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The design specification of this project is to provide maximum generation of

magnetic force using electromagnet to lift weights. The mechanical design of the
electromagnet consisted of layers of copper turns wounded onto hollow plastic
cylinder (plastic former) encased in magnetic steel cylinder this is illustrated in
figure 1. Many ways exist to generate a magnetic force. The method our model
used was an electromagnet where the current was introduced from a battery
which flowed through the copper wires and as a result formed a magnetic field
around the coiled wire causing the metal core to become magnetising.
There are 4 parameters here by which we are able to vary the magnetic force
generated: the number of turns of the conductive wire (N); type of current source
(here we have been provided with option: 3 AAA cells series, 3 AAA cells parallel,
1 C cell); Thickness of insulative enamel layer and thickness of Cu wire
(combined property of two layers will be referred as Guage (SWG);
Magnetic field (B) output for all guage wire (2 SWA 50 SWA) was calculated
using eq.1 for each type of current source (3 AAA cells series, 3 AAA cells
parallel, 1 C cell). Graph was then plotted of B generated against Wire gauge for
each current source as shown in figure 3. From the graph the C cell showed peak
B equal to 1.53 HA/mm2 at 24 SWG wire guage. From the graph the series 3 AAA
cells showed peak B equal to 1.55 HA/mm2 at 28 SWG. From the graph the
parallel 3 AAA cells showed peak B equal to 2.51 HA/mm 2 at 28 SWG. For the
final design of the electromagment, 22 SWG guage wire was used with 3 parallel
AAA cells as this was shown from the graph to give the maximum peak magnetic
field of 2.51 HA/mm2 . From calculations with 22 SWG wire and 3 parallel AAA
cells it was predicted that 35.6kg would be maximum weight capacity our
electromagnet would lift. From the battery testing lab session, it was identified
that the lowest internal resistance was measured from the 3 AAA cells connected
in parallel using the DMM multimeter and this further convinced us to use 3 AAA
cells connected in parallel as the current source in our final design. This was
because with the lower internal resistance, greater current would flow through
copper coil and since B (magnetic field) is directly proportional to current ,
greater magnetic field would have been given out and hence greater magnetic
force. This would have enabled heavier weights to be lifted and this satisfies to
our design specification.
From completion of our project work the following points can be concluded:

35.6kg was calculated to be maximum weight capacity our electromagnet

would lift
10kg was actually lifted at 1.470 v
50 kg at 1.456 volts
It can be drawn that the theoretical weight lifted was less than the
measured weight lifted due to magnetic hysteresis that caused extra