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202



A+ Operating System Certification





 




 

 



  


   






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Congratulations!!
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This study guide consists of a selection of questions and answers similar to
the ones you will find on the official A+ Operating System Certification
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Table of Contents
Memory ........................................................................................................................................... 1
Partitioning...................................................................................................................................... 2
High Level Formatting ................................................................................................................ 2
DOS................................................................................................................................................. 2
DOS Utilities ............................................................................................................................... 3
DOS Boot Sequence.................................................................................................................... 3
Windows ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Windows Environment Files....................................................................................................... 4
Swap-Files................................................................................................................................... 4
Windows 9x .................................................................................................................................... 4
Windows 9x DOS ....................................................................................................................... 5
GUI.............................................................................................................................................. 5
GUI Components..................................................................................................................... 5
File Structure ............................................................................................................................... 6
The Registry ................................................................................................................................ 7
Miscellaneous.............................................................................................................................. 7
Windows/DOS Troubleshooting..................................................................................................... 8
NETWORKS................................................................................................................................... 8
WINDOWS 2000 ............................................................................................................................ 9
INSTALLATION........................................................................................................................ 9
System Configuration.............................................................................................................. 9
Installation Methods.............................................................................................................. 10
Unattended Installation ......................................................................................................... 10
Remote Installation Services................................................................................................. 10
HARDWARE DEVICES.......................................................................................................... 11
CD-ROM and DVD Devices................................................................................................. 11
Hard Disk Devices ................................................................................................................ 11
Multiple Displays .................................................................................................................. 12
Updating Drivers ................................................................................................................... 12
Multiple Processing Units ..................................................................................................... 12
Network Adapters ................................................................................................................. 12
OPTIMIZING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ............................................................................ 12
Booting your Computer Using Safe Mode............................................................................ 12
Last Known Good Configuration.......................................................................................... 13
NETWORK PROTOCOLS AND SERVICES ......................................................................... 14
TCP/IP................................................................................................................................... 14
NWLink IPX/SPX................................................................................................................. 14
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) ..................................................................... 14
IP Addressing ........................................................................................................................ 14
DHCP .................................................................................................................................... 15

Operating System
Key Concepts
Memory
Conventional Memory - The first 640K of memory addresses used to run applications. Also
referred to as Lower Memory.
Reserved Memory - The next 384K of memory address reserved for use by different types of
ROM BIOS and Video RAM. Also referred to as Upper Memory.
Extended Memory (XMS) - Any memory addresses above Reserved Memory.
High Memory Area (HMA) - The first 64K of Extended Memory
Expanded Memory (EMS) - Reserved or Extended Memory which is made to act like
Conventional Memory. Also known as LIM Memory.
Limulation - The act of converting Extended Memory into Expanded Memory.
Shadowing - The process of copying ROM BIOS information into the Reserved Memory area of
RAM.
HIMEM.SYS - A device driver created to open up the HMA by unmasking the A20 wire, and
act as a gateway to Extended Memory. Directs all applications where to go in Extended Memory
to avoid conflicts with other applications using Extended Memory. There is a version for both
DOS and Windows. Extended memory cannot be accessed unless HIMEM.SYS is running.
Upper Memory Blocks (UMB) - Unused memory addresses in the Reserved Memory area.
EMM386.EXE - DOS Memory Manager program. Performs Limulation and opens up the
UMBs so that device drivers and programs can be loaded via CONFIG.SYS or
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
EMS Page Frame - A 64K block of memory addresses in the Reserved Memory area used to
perform Limulation.
MEMMAKER - DOS utility that will free up Conventional Memory by loading as many
devices into UMBs as possible.
MEM - DOS command that lets you view the status of all memory. The /C switch classifies all
your memory and shows all programs load in Conventional and Upper Memory.

EMM386 Common Load Options


Statement
DEVICE C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE NOEMS

Actions
Allows access to Upper Memory, but
prevents access to EMS.
DEVICE C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE X=C800- Excludes the specified memory addresses
C9FF
for loading device drivers or programs.
DEVICE C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE I=F000- Includes memory addresses specified as an
F3FF
area where device drivers and programs
can be loaded.

Partitioning
Any one physical hard drive can be partitioned into up to 24 logical hard drives. Partitioning
makes data storage more efficient and allows you to install more than 1 operating system on your
PC.
FDISK - A DOS utility that is used to partition a PC hard drive.
Active Partition - The partition the BIOS will look on for the operating system.
Primary Partition - The partition where DOS is stored. This partition must always be labeled
C:.
Extended partition - Any partition that is not a Primary Partition.
High Level Formatting
Commonly called just formatting, this is where the File Allocations Table (FAT) and root
directory are created. The DOS FORMAT.COM utility is used to perform this function.
File Allocation Table (FAT) - A table on the disk that keeps track of which file is stored in
which sector. Hard drives use a 16-bit or 32-bit FAT, while Floppy Drives use a 12-bit FAT.
The format command will write the status code 0000 to identify all good sectors or status code
FFF7 to identify bad sectors to the FAT.
Clustering - A more efficient way of building a FAT by combining a set of contiguous sectors
and treating them as a single unit in the FAT. This is now standard practice and makes the
cluster the basic unit of storage, instead of the sector.
Fragmentation - When a file is written to several different clusters that are not contiguous on
the drive. Fragmentation slows down access time because the read/write heads have to travel all
over the drive to reassemble all the different fragments.

DOS
The DOS operating system consists of 3 basic files.
2

IO.SYS - Interprets the hardware environment.


MSDOS.SYS - Interprets environment as seen by applications.
COMMAND.COM - Interprets user commands by acting as a translator and sending them
directly to the processor.
DOS Utilities
SCANDISK - Used to free up additional disk space by recovering lost clusters.
CHKDSK - Used to find bad clusters. When used with the /F option, it will also repair those
clusters.
DEFRAG - Used to defragment hard drive by moving fragmented files to contiguous clusters.
DOS Boot Sequence
1.
2.
3.
4.

Loads OS (IO.SYS & MSDOS.SYS)


Loads CONFIG.SYS (configures environment)
Loads COMMAND.COM
Runs AUTOEXEC.BAT (configures user specified settings)

The Minimum files that MS-DOS needs to load in order to operate are:
IO.SYS
MSDOS.SYS
COMMAND.COM
MS-DOS filenames must have 1 to 8 characters. There can be no spaces or punctuation in the
filename. The file extension can have up to 3 characters, allowing 11 total characters in the
filename.
MS-DOS uses the FAT16 file system.

Windows
Windows is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides multitasking capabilities. The
Windows operating system consists or 3 basic files.
GDI.EXE
KRNL386.EXE
USER.EXE
Cooperative Multitasking - Allocates equal CPU time slices to all applications and devices
based upon the applications activity level.
3

Preemptive Multitasking - Allows the Operating System to determine who gets the CPU time
slices and when they get them.
WIN.COM - Command used to start Windows 3.x
Windows Environment Files
SYSTEM.INI - Contains information about the drivers and other hardware setting to be used by
Windows.
WIN.INI - Contains information about Windows environment (colors, menus, etc.).
PROGMAN.INI - Contains program manager settings, you can edit the security section of this
file and disable certain drop down menu items like delete.
CONTROL.INI - Contains color schemes, patterns, printer settings and more.
PROGMAN.EXE - is the program that starts Windows 3.x sessions during the loading process.
Located in the C:\WINDOWS (unless directory is specified otherwise in installation) directory.
Swap-Files
When Windows gets low on memory (RAM), it temporarily copies information to a file on your
hard disk (Virtual Memory). Windows can then retrieve this information when it has a need.
These files are called swap-files.
Temporary Swap-File - A temporary swap-file only exist while Windows is running. After you
exit Windows or turn off you PC, it goes away. Windows temporary swap-file is named
WIN386.SWP.
Permanent Swap-File - A permanent swap-file is always present on you hard disk and remains
there even after you exit Windows. Permanent swap-file is faster for Windows to access, but it
uses up your available disk space. Windows permanent swap-file is named 386SPART.PAR or
SPART.PAR.
SYSEDIT - command used to edit AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, WIN.INI, and the
SYSTEM.INI.

Windows 9x
INSTALLATION, CONFIGURATION, AND UPGRADING
Minimum Hardware Requirements for Windows 95:

Intel 386DX, 20MHz processor or higher


4

4MB RAM
VGA Video adapter and display
Mouse or equivalent pointing device
20MB free hard disk space

Windows 9x Setup Options:

Typical- Recommended setup option for minimum user interaction.


Compact- Minimum installation available, for computers with little hard disk space
available.
Portable- For users with portable computers, includes utilities for remote computing.

Custom- Lets user choose which features to include in installation.

Windows 9x consists of 2 applications. An improved version of DOS and a Graphical User


Interface (GUI) that runs in protected mode. The new version of DOS is somewhat like the old
DOS except that it can use extended memory. This is important because many of PC repair
functions need to be accomplished from the C:> prompt.
Windows 9x DOS
IO.SYS - The new DOS uses IO.SYS. However, they have taken the old MSDOS.SYS and
IO.SYS and combined them to make up the new IO.SYS.
MSDOS.SYS - This file is still around, but it has been converted to a text file where the startup
options are maintained.
COMMAND.COM - Is still there and performs basically the same function.
GUI
The Windows 9x GUI loads its own device drivers for everything. In essence, you no longer
need the CONFIG.SYS file to load device drivers. In addition, the GUI also loads MSCDEX for
most CD-ROMs and has VCACHE for disk caching, along with mouse support. This means you
should no longer need the AUTOEXEC.BAT file.
GUI Components
Device Drivers - These are both the real and protected mode drivers. There are over 300 device
drivers that are included with Windows 9x. However, there are some drivers that Windows 9x
does not know about. That is why we you still need the CONFIG.SYS, SYSTEM.INI and
AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) - Supports both DOS and GUI. With DOS it only loads a
simple DOS application. With GUI it can create Virtual Machines (VM) for each application
running.
5

Installable File System (IFS) - Provides support for hard drives, CD-ROMs and Long File
Names (LFN).
Windows 9x Core - The main functions of the GUI are handled by the Kernel, User and
Graphical Device Interface (GDI) modules. These programs run in 32-bit protected mode and
allow Windows 9x to be a preemptive multitasker.
Windows 9x and DOS Applications - These are the user interfaces you actually see on the screen.

Windows 9x & Win 3.X


Apps
Windows 9x Core
Kernel, GDI and User
VMM
Device Drivers
Real and Protected

DOS
Apps

IFS

File Structure
With the Windows 9x installable file system, multiple file systems can coexist on the
computer. Windows 9x includes the following file systems.
VFAT
In Windows 9x, the 32-bit virtual File Allocation Table file system is the primary file system
and cannot be disabled. VFAT can use 32-bit, protected-mode drivers or 16-bit real-mode
drivers. Actual allocation on disk is still 12-bit or 16-bit (depending on the size of the volume),
so FAT on the disk uses the same structure as previous versions of this file system. VFAT
handles all hard disk drive requests, using 32-bit code for all file access for hard-disk volumes.
VFAT was first introduced in Windows for Workgroups version 3.11 as an optional FAT file
system that processed file I/O in protected mode.
CDFS
The virtual CD-ROM file system has the same responsibilities for a CD-ROM device as
VFAT has for a standard hard disk. If a CD-ROM device is detected, the CDFS driver loads
dynamically. When CDFS is installed, the standard disk type-specific device and Disk SCSI
translator is replaced with CD-ROM versions. The CDFS driver is a protected-mode version
of MSCDEX.EXE, providing the interface from the CD-ROM device to the operating system.
If the CD-ROM drive and its drivers support the multi-session command, CDFS can support
multi-session capabilities, which provide a method for adding data to a CD-ROM (this is most
applicable to CD-Recordable media). The multi-session command returns a number that
identifies the first sector of the last session on the media so that CDFS can recognize the
media.
6

LFNs
Windows 9x supports Long File Names (LFN). These file names do away with the 8.3 filename
limitations of DOS. When a LFN is saved, the system creates a short filename that fits the old
8.3 standard. It then chops up the LFN into 12 byte chunks allowing a filename of up to 255
characters.
Example: LFN = Troy Technologies USA Customer List.doc
8.3 filename (created) = TROYTE~1.DOC
The 8.3 filename allows Windows 9x to be backward compatible with DOS.
Avoid putting LFNs in the root directory. The Windows 9x root directory has a limitation on
255 files. Due to the fact Windows 9x breaks up LFNs into chunks and writes them to the
directory, some LFNs could take up the space allocated for 10 to 15 files. This will cause you to
reach the 255 limitation very quickly and will lockup your computer.
The Registry
The biggest difference between Windows 9x and Windows 3.x is the Registry. The Registry
consists of two binary files called SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT. These files store all the
configuration information about your PC. The Registry in effect replaces the CONFIG.SYS,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, REG.DAT and every *.INI file. However, these files are still present in
order to provide backward compatibility with Windows 3.x.
The preferred method for updating the Registry is through the Control Panel. However, the
Registry can be updated directly using the Registry Editor Utility (regedit.exe).
Miscellaneous
The F4 key allows you to boot into an old operating system in a system that has Windows 9x as
the default OS.
Windows 9x detection log files:
Log File
SETUPLOG.TXT
DETCRASH.LOG

DETLOG.TXT
NETLOG.TXT

Purpose
Used to log installation of Windows 9x. Will note last utility run
prior to a system halt.
Used to log hardware detection during setup. Readable only by
setup to determine which module was running when the system
halted.
Equivalent of DETCRASH.LOG written in a readable format.
Logs detected network component information.

Plug and Play is designed for hardware installation to require no intervention from the user.
A plug and play system needs to consist of the following to be complete:
A plug and play operating system
A plug and play BIOS
Plug and play hardware
Legacy Cards are hardware designed prior to Plug and Play which, when installed, will not
automatically be setup by the OS and must be setup manually.

Windows/DOS Troubleshooting
General Protection Faults (GPFs) happen when the same memory is allocated to more than one
application.
Safe Mode is a diagnostic mode that only loads bare minimum for loading Windows 9x.
The F8 key allows you to choose between normal, safe mode, safe mode with network support,
step by step
confirmation, command prompt, and previous version of MS-DOS when using Windows 9x.
The F5 key allows you to boot directly into the Safe Mode of Windows 9x.
The F5 key bypasses the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and the CONFIG.SYS file in both MS-DOS and
Windows 9x.
Pressing the F8 key in MS-DOS allows you to step through CONFIG.SYS and
AUTOEXEC.BAT.
If COMMAND.COM is missing, you will receive a "Bad or missing command interpreter" error
message.
CHKDSK and SCANDISK are both hard drive testing programs.
DEFRAG.EXE - Used to defragment the hard drive.

NETWORKS
Universal Naming Convention (UNC)
Universal network pathname which is integrated into Win95. Named as
\\computername\sharename. The \\computername will be the name given to your computer in the
network properties screen. The \sharename will be the name you give to a directory when you
share it.
Security levels:
8

Share-level security
Used in Windows 95 to share resources. A password is needed to access the resource.
User-level security

Used in Windows NT to share resources. When you attempt to access a shared resource,
the server will make sure your user account has been authorized to access the resource.
User-level security can be implemented in Windows 95 if specified in the Network
Properties menu under the Access Control tab.
TCP/IP is an Internet protocol currently used for most networking situations. Each computer
using TCP/IP will contain a unique IP address in a x.x.x.x format (where each x equals a number
between 0 and 255) and a subnet mask.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Win95 contacts an NT Server running this service to automatically obtain an IP address each
time it logs onto the network.

WINDOWS 2000
INSTALLATION
The first consideration is the hardware requirements of the operating system and the application
you plan on running. Windows 2000 Professional requires a Pentium 133MHz or higher with
64MB of Memory, a system disk of at least 2GB with 650MB free space, a network adapter,
VGA resolution graphics adapter or higher, a CD-ROM drive and finally, a keyboard and mouse.
System Configuration
Windows 2000 Professional supports both basic disks and dynamic disks. Basic disks use
partitions and extended partitions with logical drives. Dynamic disks are broken up into logical
volumes, with the disk configuration information being kept on the disk rather than in the
Windows registry. Windows 9x and Windows NT 4.0 do not support dynamic disks, an
important fact if you plan to implement a dual-boot system. Once the layout is decided you need
to choose the file system type. There are three types:
1. FAT
2. FAT32
3. NTFS
File Allocation Table (FAT) supports the greatest number of operating systems and therefore is a
good choice for dual-boot systems. It supports long filenames with spaces and additional periods,
but it does not support encryption, disk quotas, or local security, and is inefficient for large
partitions.
FAT32 was introduced to have a smaller duster size to therefore support larger disk partitions.
Otherwise, it suffers the same problems as FAT without the wide support. FAT32 does not
support all versions of Windows 95, DOS, or Windows NT.

NTFS is the file system of choice for systems running Windows 2000. NTFS supports
compression, encryption, quotas, file and folder level security, and uses transaction logging to
support recoverability. NTFS supports sparse files and very large partitions.
During the installation, you will be asked to select the network security group to install. The
choices are workgroup and domain. The workgroup approach maintains a security database on
each local machine in a grouping. This is naturally restricted to small groups of machines. The
domain approach maintains a central database of security information. To join a domain, there
must be a DNS name resolution system and a domain controller on your network.
Installation Methods
Manual (or automatic) installation of Windows 2000 Professional is completed in four steps. The
first is to boot the computer from the CD-ROM or from a boot disk (made using the
MAKEBOOT command). The installation enters the Text phase. In this phase you can select any
third-party RAID/SCSI drivers, a boot partition, and file system type. The setup process copies
files to the hard drive and reboots into graphical mode. In the graphical phase you are prompted
for configuration information such as the local administrator's password and regional settings.
The installation then configures the network adapters and selects a workgroup or domain to join.
The final phase applies the configuration settings, cleans up any temporary files, and reboots the
system.
If you wish to start the installation procedure from a running system, you would choose to run
WINNT.EXE from DOS or WINNT32.EXE from Windows 95/98 or Windows NT.
Unattended Installation
Installation of Windows 2000 Professional can also be done without user intervention. There are
two different files used during unattended installation: the unattended text file (or answer file)
and the uniqueness definition file (UDF). The first represents all the standard things in an
installation and the second represents the unique settings found in each machine. The unattended
text file is used to configure all of the standard options for each machine (one file for each type
of hardware platform in your environment); the UDF file is used to configure the unique aspects
of each individual computer (such as computer name, domain to join, and network
configuration).
There is a tool in the Windows 2000 resource kit (SETUPMGR.EXE) that will create both the
answer file and the UDF file as well as a batch file that will correctly apply the command
switches to WINNT32.EXE to perform the unattended installation.
Remote Installation Services
Another way to install Windows 2000 Professional is by using Remote Installation Services
(RIS). RIS runs on a server and contains one or more operating system images that can be
downloaded over the network. The Remote Image Preparation utility (RIPrep) is used to remove
all SID, computer name, and registry information.
ARIS client uses the Pre-Boot Execution Environment (PXE) BIOS to obtain an address from
DHCP and query DNS about the availability of RIS servers. You are prompted to log on and a
list of RIS images to download is displayed.
10

A final way to install Windows 2000 Professional is by reimaging a computer's hard drive with
Sysprep and third-party disk imaging software.
HARDWARE DEVICES
Windows 2000 Professional supports Plug and Play (PnP), allowing you to add new hardware
(or remove hardware) without making configuration changes. PnP will detect a new device both
dynamically (adding a PCMCIA card) and at boot time (detecting a new video adapter).
Devices that are not Plug and Play compliant will have to be manually configured. Device
drivers usually need configuration information on the following topics:

Interrupts. An Interrupt Request (IRQ) is a way of determining which device is looking for
service and what type of attention it needs. Windows 2000 provides interrupt numbers 0
through 15 to devices (IRQ 1 is always assigned to the keyboard).
Input/Output (I/O) ports. I/O ports are areas of memory that the device uses to communicate
with Windows 2000 Professional.
Direct Memory Access (DMA). DMAs are channels that allow the hardware device to access
memory directly. Windows 2000 Professional provides DMA channels 0 through 7.
Memory. Many hardware devices have onboard memory or can reserve system memory for
their use.

The Resource by Device display from the Device Manager shows the availability of resources in
your computer system.
CD-ROM and DVD Devices
Current DVD and CD-ROM devices all support Plug and Play and should install automatically
without intervention.
Hard Disk Devices
Conventional hard disks are either basic or dynamic. A basic disk is partitioned into up to four
partitions (or three if an extended partition is configured). The partition information is kept on
the disk in a partition table in the Master Boot Record (MBR). Each partition behaves as a
separate device. Basic disks can also contain volume sets, mirrored volumes, striped volumes,
and RAID-5 volumes created by NT 4.0 or earlier. You cannot create these structures on basic
disks under Windows 2000. That capability is only supported under dynamic disks. Basic storage
is supported by all versions of Microsoft Windows 3.x, Microsoft Windows 9x, and Windows
2000 Professional and Server.
A dynamic disk is divided into volumes rather than partitions. A volume consists of a part or
parts of one or more physical disks laid out in five configurations (simple, spanned, mirrored,
striped, and RAID-5). Dynamic disks keep the volume information on physical disks in a small,
1MB database at the end of the disk. Dynamic disks cannot contain partitions or logical drives
and cannot be accessed by MS-DOS.
11

Simple volumes are made up of all or part of a single disk. Spanned volumes are made up of all
or part of up to 32 disks. Stripped volumes are similar to spanned volumes with the data written
across all disks at the same rate. A mirrored volume duplicates data onto two physical disks for
fault tolerance. A RAID 5 structure is a fault-tolerant volume that spreads data and checksum
information across three or more disk drives.
Multiple Displays
Windows 2000 Professional adds support for up to nine display adapters. This allows the desktop
to extend to nine monitors supporting large graphical drawings (such as CAD displays) or
topographical maps.
Updating Drivers
When using WindowsUpdate, the hardware IDs for the devices installed are compared to what
the Microsoft Web site has to offer. If an exact match is made, the new driver is downloaded and
installed. If an update to an existing driver is found, the new software components will be listed
on the Web site and a download button will load the updated drivers onto your Windows 2000
Professional computer into a temporary directory for installation.
Multiple Processing Units
Windows 2000 Professional is designed to run uniformly on a uniprocessor and symmetric
multi-processor platforms. Windows 2000 Professional supports the addition of a CPU under the
following conditions:
Both CPUs are identical and either have identical coprocessors or no coprocessors.
Both CPUs can share memory and have uniform access to memory.
In symmetric multiprocessor platforms, both CPUs can access memory, process interrupts, and
access I/O control registers.
Network Adapters
If you install a new network adapter in your computer, the next time you start Windows 2000
Professional, a new local area connection icon appears in the Network and Dial-Up Connections
folder. Plug and Play functionality finds the network adapter and creates a local area connection
for it. You cannot manually add local area connections to the Network and Dial-up Connections
folder. By default, the local area connection is always activated. You must enable the network
clients, services, and protocols that are required for each connection. When you do, the client,
service, or protocol is enabled in all other network and dial-up connections.
OPTIMIZING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Booting your Computer Using Safe Mode
Press F8 during the operating system selection phase to display a screen with advanced options
for booting Windows 2000. The following list describes the functions available from the
advanced boot menu:

12

Safe Mode. Loads only the basic devices and drivers required to start the system. This
includes the mouse, keyboard, mass storage, base video, and the default set of system
services.
Safe Mode with Networking. Performs a Safe Load with the drivers and services necessary
for networking.
Safe Mode with Command Prompt. Performs a Safe Load but launches a command prompt
rather than Windows Explorer.
Enable Boot Logging. Logs the loading and initialization of drivers and services.
Enable VGA Mode. Restricts the startup to use only the base video.
Last Known Good Configuration. Uses the Last Known Good configuration to boot the
system.
Directory Services Restore Mode. Allows the restoration of the Active Directory (on Domain
Controllers only).
Debugging Mode. Turns on debugging.

When logging is enabled, the


\%systemroot%\NTBTLOG.TXT.

boot

process

writes

the

log

information

to

Last Known Good Configuration


Configuration information in Windows 2000 Professional is kept in a control set subkey. A
typical Windows 2000 installation would have subkeys such as ControlSet001, ControlSet002,
and CurrentControlSet. The CurrentControlSet is a pointer to one of the ControlSetxxx subkeys.
There is another control set named Clone that is used to initialize the computer (either the
Default or LastKnownGood). It is re-created by the kernel initialization process each time the
computer successfully starts.
The key HKEY-LOCAL-MACHINE\SYSTEM\Select contains subkeys named Current, Default,
Failed, and LastKnownGood, which are described in the following list:

Current. This value identifies which control set is the CurrentControlSet.


Default. This value identifies the control set to use the next time Windows 2000 starts (unless
you choose Last Known Good configuration during the boot process).
Failed. This value identifies the control set that was the cause of a boot failure the last time
the computer started.
LastKnownGood. This value identifies the control set that was used the last time Windows
2000 was started successfully. After a successful logon, the Clone control set is copied to the
LastKnownGood control set.

When you log on to a Windows 2000 Professional computer and modify its configuration by
adding or removing drivers, the changes are saved in the Current control set. The next time the
computer is booted, the kernel copies the information in the Current control set to the Clone
control set. After the next successful logon to Windows 2000, the information in the Clone
control set is copied to LastKnownGood.

13

If, when starting the computer, you experience problems that you think might be related to
Windows 2000 configuration changes that you just made, restart the computer without logging
on and press F8 during the initial boot phase. Selecting the Last Known Good configuration will
restore the system configuration to the last one that Windows 2000 used to start successfully.
NETWORK PROTOCOLS AND SERVICES
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the default protocol for Windows
2000 Professional and is an industry standard suite of protocols available for wide area networks
(WAN) and the Internet.
NWLink IPX/SPX
NWLink is an NDIS-compliant, native 32-bit implementation of Novell's IPX/SPX protocol.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)
NetBEUI is a simple non-routable protocol designed for peer-to-peer Networks that requires
little memory overhead.
IP Addressing
Each TCP/IP connection must be identified by an address. The address is a 32-bit number that is
used to uniquely identify a host on a network. The TCP/IP address has no dependence on the
Data-Link layer address such as the MAC address of a network adapter. Although the IP address
is 32 bits, it is customary to break it into four 8-bit numbers expressed in decimal and separated
by dots. This can be referred to in dotted decimal format and is expressed as w.x.y.z.
This addressing scheme is again broken down into two halves: a network ID and the host ID. The
network ID must be unique in the Internet or intranet, and the host ID must be unique to the
network ID. The network portion of the w.x.y.z notation is separated from the host through the
use of the subnet mask.
The Internet community was originally divided into five address classes. Microsoft TCP/IP
supports class A, B, and C addresses assigned to hosts. The class of address, defines which bits
are used for the network ID and which bits are used for the host ID. It also defines the possible
number of networks and the number of hosts per network. Here is a rundown of the five classes:
1. Class A addresses. The high order bit is always binary 0 and the next seven bits complete
the network ID. The next three octets define the host ID. This represents 126 networks with
16,777,214 hosts per network.
2. Class B addresses. The top two bits in a class B address are always set to binary 1 0. The
next 14 bits complete the network ID. The remaining two octets define the host ID. This
represents 16,384 networks with 65,534 hosts per network.
3. Class C addresses. The top three bits in a class C address are always set to binary 1 1 0. The
next 21 bits define the network ID. The remaining octet defines the host ID. This represents
2,097,152 networks with 254 hosts per network.
14

4. Class D addresses. Class D addresses are used for multicasting to a number of hosts. Packets
are passed to a selected subset of hosts on a network. Only those hosts registered for the
multicast address accept the packet. The four high-order bits in a class D address are always
set to binary 1 1 1 0. The remaining bits are for the address that interested hosts will
recognize.
5. Class E addresses. Class E is an experimental address that is reserved for future use. The
high-order bits in a class E address are set to 1 1 1 1.
DHCP
One way to avoid the possible problems of administrative overhead and incorrect settings for the
TCP/IP protocol is to use DCHP. DHCP centralizes and manages the allocation of the TCP/IP
settings required for proper network functionality for computers that have been configured as
DHCP clients.

15

Practice Questions
1.

When a users deletes a file (empties the recycle bin) what happens to the file?
A: Sectors of the hard drive are blanked/erased.

2.
Windows 2000 has been installed with no changes made to files or folders. Which
file extensions below would show up in Windows explorer? (choose three)
A: INI
INF
DLL
3.
Which GUI text editors are used to edit the WIN.INI and AUTOEXEC.BAT files?
(choose two)
A: NOTEPAD
SYSEDIT
4.

Scandisk checks and fixes (choose two)


A: Hard drivers
Floppy drivers

5.

Where is the DIR command located?


A: COMMAND.COM

6.
In Windows 2000, which methods allow deletion of old temporary Internet files?
(choose three)
A: Disk cleanup wizard
Control panel, Internet options
Internet explorer, Internet options
7.

Which command allows viewing or editing of common configuration files?


A: SYSEDIT

8.

What are the safest ways to edit the registry in the Windows 95? (choose two)
A: Regedit
Regedt32

9.
Which backup method is generally the quickest and requires the least amount of
backup storage space?
16

A: Incremental
10.

How is the disk defragmenter utility started in Windows 9x? (choose two)
A: Right click on drive, properties, tools, and disk defragmenter
Start, programs, accessories, system tools, and disk defragmenter

11.
Which file gets executed in Windows 95 when a users chooses shutdown and restarts
in MS DOS mode?
A: AUTOEXEC.BAT
12.
Which information is monitored using the system monitor application within
Windows 95? (choose two)
A: Virtual memory manager
Network clients and server information
13.

Where are processes and background applications located? (choose two)


A: WIN.INI
Registry

14.

Windows 2000 supports creation of which types of volumes? (choose three)


A: Raid-5
Spanned
Mirrored

15.

Which of the following file systems does Windows 2000 support? (choose three)
A: NTFS
CDFS
FAT32

16.
If files are backed up from a NTFS partition using the Windows 2000 backup utility
and then restored to a FAT32 partition, which of the following file properties are retained?
(choose two)
A: File attributes
Long file names
17.

Which file must be changed to add multiboot capabilities in Windows 9x?


A: SYSTEM.INI
17

18.
Which sequence of key strokes will toggle a user between simultaneously running
application in windows?
A: <ALT>+<TAB>
19.

Which type of file is the Windows 9x registry?


A: Hierarchical database

20.

Which statement is found in the autoexec.bat file?


A: PATH=C:X;

21.
What is the proper command to install the Windows 2000 recovery console as a
startup option on the CD-ROM in Drive E?
A: E:\i386\winNT32.exe\cmdcons
22.
Converting a disk partition to FAT32 with drive converter provides which of the
following advantages over FAT16? (choose three)
A: Programs load faster
Drive mapping is more reliable
Increased storage efficiencies
23.

What is the correct BOOT order?


A: POST, BIOS, BOOT SECTOR, GUI

24.
Which tasks should be performed before installing or upgrading software? (choose
three)
A: Backup the .INI files
Confirm OS compatibility
Determine minimum memory required
25.
Where would you rename a printer that you shared on the network using Windows
9x? (choose two)
A: My computer, printers
Start, settings, printers
26.
In Windows 9x the system configuration editor is used to view an edit, which of the
following files? (choose three)
18

A: WIN INI
SYSTEM.INI
CONFIG.SYS
27.
Which of the following operating systems may be upgraded to Windows 2000
professional? (choose two)
A: WINDOWS 9x
WINDOWS NT 4.0
28.
You have just installed a new modem under Windows 98 and can no longer connect
to your Internet Service Provider with the original dial-up networking entry. What should
you do?
A: Select the new modem from the dial up networking properties
29.
What should you try on a Windows 95 operating system if your sound card is not
working and appears with an exclamation point in the device manager tab under the
system control panel? (choose two)
A: Start the hardware conflict troubleshooter from windows help.
Select the properties of the sound card and examine the resources panel for
conflicting resources settings.
30.
A customer is running Windows NT and has 20GBs of unformatted hard disk space.
The customer wants to format the 20GB drive, move the data from his 5GB drive and label
the 20GB drive as the drive B. What Windows NT applet can perform all these tasks for
you?
A: Disk administrator
31.
Which of the following are required to make a Windows NT 4.0 boot diskette?
(choose three)
A: NTLDR
BOOT.INI
NTDETECT.COM
32.

What does an incremental backup do?


A: Backs up only files that have increased in size.

33.

What should you use to create an emergency repair disk for Windows NT 4.0?
A: RDISK.EXE
19

34.
Which files must be present in the root directory of the system partition to boot a
Windows NT 4.0 system?
A: NTLDR, BOOT.INI, NTDETECT.COM
35.
There are four major technologies that work together under plug and play. These
are the operating system, system bios, and device drivers. Which is the fourth?
A: Hardware peripherals
36.
In the Windows 98 device manager what does a black exclamation point on a yellow
field next to a sound card indicate?
A.

Sound card is not functioning properly

37.
A custom application is conflicting with another application. What can you do to fix
the problem temporarily on a Windows NT system?
A: Run the application in a protected memory space.
38.
Your client wants to be able to share one Internet connection with other PCs. Which
version of Windows 9x has been designed to do this?
A: Windows 98 SE
39.
A client call to tell you that after installing Windows 98 on a 13GB hard drive, only
8GB can be seen from My computer. How can you fix this problem? (choose two)
A: Install windows98 SE with large hard drive support.
Contact the mother board manufacturer for a BIOS upgrade.
40.
A Windows 98 computer is having display related problems. You need to adjust the
graphics hardware accelerations so that you can troubleshoot the problem. From which
location can you do this?
A: Control panel, system, performance, graphics.
41.
A customer tries to login to an Internet service provider and is repeatedly prompted
to enter their username and password. Which of the following are the possible causes?
(choose two)
A: There customer account is no longer active.
They are using an incorrect username and password combination.

20

42.
A users system is running slowly after installing a new application in Windows 98.
What should be checked? (choose two)
A: Available system RAM.
Free space on the hard drive.
43.
How can you get a printout of the system configuration on a Windows 9x operating
system?
A: From a DOS prompt type msdn, then press <PRINT SCRN>.
44. After updating a device driver on a Windows NT 4.0 workstation, the computer fails to
boot to the GUI. What should you do to correct the problem?
A: Run scandisk and disk defragmenter.
45.
You have just installed a Windows 98 workstation using the IPX protocol in a
Microsoft network, but cant browse any other stations on the network. The client for
Microsoft network is installed in the control panel network configuration. What should you
do to allow the workstation to browse the network?
A: Enable file and print sharing.
46.
A client calls you and states that the taskbar is missing from Windows 98. What is
the cause of the problem?
A: The registry is corrupt and must be restored from the backup.
47.
After installing a program on Windows 2000 you received the following notification.
Files that are required for windows to run properly have been replace by unrecognized
versions. To maintain system stability windows must restore the original versions of these
files. Which feature of Windows 2000 calls this notification to appear?
A: Windows file protection
48.
You try to boot from the diskette and receive the following error message, BOOT:
could not find NTLDR, please insert another disk. This disk was formatted under?
A: Windows 2000
49.

What should you do first when a print job is stalled in Windows NT 4.0?
A: Restart the spooler

50.
A user uninstalled an application in the windows 98 and it still appears in the start
menu. How do you remove it? (choose two)
21

A: Right click the menu item on the start menu and select delete.
Right click the taskbar, choose properties and click remove under customize start
menu.
51.
If a network card is installed in a Windows 98 workstation and there is no network
connectivity, what should you do to find out if the device is functioning correctly?
A: Look at device manager.
52.
Your customer calls and explains that he cant display an entire web page even
though he has a 17 inch monitor. He has to use the scroll bars to go from right side to the
left side. What change would you make to display settings?
A: Slide the screen area bar over to 800 by 600.
53.
You are using a Windows 9x operating system. Which actions can you take to print
a document without spooling the print job?
A: Select print directly to the printer in the spool settings dialogue box.
54.
A customer complains that windows 9x frequently reports KERNEL32.DLL errors.
To solve this, delete the_________ and reboot. It will recreate itself?
A: KERNEL32.DLL
55.

What can viruses infect? (choose three)


A: BOOT Sectors
System files
Network files

56.
A program request memory that the memory manager cant provide in Windows
9x. This is referred to as?
A: Page fault
57.
You see a dialogue box on your Windows NT 4.0 workstation stating that the
Dr.Watson has detected an error and is creating a log file. Where can you find the file to
review what has caused the error?
A: C:/Winnt
58.
While trying to run a DOS application you receive an error message stating that the
application does not run under Windows. Which option should you try first to resolve the
problem?
22

A: Select prevent this program from detecting Windows in the advanced properties of the
DOS application.
59.
Running Windows 98, you notice that the device manager does not list the CD-ROM
properties. The CD-ROM appears to be running flawlessly. What could be the problem?
A: Safe mode driver in Win.ini
60.
You just got Windows NT stop error or blue screen. How can you print the error
message that was generated?
A: Reboot and go to the system log.
61.

Which protocol needs to be installed for Internet access on a network?


A: TCP/IP

62.

Where can you change network identification in Windows 2000?


A: System properties

63.

What is the name for a single user dial-up mail server account type?
A: POP

64.
Which of the following operating systems come with Internet Connection Sharing
(ICS)? (choose two)
A: Windows 98 SE
Windows 2000
65. Which command should be run in Windows NT 4.0 to get a computers IP address?
A: IPCONFIG
66.
Which command should you use to test connectivity to every router between your
system and a destination system?
A: TRACERT
67.
On a Windows 2000 client machine, which of the following tools is used to map a
drive letter? (Choose two)
A: Right click My Computer
Right click my network places
23

68.
If a Windows 2000 system is configured for TCP/IP and DHCP automatic
addressing, but does not find a DHCP server on the network, what will happen?
A: Windows 2000 will not be able to access the network
69.
Which of the following network protocols are included with Windows 2000? (choose
three)
A: NWLINK
NETBEUI
APPLETALK
70.
Which service must be installed on a Windows NT 4.0 system to allow dial-up
network access?
A: Dial up networking V 1.3
71.

What type of memory stores data in a swap file on a hard drive?


A: Virtual memory

72.
In which directory are local user profile settings stored by default in Windows
2000?
A: C:\documents and settings
73.

Why would you use a semicolon when editing the Win.ini file? (Choose two)
A: Inserts a comment line
Prevents a device driver from loading

74.

How are hidden files unhidden in Windows 95?


A: Windows explorers, view, options, show all files

75.

Which utility is used to partition a new hard drive in Windows 95?


A: Fdisk

76.

Which Windows 9x file can load device drivers?


A: CONFIG.SYS

77. Which Windows 9x files are text files? (Choose four)


24

A: HIGH MEM.SYS
MS-DOS.SYS
CONFIG.SYS
SCAN DISK.LOG
78.

What must an IDE hard drive have in order for APC to boot?
A: Active partition

79.
Which of the following file extension types can be run from the command prompt?
(Choose three)
A: .EXE
.BAT
.COM
80.

What does virtual memory do?


A: Uses hard disk space for extra memory

81.
Which command can be used to remove a NTFS volume if the PC that contains it no
longer has Windows NT 4.0 installed?
A: FDISK
82.
A user accidentally deleted the file dialer.exe from the Windows directory. Which
command is used to restore this one file from a Windows 9x installation CD?
A: EXTRACT
83.

Which of the following are ways to set the system time? (Choose three)
A: Command prompt, time
Control panel, select date/time
Double click on the clock in the system tray

84.

Which types of disks does Windows 2000 support? (choose two)


A: Basic
Dynamic

85.
Which types of profiles can be used on a Windows 2000 Professional client? (choose
three)
A: Local
Roaming
25

Mandatory
86.
Where can users of Windows 2000 systems be prevented from installing unsigned device
driver?
A: System properties, hardware, signing
87.

What tool can be used to fix cross-linked files in Windows 9x?


A: SCANDISK

88.

Where is disk management in Windows 2000?


A: Computer management

89.

What files can be edited with SYSEDIT in Windows 9x? (choose two)
A: WIN.INI
AUTOEXIT.BAT

90.

Scandisk.ini is an initialization file used by scandisk to?


A: Store the location of system files

91.
Which software applications are likely to interfere with a drive defragmenter?
(choose two)
A: Screen savers
NT Virus software
92.

How are hidden files unhidden in Windows 98?


A: Windows explorer, view, folder options, view, show all files

93.
Home/office desk, presentation, and portable/laptop are examples of predefined
________?
A: Power option settings
94.

What IRQs are assigned first?


A: BIOS configured

95.

What does a differential backup do?


A: Backs up files that differ from the last full back up.
26

96.
What must you do to make a Windows 98 system dual boot with Windows 2000
within a single partition?
A: Install Windows 2000 in FAT 32
97.

Where can you start the device manager in Windows 2000? (choose two)
A: System applet in control panel.
Computer management applet in the administrative tools control panel.

98.

Windows 9x safe mode uses which generic video driver?


A: VGA

99.

What is the correct order sequence in Windows 9x?


A: IO.SYS, MS-DOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM, CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXIT.BAT

100. What is the minimum number of partitions needed to fully utilize a 5GB hard drive
under Windows 95?
A: 1
101. To create a start up disk for Windows 9x, open the add/remove programs applet
and click create disk from the _____________ ?
A: Start up disk tab
102.

Which of the following are required NT 4 start up files? (choose two)


A: NTLDR
BOOT.INI

103. Which of the following files need to be included on a boot diskette for Windows 9x
to enable CD-ROM support? (choose three)
A: MSCDEX.EXE
COMMAND.COM
AUTOEXIT.BAT
104. What mode is used to install a printer that does not have a driver and is not
included in the list of printers?
A: Manual mode
27

105.

Which of the following are bypassed in safe mode? (choose three)


A: Modem driver
Config.sys
Autoexec.bat

106.

How do you rearrange start menu programs in Windows 9x?


A: Right click on start button and select explorer.

107. Your customer calls and complains that sometimes the icons on his desktop look
different. But after rebooting they look normal. However, it is very inconvenient to have to
reboot every time this happens. What should you tell him to press?
A: <Shift>+<F8> to refresh desktop.
108. A client calls for service on a Windows 9x system. A video card and drivers were
installed and now Windows will not start. What should be done to resolve the problem?
A: Start in safe mode and change the video to standard VGA.
109.

Windows 9x/2000 menus designate a hot key with a(n) __________ character?
A: Underscored

110. Which switch should you type after a DOS command to get a list of switches
available for the particular command as well as an explanation of what they do?
A: /?
111. A technician needs to convert FAT16 partition to NTFS. From a DOS prompt,
which command should the technician use?
A: CONVERT C:/FS:NTFS
112. When a customer calls in an says "my system will not boot, it was fine this morning
but now its saying that it cant find the operating system". Which question should you
ask? (choose two)
A: Have any files been deleted.
Are any floppy disks in the floppy drive.
113. You have connected your windows 2000 system to an Ethernet network and are using
the TCP/IP protocol with DHCP. You verify that you have received an appropriate IP
address but you are unable to see any other computers in my network places. You have
28

another system near by configured similarly that is able to see other computers. Which
command can you use to test connectivity between the two systems?
A: PING
114. Your client reports that he is running Windows 98 and has a 2GB hard drive which
is formatted as FAT16 and he is running out of disk space. What is the simplest and the
quickest way to increase his disk space?
A: Replace the hard disk drive with a larger one.
115. A user on your company's network has worked for several hours on a document
that was retrieved from the network. The document was saved several times by clicking the
save icon. User returns from lunch and is now getting a "file not found error". What could
cause this?
A: User disconnected the network drive.
116. After installing a new local printer, you print a test page. All of the printed text is in
printer code and the printer prints several additional blank pages. What are the possible
causes? (choose two)
A: Wrong printer driver
Unsecured/loose printer cable
117. Two customers live in the same time zone. When customer A sends e-mail to
customer B, but the e-mail has the wrong time. The time on the e-mail is one hour before
the current time according to the date and time on the e-mail header. What change would
you make to the date or time properties?
A: Adjust the time one-hour ahead.
118. You are having problems with a particular system and want to replace the current
copy of the registry with a older copy. At a DOS prompt, which command should you type?
A: SCANREG/RESTORE
119. You installed and deleted a piece of shareware and the software left a residual
program that runs at start up. Which GUI utility will remove the start up program in
Windows 98?
A: Scheduled tasks
120.
9x?

What is the first thing to do if you receive an Out of memory error in Windows

A: Add more RAM


29

121. You have a networked PC that has file and print sharing enabled and your
computer can be seen in the network neighborhood by other computers. However, no one
else can connect to anything on your computer. Why cant anyone see any folders on your
computer?
A: Other computers do not have file and print sharing enabled.
122. You are working on a system that has a malfunctioning mouse. You need to
navigate through Windows to check the device manager for conflicts. What toggles you
from the desktop to the task bar?
A: <TAB>
123.

What is a dynamic IP address?


A: DHCP assigned address.

124. A customer calls and says that they can send e-mails without any problem but cant
receive any e-mail. What should you check? (Choose two)
A: Dial up adapter settings
Incoming mail server settings
125. User states after opening an e-mail attachment, files were either missing or he
received an error when opening. What would cause this problem?
A: A possible virus
126. A customer called after deleting file from a DOS prompt. The file did not go to the
recycle bin. The customer wants to make sure that the deleted files are placed in the recycle
bin in the future. How would this be accomplished? (Choose two)
A: My computer
Windows explorer
127. You have just been hired by an ISP to provide technical support to there 1200
online computers. You are training with a seasoned tech support provider and are listening
as she receives a call from a customer who cant logon and is prompted for the logon
repeatedly. She asked the customer to run scandisk and disk defragmenter. She did this
because she suspects?
A: A corrupted password file.
128. When control panel is opened an invalid page default (kernel32) error is received.
What is most likely the cause of this problem?
30

A: .DLL file is missing.


129.

Dr.Watson has standard view and a(n)?


A: Advanced view

130. A customer deleted a file from a Windows NT 4. 0 Workstation. Windows fails to


boot. What did the customer delete inadvertently?
A: BOOT. INI
131. Which protocol needs to be bound to the dialup adapter for Windows 9x to ensure
Internet access?
A: TCP/IP
132.

How can a user find a network printer on a Windows 9x workgroup?


A: By NetBIOS name

133.

How do you connect to news groups when using an ISP to connect to the Internet?
A: Obtain the IP address for the NNTP server from the ISP.

134. Why would file and print sharing be unchecked on a laptop using a network
adapter and NetBEUI?
A: File and print sharing for MS network receive server must be added.
135. Which network protocols can you load to share a printer in Windows 9x? (choose
three)
A: TCP/IP
NetBEUI
IPX/SPX
136. Which of the following devices can be shared via the network using Windows 98?
(choose three)
A: Printer
Modem
CD-ROM
137.

Which protocol is used to transfer e-mail?


31

A: SMTP
138. Where would you capture a printer port for a network printer in Windows 9x, My
computer, control panel, __________________?
A: Printer applet, File, Properties, Details.
139. To become a member of a domain on a network running Windows 2000 you would
select?
A: Right click my computer, properties, network identification.
140.

What is one type of networking that Windows 98 provides?


A: PEER-TO-PEER

141.

Which of the following are advantages of FAT32 over FAT? (choose two)
A: Reduced cluster size
Increased logical drive size

142.

What are valid ways to display the task manager in Windows 2000? (choose three)
A: Press <CLT>+<SHIFT> and <ESC>.
Right click on the taskbar and choose task manager.
Press <CLT>+<ALT>+<DEL> and then click task manager.

143.

Which file system supports encryption on Windows 2000?


A: NTFS

144. What key can be pressed during the Windows 2000 boot process to display the
advance option menu?
A: <F8>
145. What shows information on resources used by a device in Windows 2000? (choose
three)
A: WINMSD.EXE
DEVICE MANAGER
SYSTEM INFORMATION
146.

What is the one way to change a long file name in Windows 9x?
A: Windows explorer, file, rename
32

147.

What happens if a .REG file is double clicked. The .REG file


A: Is merged into the registry.

148.

What is the correct order for preparing a hard disk for Windows 98?
A: FDISK, format, reboot

149. How a Windows 2000 desktop shortcut icon created for opening a specific
application?
A: Right click on the application file within Windows explorer and choose create
shortcut.
150.

What program is used to edit a specific registry key under Windows 2000?
A: REGEDIT

151.

What causes a disk defragmenter to take an excess amount of time to complete?


A: Hard disk access modifies drive content.

152.

What is the 32-bit command line interpreter in Windows 2000?


A: CMD.EXE

153.

What is the outcome of running disk defragmentation?


A: Faster data transfer

154. What is the diagnostic tool that takes its snap shot of a PCs condition during a
system fault?
A: Dr Watson
155. What must be done to start the upgrade procedure from Windows 95, 98 or NT to
Windows 2000 professional?
A: Start Windows 2000 setup program from within the operating system.
156.

Which statement is correct?


A: Anything in autoexec.bat can be run from a command prompt.

157.

Which tool is used to create an emergency repair disk (ERD) in Windows NT?
33

A: Rdisk.exe
158.

How are the virtual memory options set in Windows 98?


A: Settings, control panel, system, performance, virtual memory

159. A client wants to have two drives to organize their data. A C: drive and an
administrator drive. What steps would be taken with FDISK?
A: Create primary DOS partition, create extended DOS partition
160.

What is the smallest unit of storage that Windows 9x can access on a hard drive?
A: Cluster

161.

Which of the below statements are found in the autoexec.bat file? (choose two)
A: PROMPT$P$G
LH C:/Windows/COMMAND/MSCDEX/D:TOSCD001

162. What are valid methods to make a bootable floppy disk in Windows 9x? (choose
three)
A: Format a:/s from a command prompt.
Control panel, add/remove programs, start up disk.
In explorer right click on a drive, format, floppy system files.
163. During boot up which function key allows you to boot directly to safe mode in
Windows 9x?
A: <F5>
164. Which tools ensure that a newly installed device on Windows 2000 Professional is
functioning properly?
A: Device manager
165.

Which of the following are not loaded in safe mode? (choose two)
A: Sound card support
ECP printing capability

166.

Where in Windows 2000 should you connect or disconnect the network printer?
A: Start, settings, printer
34

167. In Windows 9x the system configuration editor is used to view and edit which of the
following files? (choose three)
A: BOOT.INI
SYSTEM.INI
CONFIG.SYS
168. During the Windows 2000 boot process, press the ______ key to display the
troubleshooting and advance start set up options menu?
A: <F8>
169. You have taken a hard drive form a computer formatted using Windows 98 and
installed it as a second drive into a computer running Windows 95. The BIOS recognized
the drive and you are now at the Windows desktop. When you double click on my
computer the second drive does not appear. Why?
A: The new drive is partitioned with FAT32.
170.

Which OEM installation CD is not bootable?


A: Windows 95

171.

What operating systems transition would be the easiest to implement?


A: Windows 95 to Windows 98

172.

In Windows 2000 what is the valid way to set a printer as a default printer?
A: In the printers folder right click the printer and choose set as a default printer.

173. What applet should you use to add Windows components distributed on the
Windows 2000 Professional CD?
A: Add/Remove programs
174. Which Windows NT 4.0 utility should you use right after installing a new hard drive
to make it usable?
A: DISK ADMINISTRATOR
175.

What will cause an error config.sys line XX?


A: Wrong syntax on the specified lines
35

176. A customer calls and reports that an error message when trying to connect to an
Internet provider. The server cant negotiate and appropriate protocol. What is the most
likely cause of this problem?
A: TCP/IP is not installed or is corrupt.
177. When reinstalling Windows 95 on an existing installation on the same directory how
are the existing group items preserved?
A: Automatically
178.

A system has lost all sound. What could be problem?


A: A conflict is listed in the device manager.

179.
is?

You will receive a HIMEM.SYS not loaded error message if the HIMEM command

A: Missing or corrupt
180. The system you are working on hangs after starting windows message appears. You
suspect that something in either config.sys or autoexec.bat is causing the problem. Which
key can you hold down after seeing this starting windows message to have windows ignore
those two files at start up?
A: <SHIFT>
181. Your customer complains that Internet access is very slow and that sometime the
service will timeout while trying to open a page visited frequently. You check the Internet
setting and notice that the temporary Internet folder settings are set to 600MB. What
changes should you make?
A: Leave the settings alone and click delete history.
182. With a Windows 9x system only 1MB of hard drive space is left on the boot drive
and the operating system crashes. Which file may have run out of space?
A: PAGEFILE.SYS
183. A client who is using Windows 95 calls and states that a folder has just been shared.
However, the folder does not appear as a shared folder. What is causing the problem?
A.

Available hard drive space is insufficient.

184. A customer with a Windows 9x system cant print but the printer is online and print
jobs are queued. What could be the problem?
36

A: Spooler is overloaded
185. You are working on a system that has a malfunctioning mouse. In the device
manager, which key will toggle from one device to another?
A: ARROW KEY
186. Running Windows 98 you notice that device manager does not list the CD-ROM
properties. The CD-ROM appears to be running flawlessly. What could be the problem?
A: Missing driver in AUTOEXEC.BAT
187. After a certain shareware package is installed Windows 98 no longer starts and you
suspect a damaged registry. To restore a backup copy of the registry, which command line
utility could you run from MS-DOS?
A: SCANREG
188.

What should you do first if your Windows NT 4.0 system will not boot?
A: Use the last known good configuration.

189. A user clicks the print shortcut icon on standard tool bar of the application and the
document prints to the wrong printer. What should you do to correct this?
A: Set the desired printer as default.
190. You are trying to run multiple programs on Windows 95 and you are receiving an
out of memory error. This may occur because?
A: The dynamic swap file is limited due to the small amount of free space on your host
drive.
191. After installing Windows 98 it fails to start after the starting Windows 98 message
appears. What should you do to troubleshoot this problem? (choose two)
A: Type WIN/D:M at the command prompt to start windows.
Press CLT+F8 when Windows is restarting and select safe mode.
192. The Windows 98 system you are working on has a Windows 3.1 application. The
print command is not responding. Which command should you type at the run command
line to help you troubleshoot the problem?
A: MKCOMPAT.EXE
37

193. The system you are working on boots up with the error message no operating
system. Which command gets rid of the problem?
A: SYS.COM
194. Windows 98 computer is having display related problems. You need to adjust the
graphics hardware acceleration so you current troubleshoot the problem. From which
location can you do this?
A: Control panel, system, performance, graphics
195.

Which Windows 98 utility can be used to improve the access time on a hard disk?
A: DISK DEFRAGMENTER

196. In Windows 9x you have multiple monitors connected to your computer and you are
unable to drag a window from one screen to another. What could be causing this problem?
A: Window you are trying to drag is maximized.
197. In a Windows 2000 system where can you go to find which type network interface
card you have installed in your system?
A: Control panel, networks
198.

In Windows 2000 where should you go to join a group or domain?


A: System properties

199. Which TCP/IP utilities are used to determine the IP address of known Internet
domain names? (choose three)
A: PING
TRACERT
Nslookup
200. A customer wants to set his new computer to use a data/fax internal modem to dial
up to an Internet service provider (ISP). He has joined the ISP and has all of the ISP
information. What should you do first to accomplish this goal?
A: Install dial-up networking and TCP/IP and set all appropriate settings.
201.

What is the main function of a WINS server on the network?


A: It resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
38

202.

Which protocol does world wide web use?


A: HTTP

203. A user is connected to an ISPN wizard set to at least three sites. Suddenly a message
is given indicating that the site is unavailable. What might be the problem?
A: The host servers are down.
204. Which protocol must be used on a network where the Windows 2000 clients are
granted Internet access?
A: TCP/IP
205. What MS-DOS prompt command is used to hide the file REPORT.DOC known to
exist in the current directory?
A: ATTRIB+H REPORT.DOC
206.

Which component of Windows95 contains key entries?


A: Registry

207. What advantages does protected mode memory have over real mode memory?
(choose two)
A: OS Manager's memory resources
OS controls application access to stabilize system
208. What would you run from the command prompt to check drive C for surface errors
before Windows 9x starts?
A: CHKDSK C:/M
209.

Which Windows 9x file should be kept at a minimum size of 1KB?


A: USER.DATABASE

210.

What command is used to view the registry in Windows 9x?


A: REGEDIT

211. What tab in the system configuration utility allows you to view local items at
bootup?
A: Startup
39

212. What must be done from the command prompt before the MSDOS.SYS file can be
edited in Windows 9x?
A: ATTRIB+S+H+R MSDOS.SYS
213.

The PING command is used to check for?


A: IP connectivity

214. Which of the following are valid ways of creating a new folder in Windows
Explorer?(choose two)

A: File, New, Folder


Right Click in Display Window, New, Folder
215.

How is a FAT32 D: drive converted to a NTFS drive in Windows 2000?


A: At command prompt, type D:/SS:NTFS

216.

What is the purpose of a driver?


A: Tells the operating system how to interact with the device.

217.

How many entries can be contained within the root directory under Windows 9x?
A: 512

218.

Which conversion does the Windows98 drive converter perform?


A: FAT16 partition into FAT32 partition

219.

Which command can repair a master boot record?


A: FDISK/MBR

220.

What is the correct syntax for the following command?


A: FORMAT A:

221.

What file will bring up a Windows NT 4.0 command prompt?


A: CMD.EXE

40

222. What is the minimum number of steps to install a USB peripheral if Windows 2000
already includes a device driver for that peripheral and the USB ports are active?
A: Shut down the system, plug in the device, start the system run the Add/Remove
hardware wizard, choose the appropriate driver from the list and restart the system.
223.

What is the difference between xcopy and xcopy/s in Windows 9x?


A: Xcopy /s copies files and subdirectories

224: You have configured a dual boot system consisting of Windows 98 in FAT 32
partition and Windows 2000 using an NTFS partition. You checked your Windows 2000
installation and it looks good. However when you boot to windows 98 you cannot see the
files in the NTFS partition. What might be the source of the problem?
A: Windows 98 is not compatible with NTFS
225.

How should you create a FAT16 partition in Windows 98?


A: Select N when prompted for large disk support running Fdisk.

226. You successfully installed Windows 98 and cannot adjust your display resolution.
What should you do first?
A: Update your Windows drivers with the latest available version.
227. In order to send e-mail over the Internet successfully you must have which two main
parts of the e-mail address?
A: E-mail name and domain name
228.

In Windows 2000 which file can you edit to alter multiple OS boot options?
A: BOOT.INI

229. You have just added a Windows 98 workstation to a TCP/IP network and you cant
log into or the Windows NT server where your account has been set up. Which commands
should you use to check for network connectivity? (Choose two)
A: WINIPCFG
IPCONFIG
230
The user gets an out of memory message when running to print. The service
technician checks and there is plenty of space on the hard drive. What is causing this
error?
41

A: System needs more memory


231. A recently installed application launches each time Windows 95 starts. In order to
disable the auto-launch, what should you check? (choose three)
A: REGISTRY
SETUP GROUP
CONFIG.SYS
232. From a command prompt, using a Windows NT 4.0 installation CD, what will
running the command WINNT/B2?
A: Install Windows NT 4.0 without prompting for boot diskettes.
233. Which of the following can the add/remove hardware applet perform in Windows
2000? (choose two)
A: Uninstall the device drivers
Troubleshoot an existing device
234.

Where are the boot options stored for Windows 2000?


A: BOOT.INI

235.
You are having problem with a system and want to check the registry for errors.
At the DOS prompt, which command should you use?
A: SCANREG /FIX
236: A customer calls and says that he can receive email without any problem but cannot
send any mails. What should you check?
A: SMTP server settings
237. While logged on as an administrator, you installed an application on Windows NT 4.
0 workstation. After creating a shortcut in the all users profile, you test the application
shortcut and it works fine? The user calls and say that the application does not run? What
is the problem?
A: Group everyone is missing in the application security properties
238. A client calls and says that the peer to peer network is on longer working. Which
components should have been installed?(choose three)
A: Client
42

Protocol
Adapter
239. You change the video resolution. When you restart the system you can no longer see
anything on the screen even though you are sure that the system booted up properly. What
should you do to safely restart the system so that you can access the display properties in
safe mode?
A: Press alt + F4. and then press enter.
240. Your customer can only connect to 28.8KBPS even with a 56KBPS modem. The ISP
you work with has all v.90/x2 modems. What should you suggest?
A: Check the internet for the latest v.90 updates for the modem.
241. In Windows 98, what should you do to cancel a document which is already in the
print queue?
A: Double Click the printers icon in the printer folder and cancel printing.
242. A Windows 95 Computer is upgraded to Windows 2000. After restarting the
computer for the first time. One of the applications no longer works? What should be
done?
A. Reinstall the application
243. If your Windows 9x computer locks up and you are unable to close the program.
How can you terminate the program without shutting down the system?
A: Press CTRL+ALT+ DEL. Select the program not responding and click the END Task
button.
244. On a Windows 9x system all that is seen are truncated file names instead of actual
long filename. What utility is being used?
A: Program manager
245. A user uninstalled an application in Windows 98, but it still appears in the start
menu? How do you remove it? (choose two)
A: Shutdown and reboot the PC
Right click the taskbar ,choose properties and choose remove under the customized
start menu.

43

246. You installed Windows NT Workstation 4.0 on your Windows 98 computer so that
you can dual boot. After installation you try looking for data on your Windows 98
partition, but cannot see it. What is the problem?
A: The Windows 98 partition is formatted with FAT32.
247. Your anti-virus software detects a boot sector virus. What is a valid option for
removing the virus?
A: Run FDISK /MBR
248. A Windows 95 user reports receiving Missing or Bad command.com error ever
since he modified the root directory. Where can a duplicate copy of Command.Com be
found?
A. C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND. COM
249. What are the possible causes for the error message bad or missing command.
com?(choose two)
A: Corrupt command.com
Old version of command.com
250. A user calls and states that her anti-virus software has detected a virus. What is the
best way to detect and remove the virus?
A: Boot from a clean startup disk and then run the anti-virus software.
251. A user starts Windows 2000 professional and logs in successfully but doesnt appear
to have a task bar. Otherwise the system starts normally and all the users icons appear on
the desktop. How can you locate the start menu? (Choose two)
A: Display a hidden start menu by pressing CTRL+ESC.
Find the hidden start menu by left clicking each edge of the desktop.
252. A client calls you and says that the files have been deleted from the removable drive
and the customer wants to recover them. However the files are not in the recycle bin.
What can be the cause of this problem?
A: Files on the removable hard drive are deleted immediately.
253. You receive the following message when booting Windows NT 4. 0 Workstation.
boot could not find NTLDR. Please insert another disk. What should you do to fix the
disk?
A: Run the emergency repair process.
44

254. The system you are working on continues to hang just after the Windows logo
appears. You suspect that the application in the startup folder is causing the problem.
Which key can you hold down after seeing the Windows logo to stop the application in the
start up folder from executing?
A: SHIFT
255. A user clicks the print shortcut on the standard tool bar of an application and the
document prints to the wrong printer. What can you do to correct this? (choose two)
A: Use file/print to set the desired printer.
Set the desired printer as the default in the application.
256. After a RAM upgrade to a Windows 9x operating system, a user experiences
random lock-ups and program errors. You suspect that the new memory is at fault. How
can you quickly test extended memory?
A: Close all programs and open system information.
257. A client calls and tells you that while he was installing Windows 98 the system files
could not be updated and the system hung. What should be disabled in order to install a
system upgrade?
A: Anti-virus feature in the BIOS
258. A user calls and complains that a system bought a couple of years ago has USB
ports build in, but when a new USB mouse is plugged in, the system does not recognize that
a device has been added. What do you suspect is the problem?
A: The system is running Windows 95.
259. An executable file in windows explorer on a Windows 98 machine has the generic
windows icon next to it and will not open or execute. What can cause this? (Choose two)
A: The application associated with the file was deleted.
A user has moved the application file to a new location.
260. In Windows, which of the following network, components must be present to make a
dial-up connection to the Internet? (choose two)
A: TCP/IP
Dial-up adapter
261. In a peer to peer network printing demands are slowing the network terms. One
quick remedy for the problem would be to?
45

A: Try to run your print jobs after hours when there is less network traffic.
262.

How do most of FTP servers authenticate users?


A: Anonymously

263. Which components can be added from the Windows 9x network control panel?
(choose three)
A: Client
Adapter
Protocol
264. To reach a secured Internet site named test.com which of the following addresses
must you type on the URL line of your browser?
A: HTTPS://TEST.COM
265. What is the first step you should take to connect to a shared printer over your
network?
A: From the printers folder double click add printer and choose network printer.
266.

What is a static IP address?


A: A prominently assigned address.

267.

Which domain name applies to universities and colleges?


A: .EDU

268.

How can the operating system version that is currently running be found?
A: Right click the my computer icon and select properties.

269.

Which of the following is a valid entry in the CONFIG.SYS?


A: DEVICE=C:\WINDOWS\HIMEM.SYS

270. What program is used to edit a text file when a PC starts at the command prompt
only?
A: edit

46

271. Which of the following are advantages that Windows 9x has over Windows
NT/2000? (Choose two)
A: Software compatibility
Legacy hardware compatibility
272.

What partition types can read both Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0?
A: FAT

273. In the Windows 2000 explorer, opening the C:\WINNT folder shows no files. What
is the cause?
A: Windows explorer automatically hides system files from view.
274.

Which file below is needed to start-up Windows NT 4.0?


A: BOOT.INI

275.

In which folder is REGEDIT found in Windows 9x?


A: WINDOWS

276.

How does Windows 95 store compressed data?


A: as .ZIP files

278.

Which registry files in Windows 9x are stored in the Windows directory?


A: SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT

279.

What is the maximum size of a FAT16 logical drive?


A: 2GB

280.

What happens when Windows 98 detects a corrupted registry?


A: You must boot to safe mode and restore from your backups.

281. Windows 2000 offers a power-saving mode that saves everything in memory to disk,
turns off the monitor and hard disk, then turns off the computer. When the computer is
restarted, the desktop is restored exactly as it was left. A power failure while the computer
is in this mode will not cause data loss. What is this mode called?
A: Hibernate
47

282. What does a check mark next to an item on a Windows menu indicate concerning
command?
A: active
283.

Which statement is correct?


A: Anything in autoexec.bat can be run from a command prompt.

284.

Which is one way to create a short cut on desktop in Windows 9x?


A: Right click on a desktop, new, shortcut, browse for a target application.

285.

What does virtual memory do?


A: Use hard disk space for extra memory.

286.

Which Windows 9x files are text files? (Choose three)

A: CONFIG.SYS
SYSTEM.INI
AUTOEXEC.BAT
287.

Which type of a user accounts can Windows 2000 Professional create and manage?
A: Local

288. In Windows NT native support is provided for which of the following peripheral
interfaces? (Choose three)
A: Serial
IEEE 1394
PS/2 keyboard
289.

Why should you run system monitor?


A: To assist performance diagnostics

290. When you double click on a shortcut that appears on the Windows desktop why
does not the application run?
A: The program file for that shortcut is corrupt or deleted.

48

291. You want to boot windows 9x without your PC card network adapter while still
leaving it installed in your laptop PC. In the device manger you should?
A: Disable the PC card network adapter from device properties page.
292.

What is the proper convention for accessing network printer?


A: //systemname/printername

293.

Which files required Windows 9x startup file? (Choose two)


A: IO.SYS
MSDOS.SYS

294. You are formatting a hard disk and get the following error sector 0 bad, disk not
usable. What is the cause of this error?
A: A defective hard drive
295. Before upgrading Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2000 which command should you
use to check the existing operating system for compatibility?
A: CHKUPGRD
296. What key is used to get the interactive startup in Windows 98 during the boot
sequence?
A: <END>
297. In addition to the four files added to boot Windows NT 4.0 system what other files
must be present if the system has a SCSI adapter on which the BIOS is not enabled?
A: NTBOOTDD.SYS
298. The system you are upgrading is running Windows 95a. You have installed a new
20GB drive as a slave and the BIOS recognises the new drive. However, when you try to
partition the new drive the largest you can create is only 2GB. Why?
A: FAT16 has a 2GB limit.
299.

Which of the following is bypassed in safe mode? (Choose three)


A: Modem driver
CONFIG.SYS
AUTOEXEC.BAT
49

300. After deleting the default printer from a system with two printers installed
Windows will___________?
A: Make the remaining printer the default printer.
301.

What file is read first when a Windows 95 PC boots?


A: IO.SYS

302. A new modem installed in Windows 2000 is not on a hardware compatibility list.
What are you likely to be prompted for?
A: Manufacturers driver diskette
303. An application installation cant make changes to AUTOEXEC.BAT and
CONFIG.SYS files on a Windows 95 computer. Which options can you use to resolve this
issue? (Choose two)
A: From a command prompt type ATTRIB-R and the file name.
In windows explorer right click the file, select properties and uncheck read only.
304.

In Windows 2000 you can install printers by using which of the following?
A: Add printer wizard

305.
A user complains that she is unable to log into the network. What is the logical
thing to check in the troubleshooting process?
A: Network protocol
306. Under Windows 2000 you consistently receive out of memory messages when
running multiple applications. To avoid having to upgrade RAM immediately you?
(Choose two)
A: Increase the paging file size in the system control panel.
307. A Windows 98 customer with a 20GB hard drive formatted with FAT32 tries to
install an old DOS program, but gets an error message that there is not enough space on
the hard drive. According to the drive properties, more than 12GB of free space are
remaining on the drive. What is wrong?
A: DOS program does not recognise a FAT32 partition.
308. A user is using multiple monitors in Windows 98 and states that a mouse can only
be used with the primary monitor. The problem is that the user is in an MSDOS based
program___________?
50

A: in protected screen mode


309. You work for an ISP and receive a tech support call from a customer who cant
connect. You determine that he gets a dial tone and dials a number, but no handshake
occurs. Instead the customer hears a voice coming through the modem, but cant hear what
it is saying. What should be done to correct this problem?
A: Check the modem dialling properties.
310. If you receive the no operating system found message on the monitor during bootup, what might be the cause?
A: Unformatted floppy in the floppy drive
311. You receive a call from the customer that the sound on his Windows NT computer
has stopped working. What should you do first?
A: Check the volume control applet to make sure that the devices are not muted.
312. At boot up you receive the error message that a device referenced in system.ini,
win.ini or the registry can not be found. Which command should you type at the start run
command line to trouble shoot the problem? (Choose two)

A: SYSEDIT
REGEDIT
313. You receive a service failed to start error message on a Windows NT 4 workstation.
Which utility should you use to find out which service failed?
A: EVENT VIEWER
314. After installing Windows 98 it fails to start after the starting Windows 98 message
appears. What should you do to troubleshoot the problem? (Choose two)
A: Run the doctor WATSON debugging programme from MSDOS mode.
Press <F8> when windows is restarting and select safe mode.
315. During boot-up you receive an error message in the CONFIG.SYS file line 10.
Which command line utility should you use to fix the error?
A: EDIT.COM
316. While trying to access your Internet Service Provider you receive this error message
MPREXE caused an invalid page fort in cornol32.dll what does this mean?
51

A: The TCP/IP stack is corrupt.

52

Index
Active Directory........................................ 13
Active Partition.......................................... 2
address classes........................................... 14
ARIS.......................................................... 10
AUTOEXEC.BAT1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 37,
48, 49, 50
basic disks ............................................. 9, 11
boot disk .................................................... 10
boot partition ............................................. 10
Boot Sequence......................................... 2, 3
caching ........................................................ 5
CDFS..................................................... 6, 17
CD-ROM... 2, 6, 9, 10, 11, 18, 23, 27, 31, 37
CD-ROMs ............................................... 5, 6
central database ......................................... 10
checksum................................................... 12
CHKDSK.......................................... 3, 8, 39
Clustering................................................... 2
clusters..................................................... 2, 3
COMMAND.COM................ 3, 5, 8, 16, 27
compression............................................... 10
CONFIG.SYS1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 19, 24, 25, 27,
35, 42, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51
control set .................................................. 13
CONTROL.INI.......................................... 4
Cooperative Multitasking......................... 3
CPU ........................................................... 12
Debugging Mode....................................... 13
DEFRAG ................................................ 3, 8
defragment............................................... 3, 8
DETCRASH.LOG....................................... 7
DETLOG.TXT ............................................ 7
device drivers .............. 1, 2, 5, 11, 20, 24, 42
Device Manager ........................................ 11
devices....................................................... 11
Devices ...................................................... 11
DHCP ........................ 2, 9, 10, 15, 24, 28, 30
Dial-Up Connections................................. 12
Directory Services Restore Mode ............. 13
disk quotas................................................... 9
DMA.......................................................... 11
DNS........................................................... 10
domain....................................................... 10

domain controller ...................................... 10


DOS2, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17, 21,
22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 34, 37, 39, 42,
50
drivers............................................ 10, 12, 13
dual-boot...................................................... 9
DVD .......................................................... 11
dynamic disk ............................................. 11
dynamic disks........................................ 9, 11
EMM386.EXE ....................................... 1, 2
EMS ........................................................ 1, 2
Enable Boot Logging ................................ 13
encryption.............................................. 9, 10
Explorer..................................................... 13
Extended partition .................................... 2
extended partitions ...................................... 9
FAT ............................. 2, 6, 9, 27, 32, 41, 47
FAT32 ......................................................... 9
fault tolerance............................................ 12
FDISK........................... 2, 25, 33, 34, 40, 44
File Allocations Table ................................. 2
file system ............................................. 9, 10
Floppy Drives.............................................. 2
folder level security................................... 10
FORMAT.COM .......................................... 2
Formatting ................................................... 2
Fragmentation.............................................. 2
GDI.EXE ..................................................... 3
General Protection Faults ............................ 8
GPFs ............................................................ 8
Graphical User Interface ......................... 3, 5
graphics ....................................................... 9
groups ........................................................ 10
GUI.......................... 2, 3, 5, 6, 16, 18, 21, 29
hard drive2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 16, 20, 21, 24, 25,
27, 29, 34, 35, 36, 41, 44, 49, 50
hardware .................................... 9, 10, 11, 12
High Memory Area ................................... 1
HIMEM.SYS................................... 1, 36, 46
host ............................................................ 14
host ID ....................................................... 14
I/O control registers................................... 12
I/O ports..................................................... 11

IFS ............................................................... 6
Input/Output .............................................. 11
Installable File System ................................ 6
Interrupts ................................................... 11
IO.SYS.................................. 3, 5, 27, 49, 50
IP address .......... 9, 14, 23, 28, 30, 31, 38, 46
IPX/SPX .................................................... 14
keyboard .......................................... 9, 11, 13
KRNL386.EXE ........................................... 3
Last Known Good Configuration.............. 13
Legacy Cards............................................... 8
LFN ......................................................... 6, 7
Limulation.................................................. 1
local area connection icon ......................... 12
local machine............................................. 10
logging........................................... 10, 13, 14
logical drives ......................................... 9, 11
Long File Names ..................................... 6, 7
long filenames ............................................. 9
MAC.......................................................... 14
MAKEBOOT ............................................ 10
Manual installation.................................... 10
Master Boot Record .................................. 11
MBR .......................................................... 11
MEM..................................................... 1, 25
MEMMAKER ........................................... 1
memory1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20,
22, 24, 25, 29, 34, 37, 39, 41, 42, 45, 47,
48, 50
Memory ........................................... 9, 11, 12
mirrored volume........................................ 12
mouse .................................................... 9, 13
Mouse .......................................................... 5
MSDOS.SYS .............................. 3, 5, 40, 49
multicast address ....................................... 15
multitasking................................................. 3
name resolution ......................................... 10
NDIS.......................................................... 14
NetBEUI.................................................... 14
NetBIOS .................................................... 14
NETLOG.TXT ............................................ 7
network7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22,
23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 38, 39, 41,
42, 45, 46, 49, 50
network adapter ......................... 9, 10, 12, 14
network ID................................................. 14

network security group.............................. 10


NTFS ..................................................... 9, 10
NWLink..................................................... 14
partition table............................................. 11
Partitioning .................................................. 2
partitions.......................................... 9, 10, 11
password.................................................... 10
PCMCIA.................................................... 11
Pentium ....................................................... 9
permanent swap-file .................................... 4
Plug and Play................................... 8, 11, 12
Preemptive Multitasking .......................... 4
Primary Partition ...................................... 2
processor.................................................... 12
PROGMAN.EXE....................................... 4
PROGMAN.INI......................................... 4
protected mode .................................. 5, 6, 39
PXE ........................................................... 10
quotas ........................................................ 10
RAID ............................................. 10, 11, 12
regedit.exe ................................................... 7
regional settings......................................... 10
registry................................................... 9, 10
Registry ....................................... 2, 7, 17, 39
Remote Installation Services..................... 10
RIPrep........................................................ 10
RIS............................................................. 10
ROM BIOS.................................................. 1
root directory......................... 2, 7, 20, 40, 44
Safe Mode ................................... 2, 8, 12, 13
SCANDISK ...................................... 3, 8, 26
SCSI .......................................................... 10
sectors.......................................................... 2
security database ....................................... 10
Security levels ............................................. 8
service.................................................. 11, 12
SETUPLOG.TXT........................................ 7
Shadowing.................................................. 1
share .......................................................... 12
SID ............................................................ 10
software ............................................... 11, 12
Spanned volumes....................................... 12
striped ........................................................ 11
Stripped volumes....................................... 12
subnet mask ........................................... 9, 14
swap-files .................................................... 4

SYSEDIT.................................. 4, 16, 26, 51


Sysprep ...................................................... 11
SYSTEM.DAT...................................... 7, 47
SYSTEM.INI ................. 4, 5, 17, 19, 35, 48
TCP/IP2, 9, 14, 15, 23, 24, 28, 31, 36, 38,
39, 41, 45, 52
temporary directory................................... 12
temporary swap-file..................................... 4
UDF........................................................... 10
UMB............................................................ 1
unattended installation............................... 10
unattended text file .................................... 10
uniqueness definition file .......................... 10
Universal Naming Convention .................... 8
Upper Memory Blocks .............................. 1
USER.DAT ........................................... 7, 47
USER.EXE.................................................. 3

VCACHE .................................................... 5
VFAT .......................................................... 6
VGA ...................................... 5, 9, 13, 27, 28
video adapter ............................................. 11
Virtual Machines ......................................... 5
Virtual Memory....................................... 4, 5
volume sets................................................ 11
volumes ........................................... 9, 11, 12
WAN ......................................................... 14
Web site..................................................... 12
WIN.COM.................................................. 4
WIN.INI ................................... 4, 16, 17, 26
Windows 95 .......................................... 9, 10
Windows NT ......................................... 9, 10
WINNT.EXE............................................. 10
WINNT32.EXE......................................... 10
workgroup ................................................. 10