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STUDY OF BLENDED WING

BODY DESIGN (BWB)

Presented by :Chirag.D.Soni
1MJ09MAE03
Contents
1. Introduction to BWB aircraft configuration
2. History of BWB
3. How is it different from flying wing designs
4. Square-Cube-Law
5. Basic configuration and nomenclature of Boeing BWB 450
6. Flying wing challenges
7. What Does the Future Hold for the BWB?
8. Preliminary sizing
9. Aero disciplines: Structures
Aerodynamics
Flight mechanics
Ground handling
10. BWB advantages compared to today's advanced aircraft
11. Stealth configuration in military aircrafts
Introduction
to BWB aircraft
configuration

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Classification

1) Conventional Configuration: "Tube and Wing" or "Tail Aft"


2) Blended Wing Body (BWB)
3) Hybrid Flying Wing
4) Flying Wing MVJ College department of Aeronautics
5) The Boeing C wing
BWB Definition

The Blended Wing Body aircraft is a blend of


the tail aft and the flying wing configurations.

A wide lift producing centre body housing the payload


blends into conventional outer wings

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What is a Blended wing body concept ?

Blended Wing Body, or BWB, designates an


alternative airframe design which incorporates
design features from both a futuristic fuselage
and flying wing design. The purported
advantages of the BWB approach are
efficient high-lift wings and a wide airfoil-
shaped body. This enables the entire craft to
contribute to lift generation with the result of
potentially increased fuel economy.

The airplane concept blends the fuselage,


wing, and the engines into a single lifting
surface, allowing the aerodynamic efficiency
to be maximized

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How is it different from flying wing
designs
 Flying wing designs are defined as having
two separate bodies and only a single wing,
though there may be structures protruding
from the wing.
 Blended wing/body aircraft have a
flattened and airfoil shaped body, which
produces most of the lift to keep itself aloft,
and distinct and separate wing structures,
though the wings are smoothly blended in
with the body.

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History of BWB
The following provides an insight into the aircraft design evolution. A flying wing is a type
of tail-less aircraft design and has been known since the early days of aviation. Since a wing
is necessary for any aircraft, removing everything else, like the tail and the fuselage, results in
a design with the lowest possible drag. Successful applications of this configuration are for
example the H-09 and latter H-0229 developed by the Horton brothers for Nazi’s during
1942. Latter Northrop started designing flying such as NIM in 1942 then latter XB-35
bomber that flew first in 1946, and the stealthy B-2 bomber that flew first in 1989.
In modern era after B-2 bomber blended wing body was used for stealth operations. The
unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) in the year 2003 X-47 was subjected to test flights.
Flight tests began on July 20, 2007 - the first flight reached an altitude of 7,500 feet MSL
(2,286 m) and lasted 31 minutes. The remotely-piloted aircraft was successfully stalled for the
first time on 4 September, with fixed leading edge slats, a forward center of gravity, and 23-
degree angle of attack (2° beyond the maximum coefficient of lift ). Stall testing was
repeated on 11 September with a NASA pilot at the console. NASA and Boeing successfully
completed initial flight testing of the Boeing X-48B on March 19 2010.
The Blended Wing Body (BWB) is a relatively new aircraft concept that has potential use as
a commercial or military transport aircraft, cargo delivery or as fuel tanker

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H229 1942

H09 1939 1946 XB-35 bomber

X-47A (UCAV) 2003


YB-49 1949 B-2 bomber 1989

X-48 B 2007
Team members studying the Blended-Wing-
Body (BWB) design
 McDonnell Douglas,
 Stanford University,
 The University of Southern California,
 Clark Atlanta University,
 The University of Florida,
 NASA Langley and Lewis Research Centers.
 Boeing Phantom Works
 Air Force Research Laboratory
 NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center
 Institute of Aircraft Design and Lightweight Structures, TU Braunschweig

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Square-Cube-Law
When a physical object maintains the same density and is scaled up, its mass is increased by the cube of the
multiplier while its surface area only increases by the square of said multiplier. This would mean that when
the larger version of the object is accelerated at the same rate as the original, more pressure would be exerted
on the surface of the larger object.

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Basic configuration and nomenclature of
Boeing BWB 450

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BWB-450 specifications

Seating capacity 478 passengers in three class interior arrangement


Design Range 7750 nautical miles
No: of engines The BWB-450 uses three upper surface pylon mounted turbofan engines,
located at the trailing edge of the wing, for propulsion

Type of engines 3 UEET direct drive turbofan engines (Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology)

Cruise mach no: A recent Boeing optimization study1 indicated that a cruise Mach number
of 0.90 is optimal for a range of 7,750 nm.
Maximum gross weight 823,000 lb

Cruise speed 0.85 mach (560 mph)

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Flying wing challenges
1. Cabin pressurization is one of several design challenges facing the BWB.

2. Current airliners have a cigar-shaped fuselage ideal for maintaining cabin pressurization.

3. The BWB, however, has a unique shape that requires a novel approach to satisfy
pressurization and structural needs.

4. The design uses ten intermediate chord-wise (front-to-back) ribs to connect the upper and
lower wing skins. These ribs separate the interior into ten passenger bays.

5. Advanced composite material will be required to minimize the amount of structure needed to
withstand the pressurization loads and deflections in the skins.

6. Open certification problems : unstable configuration , ditching

7. Open design problems : rotation on take-off, landing gear integration,

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What Does the Future Hold for the BWB?

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Clearly the BWB shows a significant advantage over a conventional aircraft in terms
of performance and weight. However, the BWB is a revolutionary aircraft concept
and will require a large and expensive engineering effort to become a reality. Most
likely, before being used as a transport aircraft, it will be utilized for military
applications. In fact, Boeing and the US military are designing the BWB to be used
as an advanced tactical transport and as an air refuel tanker (Figure 10). The BWB
has a large fuselage and can carry massive amounts of fuel. Also, it can provide two
permanent refueling boom stations, rather than one as in the KC-135, KC-10 or KC-
767.

Figure 10: A Boeing BWB tanker


with pylon-mounted engines
(picture from Boeing).

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Other BWB projects 5th Framework Program of the
European Commission: VELA and MOB

Very Efficient Large Aircraft (VELA) from 1999 to 2002

VELA 1 VELA 2
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6th Framework Program of the European Commission:

(VELA follow on )
Vela 3 (2003-2006)

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X48-b first flight July 20, 2007

Flight tests began on July 20, 2007 - the first flight reached an altitude of 7,500 feet MSL
(2,286 m) and lasted 31 minutes. The remotely-piloted aircraft was successfully stalled for
the first time on 4 September, with fixed leading edge slats, a forward center of gravity, and
23-degree angle of attack (2 beyond the maximum coefficient of lift). Stall testing was
repeated on 11 September with a NASA pilot at the console . NASA and Boeing
successfully completed initial flight testing of the Boeing X-48B on March 19 2010.
Design cycle
In order to investigate potential
improvements and to predict major
design challenges of this new class of
aircraft the modeling and analysis
capabilities of the in-house aircraft
design tool of the Institute of Aircraft
Design and Lightweight Structures,
TU Braunschweig (IFL), PrADO,
have been adapted to the BWB
requirements
The methods used and the modeling
and analysis capabilities of the
improved, BWB-specific PrADO-
system are described.

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Preliminary sizing

• Data collection
• Preliminary Weight estimation
• Optimization of wing loading and thrust
loading
• Wing design
• C.G calculation
• Control surface design
• Features of designed airplane
• Details of performance estimation

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Preliminary multidisciplinary aircraft design
with the tool PrADO
1. Design requirements of the configuration are summarized and completed.
2. Aircraft geometry is calculated based on the parametric aircraft description (see Section 3.2).
3. An aerodynamic panel model of the airplane is created, and maps of aerodynamic coefficients are generated for the whole
flight regime
4. A propulsion sizing and engine characteristics calculation is performed. A thermodynamic cycle model is used to size the
turbo-fan engines including a geometry and mass estimation—based on the latest thrust requirements
5. Flight mission simulations are undertaken to create performance data and to determine the required fuel masses for
prescribed missions
6. The structural sizing module (SSM) includes a multi-model generator (MMG) that creates a structural model (finite
element model) and an aerodynamic surface panel model simultaneously.
7. Component masses for systems and primary and secondary structures are calculated. Structural mass is based on the sized
finite element model with additional corrections to account for sealants, paints, and other omitted details of the FE mode
8. Direct operational costs (DOC) are calculated for the life-cycle of the aircraft based on economical data, aircraft masses,
and performance data
9. Satisfaction of design boundaries (e.g., compliance with take-off and landing distances) is controlled, and the consistency
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Structures

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Aerodynamics
One of the beauties inherent in a BWB airliner is it strength. It
readily absorbs both cabin pressure and wing bending loads, and
in recent tests in the Stanford University wind tunnel, a 6% scale
model easily passed all extreme flight envelope tests.

The BWB concept reduces the load on the outboard wing section
airfoils, while the large centerbody chord provides enormous
strength, requiring a much low sectional lift coefficient. This
reduced lift demand allows the large thick profile of the
centerbody to hold passengers and cargo, without exacting a high
compressibility drag penalty. Due to its shape and structure,
typical shocks evident on the thinner outboard wing panels
become very weak on the centerbody. Ahead of this shock,
airflow is supersonic; behind it, the air slows and that sub-sonic
area is highly suitable for engine installation. The low effective
wing loading of the BWB and its beneficial trim effect means that
no exotic high lift system is necessary; only leading edge slats are
necessary on the outboard wing, with all trailing edge devices
made up of simple hinged flaps which double as elevons.

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Wake Turbulence

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Flight Mechanics

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Placing the engine

The BWB program is examining a new method


for engine installation that promises to increase safety
and fuel efficiency. Three advanced “high-bypass
ratio” engines will be buried in the trailing edge of
the center section of the BWB wing. While conventional
aircraft engines only take in “free-stream air,”
both the air on and near the surface of the wing will
flow through the BWB’s curved inlets and into its
engines. Taking in the layer of air on the wing surface
reduces drag. While this technology will require
validation before becoming a reality, researchers are
initiating tests to determine acceptable levels of
turbulence in the engine inlet.

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Ground Handling (vela 3)

A cargo loading vehicle drives in between.


Cargo loading from below with lifting system. Catering from the right.
Water / waste servicing on trailing edge left side.
Ground Handling

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BWB advantages compared to today's
advanced aircraft

better L/D 10 to 15% better


reduction in emissions yes
reduction in noise only with engines on top (reduction in noise to 42db below
stage 4)
increase of airport capacity yes, more than 750 pax per A/C
(probably no problems with wake turbulence)
Fuel burnt when compared to 20% less
conventional aircraft

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Stealth configuration in B2 bomber

Jack Northrop who


established the northrop
corporation along with
Donald Douglas to develop
first the YB-49 and latter the
B-2 stealth Bomber

There is no point in considering military aerodynamic


configuration development without including stealth. It
plays a key role in the configuration layout.. Although
the details are classified, certain basic principles have
been described. Stealth is usually considered to consist
of several elements (often referred to as signatures):
• radar cross section, rcs • infrared
• visual • aural
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How rcs works
(1) A radar site transmits a signal and measures the signal that is returned from the target
(in this case an airplane). When the sending and receiving antennas are co-located, the
radar is known as monostatic. This is the usual case. If the receiving antenna is located
somewhere else, the radar is bistatic. Bistatic systems may be able to detect aircraft
designed to operate stealthily against monostatic systems. This is a fundamental
consideration in stealth.

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B-2 bomber specifications

Crew: 2

Length: 69 ft (21.0 m)

Wingspan : 172 ft (52.4 m)

Height: 17 ft (5.18 m)

Wing area: 5,140 ft² (478 m²)

Empty weight: 158,000 lb (71,700 kg)

Loaded weight: 336,500 lb (152,200 kg)

Max take off weight : 376,000 lb (170,600 kg)

Powerplant: 4× general electric f111-GE100


non- afterburning turbaofans , 17,300 lbf (77 kN)
each

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What makes B-2 bomber a stealth configuration

 It continuously changes shape when looked from different to confuse radar


 Whatever beams are locked onto it are either get reflected in outer space or
reduced or dissipated into nothing
 Coated with special RAM (radar absorbing material ) such as carbon fiber
composite and top secret reflective paint to reduce detection from enemy.
 Electronic counter measure for jamming radar makes it undetectable
aircraft.
 RCS (radar cross section ) is 1000 times less then B-52 bomber
 It has special exhaust vents on top of which when hot gases are mixed with
cooler air make it almost undetectable to heat seeking SAM(surface to air
missile )

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Thank you

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