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2.1 Definition of conversion


AA
=>
A
Definition of X

XAAA

(1) For irreversible reactions: the maximum conversion is 1.0, i.e.,


complete conversion.
(2) For reversible reactions: the maximum conversion is the equilibrium
conversion, Xe=Xmax

2.2 Batch Reactor Design Equations

Abatch reactor

In a batch reaction: X=f(t)


=> conversion

eq. 2-2A

=>
-rAThe rate of disappearance of A
For batch reactors:

Replace eq.2-5
=>

XA
Batch reactor design equation

Eq.2-6 =>
B.C.=>

2.3 Design Equations For Flow Reactors


For continuous flow system:
t

reactor volume

=> X=f(V)

=>

The bigger/longer the reactor


The integral form of the design equation for a batch reactor.

=>The more time, it will take the reactants to flow completely


through the reactor.

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If FA0 is the molar flow rate of species A fed to a system operated at


steady state, the molar rate at which species A is reacting within the
entire system will be FA0X.

For liquid phase =>


Liquid system (morality): CA0 = 2mol/dm3
For gas phase
CA0 ideal gas law or other gas law
For an ideal gas
CA0 :, mol/dm3
yA0 :A
P0 :, KPa
T0 :, K
PA0=yA0P0 :, Kpa
R :=8.314 Kpadm3/molK
: (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

2.3.1 CSTR

2.3.2 Tubular Flow Reactor (PFR)

CSTR

The tubular reactor


=> plug flow
=> no radial gradients in concentration temperature, or reaction rate.

CSTR is perfectly
=>The exit composition from the reactor is identical to the
composition inside the reactor, and the rate of reaction is evaluated
at the exit conditions.

2.3.3 Packed-bed reactor


tubular reactors catalyst practical

B.C. V=0, X=0


V=V, X=X

Eq.2-9=> Batch reactor


Eq.2-13=> CSTR
Eq.2-16=>PFR

2.4 Sizing Continuous-Flow Reactors


For a first-order reaction

PFR
K: the specific reaction rate => k=f(T)
CA0:the entering concentration

eq.2-13 and eq.2-16

BC :
B.C.
eq.2-18
X

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For an isothermal gas-phase isomerization

For all irreversible reactions of greater than zero order

CSTR=>

X=0, rA (-1/rA )
PFR=>

X=1.0reactor volume

For all reversible reactions


(1) Maximum conversion => equilibrium conversion, Xe
(2) At equilibrium =>the reaction rate is zero, rA=0
=> In infinite reactor volume at equilibrium conversion, X=Xe
For a 1st order reaction
X=0 => C=>r

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2.5 Reactors in series

XA

:
(1) side stream (2)

PFRV1=
CSTR: FA1-FA2+rA2V2=0
=>
=>

2.5.1 CSTRs in series


First reactor:
X1A-rA1
Reactor 1 :

point 1A
2 19 and
eq.2-19
d eq.2-20
2 20
=>
Second reactor:
X2A-rA2

Approximating a PFR by a large number of CSTRs in series.


PFRVi
CSTR
80%CSTRPFR

CSTR
PFR
PFR
CSTR
PFR
=>
(1) Modeling catalyst decay in packed-bed
reactors
(2) Transient heat effects in PFRs

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2.5.2 PFRs in series

2.5.3
Combinations of CSTRs and PFRs in series
Examination:
(1) If CSTRPFRX2
(2)

=>PFRPFR
The volumes of the first two CSTRs in series.

BC:

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2.5.4 Comparing the CSTR and PFR


reactor volumes and reactor sequencing
If
(1) X=0~0.2 => VPFR > VCSTR
(2) X=0.2~0.6 => VCSTR>VPFR
(3) X=0.6~0.65 =>VCSTR>VPFR
=>
=>(-FA0/-rA) vs.
X
X
If
VCSTR1=3m3
VCSTR2=2m3 => Xmax=? Trial and error solution
VPFR=1.2m3
(-FA0/-rA) vs. X => find reactor size
-rA=f(X,C0,T,P,Catalyst)

2.6 Some further definitions


For the plug-flow design equation when the volumetric flow rate is
constant.

2.6.1 Space time


Diving reactor volume by the volumetric flow rate entering the reactor.

Simply -rA =f(X) =>find reactor size


Chapter 3 => -rA=f(X)

2.6.2 Space velocity (SV)


Space time = holding time = mean residence time
If v= 0.01 m3/s V=0.2 m3

SV
(1) liquid-hourly space velocity (LHSV)
(2) Gas-hourly space velocity (GHSV)

=>t=20s, ab20s

LHSV=> The entering volumetric flow rate, vo, is frequently measured as


that of a liquid feed rate at 60oF or 75oF.

For PFR design eq.

GHSV=> Normally measured at STP

If t =

Summary

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