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Unit 3 Psychology

Chapter 1 Research Methodologies


Variables:
Independent: the variable that is systematically manipulated.
Dependent: the variable which measures the effects of the IV.
Extraneous: a variable that may or may not have an effect on the DV.
Confounding: a variable that had an undesired effect on the DV

Research Designs:
Matched Participants Design: pairing based on similar characteristics, minimising
extraneous variables
Repeated Measures Design: one group that is exposed to both the experimental
group and the control group. Eliminating extraneous variables
Independent Groups Design: randomly allocating the members of the sample to
either the experimental or control group.
Types of Sampling:
Convenience: selection due to availability.
Random: planned and systematic system of selecting participants for study.
Stratified: breaking the population into distinct sub-groups, selecting sample
from each group to represent the population
Random-Stratified: breaking the population into subgroups and selecting
randomly from these subgroups.
Procedures:
Counterbalancing: control the order effects like practice & carry-over effects.
Attempts to control the unwanted effects on performance of any one order by
systematically changing the order of the treatments in a balanced way
Single-Blind: eliminates the placebo effect. Participants are unaware of whether
they are experimental or control groups.
Double-Blind: the experimenter is unaware of which participant is exposed to
either the experimental or control group. Controlling experimenter effects.
Placebo: is a fake treatment used in the control group to compare to the
experimental group.

Standardised Instructions and Procedures:


Standardised: pre-rehearsed sets of instructions that are expressed to the
participants with a neutral voice by the researcher. They also have answers that
are anticipated for questions that may arise.
Non-Standardised: each participant will partake in a similar but different
experiment.
Generalising: when findings are applied to the general population. Must meet the
following criteria:
-

Statistically significant results, sample is representative of the population,


method of sampling is appropriate, wherever possible the extraneous and
confounding variables have been controlled.

Conclusions: a decision or judgement about the research results that address the
hypothesis and are statistically significant.
Statistical Significance:
P-values:
Less than 0.05 (p<0.05)
- Not significant
- Results are due to chance
- Hypothesis is rejected

Greater than 0.05 (p>0.05)


- Results are statistically
significant
- Due to independent variable
- Hypothesis is accepted and
conclusions are drawn

Random Allocation: a technique that ensures the each participant has an equal
chance of being selected into either the control or experimental group.
Experimental Group: the group exposed to the IV which is the variable being
manipulated.
Control Group: the variable under investigation in the experimental group is
absent from the control group.
Ethical Principles
Beneficence: no harm to the participant, maximise benefit to society.
Respect for persons: no harm to the participant, maximise benefit to society.
Participant rights: all participants rights must be upheld.
Voluntary participation: participant must willingly give consent to partake in the
experiment.
Informed consent: participant or guardian must be informed of what the
experiment entails.

Confidentiality: results and the identity of the participant remain private.


Withdrawal rights: all participants have the right to leave the experiment at any
time.
Psychological harm: there must be no long term mental harm to the participant
as a result of the experiment.
Debriefing: participants must be made aware of the purpose of the experiment
and counselling needs to be provided if needed.
Deception: the participant may be unaware of a particular detail of the
experiment but has to be told at the end.

Chapter 2 - States of Consciousness


Normal-waking consciousness (NWC): when we are awake and aware of our
internal and external environments and stimuli.
Altered-State of Consciousness: distinctly different in experience from NWC.
Characteristic

Normal Waking
Consciousness

Altered State of
Consciousness

Content Limitations

More
constrained/controlled,
can selectively process
different parts of what is
in consciousness

Perceptual Distortions

Usual level of awareness


of sensory stimuli;
including pain, usually
accurate perceptual
processing of events
Effective control of
memory processes (recall
is more organised and
logical)

Less
constrained/controlled:
reduced ability to process
information, but may be
fewer limitations on
content of which we
become aware of
Heightened or lowered
sensory thresholds,
including pain and
hallucinations

Cognitive Distortions

Emotional Awareness

Greater awareness of
emotions and control of
emotional responsiveness

Memory processes may


be interrupted or
distorted; storage and
recall fragmented,
disorganised and illogical
Less control of emotions.
Emotional responsiveness
and expressiveness may
be heightened or
dampened (more or less
affectionate/aggressive)

Self- Control

More control over actions


and movements, ability
to focus selectively on
own thoughts and
behaviours

Time Orientation

Clear sense of time

Less control over actions


and movements,
emotions/thoughts,
decrease of self- control,
greater susceptibility to
suggestion
Distorted sense of time,
time either appears to
speed up or slow down

Typical Altered States of Consciousness


Daydreaming: when attention shifts from external stimuli to internal thoughts,
feelings and fantasies. We are usually unaware of the shift into daydreaming.
Alcohol- Induced (ASC purposely induced): may be aware or unaware of
the shift into this state. Change in consciousness is due to alcohol consumption.
The effects of alcoholism rely on many variables (age, weight, gender etc.)
We experience changes in:
-

Level of awareness of external stimuli and personal awareness (lowered)


Content limitations (minimal)
Perceptual distortions (high level)
Cognitive distortions (high level)
Time orientation (distorted)
Emotional awareness (distorted)
Self-control (lowered)

Control Processes: conscious alert awareness and mental effort in which the
individual actively focuses their attention on achieving a particular goal.
Automatic Processes: little conscious awareness and mental effort, minimal
attention and does not interfere with performance or other activities.

Chapter 3 - Sleep
Sleep is a naturally and regularly occurring ASC.
Why is it classified as an ASC?
-

Loss of consciousness
Distortion of perception of time
Period occurrence of dreams
Is triggered by the hormone Melatonin

Purpose of Sleep: There are two theories related to the purpose of


sleep

Restorative Theory: states that sleep is essential to replenish energy by


taking a time out from the activities during our waking time where we use
up our physical and mental resources and repair our bodies.
Survival Theory: As we are heavily reliant on light and there are many
dangers at night, we sleep. The loss of consciousness increases our chance of
being harmed as we cant defend ourselves.

Characteristics and Patterns of NREM and REM Sleep


Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM):
Stage One: Alpha > Theta waves. Our lightest stage of sleep.
Stage Two: mostly Theta waves. Light sleep, spindles and K-complexes occur
during this stage of sleep.
Stage Three: Theta > Delta waves, also known as slow wave sleep and is a
moderately deep sleep stage.
Stage Four: Delta waves, deepest stage of sleep, sleep walking may occur
during this stage and we are extremely relaxed.

80 - 120 Minutes Duration

Rapid Eye Movement (REM): consists mostly of beta-like waves, we dream,


also called paradoxical sleep coma-like ie. Brain is active but we are unable to
move, more vivid and memorable dreams.
1. A > T 2. T 3. T > D

4. D

ATTTDD order of waves (NREM)

Ways Of Measuring Physiological Responses During Sleep


DARE ~ detects, amplifies, records electrical activity of the
Electroencephalograph (ECG): detects, amplifies and records the electrical
activity of the brain.
Electromyograph (EMG): detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity
of the muscles.
Electro-oculargraph (EOG): detects, amplifies and records the electrical
activity of the muscles around the eyes.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR): measures the electrical conductivity of the
skin via how much sweat is produced.
Heart Rate: decreases as NREM progresses.
Body Temperatures: drops approximately 1o C during NREM

Polysomonography: the study of sleep in a laboratory setting.

The Effects of Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation


Total Sleep Deprivation: no sleep at all for at least, 24 hours.
Partial Sleep Deprivation: less sleep than what is needed.
Psychological Effects:
-

Cognitive: loss of concentration slowed mental reaction time, short


attention span.
Behavioural: loss of motivation, long term effects: paranoia, depression
and anxiety.
Emotional: moodiness, irritability and hallucinations.

Physiological Effects: droopy eyelids, slurred speech, hand tremors, fatigue


and micro-sleeps.
Micro-sleep: short period of drowsiness or sleep when awake. Occurs after 3-4
days of total sleep deprivation.
REM Rebound: involves catching up on REM sleep immediately following a
period of lost REM sleep by spending more time than usual in REM during your
next sleeping period.
Sleep- wake cycle shift during adolescence
We have a delayed sleep onset meaning that we go to sleep 2 hours later than
adults and children. 20-30% REM and 70-80% NREM sleep because a great deal
of information is being learnt.
Sleeping Patterns:
Children: 25% REM and 75% NREM 12 hours per night
Adults: 20% REM and 80% NREM 6 hours per night

Chapter 4 - The Central Nervous System


Functions and Roles of the CNS
Central Nervous System: consists of the brain and spinal cord and transmits
and receives messages to and from the PNS.

Structure of the Brain


Frontal Lobe: higher mental functioning: logical thinking, planning and
reasoning.
Receiving and coordinating messages from other lobes.
Motor Control: planning, initiating and performing voluntary movement.
Located at the frontal area of the brain and is the largest lobe.
-

Primary Motor Cortex: (located at the back/top of the Frontal Lobe)


responsible for sending messages to various parts of the body to make
them move voluntarily. Controlling voluntary movements through its
control of skeletal muscles.

Parietal Lobe: registers sensory information (touch, pain, pressure,


temperature and bodily movements).
RIGHT parietal lobe plays a key role in spatial orientation and perceiving 3D
shapes and designs.
LEFT parietal lobe plays a role in reading, writing, and performing mental
arithmetic.
Located at the top of the brain behind the Frontal Lobe
-

Primary Somatosensory Cortex: (located at the top of the brain


alongside the Primary Motor Cortex) responsible for receiving and
processing sensory information from the skin and body enabling us to
perceive bodily sensations.

Temporal Lobe: primarily involved with auditory perception but also plays an
important role in; memory, aspects of visual perception (ability to recognise
faces (RIGHT side), identifying objects, our emotional responses to sensory
information and memories.
-

Primary Auditory Cortex: receives and processes sounds from both


ears. Verbal sounds are processed in the LEFT side (Wernickes Area). Nonverbal such as music processed in the RIGHT side.

Occipital Lobe: the back area of the brain which is responsible for processing
and receiving visual information.
Information from the LEFT visual field is processed in the RIGHT HEMISPHERE
and information from the RIGHT visual field is processed in the LEFT
HEMISPHERE.

Primary Visual Cortex: where visual information is perceived. Visual


information comes from the photoreceptor cells in the retinas of the eyes.

ASSOCIATIVE AREA: these areas process and combine information from the
senses and relate them to higher mental ability.
Hemispheric Specialisation
The idea that one hemisphere has specialised functions or exerts greater
control over a particular function.
Left Hemisphere
- Receives and processes
sensations from the RIGHT side
of the body
-

Controls voluntary movements


on the RIGHT side of the body
-

Verbal tasks (eg; speech


production (Brocas Area),
comprehension (Wernickes Area)
and reading and writing)
-

Right Hemisphere
- Receives and processes
sensations from the LEFT side of
the body
-

Controls voluntary movements


on the LEFT side of the body

Non-verbal tasks processing the


whole rather than the bits
-

Spatial and visual thinking


(solving a jigsaw puzzle,
mapping, visualising a location)

Analysis (maths, sequential tasks


& evaluation)
- Logical reasoning

Creativity (new ideas)

Fantasy (daydreaming)

Appreciation of art and music


-

Facial recognition & object


identification
Recognising emotions (body
language: facial expressions)

Aphasias
Aphasia is defined as an apparent language disorder regarding speaking, writing
or reading.
Brocas Aphasia: sufferers experience difficulty speaking clearly.

Speech is broken, short incoherent sentences and words are not


linked properly.

Occurs as a result of damage to Brocas Area which is located in the Frontal Lobe
of the LEFT hemisphere.

Wernickes Aphasia: sufferers experience difficulty understanding


(comprehending) speech and speaking and writing in a meaningful way.
-

Talking nonsense I used to be able to work cigarettes


Difficulty understanding

Occurs as a result of damage to Wernickes Area that is located in the Temporal


Lobe in the LEFT hemisphere. Near the Primary Auditory Cortex.
Spatial Neglect
Spatial neglect is when an individual fails to recognise anything in their right or
left side.
The RIGHT hemisphere is generally responsible for spatial perception.
Spatial neglect does not affect memory; things are just overlooked or ignored.
Occurs from damage to the RIGHT Parietal Lobe.
Split-Brain studies of Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga
They concluded that information from the RIGHT visual field went to the LEFT
side of the eye and therefore the LEFT hemisphere processed that visual
information.
RLL
They also concluded that anything in the LEFT visual field went to the RIGHT side
of the eye and was processed in the RIGHT visual cortex. The patient can think or
draw what the object is with their LEFT hand but cannot say what it is because
only the LEFT hemisphere can produce speech.
LRR

Chapter 5 - The Peripheral Nervous System


Carries messages to and from the CNS and consists of the Autonomic and
Somatic Nervous Systems. The Autonomic Nervous System is broken down into
the Parasympathetic Nervous System and the Sympathetic Nervous System.
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls all involuntary functions. Self-regulating visceral muscles in organs
and glands (stomach, lungs and heart)
Sympathetic Nervous System (branch of ANS)
Prepares the muscles, organs and glands for vigorous activity or stressful/
threatening situations

Fight Flight Response


An involuntary reaction resulting in a state of physical readiness to deal with a
sudden and immediate threat by either confronting it (fight) or running away to
safety (flight)
-

Increases HR, RR and BP.


- Releases Adrenaline
- Sweat glands cool the body
- Releases sugars and fats needed for energy
Hormones linger in the blood stream for quite some time

Parasympathetic Nervous System (branch of ANS)


Ensures that the body is functioning efficiently and maintaining
homeostasis (balance), returns the body to calm and is more dominant
than the Sympathetic Nervous System.
-

- Decreases HR, BP and RR.


Produces tears and contracts the pupils in your eyes.
- Stimulates stomach and intestines to digest foods.
Somatic Nervous System

Controls all voluntary functions, controls all skeletal muscles attached to bones
and carries messages from the sensory receptors in the body to the CNS.

Chapter 6 - Models For Explaining Human Memory


Atkinson-Shiffrin Multi-Store Model of Memory
Sensory Memory: Incoming sensory information from the environment is
registered in the sensory registers. The stimulus will need to be attended to in
order to be transferred to STM. The capacity is unlimited and the duration of
iconic and echoic memory traces are 0.3-0.4 seconds and 3-4 seconds,
respectively. Iconic memory is short because if held too long, the visuals would
begin to blur. Echoic memory is help for longer as it takes longer for auditory
information to be processed and this allows for the smooth flow of sounds and
helps to enable us to comprehend speech. If a stimulus is not attended to, it is
forgotten.
Short- Term Memory (working memory): Short term memory can hold a
maximum of 7+/- 2 items. The duration is 12-20 seconds whereby from 12
seconds onwards, the information begins to decay unless rehearsed through
maintenance rehearsal (repetition of information so that it is retained in STM).
Information is brought to STM from sensory memory when attended to.
Long Term Memory: Long term memory is where meaningful and important
memories are stored. It has unlimited capacity and relatively permanent storage
(depending on how well the information is encoded). In order to strengthen the
encoding of information in LTM, we use elaborative rehearsal. Elaborative

rehearsal is how we make information memorable and meaningful by relating or


linking it to other knowledge that is already stored in LTM.
Chunking (STM): the grouping of larger pieces of information into groups. Thus
increasing the capacity of items in STM. Eg. 1-2-3-4-5-6 vs. 123-456.
Displacement (STM): due to the very limited capacity of STM, items are easily
displaced. Eg. Call Sensis 1234 and ask for a number, ie. (03) 9765 6537, (03) =
prior knowledge, and after, the operator says have a good day, by this time
you will have displaced at least, 4 numbers.
Serial Position Effect: Refers to the information that is more likely
remembered at the beginning and end of a list compared to the inferior recall of
items throughout the middle of a list. This is as a result of the Primacy and
Recency Effects. Primary items were rehearsed and stored in LTM and Recency
items were rehearsed and retained in STM. After approximately 30 seconds, the
Recency effect is often diminished due to the limited duration of STM.
Baddeley and Hitchs Model of Work Memory

Central Executive: working component of working memory. Integrates


information from the Phonological Loop and the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad.
Controls attention, Coordinates material, performs calculations, and makes
decisions and analyses information.
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad: temporarily stores visual and spatial information.
Responsible for: spatial orientation, imagery, awareness of environment and
visualisation.
Phonological Loop: Stores verbal-like speech information for a brief period of
time. Responsible for: sounds, words, speech, numbers and requires internal
rehearsal to retain information.
Episodic Buffer: a sub system of working memory that enables the different
components of working memory to interact with LTM. It can hold information in
any form & has a limited capacity of 4 chunks and can combine information from
other subsystems.

Craik and Lockharts Levels of Processing Framework


Shallow Processing ~ Structural encoding (Looks like) analysis of visual
features (capital letters) Maintenance rehearsal is used to retain this
information.
Intermediate Processing ~ Phonemic (Sounds like). The stimulus is
recognised and named (rhyming a list of words)
Deep Processing ~ Semantic (meaning) is applied to new information, linking it
to old information already stored in LTM. (Elaborative rehearsal)
Each process involves a deeper level of encoding.

Organisation of Long Term Memories


Explicit Memories: information in
memory that can be consciously or
intentionally retrieved and stated.

Declarative Memory: long term


memory for the specific facts and
events that can be brought consciously
to mind and explicitly declared
Episodic
Semantic
Memory: LTM
Memory: Stores
subsystem of
information about
declarative
facts of the
memory that
world. Eg.
stores
Helsinki is the
information about capital of Finland.
specific events or
I KNOW
personal
experiences.
I REMEMBER

Implicit Memories: when retrieval


occurs without conscious or intentional
effort but the memory can only be
expressed through actions or
behaviour.
Procedural Memory: the memory of
how to perform a particular task. HOW

Semantic Network Theory ~


The organisation in LTM in terms of overlapping networks on interconnected
concepts (nodes); activating one node during retrieval increases the likelihood
that associated nodes become activated.

Chapter 7 - Mechanisms of Memory Formation

The neuron in memory formation ~


Neuron a nerve cell specialised to receive and process and or transmit
information to other cells in the body.
Neurotransmitter a chemical made by the neuron that transfers information
between neurons ultimately enabling communication between neurons.
Dendrites the start (or tree branches) part of a neuron that receives
information from other neurons and send it to the soma.
Synapse - the end of the axon terminals is the site that the neurotransmitters
cross to communicate with other neurons.
Synaptic Gap the space between the axon terminal of a pre-synaptic neuron
and the dendrite of a post-synaptic neuron.

Long Term Potentiation (LTP)


Refers to the long-lasting strengthening of the synaptic connections of neurons,
resulting in the enhanced functions of neurons whenever they are activated
Consolidation Theory
Refers to the structural, physical and chemical changes to the neurons in the
brain when something new is learnt. Think about wet cement.
If this process is interrupted, the memory may not set and could be damaged or
distorted.
Both the hippocampus and the amygdala play crucial roles in the FORMATION of
memory.
This process of consolidation usually takes 30 minutes without interruptions.
Involves the formation of a new LTM
Reconsolidation
After a memory is activated and retrieved from LTM, it needs to be consolidated
again in order to be stored back in LTM.

Role of the Temporal Lobe, including the Hippocampus and the


Amygdala
Hippocampus
Located in the medial Temporal Lobe of both hemispheres

Assists the formation of memories, sorting and storage and the transfer of
information from STM to LTM
It is the location where explicit (factual) memories and declarative (kind of fact)
memories are formed.
Its main role is to consolidate memories.
No memories are stored here!

Amygdala
Located in the medial Temporal Lobe alongside the Hippocampus in both
hemispheres of the brain
Assists in the formation of implicit memories and procedural memories as well as
the development of phobias
Also where emotional memories (declarative memories with emotion context,
especially episodic memories) are formed
Plays a crucial role in the acquisition of conditioned (learned) emotional
responses and the encoding and storage of emotional memories
Emotions enhance memories.

Memory Decline over the life-span


Short Term Memory
The impact of age on STM is related to the task at hand. If the task is simply
memorising a list of words for example, STM will not be impaired.
However, if the task is complex and requires simultaneous storage and
manipulation of information or when attention is divided between tasks, then age
can impact on the STM efficiency of these tasks.
The nervous systems of older people tend to be less efficient at receiving and
transmitting information. Therefore, STM is much slower.

Long Term Memory


Episodic memory is more susceptible to decline, even as an individual reaches
their mid 30s.

Semantic & Procedural memories are less easily lost but are slower in forming as
age increases.
We tend to take longer to learn new information and skills in older age.

Amnesia
Amnesia: refers to the loss of memory, partial or complete, temporary or
permanent. Occurs as a result of brain trauma.
Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to
form new memories after the brain
trauma has occurred. This is
PERMANENT brain damage.

Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting of


memories leading up to the trauma.
This is TEMPORARY and memories are
regained gradually.

Neurodegenerative Disease
The progressive decline in the structure, activity and function of brain tissue, As
a result of genetics, prolonged alcoholism, tumours, strokes, toxins, chemicals or
virus
Dementia
An umbrella term used to describe a
variety of symptoms of
neurodegenerative diseases. Prominent
symptoms include; memory loss,
decline in mental abilities (reasoning,
problem solving & decision making).
Behavioural changes: repeating the
same stories, more assertive,
withdrawn, less flexible & loss of
interest.

Alzheimers Disease
A type of dementia characterised by
the gradual widespread degeneration
of neurons, causing memory loss,
personality changes and a decline in
social and cognitive (mental) skills.
Lower levels of the neurotransmitter
Ach (acetylcholine)
Amyloid plaques and tangles
interfering with the neural connections
in the brain

Chapter 8 - Forgetting
Forgetting Curve Hermann Ebbinghaus

Shows the rate and amount of memory decline that occurs over time
Our ability to recall learned information over time decreases. The forgetting
curve shows that recall declines 40% after 20 minutes, 56% over 1 hour and
more than 70% after 9 hours. From 2 days onwards, the curve sits at around
20%. Recall after 20 minutes is 60%, 1 hour 44%, 30% at 9 hours.
Criticisms
Some say that the curve is too dramatic as it does not account for certain
factors.
It does not account for the fact that the more meaningful the information, the
slower the rate of forgetting is.

Theories of Forgetting
Retrieval Failure Theory: refers to the inability to retrieve information due to
the absence of correct or appropriate cues or failure to use cues.
Also referred to as cue dependent forgetting
The amount of information retrieved from LTM depends on the cue that is used at
that point in time.
Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon (TOT): the feeling of being aware of knowing
something and being confident that it will be remembered, but unable to retrieve
the information at that point in time.
Retrieval Cue: any stimulus that assists the process of locating and recovering
information that is stored in LTM.
Strengths:
- Research evidence supports this
theory. Studies of recall vs.
recognition
show
that
the
amount of forgetting can be
greatly reduced when retrieval
cues are made available.

Weaknesses:
- The theory doesnt explain why
there is failure to retrieve some
memories and not others.
- Does not explain the failure to
retrieve certain anxiety-laden
memories.

Interference Theory: proposes that forgetting in LTM occurs because other


memories interfere with the retrieval of what we are trying to recover,
particularly if the other memories are similar.
Retroactive Interference
When NEW information interferes with
the ability to remember OLD
information.

Proactive Interference
When OLD information interferes with
the ability to remember NEW
information

Strengths
- Supported by considerable
empirical evidence
- It is a useful explanation of times
as a variable impacting on
interference-based forgetting.

Limitations
- The theory doesnt account for
forgetting that is due to out use
of inappropriate or faulty
retrieval cues
- Nor does it account for the
memories that are lost or
disrupted due to brain trauma or
a neurodegenerative disease

Motivated Forgetting: forgetting that occurs from a strong motive or desire to


forget, this is usually because the experience is too disturbing or upsetting to
remember.
Repression
UNCONCIOUSLY blocking a memory of
an event or experience from entering
conscious awareness.

Suppression
Involves being MOTIVATED to forget an
event or experience by making a
DELIBERATE conscious effort to keep it
out of conscious awareness.

Strengths
- Explanation that some forgetting
occurs due to an individuals
conscious or unconscious needs,
fears, anxieties and desires.
- Some empirical evidence to
support it (mainly supporting
suppression)

Limitations
- Limited empirical evidencerelatively impossible to
investigate the existence of
repressed memories.
- Investigation repressed
memories raises ethical issues
about the psychological
wellbeing of research
participants

Decay Theory: suggest that forgetting occurs because memory traces (neural
representations of memories) fade through disuse as time goes by and unless
reactivated through occasional use.
It is a psychological process and states that neural pathways become weaker
when not used.
Strengths
- Explains some forgetting

Limitations
- Does not account for disrupted
or lost memories due to

interference or as a
consequence of brain trauma.
Not as relevant to LTM as it is to
STM.

Chapter 9 - Manipulation and Improvement of Memory


Recall; involves reproducing information that is stored in LTM.
Free Recall

Cued Recall

Serial Recall

Reproducing as much
information as possible in
no particular order.

Reproducing information
in the order in which it
was presented.

Use of prompts to aid


retrieval and therefore
reproduce information.

Eg. Recalling the names


of the students in your
year level in no particular
order.

Eg. Recalling a list of


words in order.

Eg. Using key words to


help jog your memory.

Recognition; involves identifying the correct information from among a group of


alternatives. Eg, answering Multiple Choice questions.
Generally more accurate than recall as it provides cues to help with recall.
Relearning; learning information again that has previously been learnt and
stored in LTM.
Method of Savings:
(Time/trials for original learning) (time/trials for relearning) x 100
(Time/trials for original learning)
Degree of Sensitivity for Measures of Retention:

RELEARNING = most sensitive


RECOGNITION = more sensitive than recall
RECALL = least sensitive measure of retention

Cues
Context Dependent Cues

State Dependent Cues

Environment cues in the specific


situation (context) where a memory
was formed to help access the
memories formed in that particular
context.

Are associated with an individuals


internal physiological and/or
psychological state at the time the
memory was formed and help the
individual to access these memories.

Mnemonic Devices
Techniques for improving and/or enhancing memory
Acronyms: pronounceable words formed from the first letter of a sequence of
words.
Eg. QANTAS ANZAC LOL NATO also a method of chunking.
Narrative Chaining: linking unrelated lists of words by forming a sequence or
meaningful story, allowing a list of words to be remember in the order in which
they were presented.
Eg. Bird, costume, letterbox, head & river
A man dressed in a BIRD COSTUME and wearing a LETTERBOX on his HEAD was
seen leaping into the RIVER.
Acrostics: making verbal associations from items to be remember by
constructing phrases or sentences using the first letters of the information to be
remembered.
Eg. my very energetic mother just sits up near pop
This phrase is used to remember the planets and the order in which they are;
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto.
Reconstructive nature of memory informed by the work of Elizabeth
Loftus

Memory reconstruction: remembering past events and features of these


events and putting them together during memory recall. Eg. Eye-witness
testimonies.
Loftus conducted research into eye witness testimonies
-

Participants were shown car accident videos and asked questions like How
fast were the cars going when they into each other? Words like
smashed, collided, contracted and hit were incorporated into the
questions and the results varied.
Results showed that higher estimates of speed were given when the word
smashed was used compared to contract.
Thus meaning, the words of the questions can have an impact on the
response given. Proving that eye witness testimonies are not 100%
accurate.

Ethical Principles; voluntary participation, informed consent, confidentiality,


right to withdrawal and debriefing