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Maira Gilian R.

Prado
CAS-06-801A

Seminar 2 / Fri- 3pm-6pm


Prof Montalbo

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY: OUTCOME 1 QUESTIONS


1. Personality is best defined as an individuals
a. Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
b. Most noticeable characteristics
c. Biologically inherited temperament
d. Hidden thoughts and emotions
Answer: a.
Personality can be defined as relatively stable and distinctive styles of thought,
behaviour, and emotional responses that characterize a persons adaptations to
surrounding circumstances. Thus, the concept of personality has been used to explain what
causes people to behave differently in the same situation and to explain an individuals
consistency in responding across situations. Personality results from the interplay of biological
and environmental factors. Different personality theorists emphasize different aspects of
personality and its development. Choices b, c and d are all not applicable except for a. Choice a
is the answer.
-FeistFeist.(2009). Theories of Personality (7th ed.). The McGrawHill Companies, Inc.
2. The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed
most directly to
a. Allports interest in personality traits
b. Freuds interest in unconscious conflicts
c. Maslows interest in self-actualization
d. Banduras interest in personal control
Answer: b.
Gordon Allport identified terms used to describe people which he believed could be grouped into
central traits. These central traits characterize each persons personality. Allport argued that
each individual had a unique personality, regardless of any general traits shared with others.
Thus, he is sometimes referred to as an idiographic theorist, a theorist who focuses on the
unique cluster of characteristics that distinguish each person from others. Abraham Maslow
believed that a persons primary motivation was self-actualization, but a hierarchy of needs must
first be satisfied. This hierarchy is a series of needs that all people have. When people have high
levels of self-efficacy, are confident in their reliance on proxies, and possess solid collective
efficacy, they will have considerable capacity to regulate their own behavior. Bandura (1994)
believes that people use both reactive and proactive strategies for self-regulation and selfcontrol. Choices a, c and d are all inapplicable to the statement. Choice b is the correct answer
because according Freud the unconscious is the major motivating force in human behavior.
Although we cannot directly experience the contents of the unconscious, the contents can reveal
themselves in unguarded moments through slips of the tongue, accidents, and revealing jokes.
-http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/intro/cafe/wort/olc/18454.htm

3. Free association is designed to

a. Reduce anxiety
b. Explore the unconscious
c. Give priority to group goals
d. Show total acceptance of another person
Answer: b.
Free association is a technique used in Freudian psychotherapy in which the therapist
instructs the patient to verbalize every thought that comes to mind, no matter how irrelevant or
repugnant it may appear.This technique uncover repressed memories. The purpose of free
association is to arrive at the unconscious by starting with a present conscious idea and
following it through a train of associations to wherever it leads. On the other hand, choice a
pertains to Defense Mechanism. A defense mechanism is a mental strategy that blocks the
harmful id impulse while reducing anxiety, while choice c pertains to Collectivism. In
sociocultural perspective, collectivists tend to define themselves in terms of the groups to which
they belong and to give priority to the groups goals. Hence, choice d pertains to Unconditional
Positive Regard (UPR). Carl Rogers referred it to an attitude of total acceptance toward another
person. Choices a, c and d are not applicable to the given question. Choice b is the answer.
-FeistFeist.(2009). Theories of Personality (7th ed.). The McGrawHill Companies, Inc.
4. While attending to college, Eris impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on
wine, women, and song. Freud would have suggested that Eris shows sign of a __________
a. Strong ego
b. Weak id
c. Electra complex
d. Weak superego
Answer: d.
Person of strong ego can resist immediate environmental and social pressure while
contemplating and choosing an appropriate course, and strong ego is further characterized in
the person who is not overwhelmed by his or her drives (but instead can direct them into useful
channels). The id is your infantile impulse which lacks social awareness and really doesnt care
what anyone thinks, as long as the needs are met and the id is satisfied. Hence, person with
weak id can resist impulses and will have control of it. The Electra complex is a psychoanalytic
term used to describe a girl's sense of competition with her mother for the affections of her
father. Choices a, b and c are all incorrect except choice d. A person with a weak superego will
be a delinquent, criminal, or antisocial personality. Thus, a weak superego, developed as a result
of abnormal relationships within the family, would result in a person with few if any of the usual
inhibitions against antisocial behaviour. They would act in ways that gratified their id,
regardless of the social restraints on doing so. Choice d is the correct answer.
-http://zazenlife.com/2013/08/01/idego-and-super-ego/
-http://www.psychlotron.org.uk/newResources/
criminological/A2_AQB_crim_psychodynamicTheories.pdf

5. The person-centered view of human nature is


a. Contends that people are basically competitive

b. Holds that humans are driven by irrational forces


c. Is rooted in a faith in the person's capacity to direct his or her own life
d. Assumes that, while humans have the potential for growth, there is a tendency toward
remaining stagnant
Answer: c.
Person-centered therapy, which is also known as client-centered, non-directive, or Rogerian
therapy, is an approach to counselling and psychotherapy that places much of the
responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective
role. Two primary goals of person-centered therapy are increased self-esteem and greater
openness to experience. Clients in person-centred therapy are often perceived to move, then, in
towards valuing the capacity to direct one's own life and rewards accepting and valuing one's self
and one's feelings, whether they are positive or negative. Choice b pertains to Psychoanalysis,
stating the Freud's notion that irrational forces drive human behaviour. Choice c is the
answer.
-http://www.elementsuk.com/libraryofarticles/personcentred.pdf
-http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html
6. According to Skinner what determines behavior?
a. Anger
b. Love
c. Our parents
d. Reinforcers, cognitive and thought processes
Answer: d.
B. F. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists. A behaviorist, he
developed the theory of operant conditioning -- the idea that behavior is determined by its
consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the
behavior will occur again. According to his view, people have consistent behavior patterns
because they have particular kinds of response tendencies. This means that over time, people
learn to behave in particular ways depending on reinforcers, their cognitive and thought
processes. Behaviors that have positive consequences tend to increase, while behaviors that have
negative consequences tend to decrease. Choice d is the answer.
-http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/famous_
psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_famous_b_f_skinner.htm

7. A boy's sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what
Freud called
a. reaction formation
b. Oedipus complex
c. reciprocal determinism
d. an oral fixation
Answer: b
Choices a, c and d are not applicable to the question. Reaction formation is a defense
mechanism in which a person represses one impulse and adopts the exact opposite form of
behavior, which ordinarily is exaggerated and ostentatious. Reciprocal determinism is a model
composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, the individual, and the
behavior itself. Essentially, Bandura believes that an individual's behavior influences and is

influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics. While, oral fixation: Freud
proposed that if there is any thwarting of the infant's libidinal desires in the oral stage, i.e. if the
child's breastfeeding is neglected or over-provided, or if he or she is weaned too late or too early,
he or she may become orally-fixated as an adult. This oral fixation can manifest itself in a
number of ways. It may result in a desire for constant oral stimulation, such as through eating,
smoking, alcoholism, nail-biting and thumb-sucking. Oedipus complex is the term used by
Freud to indicate the situation in which the child of either sex develops feelings of love and/or
hostility for the parent. In the simple male Oedipus complex, the boy has incestuous feelings of
love for the mother and hostility toward the father. Choice b is the answer.
-FeistFeist.(2009). Theories of Personality (7th ed.). The McGrawHill Companies, Inc.
8. Adler believed that human behavior is:
a. Motivated by sexual urges
b. Motivated by rewards
c. Purposeful and goal-directed
d. All of the above
Answer: c
Choice a is stated by Freuds theory of Psychoanalysis which stated that libido or sexual urges
motivates human behaviour. Freud believed that children are born with a libido a sexual
(pleasure) urge. Likewise, choice b is stated by Skinner theory of Reinforcement which include
punishment and rewards. Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by providing a
consequence an individual finds rewarding. For example, if your teacher gives you 5 each time
you complete your homework (i.e. a reward) you will be more likely to repeat this behavior in
the future, thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework.
On the otherhand, choice c is the answer. According to Adler, humans are motivated primarily
by social-relatedness rather than by sexual urges; behavior is purposeful and goaldirected; and consciousness more than unconsciousness is the focus of therapy. All human
behavior has a purpose. Humans set goals for themselves, and behavior becomes unified in the
context of these goals. The concept of the purposeful nature of behavior is perhaps the
cornerstone of Adlers theory.
-http://www.simplypsychology.org/Sigmund-Freud.html
-http://counsellingtheories.blogspot.com/2011/01/adlerian-therapy.html
9. The following are all key concept of Gestalt therapy except,
a. Acceptance of personal responsibility
b. Intellectual understanding of one's problems
c. Awareness
d. Unfinished business
Answer: b.
Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological-existential therapy founded by Frederick (Fritz) and
Laura Perls in the 1940s. Patients and therapists in Gestalt therapy dialogue, that is,
communicate their phenomenological perspectives. Differences in perspectives become the
focus of experimentation and continued dialogue. The goal is for clients to become aware of
what they are doing, how they are doing it, and how they can change themselves, and at the
same time, to learn to accept and value themselves. Gestalt therapy focuses more on process

(what is happening) than content (what is being discussed). The emphasis is on what is being
done, thought and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should be.
Moreover, it emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's
experience in the present moment, the therapistclient relationship, the environmental and
social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of
their overall situation. The key concepts of gestalt therapy include figure and ground,
balance and polarities, awareness, present-centeredness, unfinished business, and
personal responsibility. Internal processing occurs through focusing inwards. To engage in
internal processing, attention has to be directed inwards. The processing in a group can be
assisted through the use of questions to increase awareness. The processing involved in the
development of authentic living was compared by Perls (1973) to the peeling of an onion. This
gradual unfolding can be viewed through five layers of functioning: the clich or phony, the role
playing or phobic, the impasse, the implosive, and the explosive. Choice b is the correct answer,
thus it is not included as key concept of Gestalt therapy.
-O'Leary, E. (2013) Key Concepts of Gestalt Therapy and Processing, in Gestalt Therapy Around the
World (ed E. O'Leary), John Wiley & Sons, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118323410.ch2

10.

The basic goal of existential therapy is:


a. To expand self-awareness
b. To increase choice potentials
c. To help clients accept the responsibility of choosing
d. To help the client experience authentic existence
e. All of the above
Answer: e.
Existential therapy is best considered as an invitation to clients to recognize the ways in which
they are not living fully authentic lives and to make choices that will lead to their becoming what
they are capable of being. An aim of therapy is to assist clients in moving toward authenticity
and learning to recognize when they are deceiving themselves. Existential therapy seeks to take
clients out of their rigid grooves and to challenge the narrow and compulsive trends blocking
their freedom. Existential therapy aims at helping clients face this anxiety and engage in action
that is based on the authentic purpose of creating a worthy existence. The purpose of
psychotherapy is not to cure the clients in the conventional sense, but to help them become
aware of what they are doing and to get them out of the victim role. (May, 1981, page 210).
Increased awareness is the central goal of existential therapy, which allows clients to discover
that alternative possibilities exist where none were recognized before. Clients come to realize
that they are able to make changes in their way of being in the world. This requires some time in
existential therapy, for it is not a matter of solving problems. Short-term applications of
existential therapy require clearly defined and less ambitious therapy goals.
-http://counsellingtheories.blogspot.com/2011/01/existential-therapy.html