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Hargis, C. W., Telesca, A. & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2014).

Calcium sulfoaluminate (Yeelimite)


hydration in the presence of gypsum, calcite, and vaterite. Cement and Concrete
Research, 65, 15-20.

Hargis, Telesca & Monteiro (2014).


A summary of early age hydration results is presented in bullet points as shown below (>
denotes effect is stronger than):

The addition of 15% gypsum shortened the initial set time by approximately 1/2 and
the final set time by 1/3.
Vaterite and calcite reduced the initial set time for all samples with or without gypsum
(vaterite > calcite).
Vaterite and calcite reduced the final set time for all samples with or without gypsum
(calcite >vaterite).
Calcium carbonates caused the maximal rate of heat evolution to occur earlier
(vaterite > calcite; without gypsum > with gypsum).

In terms of mechanical properties, a summary is shown in bullet points below:

The addition of 15% gypsum significantly increased the compressive strength for all
samples with or without calcium carboantes.
Replacing 10% of Yeelimite with either vaterite or calcite increased the 1-day
strength of mortars with gypsum, but decreased 1-day strength of mortars without
gypsum (vaterite > calcite).
Calcium carbonates reduced mortar expansion and increased mortar strength for all
samples with or without gypsum.
Calcium carbonates reduced strength loss due to expansion for samples with gypsum
(vaterite > calcite).

In terms of chemical reactions, a summary is shown in bullet points below:

All samples contain anhydrous Yeelimite at the age of 1 day.


All samples with gypsum retain anhydrous Yeelimite throughout 7 days of hydration.
In samples with gypsum, Yeelimite initially reacts with gypsum to form ettringite.
In samples without gypsum, Yeelmite initially reacts to form monosulfoaluminate.

Cuesta, A., Alvarez-Pinazo, G., Sanfelix, S. G., Peral, I., Aranda, M. A. G. & De la Torre, A.
G. (2014). Hydration mechanisms of two polymorphs of synthetic yeelimite. Cement
and Concrete Research, 63, 127-136.

Cuesta et. al. (2014)


The paper studies the hydration of 2 synthetic yeelimite samples: (1) stoichiometric
yeelimite that presents and orthorhombic unit cell and (2) solid-solution yeelimite that
crystallizes in a pseudo-cubic unit cell. In the presence of a sulfate source (i.e. gypsum,
basanite or anhydrite) the early age hydration of yeelimite will yield ettringite as the main
crystalline hydration product. Yeemite may react with water to form monosulfate. Both of
these reactions produce amorphous aluminium hydroxide. A summary of the results of the
paper is shown below:

Solid-solution yeelimite reacts faster than stoichiometric ye'elimite without the


presence of gypsum or anhydrite.
Solid-solution yeelimite reacts slower than stoichiometric ye'elimite with the
presence of gypsum or anhydrite.
High w/s ratios accelerate the formation of AFm-type phases from stoichiometric
yeelimite.
The hydration of stoichiometric yeelimite is faster in the presence of gypsum.
The hydration of yeelimite (in general) is slower in the presence of anhydrite.
Solid-solution yeelimite produces more ettringite than stoichiometric yeelimite.
The formation of AFm-type phases at late ages is inhibited by the presence of gypsum
and anhydrite.
The addition of anhydrite causes the detection of AFm at very early stages (first few
hours).
The presence of gypsum has little effect on the hydration kinetics of solid-solution
yeelimite as compared to the absence of gypsum.