In this paper, the use of a symbolic and numerical calculation package to the problems of elasto-plasticity is considered. The goal of the present code under development is
on one hand educational and on the other hand to provide a test environment for small scale
problems arising in metal forming plasticity. Especially, the aim has been to form a systematic practice for the determination of constitutive parameters for deep drawing
analysis. An iterative finite element scheme and an optimization module are programmed using the Mathematica 3.0 programming language. As an example, the planar anisotropy parameter of deep drawing material is optimized using numerical simulation of a strip in
tension.

© All Rights Reserved

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In this paper, the use of a symbolic and numerical calculation package to the problems of elasto-plasticity is considered. The goal of the present code under development is
on one hand educational and on the other hand to provide a test environment for small scale
problems arising in metal forming plasticity. Especially, the aim has been to form a systematic practice for the determination of constitutive parameters for deep drawing
analysis. An iterative finite element scheme and an optimization module are programmed using the Mathematica 3.0 programming language. As an example, the planar anisotropy parameter of deep drawing material is optimized using numerical simulation of a strip in
tension.

© All Rights Reserved

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ECCOMAS 2000

Barcelona, 11-14 September 2000

ECCOMAS

DEEP DRAWING METAL FORMING ANALYSIS USING THE

MATHEMATICA PROGRAM

Mika Reivinen, Jouni Freund

Helsinki University of Technology

Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

P.O.Box 1100, FIN-02015 HUT

e-mail: Mika.Reivinen@hut.fi

web page: http://www.hut.fi/HUT/Dynamics/

Key words. Constitutive parameters, deep drawing, inverse problems, material model,

Mathematica, metal forming, metal plasticity, optimization.

Abstract. In this paper, the use of a symbolic and numerical calculation package to the

problems of elasto-plasticity is considered. The goal of the present code under development is

on one hand educational and on the other hand to provide a test environment for small scale

problems arising in metal forming plasticity. Especially, the aim has been to form a

systematic practice for the determination of constitutive parameters for deep drawing

analysis. An iterative finite element scheme and an optimization module are programmed

using the Mathematica 3.0 programming language. As an example, the planar anisotropy

parameter of deep drawing material is optimized using numerical simulation of a strip in

tension.

1 INTRODUCTION

Deep drawing is a metal forming process used to manufacture auto-body components,

sinks and other similar products by stamping rolled metal sheets into their final geometric

forms. If the parameters of the forming process are not properly arranged, there is a potential

for various defects such as bottom tearing, flange wrinkling, or earing of the flange. For

example, the earing may take place due to the anisotropy of the material. The anisotropy arises

in the rolling process due to the changes in microstructure. Hills quadratic yield function1 is a

widely used anisotropic yield surface, although many disadvantages of this theory have been

pointed out.2,3 Some other yield conditions are presented for example in references.4,5,6,7,8

In this study, an appropriate material model for deep drawing analysis is searched for and

an attempt is made to systematically determine the material parameters. The principal idea is

to minimize the least-squares deviation between the computed and measured variables with

respect to the constitutive parameters. The least-squares expression may contain any

observable quantities such as forces, strains, geometrical shape, or microstructural variables.

In practice, the so-called sensitivity matrix, whose elements are the derivatives of the

observable variables with respect to the material parameters, is used in the minimization. This

kind of approach has recently been applied to metal forming analysis9 and in a slightly

modified form to structural analysis10. The numerical method used to solve the plasticity

problem is based on general plane stress algorithm.11,12

Both the finite element and the optimization modules are programmed using the

Mathematica 3.0 programming language13. In computational plasticity the load is often

applied incrementally and after every load increment the overall equilibrium and consistency

are achieved iteratively. This is a time consuming procedure and therefore an interpretable

computer code can not compete in efficiency with a compiled one, e.g. a Fortran code.

However, the recent development of computer capacity makes it possible to use interpretable

codes in tasks where the number of degrees of freedom is relatively small. The benefit is that

one can use in addition to high level programming language, integrated graphics and other

ready-to-use packages. This makes it possible to use the code as test environment for new

ideas and also for educational purposes. As an example, the anisotropy parameter of deep

drawing material is optimized.

Instead of high computational efficiency, our goal has been to make access to individual

parts of the code and an implementatation that shows how the algorithm works. The data

representation of the code is based on nested lists, and the high level functions supported by

Mathematica make the code quite short. As an example, the Jacobian can simply be evaluated

by using the definition

jacobian[f_List, x_List] := Outer[D, f, x];

result we get the Jacobian matrix containing the gradient of the ith function at the ith row.

More examples can be found for example in references13,14.

2 INCREMENTAL PLANE STRESS ELASTO-PLASTICITY AND

MATHEMATICA IMPLEMENTATION

2.1 Incremental equations for isotropic hardening material under plane stress

Although specific incremental algorithms for plane stress plasticity exist15,16, we use a

more general incremental approach presented for example in11,12. This is motivated by

educational aspects of the code. We consider next the Lagrangian form of the problem and

assume that the displacements are small. Then there is no need to make difference between

the Cauchy and Piola-Kirchhoff stresses and the corresponding small displacement and

Green-Lagrange strain measures. We start with the yield function defined in the stress space

f = F (e p ) 0 ,

(1)

where F is the effective stress, and the hardening parameter , depending on the equivalent

plastic strain e p , determines the size of elastic domain. The increment of the plastic strain is

given by the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule

p =

f

= a ,

(2)

where is the plastic strain multiplier, and a the plastic flow vector. The stress changes are

related to the strain changes by

= C ( p ) = C ( a ) .

(3)

Above, is the increment of total strain vector, which consists of elastic and plastic parts

= e + p . Assuming isotropic elasticity and the plane stress conditions, the tangent

modulus matrix is

0

1

E

,

1

0

C=

(4)

1 2

0 0 (1 ) / 2

where E is Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio. For plastic flow, the stresses must remain

on the yield surface and hence we get the consistency condition

f

f

f =

e p = a T k e p = 0 ,

+

p

(5)

where k = / e p is the plastic strain hardening modulus. By using (2), we obtain the

connection between the plastic strain multiplier and the increment of equivalent plastic strain

e p = B ( ) .

(6)

For von Mises yield criterion the stress parameter B ( ) = 1 . By substituting (6) into equation

(5) we get

f = aT kB = aT A = 0 ,

(7)

2.2 Elastic predictor

The variational formulation reads: find the increment of the displacement field ,u so that

V (@

Du

Du

: DI )dV = ( -@

: I + @ u f )dV + (@Du t )dA

V

A

x

x

@ ( ,u) .

(8)

The right hand side of the equation represents the out-of balance forces r = f ext - f int . After

substituting expression (3) and the strain increment definition

1 Du Du T

) ]

DA = [

+(

2 x

x

(9)

one may solve ,u , calculate the increment of the strain ,AA , and stress , . The

displacement field calculation based on (8) is performed by keeping the plastic multiplier of

stress expression (3) fixed. Although the solution thus obtained satisfies the equilibrium, the

stress may not be located inside the yield surface and, therefore, a correction stage is needed.

2.3 Newton return

We start from the elastic predictor e = C e and apply Newtons method to return the

stress on the yield surface. The return mapping is based on the stress and yield surface

expressions

r C e a = 0,

f =0

(10)

which are considered as non-linear functions of stress I and the plastic multiplier .

Keeping the trial elastic stress fixed, Taylor expansion of equation (10) at the current values of

the variables give

r + + 2 Ca + C

a

= 0,

(11)

f + a - A = 0.

T

By eliminating we get

2 =

f aT Q 1r

,

aT Q 1Ca + A

(12)

plastic strain can be obtained from equation (6).

For the implementation of equations (10) - (12), we apply a Mathematica module

newtonPS[...] which is called recursively until the value of the yield function is

acceptable, i.e. close enough to the value zero.

2.4 Consistent tangent modulus

The consistent tangent modular matrix11

aaT Q 1C

= Q 1C I T 1

a Q Ca + A

(13)

= C a +

,

T

a A = 0.

(14)

The elimination can be performed, for example, by solving first from the first equation,

substituting the result into the second equation, solving for , and substituting the result

back into the first equation. The rate form follows when both sides of (13) are divided by t

and then by considering the limit t 0 .

employed in order to calculate the new state corresponding to a load increment. The input of

the module is the finite element model (nodes, coordinates, material properties), current state

of stress and strain, and load increment. The module returns the updated equilibrium

configuration.

3 DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL MATERIAL PARAMETERS

In this study, our goal is to systematically determine the material parameters for deep

drawing analysis. The principal idea is to minimize the least-squares deviation between the

computed and measured variables with respect to the constitutive parameters. Generally, the

least-squares expression may contain any observable quantities such as forces, strains,

geometrical shape, or microstructural variables. We assume, however, that the number of

independent quantities (nv) used in the fit is larger than that of the design variables (nm). The

observable and the corresponding calculated variables are collected into the vectors v o and

v c , respectively. The constitutive parameters are collected into the vector m . As all the

calculated variables are functions of material parameters, i.e.,

vc = vc (m )

(15)

v c v c

S=

m m

(16)

by solving the problem first with the current values of the design parameters and the giving a

small increment to each parameter at a time. The new values of the calculated parameters can

then be approximated as

v cn = v c + Sm .

(17)

p ( m ) =

1 cn o

v v

2

(18)

using the new values (17) for the variables and minimize the expression with respect to the

increments. The new material parameters to be used at the next stage are then

m n = m + m .

(19)

The increments of the constitutive parameters are determined with a Mathematica module

optimizeMaterParams[nm,nv,s,m,vo,vc] in which nm and nv are the numbers of

material parameters and observed variables, matrix s contains the sensitivities, list m the

current values for material parameters, vo and vc are lists of values for observed and

calculated variables, respectively. The kernel of this module is the standard Mathematica

function

FindMinimum[p, {m[1],m1,m1lo,m1up}, {....}];

which minimizes the function (18) with respect the increments of material parameters m

and returns the list of increments of the material parameters, and the new value of the function

p. The minimization process uses as a default the conjugate gradient method, but the Newton

and quasi-Newton techniques can also be used. Variables m1, m1lo, and m1up define the

starting (current) value for the material parameter, and the limits for the parameter. New

sensitivities are calculated using the new values (19) for the constitutive parameters, and the

optimization process can be repeated.

Remark 1. Since function p to be optimized generally contains variables with different

dimensions, it may be reasonable to use a dimensionless representation.

4 NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

As our numerical example, appropriate material model for the deep drawing analysis is

searched using numerical simulation of a strip in tension. Length of the specimen is 2l and

width 2b (Figure 1). Although the example is elementary and a rather academic one, it

demonstrates well the process described above.

y

b

x

l

Figure 1. A quarter of tensile specimen.

In general, material anisotropy of the sheet follows as a consequence of the rolling process.

A natural set of material axes related to the rolling process are the rolling direction (x-axis in

our example, say), the transverse direction (y-axis), and the normal of the sheet plane

(thickness direction). In the present example, we use Hills quadratic yield function in the

form

f = 12 + 22

( )

2r

1 2 e p = 0 .

1+ r

(20)

Above, r is the plastic anisotropy parameter which expresses the ratio of transverse to

through-thickness plastic strain increments, and 1 , 2 are the principal stresses. The

principal directions of these are assumed to coincide with the principal axes of anisotropy of

the material. Setting the anisotropy parameter r = 1 in (20) gives the widely used von Mises

yield condition.

Isotropic hardening parameter determines the size of the elastic domain. In this study we

use the linear hardening material model

( )

e p = 0 + ke p ,

(21)

where 0 is the initial yield strength. Using a nonlinear isotropic hardening model with a

saturation hardening term of the exponential type, i.e. Voces material model, would lead to a

more realistic behaviour16. In the case of anisotropic Hills yield condition relation (6) must

be rewritten as e p = B (, r ) . Simple tensile test follows if we use the boundary

conditions

u x = 0, 12 = 0, x = 0,

u x = U , 12 = 0, x = l ,

u y = 0, 12 = 0, y = 0,

(22)

2 = 0, 12 = 0, y = b.

Plane tensile test, i.e., biaxial stress field and plane-strain conditions, follows by using the

boundary conditions

u x = 0, 12 = 0, x = 0,

u x = U , 12 = 0, x = l ,

u y = 0, 12 = 0, y = 0,

(23)

u y = 0, 12 = 0, y = b.

Our task is now to optimize the anisotropy parameter r so that the calculated stress-strain

relation is as close as possible with the observed stress-strain curve. Here, we use a quite

simple example.17 The observed stress-strain relation for boundary conditions (22) in the

plastic region is

1 = 50010.25 [MPa]

(24)

1 = 60010.25 [MPa].

(25)

Youngs modulus is E = 52.5 GPa , Poissons ratio = 0.30 , initial yield strength

0 = 0.0021E , and plastic hardening modulus k = 0.050 E . For the linear hardening material

model, we consider the range 0 1 10 0 ( 0 = 0.002 is the yield strain) for the strain in

the x-direction. In actual deep drawing process the strain may be 0.4 or even larger. Next, the

plastic anisotropy parameter is optimized using boundary conditions (23). We start the

optimization process from the value r = 1. The problem is solved using prescribed horizontal

increments of displacement of 0.0005 l in the plastic region on the right boundary at x = l.

The function to be optimized is formed using discrete values of the simulated and observed

stress-strain relation

1 n

p = cn ( k ) o ( k )

2 k =1

(26)

stress

200

150

100

50

0

0.005

0.01 0.015

strain

p ( r = 1.26 ) = 2219 , p ( r = 1.26 ) = 2219 . The value r = 1.26 can be considered as the final

one. Figure 2 shows the observed stress-strain curve (gray line), the stress-strain relations with

the values r = 1.00 (black line) and r = 1.26 (dashed line).

5 CONCLUSIONS

In this study, a program for symbolic calculations has been used for systematic derivation

of material parameters. It was found that a relatively small amount of programming effort is

needed to analyze complicated physical phenomena of metal plasticity. Also, integrated

graphics makes it possible to visualize the state of computation, e.g., the status of plastic

internal variables, stress and strain fields, at every stage. As the ideas of computational

inelasticity appear clearly, the code serves well for educational purposes. Let us note that there

exist other software packages which may be suitable for this purpose as well. For example, the

Maple program has been used for the finite element derivation.18 However, as simulation of

the material undergoing large plastic deformation can be a time consuming task, the approach

fits best in small-scale problems. The present study is still on its early stage. In the future we

try to extend the suggested way to determine the material parameters in the case of more

complicated strain and stress measures suitable for studies in finite plastic deformations. Also,

other topics closely related to the analysis of metal forming processes, such as contact and

friction models, will be included.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

M. Gotoh, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 19, pp. 505-512, (1977).

M. Gotoh, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 19, pp. 513-520, (1977).

A. Parmar, P.B. Mellor, Int. J. Mech. Sci, Vol. 20, pp. 385-391, (1978).

A. Parmar and P.B. Mellor, Int. J. Mech. Sci, Vol. 20, pp. 707-720, (1978).

R. W. Logan and W. F. Hosford, Int. J. Mech. Sci., Vol. 22, pp. 419-430, (1980).

J.L. Bassani, Int. J. mech. Sci., Vol. 19, pp. 651-660, (1977).

Y.M. Gupta, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 25, pp. 1509-1513, Pergamon Press, (1977).

A. Gavrus and E. Massoni, Improvement of material behaviour analysis using a general

parameter identification model based on the inverse method, 2nd ESAFORM

Conference on Material Forming, Guimares, Portugal (1999).

M. Reivinen, Modelling the monolithic joints of plane frames, Licentiates Thesis, (in

Finnish), (1996).

M.A. Crisfield, Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures, Volume 1:

Essentials, Wiley, (1991).

M.A. Crisfield, Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Solids and Structures, Volume 2:

Advanced Topics, Wiley, (1997).

S. Wolfram, The Mathematica book, Wolfram Media/Cambridge University Press, 3rd

ed., 1996.

H. Ruskeep, Mathematica Navigator, Academic Press, (1999).

Simo, J.C. and R.L. Taylor, A return mapping algorithm for plane stress

elastoplasticity, Int. J. Numer. Math. Engrg. 22 (1986) 649-670.

J.C. Simo, T.J.R Hughes, Computational inelasticity, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998.

Wagoner R.H., Chenot J-L., Fundamentals of metal forming, Wiley, (1997).

Yunhua Luo, Anders Eriksson and Costin Pacoste, An attempt to standardize finite

element derivation with Maple, Proc. of the 12th Nordic Seminar on Computational

Mechanics, Espoo, Finland (1999).

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