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4 The Role of Media in Language Standardization

Language standardization is often perceived by various language societies as a way of
maintaining language and establishment of honor in a culture. However, it may also play a role
in establishing different degrees of linguistic judgment and conflict in a society. New challenges
and opportunities in language brought about by high levels of urbanization, economic expansion,
immigration and other factors such as media cause strong enticements to change to other
languages dictating daily usage. Language specialization has become a major concern in the
revitalization of language. Most, but not every language that possess a variety of applications in
communication, came to be either impulsively or through decisions made randomly on the part
of academics and the government. This resulted in some form of language model.
Literature is the most significant factor in the development of language. Literature
authors are entitled to pick words among different forms, where they choose the ones they
personally use, if they are inborn speakers or the ones they perceive as the most appropriate and
admired. The word the authors perceive correct and appropriate are at times picked from the
commonly used forms of language in the media. An example of this is the situation of Hausa
whose legendary standard developed in the 20th century. The literal standardization of this
language was picked from a title of a newspaper. The influence of media is crucial in cases
where languages are endangered. Mass media also played an important role in the
standardization of languages that developed their standards recently (Adegbija 2004, Pg. 47).
2.4.1 Systematization and Functional Modification of Language
While standardization in the logic of focusing, irregular reduction and emergence of norm
appears to be a sociolinguistic worldwide, language systematization and making of rules is a

non-universal singularity. It clearly shows the signs of discovery in different cultures. Standard
languages are closely connected to the functional development of social, commercial and civil
life. It means that standard languages are not the same in different linguistic societies. Standard
languages are also practiced in different ways and communicative domains such as politics, law,
mass media and the others (Deumert 2004, Pg. 6). Moreover, deliberate systematization of
languages has been seen as a requirement in language systematization. Media has also played an
important role in the codification of languages leading to the language being used differently in
different societies. Different standardization of different language occurs due to the degree and
degree of using the media.
There is a close linkage of social media to language standardization in many societies. An
example of such a linguistic society is Europe. In Europe, language standardization is linked to
the media in several ways. Historical process of standardizing language in Europe always had a
connection to the influence of the printings by the mass media. There are theoretical contexts
that discusses the idea of language standardization across boundaries and the role of media in the
2.4.2 Tensions Caused by Mass Media across Ideological Boundaries
At the broadest levels of linguistics in a society, the idea of the enhancement of the
broadcast media on standardization, and the changes in language, appear to cause various
tensions. Sociolinguistics is an important subject that encompasses a wide variety of approaches.
Media influence on language is handled differently across and within the different approaches.
The geographical position where sociolinguistic is practiced seems to produce different
perspectives of what media is capable of doing on language (Bergs & Brinton 2012, Pg. 1078).

Media as having an Effect on Language Standardization

The idea of broadcasting that started with radios then followed on televisions, meant that
different standards of languages could occur to many vernacular speakers in their localities. It
also meant that different standards could be broadcasted and promoted by the producers of the
media. The widespread rate of repeated exposure to such standards, especially through
broadcasting of news, was thought to cause a fundamental loss of traditional tongues and change
towards standard norms. Particularly, it was because of the assumption that the standard would
not be pervasive but also prestigious in the society. Precisely, the level to which standardization
of language has happened in regard to linguistic structure, is not clear since the image appears to
differ according to the variety of linguistics and the context of sociolinguistic.
However, there exists suggestions of the media being the driving force for changes across
national standards. The changes of the Australian German in the direction of German German
that did not occur only in terms of terminologies is an example of such suggestions. There are
other instances where the implementation of difference in the standards of language are found.
To mention a few, the Danish, Dutch, the Swahili language, Japanese and Telegu happen to the
other features of standard languages. Several of these suggestions assume that the influence
brought by media on language standardization is just one factor among many. Education and a
rise in social and locational movement after the Second World War were other factors that
influenced language standardization (Tanaka 2004, Pg. 38).
In areas where the media is assumed to affect the structural situations of standardization,
signs of both predictable distance between the standard variety and local language and the
distance between the society and the culture are evident. These distances can be explained in
terms of the type and level of the varieties involved. The media appears to be an integral part in

the development of standard language principles that attach in composite and dynamic methods
with selections of variations in linguistics coming up as standards. Therefore, it is certain that the
media will impact the metalinguistic sentience of linguistic multiplicities and disparity, standard
and non-standard, and the theories that surround them. However, it remains unclear on the links
between media experience and engagement, change in language structure, and speakers
changing thoughts of variations in language that are partly made by their media exposure.
Media as having no impact in Language Standardization
There are arguments against media directly playing a role in the aspects of language
adjustment in the direction of standardization. It is because of diverse continuation and
documentation of non-standard languages, especially at the levels of phonology and morphosyntax. Full changes do not appear to have occurred on the language. These arguments differs
strongly from those made by linguists and sociolinguists of countries that do not speak English.
An example of this is in Germany where the national reduction in forms of language occurring in
spoken local tongues is said to have happened partly when radio broadcasting was introduced.
The general explanations of the ability of media to influence a change in the language support
the predictable shift (Bergs & Brinton 2012, Pg. 1078).
The concern with forming structural aspects of language shift accompanies a particular
ideological perspective that largely focuses on varieties on English language. Studies on
sociolinguistic variations ought to discount the impact of media on changes other than
terminologies and above the degree of mindful awareness. This is explained by the emphasis
made on identifying the primary methods of language change in instinctive low-level
modifications during interaction in the society. Whereas social interaction is the cause of
variation and modification, it is getting clear that much more prevents the linguistic result than

the corporal presence of the panelist. Another explanation is that an assumption made
concerning implicitly that media impact on language would have to involve complete
modifications in form and role is made.
Similarities between the two Approaches
Nevertheless, there are similarities in the ideologies. Interactional sociolinguistics
identifies the composite interchange of form and function in morphological variation. It is
differently signified in the substantial selection of media fields, formats and texts, and as it is
practiced within different communities. The large field of work on styling and stylization, that
includes crossing, ascertains information and accounts for the imaginative adoption of media
elements in language within the ideological context where they appear. Such adoption is
necessarily determined by the resolutions of communication in interaction. It is also exemplified
by largish portions, whose original prosodic attribution is identified by the interlocutor with
some depiction of unique prosodic characteristics of intonation and rhythm.
There is no direct evidence from research on the rejection or the acceptance of the role
played by media in enhancing social norms that consider speakers actual use of linguistics with
their said experience and engagement with the media. There are studies that differ in their
contents of media influence on the standards of language. The research conducted on
standardization of morpho-syntatic differences in the Brazilian Portuguese language reports
important correlations with the said media experience. It also reports an integrating media
exposure/engagement constraint. The research on the Saladino language differs from these
studies since it does not report on such findings.

Although the two theoretical views differ in their assumptions on the connection between
language in the media and the language in the society, data from both ideologies support each
other in apparently demarcating shifts in structure. These shifts occur at specified levels of
linguistics or the observable and recognizable linkage with certain media sources by
interlocutors, linguistic groups and language analysts (Stell 2004, Pg. 69). Precisely, both the
variationists and the interactional sociolinguists happen to struggle to prove that language has
changed due to media prototypes that are unavailable for metalinguistic cognizance or comment.
Combined, they both result to significant issues of the level of language and awareness
relating to the influence of media. However, there still remains the contradiction that language
principles developing from diversities and certain features of linguistics, are inherently structured
by the connection of local group knowledge, opinions, and ethics with those of the media.
Therefore, realizing that there is an expanding field of research on sociolinguist that
remunerates from the two perspectives, takes variation and change in language within the
advanced context of communication and the creation of social meaning at all intensities. It is also
vital to appreciate the gradually indistinct boundaries between the language from the media and
the language used in the community. Media language is a reflection, representation and
reproduction of sociolinguistic standards. It also provides new resources and creates new
standards, by giving new meaning of existing features in the linguistic society.
The idiomatic language represented by the media mirrors the trends of the community
usage and innovation. The use of colloquial language in a manner that some aspects of
interaction between the interlocutors are of high performance and created make it possible for the
speakers to complete certain roles for a given audience. An example is when the speaker changes
a language while performing narratives. The change focuses on the responsive state of those

participating and require a strong system of quotations and social symbols such as the use of
English intensifiers such as so really and totally. Such language changes enable dramatic
social appraisals.
It is difficult to differentiate between the ways of speaking in the community and the
media. It also happens to be more difficult to single out casual connections from the community
to the media. Such changes are hard to determine by only comparing the statistics of variations
between the language used in the community and by media. It is because a big change can
happen by a single occurrence of a modification within a media text (Bergs & Brinton 2012, Pg.
1079). Some changes are viewed as special since a connection between the possible shifting
ways presented by the language speakers on their social character to others can be predicted.
Therefore the changes in language are those that spread extremely rapidly across
communities. The changes can be geographically far from each other. Some changes carry
aspects of de-standardization where the languages shift far from the standards and shift to
various standards that operate in certain realms of use. Language standardization is not a 20th
century sensation, meaning that the responsibility for rapidly accelerating modification cannot be
based exclusively at the feet of the media.
There is uneasiness experienced within variationist sociolinguistics about the concept that
non-interactive exposure of speech and language could have a lasting impact on basic linguistic
patterning. The idea seems to be embedded in a precise conceptualization of how the influence of
media might be displayed in language. The discussed arguments against the influence of media
can only be unstated if one presumes powerful media, and a type of coinciding imprint of
linguistic media language appears on a passive speaker.

There are different views and arguments on whether media affects language
standardization. There are ideologies that argue that the standardization in language is indeed as
a result of the effects media impose while others argue that media has no role in the changes of
the language. However, from the views that arise from the combination of the two ideologies,
show that media plays a role in language standardizing. The idea bought from the view of the
combination of the two arguments is that there are other factors, such as social interaction, that
lead to the linguistic shift. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that media has led to
standardization in language in recent years due to the various effects it has had.

2.5. Effects of Social Media on the Youths

Social media has become the life blood of most of the youths in the modern world. The
youths continuously check text messages, update posts, and share photos on the media. They
spend most of their time on social online sites a condition that worsens every year. The youths
hold the anxiety to meet new individuals and make new friends. On the positive note, the social
media provides the field to do that. The youths interact with people from different parts of the
world. This adds on their general knowledge and enables the generation to endure the cultures
and beliefs that differ from theirs. The new technology that includes smart phones capable of
recording videos and taking photos, iPad, and tablets among others have influenced the
accessibility of internet and made it easier. Social media have both negative and positive effects
on the youths of today (Ruddock 2013, Pg. 22).
2.5.1. Negative Effects of Social Media on the Youths

There are negative effects that are imparted by media on youths due to their excessive use
and concentration.
Cyber Bullying
Cyber bullying is a type of intimidation that take various forms and it has existed since
the ancient era. Despite the internet provision of opportunities for affirming and expressing
oneself, the opportunities can turn out to be vessels for disparagement and cyber oppression. One
can be both hateful by the measure of inconspicuousness and the use of typed words rather than
face-to-face exchange of words. Cyber bullies feel that there are little or no consequences of their
actions since most adults appear slow in responding to bullying.
The degree of cyber bullying rises each day since an increasing number of youths are
using and completely embrace communication through computers and cell phones. The biggest
proportion of youths visit the internet daily to access materials that help them in their
assignments, to check on their friends, learn about public figures, share digital makings, and for
many other purpose (Chadwick 2014, Pg. 24). Since online communication has turned out to be a
significant element of their life, some choose to use the social media technology in a malicious
manner. The fact that youths are linked to the media throughout, it means that they are vulnerable
to victimization. Technological bullying has facilitated and amplified the pain in some youths to
levels that result to increased rates of suicide.
Sexting has become a common practice among the youths because of the social media.
Sexting is a situation where people transmit sex materials or messages through mobile phones,
while others post the materials on the internet. Despite this practice beginning as a way of flirting

among the youths, it leads to serious and legal consequences in the society. Anonymity is
enhanced by the internet where people are allowed to set unreal profile pictures. As a result,
many of the materials and the pictures that the youths post end up in the unintended hands. Many
youths happen to post half-naked photos of themselves on the internet whether by sending them
to friends or willingly posting them for anybody to view. Most of these images sent on the social
media are shared extensively among friends and even relatives. The victims become bullied and
humiliated by those that view the photos leading to the unexpected (Chambers 2013, Pg. 98).
This is a practice where individuals fault women and persecute them in public due to the
sexual decisions they make. It mostly happens when individuals spread false information that
concern the sexual activities of another. The people commonly involved in this practice are the
youths. Youths feel humiliated and inferior whenever their sexual activities are disclosed to their
relatives and close friends. Young girls are in most cases the victims and the actors such actions
whenever they rival or feel jealous of the others over a boyfriend.
The girls criticize others on the basis of their dressing modes and their companies that is
also a form of slut-shaming. The practice is quiet similar to bullying that lead to serious
consequences such as committing suicide. Slut-shaming spreads hatred among the youths instead
of unity and love. The minds of those involved are affected negatively where they grow with the
hatred and keep it for long. During clashes between tribes or other ethnic groups, the biggest
population of the participants happen to be the youths. It because of the hatred and the negativity
that is imparted in their minds through the social media.

Social media encourages immorality among the youths in the society. When a young
individual visits the social media to post or view pornographic materials, he or she becomes
affected morally. Whenever a youth views the pornographic materials, the urge to see the reality
and practice whatever is on the materials appears. It is when rates of immorality increase and
cases of early pregnancies become evident in the society. In the modern world, cases of early
parenting have extensively increased (Fuchs 2015, Pg. 129).
Moreover, early pregnancies and parenting due to immorality in the society that is
brought about by the influence of social media leads to negative consequences on the youths.
Young girls drop out of school due to the pregnancies a step that commences a new beginning in
life. Early parenting has several challenges to the young couple, especially girls, since they have
little or no knowledge at all of how to bring up children. Sometimes the men responsible want
nothing to do with the pregnancies leaving the girls to struggle and suffer alone in life.

2.5.2 Positive Effects of Social Media on the Youths

A large population of the youths visit the internet and use the media for positive gains and
interests. Therefore, there are several positive effects that social media imparts on this group of
The online education tools enable students to access and share past papers and other
revision materials that help them to pass their exams. The students take a step further and create
groups on Facebook and other social sites where they hold educational discussions, compare
notes and assist each other with assignments. The students enjoy the educational exposure by

learning online with all their friends in different areas of different societies. The teachers are able
to communicate and help their students whenever they are out for holidays. Conversely, the
students are able to ask their teachers questions in areas where they do not understand after
holding online discussions (Deen & Hendricks 2012, Pg. 57).
An improvement in grades and a reduced rate of absenteeism from the school or
educational programs is noticed. The improvement in grades occurs due to easy access of
educational materials and increased number of discussions held. Generally, the youths in school
become more involved in school and class activities more than ever before. Therefore, social
media encourages education leading to increased levels of knowledge and literacy among the
youths in the society.
Socialization and Communication among the youths
The youths stay connected to their friends and family members through social media.
From the earlier discussion, the youths are able to make new friends and share ideas with each
other in the social media. Participating in social media offers the adolescents a chance for selfviewing, and change their perception of their community and the world. Through socialization,
individual enhancement and collective creativity are made possible among the youths after
sharing ideas on inventive and music accomplishments.
Some youths are very shy when it comes to face-to-face socialization and interaction.
Social media offers them a place where they enhance their personality and abilities in socializing.
The identity and the unique social skills of the youths are fostered in the same process of
socializing through the media (Deen & Hendricks 2012, Pg. 23).

Development of awareness
Social media help in developing awareness among the youths in the society. Most youths
in the society lead a sheltered life under the protection of their parents and other relatives. Being
exposed to different forms of media outlets enables them to acquire an awareness of the world
and the society they live in. Development of social awareness in the youths helps in their
grooming and transformation to responsible members of a society (Deen & Hendricks 2012, Pg.
The youths face the reality of the world by reading newspapers and blogs on the social
media. They can now realize that a lot more awaits them in the outside world. Social media
through creation of awareness help solve situations where youths feel helpless after graduation
from colleges. Most youths feel that what they experience and face after school is not normal
since they had little or no knowledge of the world. Therefore, those that participate and embrace
social media early enough face no difficulties in development of their lives without the help of
their parents.
Since social media has both negative and positive effects on the youth, the youths happen
to be affected differently. Social media affects the youths according to their intentions of visiting
the sites. On one hand, social media has helped many youths to achieve success in life since they
approached in on a positive notation. Social media used in education, has helped students pass
their exams and earn good jobs. Others are helped engagement in the development of the society
through the social media. Many youths become celebrities by a positive use of the social media

through the activities and what they do in the social sites. On the other hand, individuals have
ended up as criminals and immoral beings in the society because of media. For example there
have been efforts by the governments to track those that spread hatred staff on the social media.
Those that are caught end up spending their lives in prisons which is a waste of God given life.
Others end up useless in the society by not achieving anything since they made bad use of the
media. Dropping out of school to become a parent hinders one from achieving his or her dreams.
The youth should hence take good care while using the social media since it can build them or
destroy them according to how it is used.