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DCE 3102

Theories and Practices of Human


Resource Development
3 CREDIT hours

Learning outcomes
to

evaluate the basic concepts and


theories of human resource development
for career and organizations
development (C6)

to

analyze the process of training and


development, career development and
organization development (C4)

Learning outcomes
to

display professional commitment to


the practice of human resource
development (A5, EM)

to

analyze the practices of human


resource development in the workplace
rather than theory learned (CTPS)

Outline
Pengenalan

kepada Pembangunan
Sumber Manusia
Pengaruh terhadap tingkah laku
pekerja
Teori pembelajaran dan
Pembangunan Sumber Manusia

Outline
Latihan

dan Pembangunan
Bimbingan kaunseling dan pemajuan
kerjaya
Kepimpinan
Pembangunan dan Perubahan
Organisasi
Penilaian program Pembangunan
Sumber Manusia

Pengenalan kepada
Pembangunan Sumber
Definisi
Manusia
Evolusi
Manfaat
Objektif
Fungsi

Definition
A set of systematic and planned activities
designed by an organization to provide its
members with the necessary skills to
meet current and future job demands.Satu set aktiviti yang sistematik dan terancang direka oleh
organisasi untuk menyediakan ahli-ahlinya dengan
kemahiran yang diperlukan untuk memenuhi permintaan
kerja semasa dan masa depan

Evolution HRD

Early apprenticeship programs

Early vocational education programs

Early factory schools

Early training for unskilled/semiskilled

Human relations movement

Establishment of training profession

Emergence of HRD

-program perantisan awal


-program pendidikan vokasional awal
-sekolah kilang awal
-latihan awal untuk tidak mahir / separa mahir
-pergerakan hubungan manusia
-Penubuhan profesion latihan
-Kemunculan HRD

Early Apprenticeship Programs

program perantisan awal

Artisans in 1700s
Artisans had to train their own workers
Guild schools
Yeomanries (early worker unions)

Artisans dalam tahun 1700


Artisans terpaksa melatih pekerja mereka
sendiri
sekolah Guild
Yeomanry (kesatuan-kesatuan sekerja pekerja

Werner &

Early Vocational Education


Programs
1809

DeWitt Clintons manual school


1863 President Lincoln signs the Land-Grant
Act promoting A&M colleges
1917 Smith-Hughes Act provides funding for
vocational education at the state level

Werner &

Early Training for


Unskilled/Semiskilled
Workers
Mass production
Semiskilled and unskilled workers
Production line one task = one
worker
World War I
Retool & retrain
Show, Tell, Do, Check

Werner &

Benefit
Productivity
Internal

Mobility
Job satisfaction
Organization goal
Employee welfare

Objectives
Skill
Performance
Motivation
Guided

& counseling
Affectiveness

in Malaysia
-Malaysia adalah di peringkat peralihan bergerak
dari P-ekonomi kepada K-ekonomi.
-Bagi memastikan Malaysia mengekalkan daya
saing dalam ekonomi global baru
-kerajaan telah memulakan dan melaksanakan
pelbagai langkah dasar dan projek-projek
menggalakkan penggunaan pengetahuan dan
teknologi untuk memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi
negara

scope

of discussions
system of remuneration,
training and development activities, and
the use of information and communication
technology (ICT) in the public service.

Dr. Malek Shah Bin Mohd. Yusoff (Director -- Research


and Planning Divison, Public Service Department,
Malaysia

Ministry of Human Resources,


Malaysia
(Kementerian Sumber
Manusia),
To

be the leading agency in the development and


management of a world class workforce
- Untuk menjadi agensi utama dalam pembangunan
dan pengurusan tenaga kerja bertaraf dunia

Mission
Untuk mengembangkan dan meningkatkan tenaga kerja yang
produktif, bermaklumat, berdisiplin, penyayang dan responsif
kepada persekitaran kerja yang berubah ke arah meningkatkan
pertumbuhan ekonomi dan seterusnya mewujudkan lebih
banyak peluang pekerjaan.
Untuk menggalakkan dan mengekalkan hubungan industri yang
kondusif dan harmoni di antara majikan, pekerja dan kesatuan
sekerja untuk pembangunan ekonomi negara dan kesejahteraan
rakyat.
Untuk menegakkan keadilan sosial dan memastikan
perhubungan perusahaan yang harmoni melalui menyelesaikan
pertikaian di antara majikan dan pekerja dan menganugerahkan
perjanjian kolektif.

Untuk memastikan kesatuan sekerja mengamalkan demokrasi


secara teratur dan bertanggungjawab untuk membantu
mencapai matlamat keharmonian industri.
Untuk menjadi peneraju dalam pembangunan sumber manusia
negara.
Untuk memastikan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerja terjamin.
Membangunkan tenaga kerja mahir, berilmu dan berdaya saing
dalam perhubungan perusahaan yang harmoni dengan keadilan
sosial.

Human Relations
Movement in hrd
-sistem kilang sering menganiayai pembantu
-"Hubungan Manusia" pergerakan menggalakkan keadaan
kerja yang lebih baik
-Permulaan pendidikan perniagaan & pengurusan
-Terikat kepada hierarki keperluan Maslow

Werner &

Emergence of HRD
keperluan pekerja melampaui kelas latihan
Termasuk bimbingan, kerja kumpulan dan penyelesaian
masalah
Perlu untuk pembangunan pekerja asas
Perlu untuk pembangunan kerjaya berstruktur
ASTD menukar namanya kepada Persatuan Amerika bagi
Latihan dan Pembangunan

Werner &

Relationship Between HRM


and HRD
-Pengurusan sumber manusia (HRM)
merangkumi pelbagai fungsi
-Pembangunan sumber manusia (HRD)
adalah salah satu daripada fungsi dalam
HRM

Werner &

Primary Functions of HRM


-perancangan sumber manusia
-peluang pekerjaan yang saksama
-Staffing (pengambilan dan pemilihan)
-Pampasan dan faedah
-Pekerja dan buruh hubungan
-Kesihatan, keselamatan, dan
keselamatan
-Pembangunan sumber manusia
Werner &

Secondary HRM Functions


Organization

and job design


Performance management/
performance appraisal systems
Research and information systems

Werner &

Role & responsibility of


HRD
Training

and development
Organization development
Career development
Humanware development

Training and development


Changing/

improving the knowledge, skills &


attitudes of individuals
Providing employees K & S
Increasing the capacities
Induction

Organization development
The

process of enhancing the effectiveness of


an organization
Macro improve the organization as a whole
Micro focus on changes at individuals, small
group or teams.

Career development
Ongoing

process by which individuals


progress through a series of stages
set of issues themes tasks
Career planning activities performed
by the individuals
Career management takings the
necessary steps to achieve that plan

Humanware development
approach,

such as reinforcing -- the role of


knowledge creator and human relationship
creator to improve overall productivity, as
opposed - to the software/hardware, which would rather
focus on downsizing, restructuring, and
knowledge taker.

Pengaruh terhadap
tingkah laku pekerja
Motivation
Internal

factor
Environment

INFLUENCE
Employee

OF EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR

behavior Model

Motivation

and influence of the


environment on the behavior of employee

Influence

of the employee behaviour


of other internal factors

What factors?

Model of Employee
Behavior
Forces

that influence behavior:

External to the employee:


External environment
(economic conditions/ laws and regulations, etc.)

Work environment (supervision,


organization, coworkers,
outcomes of performance)

Within the employee:


Motivation, attitudes, knowledge/skills/abilities
(KSAs)

The External Environment

Factors in the External


Environment
Economic

conditions
Technological changes
Labor market conditions
Laws and regulations
Labor unions
Source: Heneman, Schwab, Fossum & Dyer (1989)

Factors in the Work


Environment
Outcomes
Supervision

and leadership
Organization
Coworkers

Outcomes Can Influence


Employee Behavior
Personal

outcomes
Organizational outcomes

Both expectancy theory and equity theory predict


that employee perceptions of the outcomes they
receive (or hope to receive) influences their
performance of that behavior.

Supervisor Characteristics
Leadership
Performance

expectations
Evaluation of efforts

Organizational Influences
Reward

structure
Organizational culture
Job design

Coworker Influence
Norms
Group

dynamics
Teamwork
Control over outcomes

Theory of Human Resource Development


Assumptions, Context, Definition, and Model of HRD
Theoretical and Disciplinary Foundations of HRD
Economic Theory Component of HRD
Psychological Theory Component of HRD
Systems Theory Foundation
Ethics in HRD

Teori pembelajaran dan


Pembangunan Sumber
Manusia

Basic theories
Psychological

theory
Economic theory
Systems theory

Psychological theory
captures

the core human


aspects of developing human
resources as well as the sociotechnical interplay of humans
and systems.

Economic theory
captures the core issues of the
efficient and effective utilization
of resources to meet productive
goals in a competitive
environment.

Systems theory
captures the complex and
dynamic interactions of
environments, organizations, work
process, and group/individual
variables operating at any point in
time and over time.

Cognitive Theories
Expectancy

theory
Goal-setting theory
Social learning theory
Equity theory

Werner & DeSimone


(2006)

5
2

Motivational Theories
MacGregors

Theory X and Theory Y


Herzbergs MotivationHygiene Theory
Maslows Heirarchy of Needs
The Goal Setting Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory

MacGregors Theory X
and Theory Y
Classifies

human nature into two


categories
Motivational strategy is contingent upon
which category the person is classified in
Theory is flawed because most people fall
somewhere in between

Theory X Personality
Negative

view

Pessimist
Little

ambition
Generally dislikes work
Avoids responsibility
Needs constant supervision

Theory Y Personality
Positive
Primarily

optimistic
Enjoys working
Seeks out responsibility
Needs little supervision
High level of ambition

Herzbergs MotivationHygiene Theory


2

factors influence individual motivation:


Motivators:
Increase job satisfaction
Increase motivation

Hygiene:
Eliminate job dissatisfaction
Fail to motivate

Motivators
Work

itself
Recognitions
Responsibility
Achievement
Growth
Advancement

Hygiene Factors
Company

policies and administration

Salary
Working

conditions
Relationship with supervisors
Relationships with peers
Relationships with subordinates
Security
Status

Maslows Heirarchy of
Needs
People

are motivated by need


There are levels of needs that
motivate
Once a level is satisfied, the level is
no longer a motivator
Theory is flawed because once you
reach the top, there is nothing left
to act as a motivator

Figure 18-7
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

The theory integration


proposition:
HRD must integrate its core
psychological,
economic, and systems
theories into a holistic HRD
theory and
model for practice.

Professional challenges
Increasing

globalization

Technological

revolution -- internet

Challenges

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Responding

to Multiple Stakeholders
Measuring HRDs Impact and Utility
Orienting Toward the Future
Focusing on Problems and Outcomes
Achieving Status as a Profession
(Bing, Kehrhahn & Short, 2003)

How to?
Developing

employee skills
Effectively using new technology
Developing new organizational structures
Building cultures to force learning &
innovations

by whom?

HRD
If

members?

the organization are going to make the


fundamental changes they must be able
to learn, adapt, and CHANGE.

The challenges
increasing

workforce diversity
competing in a global economy
eliminating the skills gap
meeting the need for lifelong individual
learning
facilitating organizational learning
addressing ethical issues and dilemmas in a
proactive and effective manner

increasing workforce
diversity
Ethnic
Gender
Racial
Age

competing in a global
economy
educating
training
--

to develop competent managers


in different cultures & in other
countries

eliminating the skills gap


Educated
Exposing

workers

in many skills technical &


vocational

meeting the need for


lifelong individual learning
Continue
Ongoing

the learning process


investment in HRD

facilitating organizational
learning
Transition

from traditional training programs


to emphasizing three things:

Learning

principles and tactics


How learning relates to performance
Relationship between learning and
fundamental change

addressing ethical issues


Example
and
dilemmas
Code

and ethics provides guidance to


individuals to be self-managed & work
place-learning and performance
professionals

Learning & Performance

By Permission: Naughton & Rothwell (2004)

Werner &

Critical HRD Issues

Strategic
The

management and HRD

supervisors role in HRD

Organizational

structure of HRD

Werner &

Strategic Management &


HRD
Strategic

management aims to ensure


organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
future e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5
years

HRD

aims to get managers and workers ready for


new products, procedures, and materials

Werner &

Supervisors Role in HRD


Implements

HRD programs and procedures


On-the-job training (OJT)
Coaching/mentoring/counseling
Career and employee development
A front-line participant in HRD

Werner &

Organizational structure of
HRD departments
Depends

on company size, industry and

maturity
No single structure used
Depends in large part on how well the HRD
manager becomes an institutional part of the
company i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a
revenue user

Werner &

HRD Organization in a
Large Company

Werner &

Sample HRD Jobs/Roles


Executive/Manager
HR

Strategic Advisor
HR Systems Designer/Developer
Organization Change Agent
Organization Design Consultant
Learning Program Specialist

Werner &

Sample HRD Jobs/Roles 2


Instructor/Facilitator
Individual

Development and Career


Counselor
Performance Consultant (Coach)
Researcher

Werner &

HR Manager Role
Integrates

HRD with organizational goals and

strategies
Promotes HRD as a profit enhancer
Tailors HRD to corporate needs and budget
Institutionalizes performance enhancement

Werner &

HR Strategic Advisor Role


Consults

with corporate strategic

thinkers
Helps to articulate goals and strategies
Develops HR plans
Develops strategic planning education
and training programs

Werner &

HR Systems
Designer/Developer
Assists

HR manager in the design


and development of HR systems
Designs HR programs
Develops intervention strategies
Plans HR implementation actions

Werner &

Organization Change
Agent
Develops

more efficient work

teams
Improves quality management
Implements intervention
strategies
Develops change reports
Werner &

Organization Design
Consultant
Designs

work systems
Develops effective alternative work
designs
Implements changed systems

Werner &

Learning Program
Specialist
Identifies

needs of learners
Develops and designs learning programs
Prepares learning materials and learning
aids
Develops program objectives, lesson
plans, and strategies

Werner &

Instructor/Facilitator
Presents

learning materials
Leads and facilitates structured
learning experiences
Selects appropriate instructional
methods and techniques
Delivers instruction

Werner &

Individual Development
and Career Counselor
Assists

individuals in career planning


Develops individual assessments
Facilitates career workshops
Provides career guidance

Werner &

Performance Consultant
(Coach)
Advises

line management on appropriate


interventions to improve individual and
group performance
Provides intervention strategies
Develops and provides coaching designs
Implements coaching activities

Werner &

Researcher
Assesses

HRD practices and

programs
Determines HRD program
effectiveness
Develops requirements for changing
HRD programs to address current
and future problems

Werner &

Question?
Comments

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Recommendations

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http://www.eadulteducation.org/adult-learn

ing/what-is-human-resource-development
/
Shirley Caruso