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MIMO
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inradio,multipleinputandmultipleoutput,orMIMO
(pronouncedas"mymoh"or"memoh"),isamethodfor
multiplyingthecapacityofaradiolinkusingmultipletransmitand
receiveantennastoexploitmultipathpropagation.[1]MIMOhas
becomeanessentialelementofwirelesscommunicationstandards
includingIEEE802.11n(WiFi),IEEE802.11ac(WiFi),HSPA+
(3G),WiMAX(4G),andLongTermEvolution(4G).Morerecently,
MIMOhasbeenappliedtopowerlinecommunicationfor3wire
installationsaspartofITUG.hnstandardandHomePlugAV2
specification.[2][3]

MIMOexploitsmultipath
propagationtomultiplylinkcapacity

Atonetime,inwireless,thetermMIMOreferredtothe,mainly
theoretical,useofmultipleantennasatthetransmitterandthereceiver.Inmodernusage,MIMO
specificallyreferstoapracticaltechniqueforsendingandreceivingmorethanonedatasignalwiththe
sameradiochannelsimultaneouslyviamultipathpropagation.MIMOisfundamentallydifferentfromsmart
antennatechniquesdevelopedtoenhancetheperformanceofasingledatasignal,suchasbeamformingand
diversity.

Contents
1 HistoryofMIMO
1.1 Earlyresearch
1.2 Invention
1.3 Standardsandcommercialization
2 FunctionsofMIMO
3 FormsofMIMO
3.1 Multiantennatypes
3.2 Multiusertypes
4 ApplicationsofMIMO
5 Mathematicaldescription
6 MIMOtesting
7 MIMOliterature
7.1 Principalresearches
7.2 Diversitymultiplexingtradeoff(DMT)
7.3 Otherapplications
7.4 SamplingtheoryinMIMOsystems
8 Seealso
9 References
10 Externallinks

HistoryofMIMO
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Earlyresearch
MIMOisoftentracedbackto1970sresearchpapersconcerningmultichanneldigitaltransmissionsystems
andinterference(crosstalk)betweenwirepairsinacablebundle:ARKayeandDAGeorge(1970),[4]
BranderburgandWyner(1974),[5]andW.vanEtten(1975,1976).[6]Althoughthesearenotexamplesof
exploitingmultipathpropagationtosendmultipleinformationstreams,someofthemathematical
techniquesfordealingwithmutualinterferenceprovedusefultoMIMOdevelopment.Inthemid1980s
JackSalzatBellLaboratoriestookthisresearchastepfurther,investigatingmultiusersystemsoperating
overmutuallycrosscoupledlinearnetworkswithadditivenoisesourcessuchastimedivision
multiplexingandduallypolarizedradiosystems.[7]
Methodsweredevelopedtoimprovetheperformanceofcellularradionetworksandenablemore
aggressivefrequencyreuseintheearly1990s.Spacedivisionmultipleaccess(SDMA)usesdirectionalor
smartantennastocommunicateonthesamefrequencywithusersindifferentlocationswithinrangeofthe
samebasestation.AnSDMAsystemwasproposedbyRichardRoyandBjrnOttersten,researchersat
ArrayComm,in1991.TheirUSpatent(No.5515378issuedin1996[8])describesamethodforincreasing
capacityusing"anarrayofreceivingantennasatthebasestation"witha"pluralityofremoteusers."
ArogyaswamiPaulrajandThomasKailathproposedanSDMAbasedinversemultiplexingtechniquein
1993.TheirUSpatent(No.5,345,599issuedin1994[9])describedamethodofbroadcastingathighdata
ratesbysplittingahighratesignal"intoseverallowratesignals"tobetransmittedfromspatially
separatedtransmittersandrecoveredbythereceiveantennaarraybasedondifferencesindirectionsof
arrival.However,neitherpatentcontemplatedtheuseofcolocatedantennasatbothendsofaradiolinkin
ordertoexploitmultipathpropagation.

Invention
InanApril1996paperandsubsequentpatent,GregRaleighproposedthatnaturalmultipathpropagation
canbeexploitedtotransmitmultiple,independentinformationstreamsusingcolocatedantennasand
multidimensionalsignalprocessing.[10]Thepaperalsoidentifiedpracticalsolutionsformodulation
(MIMOOFDM),coding,synchronization,andchannelestimation.Laterthatyear(September1996)
GerardJ.Foschinisubmittedapaperthatalsosuggesteditispossibletomultiplythecapacityofawireless
linkusingwhattheauthordescribedaslayeredspacetimearchitecture.[11]
GregRaleigh,V.K.Jones,andMichaelPollackfoundedClarityWirelessin1996,andbuiltandfieldtested
aprototypeMIMOsystem.[12]CiscoSystemsacquiredClarityWirelessin1998.[13]BellLabsbuilta
laboratoryprototypedemonstratingitsVBLAST(VerticalBellLaboratoriesLayeredSpaceTime)
technologyin1998.[14]ArogyaswamiPaulrajfoundedIospanWirelessinlate1998todevelopMIMO
OFDMproducts.IospanwasacquiredbyIntelin2003.[15]VBLASTwasnevercommercialized,and
neitherClarityWirelessnorIospanWirelessshippedMIMOOFDMproductsbeforebeingacquired.[16]
PaulrajwasawardedtheMarconiprizein2014forhiscontributionstowardsdevelopmentoftheMIMO
technology.

Standardsandcommercialization
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MIMOtechnologyhasbeenstandardizedforwirelessLANs,3Gmobilephonenetworks,and4Gmobile
phonenetworksandisnowinwidespreadcommercialuse.GregRaleighandV.K.JonesfoundedAirgo
Networksin2001todevelopMIMOOFDMchipsetsforwirelessLANs.TheInstituteofElectricaland
ElectronicsEngineers(IEEE)createdataskgroupinlate2003todevelopawirelessLANstandard
deliveringatleast100Mbit/sofuserdatathroughput.Thereweretwomajorcompetingproposals:TGn
SyncwasbackedbycompaniesincludingIntelandPhilips,andWWiSEwassupportedbycompanies
includingAirgoNetworks,Broadcom,andTexasInstruments.Bothgroupsagreedthatthe802.11nstandard
wouldbebasedonMIMOOFDMwith20MHzand40MHzchanneloptions.[17]TGnSync,WWiSE,and
athirdproposal(MITMOT,backedbyMotorolaandMitsubishi)weremergedtocreatewhatwascalledthe
JointProposal.[18]In2004,AirgobecamethefirstcompanytoshipMIMOOFDMproducts.[19]Qualcomm
acquiredAirgoNetworksinlate2006.[20]Thefinal802.11nstandardsupportedspeedsupto600Mbit/s
(usingfoursimultaneousdatastreams)andwaspublishedinlate2009.[21]
SurendraBabuMandavaandArogyaswamiPaulrajfoundedBeceemCommunicationsin2004toproduce
MIMOOFDMchipsetsforWiMAX.ThecompanywasacquiredbyBroadcomin2010.[22]WiMAXwas
developedasanalternativetocellularstandards,isbasedonthe802.16estandard,andusesMIMOOFDM
todeliverspeedsupto138Mbit/s.Themoreadvanced802.16mstandardenablesdownloadspeedsupto1
Gbit/s.[23]AnationwideWiMAXnetworkwasbuiltintheUnitedStatesbyClearwire,asubsidiaryof
SprintNextel,covering130millionpointsofpresence(PoP)bymid2012.[24]Sprintsubsequently
announcedplanstodeployLTE(thecellular4Gstandard)covering31citiesbymid2013[25]andtoshut
downitsWiMAXnetworkbytheendof2015.[26]
Thefirst4GcellularstandardwasproposedbyNTTDoCoMoin2004.[27]Longtermevolution(LTE)is
basedonMIMOOFDMandcontinuestobedevelopedbythe3rdGenerationPartnershipProject(3GPP).
LTEspecifiesdownlinkratesupto300Mbit/s,uplinkratesupto75Mbit/s,andqualityofservice
parameterssuchaslowlatency.[28]LTEAdvancedaddssupportforpicocells,femtocells,andmulticarrier
channelsupto100MHzwide.LTEhasbeenembracedbybothGSM/UMTSandCDMAoperators.[29]
ThefirstLTEserviceswerelaunchedinOsloandStockholmbyTeliaSonerain2009.[30]Deploymentis
mostadvancedintheUnitedStates,whereallfourTier1operatorshaveorareconstructingnationwide
LTEnetworks.Therearecurrentlymorethan360LTEnetworksin123countriesoperationalwith
approximately373millionconnections(devices).[31]

FunctionsofMIMO
MIMOcanbesubdividedintothreemaincategories,precoding,spatialmultiplexing(SM),anddiversity
coding.
Precodingismultistreambeamforming,inthenarrowestdefinition.Inmoregeneralterms,itisconsidered
tobeallspatialprocessingthatoccursatthetransmitter.In(singlestream)beamforming,thesamesignalis
emittedfromeachofthetransmitantennaswithappropriatephaseandgainweightingsuchthatthesignal
powerismaximizedatthereceiverinput.Thebenefitsofbeamformingaretoincreasethereceivedsignal
gainbymakingsignalsemittedfromdifferentantennasaddupconstructivelyandtoreducethe
multipathfadingeffect.Inlineofsightpropagation,beamformingresultsinawelldefineddirectional
pattern.However,conventionalbeamsarenotagoodanalogyincellularnetworks,whicharemainly
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characterizedbymultipathpropagation.Whenthereceiverhasmultipleantennas,thetransmit
beamformingcannotsimultaneouslymaximizethesignallevelatallofthereceiveantennas,andprecoding
withmultiplestreamsisoftenbeneficial.Notethatprecodingrequiresknowledgeofchannelstate
information(CSI)atthetransmitterandthereceiver.
SpatialmultiplexingrequiresMIMOantennaconfiguration.Inspatialmultiplexing,ahighratesignalis
splitintomultiplelowerratestreamsandeachstreamistransmittedfromadifferenttransmitantennainthe
samefrequencychannel.Ifthesesignalsarriveatthereceiverantennaarraywithsufficientlydifferent
spatialsignaturesandthereceiverhasaccurateCSI,itcanseparatethesestreamsinto(almost)parallel
channels.Spatialmultiplexingisaverypowerfultechniqueforincreasingchannelcapacityathighersignal
tonoiseratios(SNR).Themaximumnumberofspatialstreamsislimitedbythelesserofthenumberof
antennasatthetransmitterorreceiver.SpatialmultiplexingcanbeusedwithoutCSIatthetransmitter,but
canbecombinedwithprecodingifCSIisavailable.Spatialmultiplexingcanalsobeusedforsimultaneous
transmissiontomultiplereceivers,knownasspacedivisionmultipleaccessormultiuserMIMO,inwhich
caseCSIisrequiredatthetransmitter.[32]Theschedulingofreceiverswithdifferentspatialsignatures
allowsgoodseparability.
Diversitycodingtechniquesareusedwhenthereisnochannelknowledgeatthetransmitter.Indiversity
methods,asinglestream(unlikemultiplestreamsinspatialmultiplexing)istransmitted,butthesignalis
codedusingtechniquescalledspacetimecoding.Thesignalisemittedfromeachofthetransmitantennas
withfullornearorthogonalcoding.Diversitycodingexploitstheindependentfadinginthemultiple
antennalinkstoenhancesignaldiversity.Becausethereisnochannelknowledge,thereisnobeamforming
orarraygainfromdiversitycoding.Diversitycodingcanbecombinedwithspatialmultiplexingwhensome
channelknowledgeisavailableatthetransmitter.

FormsofMIMO
Multiantennatypes
MultiantennaMIMO(orSingleuserMIMO)technologyhasbeen
developedandimplementedinsomestandards,e.g.,802.11n
products.
SISO/SIMO/MISOarespecialcasesofMIMO
Multipleinputandsingleoutput(MISO)isaspecial
casewhenthereceiverhasasingleantenna.
Singleinputandmultipleoutput(SIMO)isaspecial
casewhenthetransmitterhasasingleantenna.
Singleinputsingleoutput(SISO)isaconventional
ExampleofanantennaforLTEwith
radiosystemwhereneithertransmitternorreceiverhas
2portantennadiversity
multipleantennae.
PrincipalsingleuserMIMOtechniques
BellLaboratoriesLayeredSpaceTime(BLAST),Gerard.J.Foschini(1996)
PerAntennaRateControl(PARC),Varanasi,Guess(1998),Chung,Huang,Lozano(2001)
SelectivePerAntennaRateControl(SPARC),Ericsson(2004)
Somelimitations
Thephysicalantennaspacingisselectedtobelargemultiplewavelengthsatthebasestation.
Theantennaseparationatthereceiverisheavilyspaceconstrainedinhandsets,though
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advancedantennadesignandalgorithmtechniquesareunderdiscussion.Referto:multiuser
MIMO

Multiusertypes
Recently,resultsofresearchonmultiuserMIMOtechnologyhavebeenemerging.Whilefullmultiuser
MIMO(ornetworkMIMO)canhaveahigherpotential,practically,theresearchon(partial)multiuser
MIMO(ormultiuserandmultiantennaMIMO)technologyismoreactive.
MultiuserMIMO(MUMIMO)
Inrecent3GPPandWiMAXstandards,MUMIMOisbeingtreatedasoneofthecandidate
technologiesadoptableinthespecificationbyanumberofcompanies,includingSamsung,
Intel,Qualcomm,Ericsson,TI,Huawei,Philips,AlcatelLucent,andFreescale.Fortheseand
otherfirmsactiveinthemobilehardwaremarket,MUMIMOismorefeasibleforlow
complexitycellphoneswithasmallnumberofreceptionantennas,whereassingleuserSU
MIMO'shigherperuserthroughputisbettersuitedtomorecomplexuserdeviceswithmore
antennas.
EnhancedmultiuserMIMO:1)Employsadvanceddecodingtechniques,2)Employsadvanced
precodingtechniques
SDMArepresentseitherspacedivisionmultipleaccessorsuperdivisionmultipleaccesswhere
superemphasisesthatorthogonaldivisionsuchasfrequencyandtimedivisionisnotusedbut
nonorthogonalapproachessuchassuperpositioncodingareused.
CooperativeMIMO(COMIMO)
Usesdistributedantennaswhichbelongtootherusers.
MacrodiversityMIMO
Aformofspacediversityschemewhichusesmultipletransmitorreceivebasestationsfor
communicatingcoherentlywithsingleormultipleuserswhicharepossiblydistributedinthe
coveragearea,inthesametimeandfrequencyresource.[33][34][35]
ThetransmittersarefarapartincontrasttotraditionalmicrodiversityMIMOschemessuchas
singleuserMIMO.InamultiusermacrodiversityMIMOscenario,usersmayalsobefarapart.
Therefore,everyconstituentlinkinthevirtualMIMOlinkhasdistinctaveragelinkSNR.This
differenceismainlyduetothedifferentlongtermchannelimpairmentssuchaspathlossand
shadowfadingwhichareexperiencedbydifferentlinks.
MacrodiversityMIMOschemesposeunprecedentedtheoreticalandpracticalchallenges.
Amongmanytheoreticalchallenges,perhapsthemostfundamentalchallengeistounderstand
howthedifferentaveragelinkSNRsaffecttheoverallsystemcapacityandindividualuser
performanceinfadingenvironments.[36]
MIMORouting
Routingaclusterbyaclusterineachhop,wherethenumberofnodesineachclusterislarger
orequaltoone.MIMOroutingisdifferentfromconventional(SISO)routingsince
conventionalroutingprotocolsroutenodebynodeineachhop.[37]
MassiveMIMOisatechnologywherethenumberofterminalsismuchlessthanthenumberofbase
station(mobilestation)antennas.[38]Inarichscatteringenvironment,thefulladvantagesofthe
massiveMIMOsystemcanbeexploitedusingsimplebeamformingstrategiessuchasmaximumratio
transmission(MRT)orzeroforcing(ZF).ToachievethesebenefitsofmassiveMIMO,accurateCSI
mustbeavailableperfectly.However,inpractice,thechannelbetweenthetransmitterandreceiveris
estimatedfromorthogonalpilotsequenceswhicharelimitedbythecoherencetimeofthechannel.
Mostimportantly,inamulticellsetup,thereuseofpilotsequencesofseveralcochannelcellswill
createpilotcontamination.Whenthereispilotcontamination,theperformanceofmassiveMIMO
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degradesquitedrastically.Toalleviatetheeffectofpilotcontamination,theworkof[39]proposesa
simplepilotassignmentandchannelestimationmethodfromlimitedtrainingsequences.

ApplicationsofMIMO
Spatialmultiplexingtechniquesmakethereceiversverycomplex,andthereforetheyaretypically
combinedwithOrthogonalfrequencydivisionmultiplexing(OFDM)orwithOrthogonalFrequency
DivisionMultipleAccess(OFDMA)modulation,wheretheproblemscreatedbyamultipathchannelare
handledefficiently.TheIEEE802.16estandardincorporatesMIMOOFDMA.TheIEEE802.11nstandard,
releasedinOctober2009,recommendsMIMOOFDM.
MIMOisalsoplannedtobeusedinMobileradiotelephonestandardssuchasrecent3GPPand3GPP2.In
3GPP,HighSpeedPacketAccessplus(HSPA+)andLongTermEvolution(LTE)standardstakeMIMO
intoaccount.Moreover,tofullysupportcellularenvironments,MIMOresearchconsortiaincludingIST
MASCOTproposetodevelopadvancedMIMOtechniques,e.g.,multiuserMIMO(MUMIMO).
MIMOtechnologycanbeusedinnonwirelesscommunicationssystems.Oneexampleisthehome
networkingstandardITUTG.9963,whichdefinesapowerlinecommunicationssystemthatusesMIMO
techniquestotransmitmultiplesignalsovermultipleACwires(phase,neutralandground).[2]

Mathematicaldescription
InMIMOsystems,atransmittersendsmultiplestreamsby
multipletransmitantennas.Thetransmitstreamsgo
throughamatrixchannelwhichconsistsofall
paths
betweenthe transmitantennasatthetransmitterand
receiveantennasatthereceiver.Then,thereceivergetsthe
receivedsignalvectorsbythemultiplereceiveantennas
anddecodesthereceivedsignalvectorsintotheoriginal
information.AnarrowbandflatfadingMIMOsystemis
modelledas[40]
MIMOchannelmodel

where and arethereceiveandtransmitvectors,


respectively,and and arethechannelmatrixandthenoisevector,respectively.
Referringtoinformationtheory,theergodicchannelcapacityofMIMOsystemswhereboththetransmitter
andthereceiverhaveperfectinstantaneouschannelstateinformationis[41]

where denotesHermitiantransposeand istheratiobetweentransmitpowerandnoisepower(i.e.,


transmitSNR).Theoptimalsignalcovariance
isachievedthroughsingularvaluedecomposition
ofthechannelmatrix
andanoptimaldiagonalpowerallocationmatrix
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.Theoptimalpowerallocationisachievedthroughwaterfilling,[42]thatis

where
selectedsuchthat

arethediagonalelementsof ,
.

iszeroifitsargumentisnegative,and is

Ifthetransmitterhasonlystatisticalchannelstateinformation,thentheergodicchannelcapacitywill
decreaseasthesignalcovariance canonlybeoptimizedintermsoftheaveragemutualinformationas[41]

Thespatialcorrelationofthechannelhasastrongimpactontheergodicchannelcapacitywithstatistical
information.
Ifthetransmitterhasnochannelstateinformationitcanselectthesignalcovariance tomaximizechannel
capacityunderworstcasestatistics,whichmeans
andaccordingly

Dependingonthestatisticalpropertiesofthechannel,theergodiccapacityisnogreaterthan
timeslargerthanthatofaSISOsystem.

MIMOtesting
MIMOsignaltestingfocusesfirstonthetransmitter/receiversystem.Therandomphasesofthesubcarrier
signalscanproduceinstantaneouspowerlevelsthatcausetheamplifiertocompress,momentarilycausing
distortionandultimatelysymbolerrors.SignalswithahighPAR(peaktoaverageratio)cancause
amplifierstocompressunpredictablyduringtransmission.OFDMsignalsareverydynamicand
compressionproblemscanbehardtodetectbecauseoftheirnoiselikenature.[43]
Knowingthequalityofthesignalchannelisalsocritical.Achannelemulatorcansimulatehowadevice
performsatthecelledge,canaddnoiseorcansimulatewhatthechannellookslikeatspeed.Tofully
qualifytheperformanceofareceiver,acalibratedtransmitter,suchasavectorsignalgenerator(VSG),and
channelemulatorcanbeusedtotestthereceiverunderavarietyofdifferentconditions.Conversely,the
transmitter'sperformanceunderanumberofdifferentconditionscanbeverifiedusingachannelemulator
andacalibratedreceiver,suchasavectorsignalanalyzer(VSA).
Understandingthechannelallowsformanipulationofthephaseandamplitudeofeachtransmitterinorder
toformabeam.Tocorrectlyformabeam,thetransmitterneedstounderstandthecharacteristicsofthe
channel.Thisprocessiscalledchannelsoundingorchannelestimation.Aknownsignalissenttothe
mobiledevicethatenablesittobuildapictureofthechannelenvironment.Themobiledevicesendsback
thechannelcharacteristicstothetransmitter.Thetransmittercanthenapplythecorrectphaseandamplitude
adjustmentstoformabeamdirectedatthemobiledevice.ThisiscalledaclosedloopMIMOsystem.For
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beamforming,itisrequiredtoadjustthephasesandamplitudeofeachtransmitter.Inabeamformer
optimizedforspatialdiversityorspatialmultiplexing,eachantennaelementsimultaneouslytransmitsa
weightedcombinationoftwodatasymbols.[44]

MIMOliterature
Principalresearches
PapersbyGerardJ.FoschiniandMichaelJ.Gans,[45]Foschini[46]andEmreTelatar[47]haveshownthatthe
channelcapacity(atheoreticalupperboundonsystemthroughput)foraMIMOsystemisincreasedasthe
numberofantennasisincreased,proportionaltothesmallerofthenumberoftransmitantennasandthe
numberofreceiveantennas.Thisisknownasthemultiplexinggainandthisbasicfindingininformation
theoryiswhatledtoaspurtofresearchinthisarea.Despitethesimplepropagationmodelsusedinthe
aforementionedseminalworks,themultiplexinggainisafundamentalpropertythatcanbeprovedunder
almostanyphysicalchannelpropagationmodelandwithpracticalhardwarethatispronetotransceiver
impairments.[48]
PapersbyDr.FernandoRosasandDr.ChristianOberlihaveshownthattheentireMIMOSVDlinkcanbe
approximatedbytheaverageoftheSERofNakagamimchannels.[49]Thisleadstocharacterisethe
eigenchannelsofNNMIMOchannelswithNlargerthan14,showingthatthesmallesteigenchannel
distributesasaRayleighchannel,thenextfoureigenchannelscloselydistributesasNakagamimchannels
withm=4,9,25and36,andtheN5remainingeigenchannelshavestatisticssimilartoanadditivewhite
Gaussiannoise(AWGN)channelwithin1dBsignaltonoiseratio.Itisalsoshownthat75%ofthetotal
meanpowergainoftheMIMOSVDchannelgoestothetopthirdofalltheeigenchannels.
AtextbookbyA.Paulraj,R.NabarandD.Gorehaspublishedanintroductiontothisarea.[50]Thereare
manyotherprincipaltextbooksavailableaswell.[51][52][53]MobileExpertshaspublishedaresearchreport
(http://mobileexperts.net/product_info.php?products_id=46)whichpredictstheuseofMIMOtechnology
in500millionPCs,tablets,andsmartphonesby2016.

Diversitymultiplexingtradeoff(DMT)
ThereexistsafundamentaltradeoffbetweentransmitdiversityandspatialmultiplexinggainsinaMIMO
system(ZhengandTse,2003).[54]Inparticular,achievinghighspatialmultiplexinggainsisofprofound
importanceinmodernwirelesssystems.[55]

Otherapplications
GiventhenatureofMIMO,itisnotlimitedtowirelesscommunication.Itcanbeusedforwireline
communicationaswell.Forexample,anewtypeofDSLtechnology(gigabitDSL)hasbeenproposed
basedonbinderMIMOchannels.

SamplingtheoryinMIMOsystems

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Animportantquestionwhichattractstheattentionofengineersandmathematiciansishowtousethemulti
outputsignalsatthereceivertorecoverthemultiinputsignalsatthetransmitter.InShang,SunandZhou
(2007),sufficientandnecessaryconditionsareestablishedtoguaranteethecompleterecoveryofthemulti
inputsignals.[56]

Seealso
Channelbonding
Duplex(telecommunications)
Singlefrequencynetwork(SFN)
WiMAXMIMO
WiFi
Phasedarray
SmartAntennas
Antennadiversity
Beamforming
PerUserUnitaryRateControl
Channelstateinformation
Dirtypapercoding(DPC)
Precoding

Precoding
Spacetimeblockcode
Spacetimecode
Spatialmultiplexing
MultiuserMIMO
802.11
802.16
Macrodiversity
Historyofsmartantennas
MIMOOFDM

References
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Externallinks
GEDOMIS(GEnerichardwareDemOnstratorforMIMOSystems)
(http://engineering.cttc.es/gedomis)
NISTUWBMIMOChannelPropagationMeasurementsinthe28GHzSpectrum(http://www
x.antd.nist.gov/uwb/main.html)
LinkstosuggestedreadingsinMIMO(http://wcsp.eng.usf.edu/MIMO_links.html)WCSPGroup
UniversityofSouthFlorida(USF)
IntroductiontoWirelessMIMOTheoryandApplications
(http://www.ieee.li/pdf/viewgraphs/wireless_mimo.pdf)
IntroductiontoOrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiplexing(coversOFDMandMIMOradio
configurations)
(http://www.ieee.li/pdf/viewgraphs/introduction_orthogonal_frequency_division_multiplex.pdf)
ComputerworldQuickStudyMIMO(http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?
command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=109410)
MeetingTheTestChallengesOf4GLTE(http://www.rfglobalnet.com/article.mvc/MeetingTheTest
ChallengesOf4GLTE0001)
TheBasicsOfOFDM(http://www.rfglobalnet.com/article.mvc/TheBasicsOfOFDM0001)
MIMO:TheFutureOfWireless:TestChallengesForWiMAX,HSPA+,AndLTE
(http://www.rfglobalnet.com/article.mvc/MIMOTheFutureOfWireless0001)
ThechallengesofmovingtoMIMOsystems
(http://mobiledevdesign.com/hardware_news/radio_challenges_moving_mimo/)
RFtestsystemtackles44MIMOsignals
(http://rfdesign.com/microwave_millimeter_tech/test_and_measurement/711RFD30.pdf)
TheRoleOfEVMMeasurementsInCharacterizingAmplifierModulationPerformance
(http://www.rfglobalnet.com/article.mvc/EVMMeasurementsInAmplifierModulation0001)
IndustryViews:4GSystemsBringNewDesignAndTestingChallenges
(http://www.rfglobalnet.com/article.mvc/IndustryViews4GSystemsBringNewDesignAn0002)
InstrumentstestMIMOdatatransmissions(http://www.tmworld.com/article/CA6488248.html)
LiteraturereviewofMIMO
(http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/ra/topics/research/topics/propagation/mimo.pdf)
OverviewofMIMO&MIMORFICTestArchitectures(http://www.ztecinstruments.com/zconnect/?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIMO

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MIMOWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

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