions, as well as special- INSTITUTIONS
Crime has expanded into a ized knowledge of vast varieties Higher-education resources
virtual geographic world and of hardware, software, applica- are abundant within the realm
traditional jurisdictions and tions, foreign languages, and of technology, but law enforce-
boundaries do not apply. This other related issues, requires ment agencies fundamentally
virtual crime world demands regional, state, and national underuse them. Frequently,

16 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

these resources are in close Few local law enforcement to university high-tech
proximity to many agencies agencies have this well-devel- resources and personnel and
but simply remain overlooked. oped resource. serve as a mechanism to ensure
Additionally, institutions investigative integrity. Univer-
Specific Strategies of higher education have high- sity police departments can
tech classroom facilities with monitor such issues as search
University High-Tech numerous monitors, computers, and seizures, due process, and
Faculty and Staff interfaces, remote projection, investigative protocol and pro-
Law enforcement admin- automated lectures, and other vide liaison with member agen-
istrators should identify related capabilities, providing cies and the district attorney.
university faculty and staff as a substantial opportunity to train This expertise proves helpful
significant training resource, as multiple students, provide when identifying and using
well as one in support of high- quality high-tech instruction, nonsworn university resources
tech criminal investigations. and enhance student interaction. in support of cybercrime in-
Faculty members routinely These training resources com- vestigations, and it can smooth
conduct high-tech research, monly are available during the way toward a successful
including the development and academic breaks throughout investigation.
implementation of cutting-edge the year. Using a multiagency, high-
innovations. Their positions tech investigation protocol can
enable them to recognize the reduce potential misunderstand-
implications of emerging ings about resources (depart-
technology issues and under- ments should use personnel
stand potential social impacts. and other resources based upon
Their research and development prior agreement), protect the
often address how individuals integrity of the investigations,
can abuse and compromise and provide a system of easy
technology, as well as find reference that allows member
ways to protect it. “University agencies to follow a consistent
research is crucial to developing and predictable process. Agen-
ways to protect computer net- cies should consider a number
works, in part, because busi- of factors in their protocol,
nesses can’t afford to spend including the personnel-sharing
money on long-term, high-risk process, technological equip-
research.”14 Further, universities An Investigative and ment and programs purchases,
typically have well-developed Multiagency Protocol and grant-funding distribution.
information technology support Many colleges and universi-
services with cadres of highly ties employ state-certified law Financial Opportunities
trained staff who routinely enforcement agencies to protect Many high-tech task forces
install, repair, modify, and assets of the institution. These compete for a variety of state
protect information systems. educationally based depart- and federal grants. However,
Part of their expertise comes ments can provide a critical most grants require an accom-
from daily exposure to these conduit for allied law enforce- plishment record indicating the
systems on a functional level. ment agencies and their access importance of financial support

January 2005 / 17
to continue efforts to address a perspective unique to their of a high-tech, multiagency
the problem. Because many needs, concerns, resources, and crime investigation group, they
high-tech businesses have a customers. Until such collabora- should identify line-level per-
strong interest in guarding tive meetings occur, stakehold- sonnel who can accommodate
against high-tech crime, col- ers will lack full awareness of the program’s efforts. For
laborating with these organiza- their own resources and exper- colleges and universities, this
tions may produce additional tise. Most important, partici- includes their police investi-
financial resources. Many pants must gain their organi- gators, as well as high-tech
companies offer a variety of zation’s support. Long-term faculty and staff members. Each
funding opportunities via approval for partnerships, organizational leader should
foundations—corporate efforts protocols, and financial and charge these individuals with
to support their community. personnel support is critical to the responsibilities of communi-
Agencies should pursue corpo- the development of a realistic cating with line-level members
rate high-tech support, as well and substantial program. Stake- in partner agencies. Fundamen-
as government grants. holders may vary from one tally, the grassroots members
A high-tech crime investi- region to another, but the local will form many of the long-term

gation partnership, in and of and functional relationships.
itself, provides a generally While it may be helpful for
self-supporting mechanism. line-level law enforcement per-
Equipment and people cost sonnel to have extensive high-
money, but the sum contribution
Law enforcement tech investigative expertise, it is
of partnered agencies consti- administrators should not necessary. The preliminary
tutes the initial formula that identify university development of a high-tech
best would support the begin- faculty and staff as a partnership should include those
ning steps of this effort. In significant training agencies with little or no high-

fact, if each agency provides resource.... tech expertise; an important
some limited support, such as element of this process is the
personnel, resources, training development of expertise and
expertise, and computer equip- resources over time.
ment, the high-tech group likely district attorney, college or
can be self-supporting. Addi- A Model for the Future
university, area law enforce-
tional funding based upon ment agencies, and the FBI The University Police
grants, foundations, and allied provide a basic formula. Busi- Department (UPD) at California
organizations then becomes a nesses, which can provide Polytechnic State University in
resource to enhance an already information technology special- San Luis Obispo reviewed its
existing and functional ists and financial support, also cybercrime issue and imple-
program. should be considered an integral mented several approaches to
part of the plan. address the problem. First,
Stakeholders several UPD officers received
Together, all stakeholders Line-Level Personnel extensive training from the
should explore the various Once stakeholder organiza- university’s wealth of staff
dynamics of the high-tech tional leaders agree to support a members and faculty with
crime problem. Each will have move toward the development broad expertise in technology,

18 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

emerging high-tech trends,
and education/training abilities.
The training centered on the
application of computer foren-
sics and investigative protocol
as they related to high-tech
crime. Next, UPD invited
representatives of local law
enforcement agencies to discuss
the formation of a high-tech
task force. The response was
outstanding; representatives
from departments in a four-
county area attended the meet-
ing, along with university
faculty and staff.
UPD then developed an high-tech crime and could coordinate the high-tech re-
e-group site15 using university provide high-tech expertise sources of regional allied
faculty. A list of 30 investiga- and resources. agencies.
tors from 14 agencies in 3 Currently, this group in-
counties signed on to use this cludes about 100 members, CONCLUSION
site as a mechanism to ex- representing dozens of agencies. The United States is not
change high-tech investigation Members continue to meet, yet adequately prepared to deal
information and as a forum to communicate via the e-group with cybercrime and terrorism.
solicit help with their investiga- site, provide high-tech training, The significant cost of cyber-
tions. Other meetings occurred and share investigative exper- crime, coupled with the diffi-
and, subsequently, interest in a tise with each other on a variety culty of identifying it, is of
high-tech resource group grew of high-tech crime investiga- national concern, and the law
to 46 investigators representing tions. This effort specifically enforcement profession should
5 counties in the region. Faculty has resulted in the successful align agencies and resources to
members provided training outcome of numerous regional, address these issues. The inclu-
and discussion ensued about multiagency, high-tech investi- sion of college and university
joining the High-Tech Crime gations with direct involvement resources in the fight against
Investigators Association from the forensic expertise of cybercrime and the threat of
International. At that point, UPD officers and the support terrorism may be a pivotal step.
participation included local of high-tech faculty and staff. High-tech faculty, staff, and
city police and county sheriffs’ UPD, as an educationally ori- facilities, as well as university
departments, state agencies, ented police agency, influenced police departments, are a pow-
the district attorney’s office, a region and helped coordinate erful combination of re-
and the FBI. Additionally, the the high-tech resources of sources—one which exists
group sought participation university police, faculty and in thousands of communities.
from corporations, recognizing staff, and corporations. It also In-depth technological exper-
that they also are victims of provided an organized venue to tise, high-tech classrooms,

January 2005 / 19
information systems support, 9
Marc Goodman, “Making Computer
and a built-in policing conduit Crime Count,” FBI Law Enforcement Wanted:
Bulletin, August 2001, 13.
all can be used to mitigate the 10
Dibya Sarkar, “Homeland Security Photographs
potential impacts of high-tech Focuses Coordination,” retrieved on April
crime and terrorism. 2, 2004, from http://www.fcw.com/fcw/
Endnotes 11
The FBI’s Cyber Task Force
California High-Tech Task Force Unit (CTFU) assists in the creation,
Committee, Combating High-Tech Crime maintenance, and operation of cyber task
in California: The Task Force Approach, forces throughout the United States. The
(June 1997), 3. unit ensures that these task forces are
Blumberg, “ID Anti-Theft Efforts capable of responding to significant crim-
Stir Capitol Debate,” The Daily Recorder,
August 7, 1998, 7.
Testimony of FBI Deputy Assistant
inal and national security threats involving
the use of computers, the Internet, and
high technology. The unit ensures that 1)
T he Bulletin staff is
always on the lookout
for dynamic, law enforce-
Director Steven M. Martinez before the task forces have state-of-the-art equipment ment-related photos for
House Government Reform Committee’s and sufficient technical talent so that the
possible publication in the
Subcommittee on Technology, Information United States is prepared to respond to
Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and cyber-related threats; 2) an effective
magazine. We are interested
the Census, September 2004. infrastructure enables law enforcement to in photos that visually depict
U.S. Federal Trade Commission, have a coordinated approach to the the many aspects of the law
“FTC Releases Top 10 Consumer investigation of cybercrime; and 3) the enforcement profession and
Complaint Categories in 2003,” retrieved relationship between the FBI’s cyber task illustrate the various tasks
on November 8, 2004, from http:// forces and those associated with other law enforcement personnel
www.ftc.gov/opa/2004/01/top10.htm. agencies are complementary. perform.
For additional information, see 12
Supra note 1, 17. We can use either black-
Robert D’Ovidio and James Doyle, “A 13
Dan Carnevale, “White House
and-white glossy or color
Study on Cyberstalking: Understanding Official Asks Colleges to Help Create
Investigative Hurdles,” FBI Law Enforce- National Computer-Security Strategy,”
prints or slides, although we
ment Bulletin, March 2003, 10-17; John The Chronicle of Higher Education, April prefer prints (5x7 or 8x10).
Pollock and James May, “Authentication 19, 2002, 12; retrieved on April 5, 2004, We will give appropriate
Technology: Identity Theft and Account from http://chronicle.com/free/2002/04/ credit to photographers when
Takeover,” FBI Law Enforcement 2002041901t.htm. their work appears in the
Bulletin, June 2002, 1-4; Thomas R. 14
Richard A. Clarke, special advisor to magazine. Contributors
Stutler, “Stealing Secrets Solved: the President for cyberspace security, in should send duplicate, not
Examining the Economic Espionage Act Dan Carnevale, “White House Official original, prints as we do not
of 1996,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Asks Colleges to Help Create National
accept responsibility for
November 2000, 11-16; and Matthew L. Computer-Security Strategy,” The
Lease and Tod W. Burke, “Identity Theft: Chronicle of Higher Education, April 19,
damaged or lost prints. Send
A Fast-Growing Crime,” FBI Law 2002, 12; retrieved on April 5, 2004, from photographs to:
Enforcement Bulletin, August 2000, 8-12. http://chronicle.com/free/2002/04/
Jerry Seper, “Justice Sets Up Web 2002041901t.htm. Art Director
Site to Combat Internet Crimes,” The 15
An e-group site hosts special interest FBI Law Enforcement
Washington Times, May 9, 2000, sec. A., groups on the Internet. These sites often Bulletin, FBI Academy,
p. 6. offer free, usually advertising-supported, Madison Building,
IFCC 2002 Internet Fraud Report, service for anyone who wants to create an Room 201, Quantico,
retrieved on June 9, 2004, from http:// electronic forum in which individual and
VA 22135.
www.ifccfbi.gov/strategy/ group discussions can take place about a
2002_IFCCReport.pdf. particular area of interest. The site may be
Ibid. restricted by password protection.

20 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Call for Authors

Why Should You Publish an Article? or referring to information that generally is not
• Allows you to share your experiences well known. Authors should study several issues
of the magazine to ensure that their writing style
• Provides you with a wider audience meets the Bulletin’s requirements. Most impor-
• Increases your credibility tant, authors should contact the Bulletin staff
• Enhances your professional image for the expanded author guidelines, which
contain additional specifications, detailed
• Improves your chances for promotion examples, and effective writing techniques, or
What Should You Write About? access www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.htm.
The Bulletin judges articles on relevance to
Write about topics that interest you. Write
the audience, factual accuracy, analysis of the
about problems that you, your department, or
information, structure and logical flow, style
the community have solved. Possible topics
and ease of reading, and length. The staff edits
include the following:
all manuscripts for length, clarity, format, and
• Administrative/personnel issues style.
• Crime problems and solutions The Bulletin generally does not publish
• Domestic violence articles on similar topics within a 12-month
period or accept articles previously published or
• Drugs currently under consideration by other maga-
• Equipment zines. Because it is a government publication,
• Ethics the Bulletin cannot accept articles that advertise
a product or service.
• Environmental crimes
• Firearms How Do You Submit an Article?
• Future of policing • Send a query letter and short outline or
• Information resources • Submit a completed manuscript to—
• Investigative techniques Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135
• Juveniles Telephone: 703-632-1952
• Leadership/management concerns E-mail: leb@fbiacademy.edu
• Negotiation/interviewing skills The Bulletin staff will review queries and
• Police-community relations articles and advise the authors of acceptance or
rejection. The magazine cannot guarantee a
• Technology publication date for accepted articles.
• Training Authors also should submit three copies of
their articles typed and double-spaced on 8½- by
How Do You Write an Article? 11-inch white paper with all pages numbered.
Authors should write in third person and Authors should include an electronic version of
use active voice. They should supply references the article saved on computer disk. A photo-
when quoting a source exactly, citing or graph of the author(s) should accompany the
paraphrasing another person’s work or ideas, article.

January 2005 / 21

Untitled-1 25 12/16/04, 5:21 PM

Notable Speech
The Characteristics of an officers, and your loved ones. You will be called
Effective Law Enforcement upon to resolve conflicts of many types; this must
be done through impartial enforcement of the law,
Officer not through imposition of judgment or punish-
By Chuck Knight ment. Victims, witnesses, and all others deserve to
be treated with dignity and compassion.

P olicing today is very complex. As officers,

you are expected to be all things to all
people and to make split second decisions that will
I was touched by a quote I heard several years
ago from a fellow police officer: “At times when
taking a person to jail, the main difference between
me and the guy in the back seat is not much more
take the courts, attorneys, and media weeks or than the screen between us.” A person may be your
months to determine if you made the right deci- prisoner, but he or she still is a person; I encourage
sion, which must be right in their eyes or we get you to treat that person as such. This requires
battered in the press and humiliated in the court- compassion.
room. Police officers must be effective at what You must be aware of the limit of your author-
they do. With that in mind, I would like to share ity and never overstep those boundaries. In your
some characteristics with you that I believe are endeavor to enforce the law, remember to uphold
critical to be successful in law enforcement. the spirit of the law as opposed to merely enforcing
Perhaps the most valuable commodity a police the letter of the law. Treat everyone with fairness
officer can possess today is integrity. Integrity and equality.
must be maintained at all cost. Police officers are Work together with fellow officers and the
in a position of public trust—a trust that if broken, community. Promote pride within the law enforce-
will create an atmosphere of hostility between the ment profession and in the city or county where
police and the public. Our success depends upon
the trust and confidence of the citizens in our
respective communities. We must remain profes- Mr. Knight, former chief
of the Coos Bay, Oregon,
sional in all that we do and forever be committed Police Department, currently
to the highest level of standards within the law serves as the city manager.
He delivered this speech
enforcement profession. at the Oregon Police
As police officers, our first sworn duty and Academy’s graduation
allegiance are to the community and the police or ceremony in Monmouth,
sheriff’s department’s mission. We must maintain
a high degree of loyalty to successfully serve our
communities. As police officers, you will be called
upon to meet many challenges, adversities, and
every level of danger. This requires courage. You
will be called upon to display this courage with
recognition of the high standards for which you
will be held accountable. You must support your
fellow officers at all times for the common safety
of everyone concerned.
While there is a time to be meek, there also is a
time to stand and protect yourselves, your fellow

22 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Untitled-1 26 12/16/04, 5:21 PM

you live and work. This requires a spirit of coop- must not allow our lives to be shortened by taking
eration, also known as teamwork. it too seriously.
Develop a keen sense of humor—yes, humor. Last, don’t forget what is most important to
I believe a genuine sense of humor will allow you you—your faith, your spouse, your family, and
to get past the hard times. I am not telling you to fellowship with friends and relatives. Do not sacri-
laugh at a traffic violator when you issue a citation fice what is most vital in your life for the thrill of
nor think it humorous at the scene of a fatal acci- policing—set priorities. If you fall apart at home,
dent. You must not let the hard times get you down. you will not be of help to your fellow officers at
As for me, I recognize how brief this life can be; we work.

Crime Data

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003

A ccording to the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), in 2003,
the combined federal, state, and local adult correctional population reached a new record
of 6,889,800 men and women—about 3.2 percent of the adult population. Of that figure, the
number on probation or parole reached a record high of more than 4.8 million.
About 71 percent of probationers were under active supervision, required to regularly report
to a probation authority in person or by mail or telephone. Forty-nine percent had been convicted
of a felony, 49 percent of a misdemeanor, and 2 percent of other infractions. Twenty-five percent
had been convicted of a drug offense, 17 percent for driving while intoxicated or under the
influence of alcohol, 12 percent for larceny or theft, 9 percent for assault, 7 percent for domestic
violence, 6 percent for minor traffic infractions, 5 percent for burglary, 4 percent for fraud, and 3
percent for sexual assault. Of the almost 2.2 million probationers discharged from supervision
during 2003, about 3 in 5 had successfully met the conditions of their supervision. Approxi-
mately 16 percent were incarcerated because of a rule violation or a new offense, and 4 percent
had absconded.
About 83 percent of all parolees were under active supervision, required to regularly contact
a parole authority in person or by mail or telephone. During 2003, about 470,500 were discharged
from supervision. Forty-seven percent had successfully met the conditions of their supervision,
38 percent were returned to incarceration with a new sentence or because of a rule violation, and
about 9 percent had absconded.
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003 (NCJ-205336) was written by BJS statisti-
cians Lauren E. Glaze and Seri Palla. It is available from the agency’s Web site at
www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ppus03.htm or by contacting the National Criminal Justice
Reference Service at 800-851-3420.

January 2005 / 23
Bulletin Reports

Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, Midyear 2002
provides an overview of each state’s firearm check procedures and
interaction with the National Instant Criminal Background Check Sys-
tem operated by the FBI. The report summarizes issues about state
procedures, including persons prohibited from purchasing firearms, res-
toration of rights of purchase, permits, forbidden firearms, waiting
periods, fees, and appeals. Appendix tables contain data on 2001 appli-
cations to buy firearms and rejections, as well as tabular presentations of
state-by-state responses. This re-
port is one in a series from the Bu-
reau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
Firearm Inquiry Statistics Project, Web-Based Resources
managed under the BJS National Since its inception in 1957, the Institute for Law
Criminal History Improvement Enforcement Administration’s (ILEA) mission has
Program. It is available electroni- been to provide educational programs to meet the
cally at http://www.ojp.usdoj. needs of law enforcement administrators. It is a not-
gov/bjs/abstract/ssprfs02.htm or for-profit, tax-exempt, educational center designed to
by contacting the National Crimi- enhance the professional development of police lead-
nal Justice Reference Service at ers at all levels. Membership in ILEA is available to
800-851-3420. city, county, state, and federal law enforcement orga-
nizations. Its Web site, http://www.cailaw.org/ilea,
contains information on the institute and its Center
for Law Enforcement Ethics; listings of its advisory
board members, member police and sheriff’s depart-
ments, and staff; publications; and a calendar of

24 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) presents
Early Intervention Systems for Law Enforcement Agencies: Planning and
Management Guide, which examines early intervention (EI) systems, a
data-based management tool designed to identify officer performance prob-
lems and provide interventions, usually counseling or training, to address
those issues. In an EI system, performance data are entered into a comput-
erized database, including such indicators as departmental use-of-force
reports, citizen complaints, officer involvement in civil litigation, and
resisting arrest charges. An
EI system helps identify a
Gangs range of problems that do
not warrant formal disci-
The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) presents Gang- plinary action but suggest
and Drug-Related Homicide: Baltimore’s Successful En- that an officer is having
forcement Strategy, which examines inner-city gang charac- problems dealing with citi-
teristics and growth as well as traditional and new, effective zens. This report is available
gang enforcement by the police. This report presents several electronically at http://
innovative strategies to combat inner-city gangs: prosecution www.cops.usdoj.gov or by
of gang members, effective gang enforcement, and investiga- contacting the U.S. Depart-
tive approaches (controlled arrests, interviews of randomly ment of Justice Response
arrested gang members, and grand juries as investigative Center at 800-421-6770.
tools). Sample case files from the Baltimore, Maryland, Police
Department are discussed. This publication further stresses
the importance of creating police gang units and implement-
ing strategy reviews as effective law enforcement tools to
deter gang activity. This report is available electronically at

Bulletin Reports is an edited collection of criminal justice studies, reports, and

project findings. Send your material for consideration to: FBI Law Enforcement
Bulletin, Room 209, Madison Building, FBI Academy, Quantico, VA 22135. (NOTE:
The material in this section is intended to be strictly an information source and
should not be considered an endorsement by the FBI for any product or service.)

January 2005 / 25
Serial Murder in the Netherlands
A Look at Motivation, Behavior,
and Characteristics

© Digital Stock

omething unusual was Lucy’s supervisor and several September 4, 2001. Investiga-
happening at a children’s of her colleagues had alerted the tors quickly discovered that
hospital in The Hague, administrator about the number Lucy had worked at another
Netherlands. The hospital of patients that had died imme- hospital where 19 elderly
administrator did not want to diately after she left their patients had died while under
prejudge the situation, but rooms. Therefore, the adminis- her care. Additionally, at least
another patient of Lucy’s had trator decided to suspend Lucy, one patient had died at home
died. Although her patients pending a review. after Lucy visited the person’s
were extremely sick and some- The review determined that residence. Indicted for the
times terminally ill, the hospital within a 3-year period, eight of murder of 13 patients, Lucy was
staff did not expect them to die Lucy’s patients had died while arrested on December 13, 2001.
so suddenly. This, however, had under her care. The hospital The Netherlands Public
happened more than once— referred this information to The Prosecution Service had only
actually, more than twice. Hague Police Department on once before charged anyone

26 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

with multiple counts of murder.
Many members of The Hague
District Attorney’s Office, a
component of the Prosecution
Service, as well as the general
public and the media simply
could not understand how one
person could be motivated to
kill so many people. In fact,
many believed that serial mur-
der was an American problem;
the Netherlands simply did not Mr. Brantley, a retired FBI agent Special Agent Kosky is
have serial killers. with the National Center for the assigned to the National Center
Analysis of Violent Crime for the Analysis of Violent Crime
The District Attorney’s Behavioral Analysis Unit, currently Behavioral Analysis Unit at the
Office, in conjunction with is the owner and executive partner FBI Academy.
The Hague Police Department, of a behavioral consulting firm.

oversaw the investigation and

prosecution of this case. In May
2002, the District Attorney’s Definition Difficulties geographical mobility, and
Office presented this case to Like many other behavioral victim selection. The major
the Behavioral Analysis Unit classifications that attempt to shortcoming of any behavioral
(BAU) at the National Center label complicated and complex typology or classification is that
for the Analysis of Violent sets of variables, efforts to reducing something compli-
Crime (NCAVC), an entity standardize a definition of serial cated to a concise label does not
within the FBI’s Critical Inci- murder have failed to achieve a necessarily adequately explain
dent Response Group (CIRG). consensus. People often use the phenomenon.
Subsequently, BAU personnel serial murder, serial homicide, The FBI derived its current
conducted an on-site review of serial killing, multiple murder, definition for serial killing from
the case in the Netherlands, mass murder, and sexual homi- legislation that describes serial
which led to a request for and cide interchangeably. The lack killing “as a series of three or
the eventual expert testimony of a standard definition of serial more killings, having common
by a BAU member regarding murder, at times, may confuse characteristics such as to sug-
the motivation, behavior, and those who investigate this sub- gest the reasonable possibility
psychological characteristics of population of lethal criminals, that the crimes were committed
serial murderers.1 Although this and it also negatively impacts by the same offender or offend-
case illustrates the relatively attempts by the courts, the crim- ers.”2 Stated in this manner
rare phenomenon of a female inal justice system, and the pub- primarily for jurisdictional/
serial murderer, the traits and lic to understand the problem. investigative reasons, the
characteristics of female serial In general, previous efforts definition also includes the
murderers are more similar than to define serial murder have requirement that at least one
unique when compared with the included criteria relative to the of the killings occur within the
broader population of male number of victims, time elapsed United States. The criteria
serial murderers. between crimes, motivation, include three or more victims,

January 2005 / 27
common offense characteristics, reinforced by internal desires murderer-victim interactions
and common offenders. The for gratification versus external and relationships.
FBI uses the term killing vis-à- rewards, such as profit or The FBI continues to con-
vis murder because the bulk of financial gain. This can be duct interviews with serial
its efforts are investigative and described further in terms of a murderers. In one study in the
occur prior to an offender’s dichotomy for violence based 1980s, the agency interviewed
apprehension and adjudication. on the offender’s desired out- sexual murderers, the majority
The FBI’s definition of come. This dichotomy involves being serial murderers. The
serial killing makes no refer- the concept of instrumental vio- agency developed organized
ence to underlying motivation, lence versus affective violence. and disorganized typologies as
behavior, and psychological Instrumental violence occurs a result of these interviews, pri-

characteristics. The agency kept marily as a means to assess the
the definition intentionally level of an offender’s criminal
broad to encompass the full sophistication.4 Generally, the
array of serial killers. organized offender commits
Depression and its well-planned and well-orches-
Motivational Factors trated offenses, whereas the
collateral side effects
The FBI’s NCAVC has are prominent in the disorganized offender commits
further classified homicides histories of serial more poorly planned and poorly
of all types and has addressed executed offenses. For some

motivational factors. Histori-
murderers. time, criminal justice profes-
cally, in criminology and behav- sionals have recognized these
ioral science literature, motiva- two rather broad categories of
tion appeared as one of the offenders who commit not only
earliest criteria used to classify when the violence is a means to sexual murders but murders of
homicides, with classification an end—an armed robber steals all types.
efforts focusing on the tradi- money from the cash register The more organization
tional motives of financial gain, and kills the store employee to demonstrated by an offender,
revenge, elimination of an eliminate a potential witness. the more likely the offender will
obstacle, jealousy, and sex. By contrast, affective violence be intelligent, socially compe-
Much later, criminologists and is an end in itself, or, in other tent, capable of skilled employ-
other behavioral scientists rec- words, the death of the victim ment, evidence conscious,
ognized that serial murderers is itself the desired end.3 controlled, and able to avoid
are motivated by a complex and Serial murder also can be identification while accounting
complicated set of motives, differentiated from other types for a greater number of victims.
often involving nontraditional of murder because it is more Organized offenders also are
ones. To describe a motiva- often predatory, premeditated, more likely to select vulnerable
tional model for a serial mur- and deliberate. Serial murderers victims to increase the probabil-
derer as one-dimensional or in fantasize and plan the crime and ity of being successful and to
terms of only one motive would pursue and ultimately kill their avoid detection. They lack
prove inaccurate. Rather, a victims without the interper- feelings of guilt or remorse
serial murderer’s motivations sonal conflict and emotional and view their victims as mere
are multifaceted and most often provocation common in other objects that they can manipulate

28 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

for their own perverse satisfac- have developmental histories that he was abused as a child
tion and sense of power, con- that include childhood sexual and believed that he was mis-
trol, mastery, and domination. or physical abuse; maternal or treated all of his life. This made
Also, the murderers themselves paternal deprivation, rejection, him angry, depressed, and
reported that the excitement and or abandonment; or exposure miserable. He consciously
stimulation that resulted from to violent role models in the decided to take revenge on
doing something forbidden, home. However, many indi- society as a whole by commit-
taboo, and illegal provided an viduals have experienced ting his murders and making as
additional motivational facet. childhood abuse, and the vast many other people as he could
According to some serial majority do not become crimi- just as depressed and miserable.
murderers, the more perverse nals, much less serial murder- Depression and its collateral
or taboo the behavior, the more ers. Most abused children adjust side effects are prominent in the
excitement and stimulation they histories of serial murderers.
experienced. Behavioral scientists have
Organized serial murderers recognized for some time that
may kill in such great numbers a fine line or close association
due to fantasies that feed their may exist between murder and
predatory desires and lead them suicide. This association is il-
to compete with themselves in a lustrated, on the one hand, when
perverted contest of “practice depression is turned inward and
makes perfect.”5 In other words, manifests itself with symptoms
they continue to kill, in part, of sadness, self-downing,
due to a desire to improve upon apathy, hopelessness, helpless-
their last murder. They also may ness, and ambivalence concern-
compete with authority figures ing living. Thoughts of self-
by continuing to operate unde- © Digital Stock harm and the act of suicide can
tected. They know something and, as they mature, progress result. Depression also can be
no one else knows, and the past their traumatic experiences. turned outward and manifest
information is exclusive. A However, those individuals who itself with symptoms of irrita-
common belief is that informa- become serial murderers do not bility, hostility, and agitation.
tion is power, and offenders adjust and put the trauma and Thoughts of harming others and
can feel powerful because they its influence in the past. They the risk of committing murder
know something authorities do ruminate about their mistreat- greatly increase as the result of
not know. In addition, they ment; dwell on their past expe- these side effects of depression.
understand their misbehavior, riences; and become frustrated, In short, why would people who
know the difference between angry, and depressed. experience ambivalence con-
right and wrong, and can choose They often express their cerning living or dying and have
when and where to act upon chronic anger, which represents a state of mind that devalues
their urges. one of the internal motivational life, including their own, place
facets in the multifaceted any value on someone else’s
Developmental Histories motivational model, in their life?
Serial murderers, as well as murders. A serial murderer once Serial murderers are men-
other violent offenders, often stated in a research interview tally abnormal and exhibit the

January 2005 / 29
traits and characteristics of a proximity to themselves. In contributing factors. The desire
variety of mental disorders other words, their victims are for excitement, stimulation, and
without reaching the threshold more likely to be family mem- attention from colleagues also
of mental illness necessary for bers, paramours, those who have been reported as elements
exculpability. At the core, evi- were in their custodial care, and contributing to the murder of
dence of severe personality tenants. Female serial murderers patients.8 Additionally, some
disorder or paraphilia will exist also are more likely to poison serial murderers in health-care
and may include, but is not their victims in a more imper- facilities and elsewhere have
limited to, traits associated with sonal, detached manner than reported that the act of murder
antisocial personality disorder, males, who more often strangle, relieved tension, stress, and
psychopathy, sexual sadism, stab, or beat their victims.7 frustration.9
borderline personality disorder, © Digital Stock
Health-care worker serial
and pedophilia.6 The more murderers also are most often
organized serial murderers most organized in their planning,
often exhibit the traits and victim selection, and efforts to
characteristics of the psycho- avoid not only detection but
path. Few, if any, organized also the suspicion of others.
serial murderers are psychotic They are aware of risk factors
at the time they commit their that can increase the probability
offenses. of being identified and appre-
hended. Vulnerable victims who
Rare Phenomenon are helpless and unable to resist,
Estimates of serial murder such as the seriously ill, elderly,
prevalence and the number of or very young, are at greatest
serial murderers are just that— risk for victimization. Health-
estimates. No official statistics care worker serial murderers
are maintained within the Another subset of serial decrease risk to themselves by
United States, and no known murder include those committed working independently and
empirical data are available by health-care workers in outside the observation of
from international sources. hospitals and nursing homes others. Working evening and
What is known is that serial throughout the United States night shifts when fewer workers
murder is a rare phenomenon and other countries. A large are present frequently occurs in
and statistically, when com- number of health-care worker cases of health-care serial
pared with murders of all types, serial murderers are female due, murder.10
occurs infrequently. Like other in part, to the fact that female
types of murderers, serial health-care workers outnumber Lucy’s Legacy
murderers are predominantly male health-care workers by a Lucy kept a detailed diary
male. Female serial murder, as wide margin. The differential of her troubled life. Though she
a subset of serial murder, rarely of power between doctors and did not specifically mention her
occurs. When female serial nurses also may play a role in victims, she wrote often of
murderers offend, they are more a motivational model where a giving in to her “compulsion.”
likely than their male counter- desire for recognition, attention, In one instance, the date of
parts to kill victims in close revenge, power, and control are these entries coincided with the

30 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

death of one of her patients. morphine, attributed to Lucy, life imprisonment, the maxi-
Lucy recorded her struggles to seemed to coincide with several mum sentence allowed in the
understand her lack of feeling victims’ deaths. Though theft of Netherlands.11
and compassion. She wrote of drugs did not play a significant
her “sociopathic” personality role in the evidentiary part of Conclusion
and her desire to understand this the verdict of the Court of Ap- Serial murderers receive
aspect of herself. peal, in the case of one victim, attention in American movies
Lucy worked in critical care intoxication with the drug dig- and television programs that is
settings, and her patients were oxine was established by expert disproportionate to their fre-
either elderly or children. In witnesses beyond any doubt. quency when compared with
almost all of the cases, the The case of this little girl, and murders of all types. Sadly, law

victims were either comatose or enforcement professionals in
had a diminished awareness of this country also know, all too
their surroundings. All were well, the tremendous suffering
vulnerable and had impaired these crimes can cause in real
communicative abilities. Serial murder also life. Officials in the Nether-
In the case of every victim, can be differentiated lands, however, never had faced
colleagues reported that Lucy from other types of the devastating effects that a
developed a close rapport with murder because it is serial murderer can create until
either the patient or the patient’s more often predatory, a children’s hospital in The
family. She seemed to spend an premeditated, and Hague reported an unusually

extraordinary amount of time deliberate. large number of patients dying
with them. But, in every case, while under a certain nurse’s
she had been seen alone with care.
the victims shortly before their While this case illustrates
deaths or, at least, had made an one other case in which intoxi- that of a female serial murderer,
observation in the medical cation with chloral hydrate was it also provides a glimpse into
record not witnessed by another very likely, came to be impor- the equally infrequent sphere
health-care worker. In more tant evidence for the court. of the health-care worker serial
than a few cases, Lucy reported Though Lucy was indicted murderer. Investigating a case
a marked deterioration in a in the deaths of 13 patients involving an offender whose
patient’s status just before and the attempted murder of 5 occupation places a premium
death. Strangely, a pattern more, the investigation dis- on saving lives presents a bitter
developed where other nurses closed that 28 of her patients irony even for the most experi-
had made observations about had died within a 4-year period, enced law enforcement profes-
patient progress that contra- with 8 of those being children. sionals. But, examining the
dicted Lucy’s. Also, the hospital Lucy was convicted on four motivation, behavior, and
accused Lucy of stealing drugs counts of first-degree murder characteristics of such individu-
that, coincidently, happened to and three counts of attempted als can help investigators and
be the drugs her patients were murder, as well as perjury, falsi- prosecutors not only bring the
taking. Autopsies revealed high fying a high school diploma, guilty individuals to justice but
levels of potassium in some and theft of several books from also cope with the trauma of
patients. In others, missing the prison library. Lucy received such horrific acts.

January 2005 / 31
Endnotes 5
A.C. Brantley and F.M. Ochberg, 10
R.E Gaetjens, “A Review of
“Lethal Predators and Future Dangerous- Occupational, Behavioral, and Organiza-
The authors based this article on a ness,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, tional Differences in Health-Care Worker
report written for the Public Prosecution April 2003, 16-21. Serial Homicide,” (unpublished manu-
Service, The Hague, Netherlands, in 6
Ibid. script, December 20, 2000).
preparation for one of the authors’ expert 7
M.D. Kelleher and C.L. Kelleher, 11
The Dutch legal system allows
testimony at the subject’s trial. Murder Most Rare: The Female Serial appellate courts to essentially retry a case.
Title 28, U.S. Code, Section 540B. Killer (New York, NY: Random House, Not only can a convicted party appeal a
A.H. Buss, The Psychology of 1998). ruling but the government can appeal an
Aggression (New York, NY: Wiley, 8
C. Le Duff, “Prosecutors Say Ex- acquittal. The convicted nurse appealed
1961). Doctor Killed Because It Thrilled Him,” her conviction. On appeal, the defendant
R.K. Ressler, A.W. Burgess, and J.E. New York Times, September 6, 2000. was convicted of seven counts of murder
Douglas, Sexual Homicide: Patterns and 9
C. Linedecker and W. Burt, Nurses and four counts of attempted murder. Her
Motives (New York, NY: Lexington Who Kill (New York, NY: Pinnacle life sentence was upheld.
Books, 1988). Books, 1990).

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32 / FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Untitled-1 36 12/16/04, 5:21 PM

The Bulletin Notes
Law enforcement officers are challenged daily in the performance of their duties; they face each
challenge freely and unselfishly while answering the call to duty. In certain instances, their actions
warrant special attention from their respective departments. The Bulletin also wants to recognize
those situations that transcend the normal rigors of the law enforcement profession.

Sergeant John Pedersen of the Vero Beach, Florida, Police Department

responded to a medical emergency involving an infant who was having
trouble breathing. Upon his arrival, Sergeant Pedersen found no signs of
respiration at all and immediately began rescue procedures. After adminis-
tering breaths and back thrusts to the baby, the airway became cleared and
the infant began breathing on his own. Sergeant Pedersen then removed the
blockage from the young boy’s mouth—part of an ink pen that the baby had
swallowed. The child and his family are grateful for the actions of this
quick-thinking and well-trained officer.
Sergeant Pedersen

A wildfire ignited by a lightning strike raged out of

control and threatened a resort community. Numerous
residences sat directly in the path of the blaze. Officer
Mitch Elliott and Sergeant Harry Hawkins of the Black
Butte Ranch, Oregon, Police Department hurried door-
to-door through intense heat, flames, and smoke and
evacuated the residents as firefighters battled the blaze.
After stopping to receive treatment for smoke inhala-
tion and heat exhaustion, Officer Elliott and Sergeant
Officer Elliott Sergeant Hawkins
Hawkins returned to duty to help evacuate the
community’s remaining residents and guests. The
bravery of these two officers aided in the safe, orderly evacuation and allowed the firefighters to
concentrate their efforts on battling the dangerous wildfire.

Nominations for the Bulletin Notes should be based on either the rescue of one or
more citizens or arrest(s) made at unusual risk to an officer’s safety. Submissions
should include a short write-up (maximum of 250 words), a separate photograph of
each nominee, and a letter from the department’s ranking officer endorsing the
nomination. Submissions should be sent to the Editor, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
FBI Academy, Madison Building, Room 201, Quantico, VA 22135.
U.S. Department of Justice Periodicals
Federal Bureau of Investigation Postage and Fees Paid
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FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin ISSN 0014-5688
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Patch Call

The patch of the Conway, Arkansas, Police The Helena, Montana, Police Department
Department reflects its city’s pride in being a cen- serves the “Queen City of the Rockies.” Its patch
ter of higher education. Guided by the principles of features the timber-covered, snow-capped Rocky
community policing, the agency serves 3 four-year Mountains. The Fire Tower, known as the “Guard-
colleges, as well as the fastest-growing city in ian of the Gulch,” stands watch over the city.

Untitled-1 2 12/16/04, 5:20 PM