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A Study on Core Losses of Non-oriented
Electrical Steel Laminations under Sinusoidal,
Non-sinusoidal and PWM Voltage Supplies

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Non-sinusoidal and PWM Voltage Supplies

Wen-Chang Tsai

Department of Electrical Engineering

Kao Yuan University

Luju 82141, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Email: dougtsai@cc.kyu.edu.tw

found and studied in [2-3]. Estimations of core losses

under sinusoidal, square, non-sinusoidal and PWM

voltage supplies were compared and discussed in [4-7].

The measurement and prediction of core losses in the

induction motors fed by high frequency non-sinusoidal

and PWM voltage excitations were investigated in

[8-10]. References [11-12] proposed the evaluation

methods and presented analysis on core material for

motors in automobiles, hybrid or electrical vehicles.

The core losses of non-oriented electrical steel

laminations under sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal and PWM

voltage excitations at frequency range from 50 Hz to

400Hz are analyzed in the paper.

Abstract

The paper intends to study the iron losses of

non-oriented electrical steel laminations under sinusoidal,

non-sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies. The

measurement of core losses of electrical steel laminations

in Epstein Frame is implemented step by step from 50 Hz

to 400Hz. The accuracy of results is verified by simulated

modeling of the Ansoft EM software package. The core

losses of non-oriented electrical steel laminations under

sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal and PWM voltage excitations

are compared in the paper. The analyzed results provide

motor manufacturers with the important reference to

minimize the core losses of the special motors under

harmonic voltage supply.

II.

four-sided frame with 700 turns both on the primary and

the secondary windings. Steel samples (strips) should be

28 cm long (

2.05 cm) and 3 cm wide. They must be of

multiples of 4, with a recommended minimum number of

12 strips. Strips cut across the rolling direction are loaded

on the opposite sides of the frame, while those cut along

the rolling direction are loaded on the opposite sides. The

equivalent magnetic length is assumed to be 25 cm for

each side. The total magnetic length round the frame is 94

cm. A compensator coil, usually at the center of the

f

r

a

me

si

n

t

e

r

i

ori

sr

e

qu

i

r

e

dt

oc

ompe

ns

a

t

efor the mutual

air flux between the primary and secondary windings with

no lamination present. The design and detailed technical

issues are well addressed by [10], from which the ASTM

standards are based. The samples must be demagnetized

before testing to remove previous magnetic excitations on

the samples. Some of the shortcomings of this method are

that flux density is not uniformly distributed due to

leakage flux around the joints. The corners have been

found to cause errors. The magnetic length (94cm) is

estimated, not an accurate value [10].

Laminations, Sinusoidal, Non-sinusoidal, PWM, Epstein

Frame

I.

EPSTEIN FRAME

INTRODUCTION

Pulse width modulation (PWM) and nonsinusoidal voltages are widely supplied nowadays to

industrial motors. Variable-speed operation of motors

results in significant energy saving. The use of PWM

or non-sinusoidal voltages supplies leads to a general

loss increase both in the motor windings and in the

tested steel laminations. It becomes necessary for

motor designers to know details of the steel lamination

losses under non-sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies

by measurements in Epstein tester and computer

estimations. To motor designers, the steel lamination

losses are very important for the design of motors and

the improvement of their performances.

A number of methods to predict core losses under

sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal, and PWM voltage supplies

have been reported in the literatures [1-12]. In [1], a

general formula for prediction of iron losses under

non-sinusoidal voltage waveform was discussed.

Measured methods and predictions on change of iron

losses with the switching supply frequency in soft

magnetic materials supply by PWM inverter were

III.

MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES

properties of non-oriented electrical steel laminations

1

double-lap-jointed core sheets under voltage frequency

range from 50 to 400 Hz. The core loss, rms exciting

power, rms and peak exciting current can be obtained in

the test. Also, the ac permeability and related properties of

non-oriented materials are calculated under ac

magnetization. The test conditions that flux density is

increased from 0.03 to 1.5 Tesla and magnetic field

intensity is operated between 20 and 12000 A/m. The test

procedures are proceeded as follows

(1) Before testing, inspect the test specimens for length

if they conform to the expected length within 1/32

inch [0.8mm]. Also, check the test specimens if

they were dented, twisted, or distorted and if their

width is uniform. Accuracy of the specimen mass is

within 0.1%.

(2) Source voltage is supplied to coil circuit in primary

side to magnetize the test specimens to maximum

magnetic induction area. Then slowly and smoothly

reduce the voltage to a very low magnetic induction

to de-magnetize.

(3) After de-magnetization, quickly test the selected test

points, increase the input voltage to implement the

measurement of B-H curve.

(4) Core losses are found by multiplying the primary

current with the (induced) secondary winding

voltage to give the instantaneous power waveform,

whose average value equals the total core losses in

the test specimens.

(5) Obtain the rms exciting power.

(6) Calculate the ac permeability.

(7) Read data, draw B-H curve and store them to

personal computer

information of stress, strain, displacement etc.

(6) Rows, diagrams, or dynamic diagrams show the

simulation results.

A time-stepping finite element modeling is used for

the magnetic field. A 2D FEM of non-oriented

electrical steel laminations and induction coils in

Epstein test frame is shown as Fig. 1. The governing

equation for 2D FEM derived from Maxwell

s

equations is given by

A

(A) J 0 (0 M)

(1)

the magnetic reluctivity and the conductivity of

density of coils, 0 is the magnetic permeability of

The voltage equation for each phase can be

written by

Va I a R a L e

dI a da

dt

dt

(2)

current, the resistance, and the flux linkage of each

phase, respectively. L e is the end-coil inductance

calculated by equivalent method.

For the time-stepping finite element modeling,

time step is usually constant. The input voltage needs

to be defined for each time step. To improve the

sinusoidal waveform and accuracy of calculation, each

time step should be less than 0.01ms, particularly in

high frequency.

Ansoft-EM is a 2D/3D finite-element modeling

(FEM) analysis software, which is widely used to

analyze the engineering problems related on

electromagnetic analysis including linear, static,

dynamic, thermo and optimization etc.

The simulated machines must be defined by six

procedures in FEM software and then proceed the

analysis

(1) Definition of elements, sections, and materials

elements as a node and air gap in 0-Dimension;

a beam and a pillar in 1-Dimension; a disc and

shell in 2-Dimension; or a tetrahedron and

hexahedron in 3-Dimension etc.

(2) Draw out the global machine geometry

(3) Meshing divide small mesh to provide the

calculations in procedure (5). It may select the

direct meshing, manual meshing and adaptive

meshing methods.

(4) Definition of constraints and loads - constraints

is also called as boundary. Loads include

concentration, distribution, acceleration, and

preserved strain etc.

(5) Analysis - the procedure before/after analysis is

A. Calculation of Core losses

The core losses of magnetic materials in modern

studies can be grouped in three categories. First, when

a variable magnetic field excites magnetic materials,

the steady loss (hysteresis loss) occurs in Weiss area.

Secondly, due to excitation of magnetic fields,

abnormal eddy current results in the Barkausen jump

to get discontinuous shift of block walls. Since

Barkausen jump very fast, the dynamic losses due to

abnormal eddy current are called as the excess or

anomalous eddy loss. This abnormal eddy current is

different from the eddy current in the conductor in next

term. Last term is the classical eddy losses, which

caused by eddy current in the conductor. At a given

frequency, the core losses of electrical steel

laminations are based on

W T = Kh B max 2 f +K c (B max f)2+Ke(B max f)1.5 (3)

where K h is the hysteresis coefficient ; Kc is the

classical eddy coefficient ; Ke is the excess or

anomalous eddy current coefficient due to magnetic

2

density ; f is the frequency of exciting voltage.

finite-element modeling.

calculated in time domain or in frequency domain. This

result is known as Parseval theorem. In discrete function,

the power can be figured out in time domain and

frequency domain as follows:

pieces of test steel laminations (thickness =7.75mm

per piece) to measure core losses of non-oriented

electrical steel laminations as shown in Fig1.

In the Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), the PSDs of core losses

under square wave voltage supply at frequency 200Hz

and PWM voltage supply at frequency 400Hz are

reported respectively. The core losses of the tested

steel laminations in Fig. 4(a) are about 13 W/kg at

400Hz and 3.5W/kg at 800Hz. The core losses in Fig.

4(b) are approximate to 80 W/kg at 800Hz; 20W/kg at

1600Hz ...etc. Fig. 5(a) and Fig. 5(b) show the 2D

profiles of core losses under sinusoidal and square

wave voltage supplies at frequency 400Hz. The 2D

profile of core losses under sinusoidal PWM voltage

supplies at frequency 400Hz is shown in Fig. 5(c).

Comparison of core losses under sinusoidal, square,

and sinusoidal PWM voltage supplies at different

frequencies is made in the Fig. 6. It is evidently shown

that the sinusoidal PWM voltage results in the most

core losses. The sinusoidal wave voltage excites more

core losses than the square wave one on the test steel

laminations.

N

1

1

w

k

N

k 0

N

1

n

W

(4)

n 0

T, the mean squared amplitude can be indicated as

1

T

1

w

t dt

N

N

1

k

w

(5)

k 0

the core losses for electrical steel laminations can be

obtained as

N

1

W

n

w

k

e

j 2nk

N

n 0,1,2...N 1

(6)

k 0

accuracy

of

the

2D

VII. CONCLUSION

electrical steel laminations in Epstein test frame

consists of about 388 elements and 194 nodes as shown

in Fig. 1.

A.

applications of smooth speed control and significantly

reducing the starting current for motors. A great mount

of motor core losses and conductor copper losses are

caused by PWM harmonic current components,

resulting in the rise of temperature.

The paper investigates the core losses of

non-oriented electrical steel laminations under

sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal and PWM voltage supplies.

A 2D finite-element modeling was adopted to evaluate

the core losses of non-oriented electrical steel

laminations in the paper. The estimated results are

compared with the experimental measured value to

verify the accuracy of the 2D finite-element modeling.

Also, Discrete Fourier transform is used to analyze the

harmonic components of core losses.

The results clearly show that the varied rate of

flux density, the frequency of supply voltage, and the

shape of waveform significantly affect the core losses

of non-oriented electrical steel laminations. The

predicted and experimental results provide motor

manufacturers with the important reference to

minimize the core losses of the special motors under

harmonic voltage supply.

excite the non-oriented electrical steel laminations, the

flux density is enhanced quickly at the same time as

shown in Figs 2. After magnetic field intensity is

boosted close to 100 A/m, the increment of flux density

become slow and saturated. The core losses of

non-oriented electrical steel laminations are examined

in three test conditions:

(a) Supply voltage frequency is at 50Hz, 60Hz, 100Hz,

200Hz and 400Hz respectively.

(b) Flux density is varied from 0.03 to 1.5T by

increasing supply voltage.

(c) Magnetic field intensity is moved between 20 and

12000 A/m.

Fig. 2 (a) shows B-H curves while increasing flux

density =1.0 T at different sinusoidal voltage supplies.

The B-H Curve while increasing flux density =1.5 T at

different sinusoidal voltage supplies is presented in Fig.

2(b). Fig. 3 deals with the measured core loss vs. flux

density under sinusoidal voltage supplies at different

frequencies. Comparison between the measured and

computed core losses at different sinusoidal voltage

excitations is obtained in Table 1. The results are

VIII.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

High-Performance Computing for using the Ansoft-EM

software package during the course of this study. Also, the

Ansoft-EM software package in NCHC for his patient help

in the use and installation of the Ansoft-EM software

package (Maxwell 2D).

REFERENCES

M. Amar, and R. Kaczmarek,

A General Formula for

Prediction of Iron losses under Non-sinusoidal Voltage

Waveform,

IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 25042509,

Sept. 1995.

[2] A. Boglietti, P. Ferraris, M. Lazzari, and M. Pastorelli,

in Soft Magnetic Materials Supply by PWM Inverter,

IEEE

Trans. Magn., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 42504252, Nov. 1995.

[3] A. Boglietti, P. Ferraris, M. Lazzari, and M. Pastorelli,

About

the Possibility of Defining a Standard Method for Iron Loss

Measurement in Soft Magnetic Materials with Inverter

Supply,

IEEE Trans. Industry Application., vol. 33, no. 5, pp.

12831288, Sept./Oct. 1997.

[4] A.J. Moses, and J. Leicht,

Power Loss of Non Oriented

Electrical Steel Under Square Wave Excitation,

IEEE Trans.

Magn., vol. 37, no.4, pp. 27372739, July. 2001.

[5] Marcelo S. Lancarotte, and Aderbal de A. Penteado, Jr.

Non-sinusoidal Induction by Analysis of Magnetization Rate,

June 2001.

[6] Marcelo S. Lancarotte, Clovis Goldemberg and Aderbal de A.

Penteado, Jr.,

DC Bias Ripple Voltage Excitation,

IEEE Trans. Energy

Conversion, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 367372, June 2005.

[7] A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, and T. L. Mthombeni,

VoltagesUS and European Experiences,

IEEE IAS Annul

Meeting, pp. 14321436, Oct. 2005.

[8] R. Kaczmarek, M. Amar, and F. Protat,

Iron Losses Under

PWM Voltage Supply on Epstein Frame and in Induction

Motor Core,

IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 189194,

Jan. 1996.

[9] E. Nicol Hildebrand, and Hagen Roehrdanz,

Losses in

Three-Phase Induction Machines Fed by PWM Converter,

Sept. 2001.

[10] Lotten T Mthombeni and P. Pillay,

Core Losses in Motor

Laminations Exposed to High frequency or Non-sinusoidal

Excitation,

IEEE Trans. Industry Application, Vol. 40, no. 5,

pp.1325-1332, Sept./Oct. 2004.

[11] Atsuhito HONDA, Masayoshi ISHIDA and Kazuo SHIMADA,

Method,

Kawasaki Steel Technical Report, No. 43, pp. 3541,

Oct. 2000.

[12] Masao YABUMOTO, Chikara KAIDO, Takeaki WAKISAKA,

Takeshi KUBOTA and Noriyuki SUZUKI,

Electrical Steel

Sheet for Traction Motors of Hybrid or Electrical Vehicles ,

Nippon Steel Technical Report, No. 87, pp. 5761, July 2003.

[1]

at different sinusoidal voltage supplies

at different sinusoidal voltage supplies

Fig. 3 The measured core loss vs. flux density under sinusoidal voltage

supplies at different frequencies

Table 1 Comparison between the measured and computed core losses at

different frequencies and sinusoidal voltage excitations

Flux Density

0.5T

1.0T

1.5T

50Hz

0.517

(0.52)

1795

(1.804)

3.822

(3.934)

60Hz

0.75

(0.81)

2.15

(2.25)

4.88

(5.05)

100Hz

0.77

(0.79)

4.31

(4.42)

10.1

(10.33)

200Hz

1.39

(1.47)

10.8

(11.3)

30.3

(30.9)

400Hz

6.2

(6.5)

36.3

(37.8)

85.6

(88.3)

Frequency

laminations and induction coils in Epstein test frame

Fig. 4(a) The PSD of core losses under square wave voltage supply

at frequency 200Hz

Fig. 5(b) The 2D profile of core loss under square wave voltage

supplies at frequency 400Hz

Fig. 4(b) The PSD of core losses under PWM voltage supply

at frequency 400Hz

Fig. 5(c) The 2D profile of core loss under sinusoidal PWM voltage

supplies at frequency 400Hz

supplies at frequency 400Hz

PWM voltage supplies at different voltage frequencies

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