Você está na página 1de 6

Swaminarayan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Swaminarayan (disambiguation).

Swaminarayan

Illustration of Swaminarayan writing theShikshapatri


Born

Ghanshyam Pande
3 April 1781[1]
Chhapaiya (present-day Uttar
Pradesh, India)

Died

1 June 1830 (aged 49)


Gadhada (present-dayGujarat, India)

Titles/honours Venerated as an avatar ofNarayana, from


the Nara-Narayana deity pair or an avatar
of PurushottamaNarayana - the Supreme
Being, in Swaminarayan Hinduism
Founder of

Swaminarayan Sampraday

Denomination Vaishnavism
1

Guru

Swami Ramanand

Swaminarayan (IAST: Svmnryan a, 3 April 1781 1 June 1830), also known


as Sahajanand Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as
the Swaminarayan Hinduism.
Swaminarayan was born Ghanshyam Pande in Chhapaiya, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1781. In
1792, he began a seven-year pilgrimage across India, adopting the name Nilkanth Varni. He
settled in the state of Gujarat around 1799. In 1800, he was initiated into the
Uddhav sampradaya by his guru, Swami Ramanand, and was given the name Sahajanand
Swami. In 1802, his guru handed over the leadership of the Uddhav Sampraday to him before his
death. Sahajanand Swami held a gathering and taught theSwaminarayan Mantra. From this point
onwards, he was known as Swaminarayan, and within the sect, he is regarded as an incarnation
of God, Purushottama, or is venerated as an incarnation of Narayana in the Nara-Narayana deity
pair by his followers. The Uddhav Sampraday became known as the Swaminarayan Sampraday.
Swaminarayan developed a good relationship with the British Raj. He had followers not only
from Hindu denominations but also fromIslam and Zoroastrianism. He built six temples in his
lifetime and appointed 500 paramahamsas to spread his philosophy. In 1826, Swaminarayan
wrote the Shikshapatri, a book of social principles. He died on 1 June 1830 and was cremated
according to Hindu rites in Gadhada, Gujarat. Before his death, Swaminarayan appointed his
adopted nephews as acharyas to head the two dioceses of Swaminarayan Sampraday.
Swaminarayan is also remembered within the sect for undertaking reforms for women and the
poor, performing yajas (fire sacrifices) on a large scale as well as performing miracles.
Swaminarayan had an estimated 1.8 million followers when he died. By 2007, he had an
estimated of 20 million followers.[2] He has, however, been criticised by people such as Swami
Dayananda andMahatma Gandhi. The acceptance of Swaminarayan as God and secondary
treatment of women is questioned by critics.

Childhood as Ghanshyam
2

Dharmadev teaching Ghanshyam from the scriptures

Swaminarayan was born on 3 April 1781 (Chaitra Sud 9, Samvat 1837)


in Chhapaiya, Uttar Pradesh, a village near Ayodhya, in a Hindi speaking region in
India.[1] Born into the brahmin or priestly caste of Sarvariya, Swaminarayan was
named Ghanshyam Pande by his parents, Hariprasad Pande (father, also known as
Dharmadev) and Premvati Pande (mother, also known as Bhaktimata and Murtidevi).
[1]
The birth of Swaminarayan coincided with the Hindu festival of Rama Navami,
celebrating the birth of Rama. The ninth lunar day in the fortnight of the waxing moon in
the monthof Chaitra (MarchApril), is celebrated as both Rama Navami
and Swaminarayan Jayanti by Swaminarayan followers. This celebration also marks the
beginning of a ritual calendar for the followers. [3] Swaminarayan had an elder brother,
Rampratap Pande, and a younger brother, Ichcharam Pande. [4] He is said to have
mastered the scriptures, including the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Puranas,
the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata by the age of seven.

Swaminarayan (IAST: Svmnryan a, 3 April 1781 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand
Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Hinduism.
Swaminarayan was born Ghanshyam Pande in Chhapaiya, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1781. In 1792,
he began a seven-year pilgrimage across India, adopting the name Nilkanth Varni. He settled in the
state of Gujarat around 1799. In 1800, he was initiated into the Uddhav sampradaya by his
guru, Swami Ramanand, and was given the name Sahajanand Swami. In 1802, his guru handed
over the leadership of the Uddhav Sampraday to him before his death. Sahajanand Swami held a
gathering and taught theSwaminarayan Mantra. From this point onwards, he was known
as Swaminarayan, and within the sect, he is regarded as an incarnation of God, Purushottama, or is
venerated as an incarnation of Narayana in the Nara-Narayana deity pair by his followers. The
Uddhav Sampraday became known as the Swaminarayan Sampraday.
Swaminarayan developed a good relationship with the British Raj. He had followers not only from
Hindu denominations but also fromIslam and Zoroastrianism. He built six temples in his lifetime and
appointed 500 paramahamsas to spread his philosophy. In 1826, Swaminarayan wrote
the Shikshapatri, a book of social principles. He died on 1 June 1830 and was cremated according to

Hindu rites in Gadhada, Gujarat. Before his death, Swaminarayan appointed his adopted nephews
as acharyas to head the two dioceses of Swaminarayan Sampraday.
Swaminarayan is also remembered within the sect for undertaking reforms for women and the poor,
performing yajas (fire sacrifices) on a large scale as well as performing miracles. Swaminarayan
had an estimated 1.8 million followers when he died. By 2007, he had an estimated of 20 million
followers.[2] He has, however, been criticised by people such as Swami Dayananda andMahatma
Gandhi. The acceptance of Swaminarayan as God and secondary treatment of women is questioned
by critics.

Succession of Swaminarayan[edit]
Prior to his death, Sahajanand Swami decided to establish a line of acharyas, or preceptors as his
spiritual successors.[28] After his death several divisions occurred with different understandings of the
succession of leadership.

Swaminarayan Sampraday[edit]

Swaminarayan (left) in the form of Hari Krishna with Radha Krishnaat the Swaminarayan Manor inCrawley

Main article: Swaminarayan Sampraday


Swaminarayan established two gadis (seats of leadership). One seat was established in Ahmedabad
(Nar Narayan Dev Gadi) and the other one in Vadtal (Laxmi Narayan Dev Gadi) on November 21,
1825. He appointed an acharya to each of these two gadis to pass on his message to others and to
preserve his fellowship, Swaminarayan Sampraday. These acharyas came from his immediate
family; he formally adopted a son from each of his two brothers, Rampratap and Ichcharam, and
appointed them to the office of acharya. Ayodhyaprasad, son of his elder brother Rampratap, was
appointed acharya of Ahmedabad Gadi, and Raghuvira, son of his younger brother Ichcharam, was

appointed acharya of the Vadtal Gadi. Swaminarayan decreed that the office should be hereditary so
that acharyas would maintain a direct line of blood descent from his family.[29] The administrative
division of his followers into two territorial dioceses is set forth in minute detail in a document written
by Swaminarayan called Desh Vibhaag Lekh. The current acharyas of the Swaminarayan
Sampraday areKoshalendraprasad Pande, of the Ahmedabad Gadi, and Rakeshprasad Pande, of
the Vadtal Gadi.
After his death several divisions occurred with different understandings of the succession of
leadership. Apart from this, there has been some conflicts in the Sampraday itself. Controversy
over Vadtal gadi had attracted attention of national media in the past. Besides these the sects has
produced a number of schismatic groups.

Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan


Sanstha[edit]

Murtis of Akshar Purushottam

Main article: Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha

Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) followers hold Gunatitanand
Swami as the spiritual successor to Swaminarayan. Members of BAPS assert that on several occasions
Swaminarayan revealed to devotees that Gunatitanand Swami was Aksharbrahm manifest. These
instances claimed by the devotees of BAPS have come to embody the philosophy known as Akshar
Purushottam Upasana. It was in 1906 that a prominent ascetic named Shastri Yagnapurushdas separated
from the parent organization and established this institution, claiming Gunatitanand Swami as the rightful
successor.[36] Yagnapurushdas, who formed the schism, is believed by the devotees of BAPS to be the
5

third spiritual successor of Swaminarayan; he left the Vadtal Gadi of the Swaminarayan Sampraday and
was later legallyexcommunicated from the Vadtal Gadi.[37] The current leader of BAPS is Shastri
Narayanswarupdas, more commonly known as Pramukh Swami.[38]
At the time of legal dispute between Akshar Purushottam group and the Swaminarayan Sampraday the
judge summarized his understanding of the root of the schism. He confirms that the "new group, now
known as BAPS, "they have put Sahajanand Swami, an ascetic, over Shri Krishna, who admittedly
enjoyed the pleasures of human beings. That is why the sect has set aside Goloka as the supreme heaven,
because there Krishna is supposed to be enjoying himself with his gopis. This is I think one of the
fundamental differences between the two sects and theschism cannot be bridged." BAPS found these
statements blasphemous.

Shree Swaminarayan Gadi Sansthan


Main article: Shree Swaminarayan Gadi Sansthan
The followers of the Shree Swaminarayan Gadi Sansthan believe that Gopalanand Swami was the
spiritual successor to Swaminarayan. This difference in belief of succession led to the creation of
Swaminarayan Gadi in 1941.[40] The current leader of the Swaminarayan Gadi is Acharya
Purushottampriyadas.[41]