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Installation, Field Testing, and

Maintenance of Fire Hydrants

AWWA MANUAL M17


Fourth Edition

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Science and Technology


AWWA unites the entire water community by developing and distributing authoritative scientific and technological
knowledge. Through its members, AWWA develops industry standards for products and processes that advance public
health and safety. AWWA also provides quality improvement programs for water and wastewater utilities.

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MANUAL OF WATER SUPPLY PRACTICESM17, Fourth Edition

Installation, Field Testing, and Maintenance of Fire Hydrants


Copyright 1970, 1980, 1989, 2006 American Water Works Association
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information or retrieval system,
except in the form of brief excerpts or quotations for review purposes, without the written permission
of the publisher.
Disclaimer
The authors, contributors, editors, and publisher do not assume responsibility for the validity of the
content or any consequences of their use. In no event will AWWA be liable for direct, indirect, special,
incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use of information presented in this book. In
particular, AWWA will not be responsible for any costs, including, but not limited to, those incurred as
a result of lost revenue. In no event shall AWWAs liability exceed the amount paid for the purchase of
this book.
Project Manager/Technical Editor: Melissa Christensen
Production: Claro Systems
Manuals Coordinator: Beth Behner

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Installation, field testing, and maintenance of fire hydrants.-- 4th ed.
p. cm. -- (AWWA manual ; M17)
"Prepared by the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire Hydrants"--Foreword.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-58321-414-3
1. Hydrants. I. AWWA Standards Committee on Fire Hydrants. II. Series.
TD491 .A49 no. M17 2006
[TH9365]
628.1 s--dc22
[628.9'252]
2005058191
Printed in the United States of America
American Water Works Association
6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, CO 80235
ISBN 1-58321-414-3

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Contents
Figures, v
Tables, vii
Foreword, ix
Acknowledgments, xi
Chapter 1

A Brief History of Fire Hydrants

Chapter 2 Dry-Barrel Hydrants: Definitions and Preferred


Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Chapter 4 Inspection, Installation, Testing, and Placing the Hydrant


in Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

29

Origins, 1
Iron Pipe and Permanent Access Points, 2
Development of Dry-Barrel Hydrants, 2
Recent Developments, 4

Types of Dry-Barrel Hydrants, 5


Special Hydrants, 7
Construction Terms for Dry-Barrel Hydrants, 10
Installation Terms for Dry-Barrel Hydrants, 10
Preferred Nomenclature for Dry-Barrel Hydrant Components, 11
Auxiliary Components for Dry-Barrel Hydrants, 16
Miscellaneous and Obsolete Hydrant Terms, 16
Chapter 3 Wet-Barrel Hydrants: Definitions and Preferred
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wet-Barrel Hydrants, 17
Construction Terms for Wet-Barrel Hydrants, 17
Installation Terms for Wet-Barrel Hydrants, 18
Preferred Nomenclature for Wet-Barrel Hydrant Components, 18
Miscellaneous and Obsolete Hydrant Terms, 20

Inspection Prior to Installation, 21


Installation, 22
Testing, 27
Placing the Hydrant in Service, 28
Chapter 5

Maintenance

Uses of Hydrants, 29
Special-Use Concerns, 29
Inspection, 30
Lubrication, 33
Repairs, 33
Record Keeping, 35

iii

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Chapter 6

Flow Tests

41

Appendix A Illustrated Guide to Dry-Barrel and Wet-Barrel Hydrant


Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

Terms Used in Flow Testing, 41


Personnel and Equipment for Flow Tests, 42
Office Planning Prior to Field Testing, 43
Field Procedure for Flow Tests, 44
Cautions to Be Observed When Field Testing, 45
Dechlorination Regulations, 45
Warning About Rigid Diverters, 46
Determining Available Flow, 46

Bibliography, 118
Index, 119
AWWA Manuals, 123

iv

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Figures
1

Figure 11

Fire-plug arrangement with canvas cistern, 3

Figure 12

Ball hydrant, patented about 1849, 3

Figure 13

Standpipe inserted directly into main socket, 3

Figure 14

Sluice-valve-type hydrant with two outlets, 3

21

Compression-type hydrant, opens against pressure, 6

22

Compression-type hydrant, opens with pressure, 7

23

Toggle hydrant, 8

24

Slide-gate hydrant, 9

25A

Composite dry-barrel hydrantupper barrel: compression packing gland type,


opens against pressure, 12

25B

Composite dry-barrel hydrantupper barrel; compression O-ring seal type,


opens with pressure, 13

31

Composite wet-barrel hydrants, 19

41

Typical dry-barrel hydrant, 23

42

Typical wet-barrel hydrant installation, 24

43

Examples of hydrant restraints, 25

51

Master record, 36

52

Hydrant maintenance report, 37

53

Hydrant inspection report, 38

54

Flow test report, 39

55

Hydrant test, 40

61

Pitot tube in position for flow reading, 42

62

Suggested flow-test locations, 43

63

Outlet nozzle coefficients, 44

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Tables
41

Color scheme to indicate flow capacity, 27

61

Discharge for circular outlets, 214-in. through 21116-in. with outlet-nozzle


coefficient 0.90, 47

62

Discharge for circular outlets, 414-in. through 41116-in. with outlet-nozzle


coefficient 0.90, 49

63

Equation and table for computing fire flow test results, 52

64

Table for pumper outlet coefficients, 53

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vii
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This manual was prepared by the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire Hydrants.
It is intended for use by persons responsible for the installation, operation, and
maintenance of dry-barrel and wet-barrel fire hydrants. It is the fourth revision of
the original manual, which was published in 1970.
The diversity of hydrants and the detailed maintenance procedures
recommended by specific manufacturers make it difficult to develop a text that is
both comprehensive and concise. Therefore, this manual is intended for use as a
supplement to detailed information available from specific hydrant manufacturers.
It is the judgment of the committee that the major purpose and function of a
fire hydrant is public fire protection. Usually, the hydrant is the property or
responsibility of the water utility. However, during fire emergencies the hydrant is
operated by members of a fire department rather than by water utility personnel.
The use of a fire hydrant as a source of water for street cleaning, construction
projects, or for any purpose other than fire fighting is outside the primary purpose
for which a hydrant is installed. Such uses should be rigidly restricted and
controlled in the interest of keeping the fire hydrant in good working order for fire
fighting.
The water utility, unless expressly relieved of its responsibility by the fire
department in accordance with a written agreement, public ordinance, or other
ownership, should schedule regular and sufficiently frequent inspections of
hydrants to ensure they are in good working condition.
Additional AWWA publications on hydrants include ANSI/AWWA C502,
Standard for Dry-Barrel Fire Hydrants, and ANSI/AWWA C503, Standard for WetBarrel Fire Hydrants. The bulk of the material in this manual refers to hydrants
claimed by the respective manufacturers to be manufactured in accordance with
ANSI/AWWA C502 and ANSI/AWWA C503; however, information is also included
on hydrants that are not intended to comply with these standards, such as highpressure and flush-type hydrants. Installation practices described are consistent
with ANSI/AWWA C600, Installation of Ductile-Iron Water Mains and Their
Appurtenances.

ix
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Foreword

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Acknowledgments

This manual was reviewed and approved by the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire
Hydrants. Members of that committee, at the time of approval, were as follows:
Nelson O. Mejia, Chairman
Larry R. Dunn, Secretary

E.E. Arasmith, Arasmith Consulting Resource, Albany, Ore.


G.E. Laverick, Underwriters Laboratory, Northbrook, Ill.
P.I. McGrath Jr., Birmingham, Ala.
Blake Shugarman,* Underwriters Laboratory, Northbrook, Ill.
E.F. Straw, Insurance Services Office Inc., Duluth, Ga.
J.M. Stubbart, Standards Liaison, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo.
M.P. Yoke, Anniston, Ala.
Stanley Ziobro, FM Approvals, W. Glocester, R.I.
Producer Members
Jerry Bottenfield, Clow Valve Company, Oskaloosa, Iowa
L.R. Dunn, US Pipe & Foundry Company, Birmingham, Ala.
L.W. Fleury Jr., Mueller Group, Smithfield, R.I.
T.R. Ingalls,* East Jordan Iron Works Inc., East Jordan, Mich.
R.L. Larkin, American Flow Control, Birmingham, Ala.
Randy Looney, American AVK Company, Fresno, Calif.
J.H. Wilber P.E.,* American AVK, Littleton, Colo.
K.J. Wright, East Jordan Iron Works, East Jordan, Mich.
User Members
S.K. Batra, City of Detroit, Water & Sewerage Department, Detroit, Mich.
Eddie Hernandez, Denver Water, Denver, Colo.
N.O. Mejia, Los Angeles Department of Water & Power, Los Angeles, Calif.
D.J. Seargeant, Epcor Water Services Inc., Edmonton, Alta.
S.D. Osborne, Haley & Ward Inc., Waltham, Mass.
L.G. Thomas, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, Calif.
The AWWA Standards Committee on Fire Hydrants gratefully acknowledges
the contributions made by members of the M17 Subcommittee in preparing this
manual. The committees efforts in developing this manual answer the need in the
industry for expanded information on fire hydrants.

*Alternate
Liaison, nonvoting

xi
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General Interest Members

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AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

1
A Brief History
of Fire Hydrants
This chapter is based, in part, on an article that appeared in the September 1944 Journal
AWWA (36:9:928). The drawings in this chapter are also taken from that article.

ORIGINS _________________________________________________
Before there were water distribution systems, water for fighting fires was available
only from natural sources, such as rivers, lakes, and ponds, or from cisterns or
barrels filled with water.
The first large water distribution systems were built during the seventeenth
century in cities such as London and Boston. Over the course of many years, as the
needs of growing populations became more sophisticated and complex, distribution
systems were improved. Pipe materials improved, portable standpipes and valves
were incorporated, and eventually, the forerunners of modern fire hydrants were used.
Londons first water distribution system was built sometime in the early
seventeenth century. In the United States, several water systems were built before or
about the time of the American Revolution. Bostons water system was built around
1652, and others were built in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The earliest
water mains were made by boring out logs; the mains were then buried. When water
was needed for fighting fires, a hole was dug to expose the pipe, and a hole was bored
into the pipe wall. Water collected around the pipe and was conducted by buckets or
through a hose directly to the fire or to a pump. After use, the hole in the pipe was
plugged with a tapered piece of woodhence the term fire plug, which has persisted
to this day. The location of the pipe hole was marked so that if it was needed again,
it could be found and removed quickly.

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FIRE HYDRANTS

IRON PIPE AND PERMANENT ACCESS POINTS ______________


When cast-iron pipe replaced bored logs as water mains in the early part of the
nineteenth century, it became impractical to bore random holes in pipes to gain
access to water. Instead, fittings with openings, or tees, were installed at intervals
along the pipe. Wooden plugs were still used to close the openings, but fire fighters no
longer had to dig to find them. An iron shield with a removable cover that extended
from the tee to the grounds surface provided ready access to the plug. At first,
portable canvas tanks or cisterns were commonly used to collect the water that
spewed out when a plug was removed (Figure 1-1). Soon, however, portable
standpipes came into use. After removing the plug, one end of the standpipe was
inserted into the tee; a hose connected to the other end of the standpipe carried water
to the pump.
Further development of this system in England resulted in a ball hydrant, in
which a ball in an iron chamber was attached to the water-main opening (Figure 1-2).
Water pressure held the ball against a seat; after the portable standpipe had been
attached, a rod could be used to force the ball down and open the valve. Later, this
hydrant was modified by replacing the ball with a spring-loaded valve element, which
would remain closed even if water pressure was negligible.
These hydrant designs were the forerunners of the most popular hydrant in
North America today: the dry-barrel compression hydrant. With the early style, a
portable standpipe was transported to the fire scene and attached to an accessible
main connection below the street surface (Figure 1-3). Early dry-barrel compression
hydrants were also commonly used in England and certain other countries.
Permanent connections in iron pipe led to other developments as well. One such
development consisted of a valve installed belowground, usually in a horizontal
branch of the water main. A rod for actuating the valve extended to just below the
ground surface, where it was accessible, and an elbow could be attached to the valve
outlet. In one version, the elbow terminated in a connection to which a portable
standpipe could be attached; in another, it terminated in a hose connection to permit
direct hookup of the hose.

DEVELOPMENT OF DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS _________________


In North America, the use of plug-type hydrants and early modifications proved
troublesome because of the freezing temperatures to which they were exposed in
northern cities. To protect the hydrants from freezing temperatures, but still provide
easy access, the mains were buried relatively deeply with a pipe extending to the
ground surface. This allowed the valve to remain below the frost line but still
provided an easy hose connection. To eliminate the need to empty water remaining in
the standpipe after use, a drain hole was provided in the standpipe just above the
valve. The drain hole was usually controlled by a valve that could be closed when the
main valve was opened and vice versa (Figure 1-4).
Two types of dry-barrel hydrants were used during the mid-1800s: flush
hydrants, which had the operating mechanism and hose connections in a pit with a
cover plate; and post hydrants, which extended above grade. The post hydrant soon
became predominant. There were two reasons for this. The obvious reason is that
post hydrants were easier to find and to use, particularly in wintry, snowy climates.
However, another reason may well have been more persuasive. In the early days,
professional and volunteer fire-fighting brigades competed against each other.
(Initially, insurance companies paid professional fire fighters to protect insured
properties.) When a fire alarm sounded, one fireman from each group would race

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HISTORY OF FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 11 Fire-plug arrangement


with canvas cistern

Figure 12 Ball hydrant, patented


about 1849

Figure 13 Standpipe inserted


directly into main socket

Figure 14 Sluice-valve-type
hydrant with two outlets

ahead of his company to secure a hydrant for his brigade to the exclusion of its
rivalsand it was easier to sit on a post hydrant than to sprawl over the pit of a
flush hydrant.

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FIRE HYDRANTS

When buckets or hand pumps were used to carry water from a hydrant to a fire,
hydrants did not need to be served by high pressure nor did they require very large
valve openings. The volume of water available to fight a fire was limited by the
capacity of the conveyance rather than the size of the valve opening. Because buckets
and hand pumps could carry only limited amounts of water, hydrants with relatively
small valve openings were usually more than adequate.
When steam-driven pumps became available, the flows from older hydrants
with small valve openings often proved inadequate, so hydrants with larger valve
openings came into use. Initially, a 4-in. (10.2-cm) diameter valve opening was
considered adequate, but eventually 5-in. (12.7-cm) and 6-in. (15.3-cm) sizes were
developed. Today, the vast majority of hydrants are connected to the main by 6-in.
(15.3-cm) pipe. Most main valves are 41/2 in. (11.4 cm) to 51/4 in. (13.3 cm) in
diameter. Hydrants may include one or two outlets for connecting large-diameter
hose plus one or two outlets for 21/2-in. (6.4-cm) or 3-in. (7.6-cm) hose.
Dry-barrel hydrants currently produced are post hydrants and are usually
furnished with drain valves that are automatically operated by the main-valve
mechanism. The lower barrels of these hydrants are in direct contact with the
ground. The most popular style of the dry-barrel hydrant is the traffic model, which
has both a breakable barrel and operating rod parts located at the ground line. These
components are designed to break on impact, thereby protecting the remainder of the
hydrant from damage. The design permits quick and inexpensive repairs should the
hydrant be struck by a vehicle. Also, after impact the hydrant is designed to
automatically close, thereby preventing any leakage to pass the main valve seat.
Because of their popularity, traffic-model hydrants have become the unofficial
industry standard. Dry-barrel flush hydrants are generally used only in areas of
vehicular traffic, such as parking lots and roadways, airport runways and taxiways.
Where freezing temperatures are rare and never persistent, particularly in the
coastal areas of California and Hawaii, wet-barrel hydrants are often used. The wetbarrel hydrant is designed so that the entire interior of the hydrant is pressurized at
all times. It is equipped with one or more valved outlets above the ground to which
hoses can be connected. Some designs have auxiliary valves that close if the hydrant
is broken, thus preventing local flooding.
Several designs of tamperproof hydrants have been developed in recent years.
These have built-in or attached devices that discourage unauthorized use of the
hydrant by requiring the use of special equipment for the removal of outlet caps or
for operation of the valve-opening mechanism.

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS __________________________________

AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

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Dry-Barrel Hydrants:
Definitions and
Preferred Nomenclature
A fire hydrant is a valving device connected to a water main. Fire hoses can be
attached to outlet nozzles on the hydrant. The hydrant discharges water at a high
rate, primarily for fighting fires.

TYPES OF DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS _________________________


Dry-barrel hydrants get their name from the fact that water is drained or pumped
from the barrel when the hydrant is not in use. In a dry-barrel hydrant, a single
main valve is located in the base of the hydrant adjacent to the inlet connection. In
addition, the dry-barrel hydrant is equipped with an automatically operated drain
valve. When the main valve is closed, the drain valve automatically opens, draining
all water from the barrel of the hydrant. When the hydrant is opened, the drain valve
automatically closes. The main valve is located below the normal frost line to protect
the hydrant from freezing. This allows the dry-barrel hydrant to be used almost
anywhere, but it is especially suited to areas where freezing temperatures occur.
Three variations of dry-barrel hydrants include the following types.

Compression Type
In this type of hydrant, the main valve moves reciprocally on a vertical axis against
a seat located in the hydrant base. The valve moves against the seat to close and
away from the seat to open. It is moved by a vertical stem; the stem moves up or
down when the operating nut is rotated. The valve may be located below the seat and
open against the pressure (Figure 2-1) or above the seat and open with the pressure
(Figure 2-2).

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FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 21

Compression-type hydrant, opens against pressure

Toggle Type
In this type of hydrant, the main valve moves reciprocally on a horizontal axis
against or away from a vertical seat located in the base of the hydrant (Figure 2-3).
The main valve is moved using a vertical stem that has left-hand and right-hand
threads. Rotation of the stem causes the arms of the toggle mechanism to move the
main valve. The valve moves away from the seat to open and against the seat to close.
The main valve always opens with the pressure.

Slide-Gate Type
In this type of hydrant, the main valve consists of a gate that moves vertically by
means of a threaded stem. When the stem is rotated, it causes the internally
threaded gate to move. The gate is forced against the valve seat by a wedging
mechanism. The valve seat is installed in the base of the hydrant (Figure 2-4).

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DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS

Figure 22

Compression-type hydrant, opens with pressure

SPECIAL HYDRANTS_______________________________________
Flush hydrants are designed and constructed for installation completely below the
ground line. They are installed in pits, which are usually furnished with removable
covers. They are intended for use in areas where post hydrants would interfere with
vehicle or aircraft movement.

Frost-Jacket Hydrants
Frost-jacket hydrants have a sheath, or frost jacket, attached to the base and
surrounding the lower barrel, extending up to the ground line. In this type of
hydrant, the barrel, nozzle section, and all other hydrant parts above the base can be
removed as a single unit.

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Flush Hydrants

FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 23

Toggle hydrant

High-Pressure Hydrants
High-pressure hydrants are designed and constructed for working pressures above
150 psig (1,034 kPa [gauge]). These hydrants are not within the scope of ANSI/
AWWA C502 or ANSI/AWWA C503* but are produced by several hydrant manufacturers. One design of high-pressure hydrant is the high-pressure pilot-valve hydrant.
Other high-pressure hydrants manufactured in the United States and Canada are
similar to standard hydrants but are strengthened in materials and design.

*ANSI/AWWA C502, Dry-Barrel Fire Hydrants; ANSI/AWWA C503, Wet-Barrel Fire Hydrants.

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DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS

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Figure 24

Slide-gate hydrant

High-Pressure Pilot-Valve Hydrants


These hydrants differ from other high-pressure hydrants in the design of the main
valve. There is a small valve, or pilot valve, in the center of the main valve. The pilot
valve opens before and in tandem with the main valve, equalizing pressure on both
sides of the main valve with a controlled volume of water. This reduces operating
torque in high-pressure applications, which makes the main valve easier to open. The
pilot valve also greatly reduces the potential of hydrant vibration or chatter.

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10

FIRE HYDRANTS

CONSTRUCTION TERMS FOR DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS ________

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Direction to open: The direction in which the operating nut is rotated to open
the hydrant: open left is counterclockwise when viewed from above, while open right
is clockwise.
Dry-top: A compression-type hydrant in which the operating mechanism at the
top of the hydrant is sealed from the barrel so that water does not come into contact
with the mechanism during hydrant use.
Frost jacket or protection cover: A sheath that surrounds the barrel and
extends from the bottom of the hydrant to the ground line. It is not used in hydrants
currently produced.
Hose connection: An outlet to which 3-in. (7.6-cm) or smaller hose can be
connected.
Hose gate: A gate valve attached to the hydrant outlet (see item 16, Sec.
Preferred Nomenclature for Dry-Barrel Hydrant Components.). The attachment may
be permanent or temporary.
NOTE: Only gate valves that require several turns of the operating handle to
open or close should be used as hose gates.
Main-valve opening: The inside diameter of the valve seat ring. Also referred
to as the valve opening.
No-drain hydrant: A dry-barrel hydrant that is not equipped with a drain
valve, or one in which the drain outlets have been plugged. Such hydrants are
generally used where the groundwater level may be above the level of the drain
outlets to protect against water freezing. No-drain hydrants must be pumped out or
otherwise emptied of water after each use.
Pipe connection: The inlet of the hydrant at which connection is made to the
hydrant lead.
Post hydrant: Any hydrant that extends above the ground line, with the
pumper or hose connection above the ground line. (All hydrants are post hydrants,
except flush hydrants. See flush hydrants in Sec. Types of Dry-Barrel Hydrants.)
Pumper connection: An outlet to which a hose 31/2 in. (8.9 cm) or larger can be
connected.
Traffic model: A hydrant designed and constructed so that, if it is struck by a
vehicle, certain easily replaceable components will break and allow the upper portion
(above the ground line) to become detached from the lower portion (below the ground
line). The belowground section will remain intact and undamaged. They are designed
so that the main valve remains closed after impact to prevent interruption of the
water supply and minimize injury to persons and property.
Wet top: A compression-type hydrant in which the operating mechanism at the
top of the hydrant is not sealed from the water when the hydrant is opened.

INSTALLATION TERMS FOR DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS _________


Auxiliary valve: A gate valve or other type of valve that is installed in the pipe
that connects the hydrant to the water main (that is, the hydrant lead). The auxiliary
valve can be closed to isolate the hydrant. It is also called the hydrant gate or
hydrant control valve.
Bury: The nominal vertical distance between the ground line and the bottom
of the pipe connected to the hydrant inlet, measured to the nearest 6-in. (15.2-cm)
increment.

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DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS

11

Cover: The nominal vertical distance between the ground line and the top of
the pipe connected to the hydrant inlet, measured to the nearest 6-in. (15.2-cm)
increment. (Use of this measurement is discouraged in favor of bury.)
Ground line: The nominal elevation to which the hydrant barrel is buried
during installation.
Hydrant gate: See auxiliary valve.
Hydrant lead: The pipe connecting the hydrant to the water main. The
hydrant lead is also called the branch or lateral.
Trench: See bury.

PREFERRED NOMENCLATURE FOR DRY-BARREL


HYDRANT COMPONENTS __________________________________
The preferred nomenclature for dry-barrel hydrant components was determined by
the manufacturers representatives on the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire
Hydrants. This preferred nomenclature was developed to clarify the names of
hydrant components for hydrant users. Figures 2-1 through 2-5 indicate the
preferred nomenclature for several types of dry-barrel hydrants.* It should be noted
that these figures are composites and do not represent a particular manufacturers
product. The following list gives the preferred name for each part and a brief
description of each part. Components are listed in numerical order by reference
number. Because of differences in each hydrant brand, not all components are
identical or comparable by term. Some hydrants contain components that are unique
to that hydrant. Therefore, some hydrants have components for which there is no
preferred term.

Operating nut. An external hydrant part that is turned by a hydrant


wrench to rotate the stem nut or stem; it may be integral with the stem nut
or stem.

Weather shield. A part that forms a skirt above and surrounding the
opening in the hydrant top through which the stem, stem nut, or operating
nut protrudes. It may be integral with the operating nut. Also called
weather cap.

Stem nut. A part that is internally threaded and engages with threads on
the stem so that when the part is rotated, or when the stem is rotated and
the stem nut is stationary, the stem is raised or lowered to move the valve.
Also called operating nut, operating stem nut, revolving nut.

Stem. A part of the operating mechanism that extends down to the mainvalve assembly and moves the main valve to close or open the hydrant. The
stem is often in two parts, particularly in a traffic model: the upper stem
and the lower stem. Also called upper rod, lower rod.

*Of course, all hydrants do not include the same components. The diversity of components and
the manufacturers various names for each component, can make for confusion. Appendix A
consists of a series of drawings and parts lists for dry-barrel and wet-barrel hydrants produced
by several manufacturers. Most parts indicated on each drawing are given the part number and
name supplied by the manufacturer.

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12

FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 25A Composite dry-barrel hydrantupper barrel: compression packing gland type, opens
against pressure

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DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS

13

Figure 25B Composite dry-barrel hydrantupper barrel; compression O-ring seal type, opens
with pressure

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FIRE HYDRANTS

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Stop nut. A part that is permanently threaded or otherwise attached to


the stem and limits the vertical travel of the stem. Also called stem stop,
travel-stop nut.

Stuffing box. A cylindrical cavity that surrounds the stem and contains a
number of packing rings used to prevent leakage along the stem. The
stuffing box may be an individual component or a portion of another
component. Also called packing box.

Packing gland. A part that compresses packing rings in a stuffing box.


Also called packing pusher.

Gland bushing. A part that is used to line a gland.

Packing plate. A part that partitions the interior of the hydrant and
contains or supports a stuffing box or other means of sealing one
compartment from another. Also called seal plate, support ring.

Bonnet. A part that attaches to the top of the nozzle section and encloses
the support portions of the operating mechanism. It may be integral with
the nozzle section. Also called hydrant cap, cover.

Nozzle section. A part that extends upward from the barrel and contains
the outlet nozzles. It may be integral with the upper barrel. (When the
nozzle section is integral with the upper barrel, the part may be referred to
as the upper standpipe or upper barrel. This is not preferred nomenclature.)

Outlet nozzle. The outlet nozzle is secured in the nozzle section and has
an opening through which water can be discharged. The outlet nozzle is
threaded or otherwise formed to permit attachment of a fire-hose
connection. Also called nozzle, spud.

Hose outlet nozzle. An outlet nozzle that has an opening that is 3 in.
(7.6 cm) or smaller in diameter, and is suitable for attachment of a 3-in.
(7.6-cm) or smaller fire hose.

Pumper outlet nozzle. An outlet nozzle with an opening at least 31/2 in.
(8.9 cm) in diameter, suitable for attachment of 31/2-in. (8.9-cm) or larger fire
hose. Also called steamer nozzle, steamer connection, pumper nozzle, or
pumper connection.

Outlet-nozzle cap. A cap that is attached to an outlet nozzle and covers


the nozzle opening. The cap is furnished with a nut or other means to permit
the application of force adequate to firmly attach it to or remove it from the
outlet nozzle.

Hose gate. A valve that can be attached to a hose outlet nozzle or secured
to the nozzle section. The hose gate is furnished with hose threads or is
otherwise formed to permit attachment of a fire-hose coupling. The hose
gate is normally opened and closed by a rotating valve handle; the hose gate
is used to control the flow of water from the hydrant when the main valve is
open. (The main valve should never be used to control hydrant flow; such
use could damage the hydrant or hydrant installation.) Also called hose
valve.

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DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS

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Stem coupling. A part that joins the portions of a two-part stem. Also
called rod coupling.

Frangible stem coupling. A stem coupling designed to break if it is


stressed severely, such as a vehicle striking the hydrant. Also called
breakable coupling, frangible valve-rod coupling.

Upper barrel. A part that extends from the lower barrel at the ground
line to the nozzle section, enclosing the stem. It may be integral with the
nozzle section. Also called upper standpipe. (When the upper barrel is an
integral part of the nozzle section, then the term nozzle section would
incorporate the term upper barrel.)

Lower barrel. A part that extends from the base to the ground line,
enclosing the stem. The lower barrel conducts water from the base to the
upper portion of the hydrant. Also called standpipe.

Breakable barrel coupling. A coupling used to fasten the upper barrel


to the lower barrel. It is designed to break if stressed severely, such as
vehicle striking the hydrant. Also called frangible standpipe coupling.

Breakable flange. A part that bolts to a mating flange at a joint


between the hydrant upper and lower barrels, which is located immediately
above the ground line. It is designed to break if stressed severely, such
as a vehicle striking the hydrant. Also called breakaway flange, traffic
flange.

Breakable bolt. Bolts used to fasten the upper barrel to the lower barrel.
Breakable bolts are designed to break if stressed severely, such as a vehicle
striking the hydrant. Also called frangible bolt.

Main valve. A part made of rubber, leather, balata gum, or a similar


resilient material; the main valve is forced against a seat to form a
watertight seal when the hydrant is closed. Also called valve, valve rubber,
valve-ball rubber, valve seat, valve gasket, valve disc.

Upper valve plate. A support for the main valve, positioned above the
valve. The upper valve plate may also serve as the portion of the drain valve
that is moved when the stem rotates. It may also serve as the means to
prevent rotation of the valve, stem, and associated parts. Also called top
plate, upper valve washer, valve-ball top, valve top plate, valve plate,
hydrant-valve top.

Lower valve plate. A part that is positioned below the main valve and
clamps the main valve against the upper valve plate. Also called lower valve
washer, valve-ball bottom, lower cap nut, bottom plate.

Valve seat ring. A part threaded into and sealed to the hydrant base (or
associated part adjacent to the base). The main valve is forced against the
valve seat ring to close the hydrant. Also called seat ring, valve seat.

Seat-ring insert. A part with internal threads that is secured and


sealed to the hydrant base. The internal threads engage with the external
threads on the valve seat ring. The seat-ring insert may also serve as a
part of the drain system. Also called drain ring, retainer ring, subseat,
insert ring.

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FIRE HYDRANTS

Gate. A part that supports the main valve. It is moved, first horizontally
and then vertically, to open or close the main valve opening in a slide-gate
hydrant. Also called main gate.

Base. A part that provides a lateral connection to the hydrant lead and
directs the flow vertically upward into the lower barrel. Also called shoe,
bottom, boot, elbow.

Drain valve. A valve located at or adjacent to the valve seat ring. The
drain valve opens automatically when the main valve is closed; this allows
water to drain from the barrel into the ground. In like fashion, the drain
valve closes automatically when the main valve is opened. The mechanism
is usually designed so that, when the main valve is opened, the drain valve
closes completely after only one to five turns of the operating nut.

Drain outlet. The opening in the base (or adjacent part of the base)
through which water escapes to the ground when the drain valve is open.
Also called drain bushing, drip tubing, drain-hole liner, drain cup.

AUXILIARY COMPONENTS FOR DRY-BARREL HYDRANTS______


In addition to standard hydrant components and equipment used in the construction
and installation of hydrants, the following auxiliary components are sometimes used.
Hydrant meters: Portable flowmeters that can be attached to a hose nozzle to
measure the flow rate or the total flow over a period of time.
Independently gated outlets: Independently gated outlets operate in the same
way as hose gates, but gated outlets are integral with the nozzle section instead of
screwed on to the nozzles. Dry-barrel hydrants with independently gated outlets are
available from some manufacturers.
Backflow-prevention devices: In some instances, local authorities may require a
means to prevent backflow from hydrants into the water system. Where groundwater
levels may be above the level of the hydrant lead, no-drain hydrants should be
specified and installed. Backflow preventers in the drain connection or the hydrant
lead are not considered practical. When hydrants are used to provide water to a tank
truck that is a nonpotable water source, such as a high-velocity sewer cleaner, a
backflow-prevention device consistent with the degree of hazard should be used.

MISCELLANEOUS AND OBSOLETE HYDRANT TERMS


Higbee cut: The abrupt termination of the outermost thread on a threaded
outlet.
Steamer connection: A term formerly used for pumper connection. See pumper
connection in Sec. Construction Terms for Dry-Barrel Hydrants.

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16

AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

3
Wet-Barrel Hydrants:
Definitions and
Preferred Nomenclature

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WET-BARREL HYDRANTS___________________________________
Wet-barrel hydrants are used in areas where freezing temperatures are rare and not
persistent. Unlike a dry-barrel hydrant, a wet-barrel hydrant does not have a main
valve. Instead, the barrel is full of water and pressurized as long as the lateral piping
to the hydrant is under pressure and the auxiliary valve ahead of the hydrant is
open. In other words, under normal operating conditions, the entire interior of the
hydrant is subjected to water pressure at all times. Each outlet nozzle has an
independent valve that controls discharge from that particular outlet.

Special Hydrants
High-pressure hydrants. High-pressure hydrants are designed and constructed for working pressure above 150 psig (1,034 kPa [gauge]). These hydrants are
not within the scope of ANSI/AWWA C502 or ANSI/AWWA C503, but they are
produced by several hydrant manufacturers and used by several utilities. One design
of a high-pressure hydrant designed by a utility is illustrated in the appendix. This
design uses a special angle globe valve.

CONSTRUCTION TERMS FOR WET-BARREL HYDRANTS ________


Direction to open: The direction in which the operating nut is rotated to open
the valve on a given outlet: open left is counterclockwise when viewed facing the
operating nut, while open right is clockwise.

17
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FIRE HYDRANTS

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Hose connection: An outlet to which 3-in. (7.6-cm) or smaller hose can be


connected.
Hose gate: A gate valve attached to a hydrant outlet. The attachment may be
permanent or temporary. Temporary attachments are made with threaded outlets.
NOTE: Only gate valves that require several turns of the operating handle to
open or close should be used as hose gates.
Valve opening: The inside diameter of the valve seat ring.
Pipe connection: The inlet of the hydrant where the connection is made to the
hydrant lead.
Post hydrant: Any hydrant that extends above the ground line with the
pumper or hose connection above the ground line. (All hydrants are post hydrants,
except flush hydrants. See flush hydrants in Sec. Types of Dry-Barrel Hydrants.)
Pumper connection: An outlet to which hose 31/2 in. (8.9 cm) or larger can be
connected.

INSTALLATION TERMS FOR WET-BARREL HYDRANTS _________


Auxiliary valve: A gate valve or other type of valve that is installed in the pipe
that connects the hydrant to the water main (that is, the hydrant lead). The auxiliary
valve can be closed to isolate the hydrant. It is also called the hydrant gate.
Bury: The nominal vertical distance between the ground line and the bottom
of the pipe connected to the hydrant inlet, measured to the nearest 6-in. (15.2-cm)
increment.
Cover: The nominal vertical distance between the ground line and the top of
the pipe connected to the hydrant inlet, measured to the nearest 6-in. (15.2-cm)
increment. (Use of this term is discouraged in favor of the word bury.)
Ground line: The nominal elevation to which the hydrant barrel is to be buried
during installation.
Hydrant gate: See auxiliary valve.
Hydrant lead: The pipe connecting the hydrant to the water main. The
hydrant lead is also called the branch or lateral.
Trench: See bury.

PREFERRED NOMENCLATURE FOR WET-BARREL


HYDRANT COMPONENTS __________________________________
The preferred nomenclature for wet-barrel hydrant components was determined by
the manufacturers representatives on the AWWA Standards Committee on Fire
Hydrants. This preferred nomenclature was developed in order to clarify the names
of hydrant components for hydrant users. Figure 3-1 indicates the preferred
nomenclature for three types of wet-barrel hydrants.* It should be noted that these
diagrams are composites and do not represent a particular manufacturers product.
The following list gives the preferred name for each part and a brief description of
each part. Because of differences in each hydrant brand, not all components are
InvisiblePlaceholderOnTheNextLine

*Of course, all hydrants do not include the same components. The diversity of components,
and the manufacturers various names for each component, can make for confusion. Appendix A
consists of a series of drawings and parts lists for wet-barrel and dry-barrel hydrants produced
by several manufacturers. For most parts indicated on each drawing are given the part number
and name supplied by the manufacturer.

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WET-BARREL HYDRANTS

19

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Figure 31

Composite wet-barrel hydrants

identical or comparable by term. Some hydrants may have unique components for
which no preferred term has been assigned.

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Top section. The aboveground portion of the hydrant, constructed as a


single piece or as a two-piece unit.

Body. The aboveground section of a one-piece hydrant. Also called body


head.

Hydrant head. The upper portion of the top section of a two-piece


hydrant. This portion contains valve mechanisms and outlet valves. Also
called body head, top section.

Barrel. The lower portion of the top section of a two-piece hydrant. Also
called spool, lower body.

Bury section. The belowground section of the hydrant, constructed either


of a single piece (lower bury ell) or two pieces (lower bury ell and riser).

Stem. The part that extends to the outside of the hydrant top section and
is rotated with a hydrant wrench to move the valve washer away from or
toward the valve seat. Also called valve stem.

Valve carrier. A part that supports the valve washer from the pressure
side. The valve carrier is supported by and fits on the stem. Also called
carrier, disc holder.

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FIRE HYDRANTS

Valve washer. A part made of rubber, leather, or similar resilient


material that is forced against the valve seat to form a watertight seal
when the valve is closed. Also called valve rubber, disc, valve insert.

Valve-washer retainer. A part, carried by the stem, that is in front of the


valve washer and is used to retain the valve washer against the valve
carrier. Also called retainer.

Retaining nut. A threaded hexagonal nut used to secure the parts of the
valve assembly together on the stem and to prevent the valve assembly
from becoming loose. The retaining nut may contain slots for insertion of a
cotter pin or similar device. Also called disc retaining nut, nut, slotted nut.

Stuffing box. A cylindrical cavity that surrounds the stem and contains a
number of packing rings or O-rings used to prevent leakage along the
stem. The stuffing box may be an individual component or a portion of
another component. Also called stem sleeve, insert, stem guide.

Stem bushing. An internally threaded, stationary part that engages the


threads on the stem so that when the stem is rotated, the valve assembly
is moved to close or open the hydrant.

Hose outlet nozzle. An outlet nozzle that has an opening smaller than
31/2 in. (8.9 cm) in diameter and is suitable for attachment of a fire hose.
This connection is commonly 21/2 in. (6.4 cm). The inside of the hose outlet
nozzle is machined to form a seating surface for the valve washer. Also
called hose valve nozzle, seat, outlet.

Pumper outlet nozzle. An outlet nozzle with an opening at least 31/2 in.
(8.9 cm) in diameter, suitable for attachment of a 31/2-in. (8.9-cm) or larger
fire hose. The inside is machined to form a seating surface for the valve
washer. Also called outlet, seat.

Outlet-nozzle cap. A part that is attached to an outlet nozzle and covers


the nozzle opening. The cap is furnished with a nut or other means to
permit the application of force to firmly attach it to or remove it from the
nozzle. Also called pro-cap, hose cap.

Lower bury ell. A part that connects the top section or riser of a wetbarrel hydrant to the hydrant lead.

Valve seat. A part that is secured and sealed to the nozzle. The valve
washer is forced in order to close the hydrant. The valve seat may be
integral with the outlet nozzle. Also called seat ring.

Riser. A section of pipe used to vertically extend a lower bury ell. Also
called midsection, standpipe.

MISCELLANEOUS AND OBSOLETE HYDRANT TERMS _________


Higbee cut: The abrupt termination of the outermost thread on a threaded
outlet.
Steamer connection: A term formerly used for pumper connection. See pumper
connection in Sec. Construction Terms for Wet-Barrel Hydrants.

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20

AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

4
Inspection, Installation,
Testing, and Placing the
Hydrant in Service
The fire hydrant is one of the most important parts of a water distribution system but
is often one of the most ignored. Hydrants stand idle for long periods of time and are
subject to the effects of weather and the elements and are vulnerable to damage, but
they are expected to work well in emergencies. To ensure that hydrants will operate
correctly when they are needed, the proper procedures must be followed when they
are inspected, installed, tested, and maintained.

INSPECTION PRIOR TO INSTALLATION ______________________


Hydrants should be inspected at the time of delivery to verify compliance with
specifications and to check for damage during shipment. Specifications to be checked
during the initial inspection include the size and shape of the operating nut and its
direction to open, depth of bury, size and type of inlet connection, size of the main
valve (for a dry-barrel hydrant) or valve washer (for a wet-barrel hydrant), outlet
nozzle sizes and configuration, and thread style.
The hydrant should be cycled to full open and full closed positions to ensure that
no internal damage or breakage has occurred during shipment and handling. All
external bolts should be checked for tightness.
Shortly after delivery, hydrants should be pressure and leak tested on a
statistically sampled basis. It is not uncommon for outlet nozzles and pressure
bolting to loosen as a result of handling during shipping and storage. Loose nozzles
or pressure bolting may cause leakage during a pressure test. Tightening the flange
bolting, the caulking of leaded-in nozzles, and the tightening of threaded-in nozzles

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22

FIRE HYDRANTS

will prevent or eliminate minor leaks. In most cases, tightening is all that is needed
to achieve a satisfactory pressure test.
After inspection, the hydrant valve should be closed and the outlet-nozzle caps
replaced to prevent the entry of foreign matter. Hydrants should be stored with the
inlets facing down. Whenever possible, hydrants in storage should be protected from
the effects of weather and the elements.
Hydrants should be reinspected just before installation.
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INSTALLATION ___________________________________________
Following proper procedures ensures correct installation and should result in a lower
maintenance cost. Refer to ANSI/AWWA C600, Standard for Installation of DuctileIron Water Mains and Their Appurtenances, for a detailed description of proper
installation and testing methods. Typical hydrant installations are illustrated in
Figures 4-1 and 4-2. The following recommendations are in accordance with ANSI/
AWWA C600:
1. Connect fire hydrants only to water mains adequately sized to handle fire
flows.
2. Install hydrants as plumb as possible.
3. Locate fire hydrants in accordance with the applicable fire code, the
requirements of the local fire authority, or the applicable municipal design
standard.
4. Unless otherwise required by Item 3, ensure hydrants are installed away
from the curb far enough to avoid damage from or to vehicles as they turn.
The recommended setback is 2-ft (0.6-m) minimum from the face of the
curb to the point on the hydrant nearest to the curb.
5. The pumper outlet nozzle should face the street to enable a quick
connection to the fire pumper.
6. Make sure that the outlet nozzles are high enough (at least 18 in. [46 cm])
above the ground line to allow for attachment of hoses and operation of the
hydrant wrench. There should be no obstructions that prevent or retard
hydrant operation or hinder removal of outlet-nozzle caps.
7. Always install an auxiliary valve between the hydrant and the supply
main to permit isolation of the hydrant for maintenance purposes.
8. Provide thrust restraint for the auxiliary valve so that the hydrant may be
removed without shutting down the main.
9. Remove foreign matter from the hydrant lead before installing the
auxiliary valve and hydrant.
10. Locate the auxiliary valve as close to the main as possible.
11. In setting a hydrant use a firm footing, such as stone slabs or a concrete
base on firm ground, to prevent settling and strain on the hydrant lead
joints.
12. Provide for thrust restraint of the hydrant by strapping, blocking, or using
a restraining type of joint. See Figure 4-3 for examples of restraints.

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INSPECTION, INSTALLATION, TESTING

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Figure 41

Typical dry-barrel hydrant

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23

24

FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 42

Typical wet-barrel hydrant installation

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INSPECTION, INSTALLATION, TESTING

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 43

Examples of hydrant restraints

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25

26

FIRE HYDRANTS

13. When pouring thrust blocks for dry-barrel hydrants with drains, exercise
care not to plug or block the drain holes.
14. Install traffic hydrants with extra care to ensure that there is adequate
soil resistance to avoid transmitting shock to the hydrants lower barrel
and hydrant inlet. In loose or poor load-bearing soil, it is suggested that a
concrete collar, about 6-in. (150-mm) thick, with a diameter of 2 ft (0.6 m),
be installed around the hydrant lower barrel at or near the ground line.
When installing hydrants on a PVC main, the concrete collar is of extra
importance. In areas of substantial frost penetration, expansion-joint
material should be placed between the hydrant and the collar.
15. When installing hydrants on PVC mains, the hydrant lead should be made
of the same material as the main. This will help to protect the main from
damage if the hydrant is hit during a traffic accident. (If the breakable
portion of the hydrant fails to function properly, the hydrant lead could be
broken. If the hydrant lead was ductile cast iron and the main line was
PVC, the main could be damaged.)
16. Provide for drainage from dry-barrel hydrants. One acceptable method is
to excavate the area around the hydrant base, then place about 1/3 yd3
(0.25 m3) of clean stone to a level 6 in. (150 mm) above the drain outlets.
The stone should extend at least 1 ft (0.3 m) on all sides of the hydrant. To
keep the drainage pit from clogging, the stone should be covered with 8-mil
(0.2-mm) polyethylene or similar waterproof material before backfilling.
This practice permits ready hydrant drainage after use.
17. When a hydrant is installed in an area with a high water table, it may be
necessary to plug the drain outlets.
18. Hydrants with plugged drain outlets must be marked as such and pumped
dry after each use to protect them from freezing.
19. Do not connect hydrant drains to a sanitary sewer or storm sewer.
20. In rural areas where no curb exists, use large setbacks or other means to
protect hydrants from traffic, always ensuring that the hydrant is
accessible to fire-fighting equipment.

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21. The adoption of a color scheme to indicate flow capacity is optional.


However, if such a scheme is used, the uniform color-coding system shown
in Table 4-1 is recommended. According to this system, hydrant tops and
caps are painted to indicate the hydrants expected flow rate. This color
scheme is consistent with NFPA* 291, Recommended Practice for Fire Flow
Testing and Marking of Hydrants.
22. Hydrants must be highly visible and unobstructed at all times. Therefore,
whether or not a color code is used, hydrants should be painted with colors
that are easily visible both day and night.
23. Hydrants installed as part of new main construction can be disinfected by
opening and closing the main valve during the disinfection of the main.
The hydrant should be flushed after disinfection of the main valve to
remove the high concentration of chlorine solution.

*National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471.

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INSPECTION, INSTALLATION, TESTING

Table 41

27

Color scheme to indicate flow capacity


Flow

gpm at 20 psig*

(L/sec at 140 kPa)*

Color

greater than 1,500


1,0001,499
500999
less than 500

(60)
(60)
(3060)
(30)

Light blue
Green
Orange
Red

*This is the calculated flow at a calculated residual of 20 psi (140 kPa) and with the actual residual on
an adjacent nonflowing hydrant being 40 psi (280 kPa) or greater. When the actual observed residual on the
adjacent nonflowing hydrant is less than 40 psi (280 kPa), the color scheme should be based on one half of
the observed flow. An alternative scheme for color coding may be related to the size of the water main
supplying the hydrant.

24. Hydrants installed on an existing main should be disinfected before


installation. This may be accomplished by spraying a solution of 300 mg/L
chlorine into the hydrant inlet and through the outlet-nozzle openings. The
chlorine solution should be flushed from the hydrant immediately after
installation.
25. Foreign material may have been left in newly laid lines or hydrant leads.
This material can damage valves and valve seats and also affect the
results of pressure tests. If this is a concern, after backfilling and before
disinfecting the main, remove the valve and valve seat from the hydrant.
Then flush the main through the hydrant using the auxiliary valve to
control the flow of water from the line. See Sec. Dechlorination Regulations
in Chapter 6.

TESTING__________________________________________________
ANSI/AWWA C502 permits dry-barrel hydrants with unplugged drain outlets to have
an allowable leakage of 5 fluid oz/min (0.25 mL/sec) through the drain valve.
Therefore, the main valve should not be opened at the same time that the water main
is tested. The auxiliary valve should be closed during water-main tests (see ANSI/
AWWA C600). However, if it is possible to temporarily plug the drain outlets, the
hydrant and main may be tested at the same time.
After the hydrant is installed and, when possible, before backfilling (and after
pressure testing the water main), the hydrant should be tested as follows.

Pressure Test at Main Pressure


1. Remove the highest outlet-nozzle cap and open the hydrant valve a few
turns. Allow water to reach the bottom of the outlet nozzle. (If the hydrant
is furnished with a tapped-plug air vent, it is not necessary to remove the
nozzle cap. Just open the air vent.)
2. Replace the outlet-nozzle cap and leave it loose to permit all air to escape,
or close the tapped-plug air vent.
3. After all air has escaped, tighten the outlet-nozzle cap.
4. Open the hydrant completely. (Opening the hydrant fully before all the air
has escaped will compress the air and cause a safety hazard.)

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28

FIRE HYDRANTS

5. Check for leakage at flanges, outlet nozzles, and the packing or O-rings
around the stem.
6. If leakage is noted, repair or replace the faulty components or the entire
hydrant.
7. Repeat the test until results are satisfactory.

Pressure Test at Pressures Above Main Pressure


1. Connect a pressure-test pump to one of the hydrants outlet nozzles.
2. Open the highest outlet-nozzle cap. Open the hydrant valve a few turns.
Allow the hydrant to fill until water is at the bottom of the outlet nozzle.
3. After all air has escaped, tighten the outlet-nozzle cap.
4. Open the hydrant completely.
5. Close the auxiliary valve.
6. Pump up to test pressure (usually 150 psi [1,034 kPa]).
7. Check for leakage at flanges, outlet nozzles, and the packing or O-rings
around the stem.
8. Repair or replace hydrant, if necessary.
9. Repeat the test until results are satisfactory.
10. Open the auxiliary valve.

Drainage Test for Dry-Barrel Hydrants


1. Following the pressure test, close the hydrant main valve.
2. Remove one outlet-nozzle cap and place the palm of one hand over the
outlet-nozzle opening.
3. Drainage should be sufficiently rapid to create a noticeable suction.
4. If the hydrant fails the drainage test, partially open the hydrant with the
outlet-nozzle caps on to create a pressure that will clear the drain valve. If
this fails, the drain-valve assembly should be removed and inspected. If
the drain valve is clear, the problem may be that the drain outlet is
plugged from outside the hydrant. Repair will require digging down
around the outside of the hydrant and clearing the drain outlet.

PLACING THE HYDRANT IN SERVICE _______________________


The following steps are recommended for placing a hydrant in service.
1. After testing and backfilling, the hydrant should be flushed and tested to
ensure that it is bacteriologically safe before it is put into service.
2. Tighten the outlet-nozzle caps. Back them off slightly so they will not be
excessively tight, but tight enough to prevent their removal by hand.
3. Clean the hydrant exterior to remove dirt accumulated during installation.
If necessary for protection or appearance, the exposed portion of the hydrant
should be painted with one or more coats of the utilitys standard paint.

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AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

To ensure that a hydrant will work correctly when it is needed, a periodic testing and
maintenance program must be followed. Although hydrants are operated by members
of the fire department, it is generally the water utilitys responsibility to maintain
them in working order.
In many small communities, especially where the water purveyor is not the
same political entity as the fire department, agreements have been made with the
individual fire departments to maintain and test fire hydrants. While this practice is
worthwhile, it should be remembered that unless there is a verifiable agreement, the
owner of the hydrant retains the responsibility for maintenance and inspection of the
hydrant.

USES OF HYDRANTS ______________________________________


The primary purpose of a fire hydrant is fire suppression. However, hydrants also
serve other useful functions. For example, hydrants provide a method of testing the
distribution systems flow capabilities. They also provide a means for flushing the
system mains, for street cleaning and sewer cleaning, for street and building
construction, and for recreation.
While each of these functions might be of great importance to certain
individuals or groups, the primary purposefire suppressionis paramount.
Hydrant owners have a moral obligation to see that adequate fire flow can be
delivered from every hydrant under their jurisdiction. If adequate flow cannot be
delivered by a particular hydrant, that hydrant is not fulfilling the primary purpose.
If that is the case, the hydrant should be removed. A hydrant signifies to the public
that water for fighting fires is available.

SPECIAL-USE CONCERNS __________________________________


When the main valve of a dry-barrel hydrant is left partially open, substantial
amounts of water may leak through the drain valves. Depending on the volume of
leakage and the soil in which the hydrant is located, the results can be relatively
minor or catastrophic. For example, a hydrant with the main valve left partially open

29
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Maintenance

30

FIRE HYDRANTS

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located in easily saturated soil will fail to drain properly after main valve closure.
Excessive leakage through the drain can undermine a hydrant located in soil that is
easily washed away.
When in use, the main valve of a dry-barrel hydrant should always be
completely opened to ensure that the drain valve is closed. Instructions to this effect
should be given to all persons authorized to use the hydrants, including fire fighters,
contractors, street cleaners, and summer playground supervisors. (An isolation valve
should be connected to the hose nozzle each time the hydrant is used for purposes
other than fire fighting. This allows the user to control the flow without moving the
main valve.)
When hydrants are repeatedly used as a water source during new construction,
the owner must consider ways to protect the hydrant, protect the water from
contamination through backflow, and also control consumption. Adequate protection
and control can be achieved through installation of a hose gate on the outlet nozzle,
a hydrant meter, and an acceptable backflow-prevention device. When the hydrant is
in use, the main valve must be left in the fully open position. Users should be
instructed to control flow through the hose gate on the outlet nozzle instead of
operating the main valve.
The use of hydrants to fill street sweepers, sewer-flushing trucks, and sewer
high-velocity cleaners requires special attention. The connection of a hose from the
hydrant to the truck, even through a check valve, is considered a cross-connection
and therefore hazardous. Hydrant owners may require each truck to have an
acceptable in-line backflow-prevention-device connection. Another solution is to
identify watering points that can be protected by backflow-prevention devices, such
as reduced-pressure devices (RPDs) and/or air gaps.
In all communities, hydrants are occasionally used by unauthorized individuals.
When unauthorized use of hydrants becomes a problem, special control techniques
may be required. Common control techniques involve legal action and penalties
against the offenders and the installation of special operating nuts and nozzle caps
that can be operated only with special wrenches. The special operating nut and
wrench designs make it difficult to remove outlet-nozzle caps or to operate the
hydrant with standard tools.
Occasionally, a hydrant is installed where vehicular traffic inflicts repeated
damage to the hydrant. Under such a condition, it is best to move the hydrant.
However, if that is not possible, the hydrant may be protected by installing a barrier
of vertical pipes or steel rods approximately 3 ft (1 m) from the hydrant.

INSPECTION ______________________________________________
All hydrants should be inspected regularly, at least once a year, to ensure their
satisfactory operation. In freezing climates, dry-barrel hydrants may require two
inspections per year. A common technique is to perform one inspection in the fall and
another in the spring. In severe freezing conditions, periodic winter inspections may
also be required. Winter inspections are especially important for dry-barrel hydrants
that are installed in areas with high groundwater levels (whether or not the drain
outlet is plugged).
It is advisable to inspect all types of hydrants after each use. Dry-barrel
hydrants with permanently plugged drains must be pumped out after each use and
inspected. During freezing conditions, after-use inspections are especially important
for dry-barrel hydrants.

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MAINTENANCE

31

To reduce labor, inspection crews should be equipped to repair all hydrants at


the time of inspection. However, some jurisdictions prefer to have hydrants inspected
by one person and repaired by a follow-up crew.

Dry-Barrel Hydrant Inspection Procedure


1. Check the hydrants appearance. Remove obstructions around it. If paint is
needed, either paint the hydrant or schedule it for painting. Check to see
whether the hydrant needs to be raised or lowered because of a change in
the ground-surface grade. If adjustments are needed, schedule the work.
2. On traffic-model hydrants, check the breakaway device for damage.
3. Remove one outlet-nozzle cap and use a listening device to check for mainvalve leakage.
4. Check for the presence of water or ice in the hydrant barrel, by use of a
plumb bob or other suitable means.
5. Attach a section of fire hose or other deflector to protect the street, traffic,
and private property from water expelled at high velocity. (See warning
about rigid diverters in Sec. Dechlorination Regulations in Chapter 6.)
6. Open the hydrant and flush to remove foreign material from the interior
and lead.
7. Close the hydrant. Remove the deflector and check the operation of the
drain valve by placing the palm of one hand over the outlet nozzle.
Drainage should be sufficiently rapid to create noticeable suction. For nodrain hydrants, pump the water from the barrel.
8. Using a listening device, check the main valve for leakage.
9. Replace the outlet-nozzle cap. Leave it loose enough to allow air to escape.
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10. Open the hydrant only a few turns. Allow air to vent from the outletnozzle cap.
11. Tighten the outlet-nozzle cap.
12. Open the hydrant fully. Check for ease of operation. Certain water
conditions may cause hard-water buildup on the stem threads of toggle and
slide-gate hydrants and on the threads of wet-top hydrants. Opening and
closing the hydrant repeatedly usually removes this buildup. If the
hydrant has no threads in the water, but operates with difficulty, check the
lubrication before proceeding with the inspection. Other problems that
may make operation difficult are stuck packing and bent stems.
13. With the hydrant fully open, check for leakage at flanges, around outlet
nozzles, at packing or seals, and around the operating stem. Repair as
needed.
14. Partially close the hydrant so the drains open and water flows through
under pressure for about 10 sec, flushing the drain outlets.
15. Close the hydrant completely. Back off the operating nut enough to take
pressure off of the thrust bearing or packing.

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32

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

16. Remove all outlet-nozzle caps, clean the threads, check the condition of the
gaskets, and lubricate the threads. (Graphite powder in oil works well, as
do several of the never-seize compounds.) Check the ease of operation of
each cap.
17. Check outlet-nozzle-cap chains or cables for free action on each cap. If the
chains or cables bind, open the loop around the cap until they move freely.
This will keep the chains or cables from kinking when the cap is removed
during an emergency.
18. Replace the caps. Tighten them, and then back off slightly so they will not
be excessively tight. Leave them tight enough to prevent their removal by
hand.
19. Check the lubrication of operating-nut threads. Lubricate per the manufacturers recommendations.
20. Locate and exercise the auxiliary valve. Leave it in the open position.
21. If the hydrant is inoperable, tag it with a clearly visible mark and notify
the fire department. This may save fire fighters valuable time in an
emergency. Schedule the hydrant for repair.

Wet-Barrel Hydrant Inspection Procedure


1. Check the hydrants appearance. Remove obstructions around it. If paint is
needed, either paint the hydrant or schedule it for painting. Check to see
whether the hydrant needs to be raised because of a change in the groundsurface grade. If adjustments are needed, schedule the work.
2. Remove outlet-nozzle caps and check for valve-washer leakage.
3. Install a test outlet-nozzle cap.
4. Open each valve and test for ease of operation. If stem action is tight,
open and close several times until opening and closing actions are smooth
and free.
5. Clean the cap and nozzle threads. Inspect and replace damaged cap
gaskets. Lubricate the nozzle threads. (Graphite powder in oil works well,
as do several of the never-seize compounds.)
6. Check the outlet-nozzle-cap chains and cables for free action on each cap.
If the chains or cables bind, open the loop around the cap until they move
freely. This will keep the chains or cables from kinking when the cap is
removed during an emergency.
7. Replace the caps. Tighten them, and then back off slightly so they will
not be excessively tight. Leave them tight enough to prevent their removal
by hand.
8. Locate and exercise the auxiliary valve. Leave it in the open position.
9. If the hydrant is inoperable, tag it with a clearly visible mark and notify
the fire department. This may save fire fighters valuable time in an
emergency. Schedule the hydrant for repair.

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MAINTENANCE

33

LUBRICATION ____________________________________________
For detailed information on how to lubricate a particular hydrant, contact the
hydrants manufacturer. The following general guidelines should be used in
conjunction with the manufacturers recommendations.
1. Determine if the hydrant uses oil or grease on the operating threads. If the
threads are exposed to water, the grease should not be water soluble.
2. To lubricate the threads on toggle-type hydrants, the entire operating
mechanism must be removed.
3. In climates where moisture in the air will freeze the outlet-nozzle caps and
operating nut, a common solution is to coat the threads and nut with
antifreeze. The antifreeze should be made of a nontoxic, noncorrosive
compound that is approved by the drinking water authority that has
jurisdiction over potable water. NOTE: Placing antifreeze into the barrel
section of the hydrant is not recommended.

REPAIRS _________________________________________________
Any condition that cannot be repaired easily during routine inspection should be
recorded in the inspection report. The problem should be reported to repair crews for
action. Leakage, broken parts, bad operation, corrosion, and other major defects
should be repaired as soon as possible after the defect is reported. If repairs are to be
performed in the field, the repair crew should take a full complement of repair parts
to the job site.
NOTE: Before any repair takes place, the fire department must be notified of
the outage.
To obtain the exact procedure for disassembly and repair of a specific hydrant,
refer to the manufacturers maintenance manual. The following information is to be
used as a general guideline. If it appears to conflict with the manufacturers
recommendations, the manufacturers recommendations should be followed.
1. Close the auxiliary valve ahead of the hydrant or use another means to cut
off flow and pressure to the hydrant. CAUTION: Before proceeding, open the
hydrant main valve a few turns to make certain pressure to the hydrant
has been cut off.
2. Disassemble the hydrant in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations.
3. Replace damaged parts and parts that show wear, corrosion, or signs of
incipient failure. Always replace all gaskets, packing, and seals.
4. Reassemble the hydrant and open the auxiliary valve (or otherwise
pressurize the hydrant). Test the main valve for leakage.
5. Vent the air from the hydrant and put the entire hydrant under pressure.
Check for leakage, ease of operation, and drainage.
6. Always record the repair and operating condition of the hydrant after
completion of the repairs. Notify the fire department after completion of
the repair.

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34

FIRE HYDRANTS

Specific Repairs
Packing replacement. Braided or woven packing around the stem will wear
out in time. Old, worn-out packing can be the source of leakage and can make it
difficult to open and close the hydrant. The following guidelines may be helpful for
replacing packing material.
1. Select the proper packing. In the past, the most common packing material
used was asbestos graphite. Today, it is recommended that asbestos-based
packing not be installed. Instead, use some form of synthetic packing
material. Manufacturers of packing material and the manufacturer of the
hydrant can provide guidelines on packing-material selection.
2. Locate and remove the packing gland.
3. Using a packing hook, remove all of the old packing. Never place new
packing over the old.
4. Remove old material and dried-on grease from the packing gland, stuffing
box, and operating nut.
5. Determine the size of the packing. Packing is square and is manufactured
in various cross-sectional sizes in 1/16-in. (1.6-mm) increments. For control
of leakage, the packing must be the correct size.
6. Wrap the packing around the operating nut and mark the exact length.
7. Remove the packing and cut to length along the mark.
8. Place the packing into the stuffing box, one ring at a time, seating each
ring with a wooden block. The joints of the packing must be staggered at
90 intervals.
9. Replace the packing gland and tighten until it is finger tight.
10. Place the hydrant under pressure.
11. Adjust the packing gland until there is only a small amount of leakage
(a trickle of water, not a stream) around the shaft.

Traffic-Model Damage
When traffic-model hydrants become damaged, follow the repair procedure listed
below. To execute timely repair, an inventory of parts for traffic-model hydrants
should be kept on hand. Extra gaskets, lubricant, O-rings, and bolts should be kept
on hand.
1. Notify the fire department of the outage. This should be done as soon as
the damage is discovered.
2. Protect the area with proper traffic and pedestrian control. If the hydrant
cannot be immediately repaired, the broken and loose components should
be removed from the site and the hole covered to keep pedestrians from
stepping in it.
3. Repair following the manufacturers recommended procedure.

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MAINTENANCE

35

Adjusting hydrant height. When the height of a hydrant must be changed


because of a change in the street grade, it is important to first notify the fire
department. Proper care must be taken to control traffic and pedestrians. Each
hydrant manufacturer has a specific procedure that should be followed in changing
the height.

RECORD KEEPING _________________________________________


To carry out a meaningful inspection and maintenance program, it is essential to
record the location, make, type, size, and date of installation for each hydrant. Other
information also may be recorded, depending on the nature of the recordkeeping
system used.
When a hydrant is inspected, the record should indicate the inspection date and
the condition of the hydrant. If repair work is necessary, the nature of the work
should be indicated. When repair work is completed, the nature of the repairs, date,
and other relevant information should be recorded. Other information, such as
testing, pumping, ease of operation, direction of open, and number of turns to open,
is also important and should be carefully recorded. This data may be kept in hard
copy or transferred to a data base on a microcomputer. It is suggested the format of
these records be altered to meet individual needs.
Samples of record and survey sheets are shown in Figures 5-1 through 5-5.
Some type of basic master record is necessary to give background information on
hydrant type and installation (see Figure 5-1). This information will make it much
easier to determine parts inventory and training requirements. This record is also
useful in comparing hydrants to determine which styles, nozzle thread sizes, and
operating nuts are the most common in the system.
The center section of the master-record form allows for the accumulation of
information concerning the frequency of inspections and repairs. This data is
important to the Insurance Services Office and can help in determining the frequency
of maintenance on a particular hydrant. A particular hydrant or type of hydrant that
continues to develop the same repair problem can be systematically removed from
the system. Without this type of information, it would be difficult to determine that a
particular type of problem is recurring.
The diagram at the bottom of the form should give as much detail as possible
about fitting types, branch line lengths, and valve locations. This information is
helpful for repair and maintenance.
The hydrant-maintenance and hydrant-inspection report forms (Figures 5-2 and
5-3) are used during routine hydrant inspections in conjunction with the procedures
described in the sections on Inspection, Lubrication, and Repairs. The hydrantmaintenance-report form is used when hydrants are repaired during routine
inspections. The hydrant-inspection-report form is used when the inspection crew
makes only minor repairs. All major repairs are written on a work-order form and are
performed by a repair crew.
The flow-test-report form and the hydrant-test form (Figures 5-4 and 5-5) are
used in conjunction with the flow test procedure described in chapter 6. The flow-testreport form is used to record the results of a single flow test; the hydrant-test form is
a historical record of one hydrant. The historical record is extremely useful in
determining distribution-system changes that affect fire flows.

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36

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 51

Master record

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MAINTENANCE

Figure 52

Hydrant maintenance report

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37

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

38

Figure 53

Hydrant inspection report

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MAINTENANCE

Figure 54

Flow test report

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39

40

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 55

Hydrant test report

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AWWA MANUAL

Chapter

M17

6
Flow Tests
Fire-flow tests are conducted to determine pressure and flow-producing capabilities
at any location within the distribution system. The primary function of fire-flow tests
is to determine how much water is available for fighting fires, but the tests also serve
as a means of determining the general condition of the distribution system. Heavily
tuberculated water mains or those with heavy wall deposits can reduce flow-carrying
capacities of pipe; this reduced capacity can be detected using a flow test. Flow tests
can also help detect closed valves in the system. The results of flow tests are used
extensively by insurance underwriters as a factor in setting rates for insurance
premiums; they are also used by designers of fire-sprinkler systems, and by the fire
department service to determine the rate of water flow available for the fire fighting
at various locations within the distribution system.
It is good practice to conduct flow tests on all parts of the distribution system
approximately every 10 years (or whenever needed) to identify the service areas
affected by significant changes in the distribution system.
An accurate record, filed systematically so it is readily available, should be kept
of each flow test. See Figure 5-4 for a suggested flow-test report form.

TERMS USED IN FLOW TESTING____________________________


Flow hydrant: The hydrant or hydrants at which flow is measured.
Pitot pressure: The pressure reading obtained on the Pitot gauge during a
flow test.
Pitot tube: An instrument that is used to measure the flow of water discharged
from a hydrant outlet (orifice) by measuring and converting flow velocity head into a
pressure-head reading on a gauge (see Figure 6-1).
Residual pressure: The pressure that exists in the distribution system,
measured at the residual hydrant at the time the flow readings are taken at the flow
hydrants.
Static pressure: The pressure that exists at a given point under normal
distribution-system flow conditions.

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41
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FIRE HYDRANTS

Figure 61

Pitot tube in position for flow reading

PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT FOR FLOW TESTS ____________


The following list includes the required personnel and equipment needed to conduct
a flow test. Equipment should be in good working order and be available at the time
of the test.
1. For each flow hydrant, one Pitot tube with a pressure gauge capable of
reading from 0 to 60 psi (420 kPa).
2. One outlet-nozzle cap that will fit the outlet nozzle of the residual hydrant.
The outlet-nozzle cap is equipped with a pressure gauge capable of reading
from 0 up to 25 psi (175 kPa) greater than the pressure expected in the
residual hydrant.
3. A ruler to measure the inside diameter of the outlet nozzle of each flow
hydrant.
4. One hydrant wrench to operate the residual hydrant and one to operate
each of the hydrants at which the flow will be measured.
5. One discharge diffuser to absorb the energy from the hydrant flow so that
it is contained, where necessary, to avoid property damage or to minimize
the effect on traffic.*
6. One person to read the gauge on the residual hydrant and one person to
read the gauge on the Pitot tube for each of the flow hydrants.
7. Clipboards and sheets for recording data at each hydrant.

*See warnings about rigid diverters, Sec. Dechlorination Regulations.

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42

FLOW TESTS

43

8. For wet-barrel hydrants, it may be necessary to install a specially designed


nozzle to minimize turbulence caused by the discharge valve.
NOTE: The Pitot tube and the pressure gauges are delicate instruments and
must be treated accordingly. Gauges should be checked for accuracy at reasonable
intervals to ensure that the flow tests will be accurate.

OFFICE PLANNING PRIOR TO FIELD TESTING ________________


1. Review distribution-system maps and determine which hydrants will be
used to measure flow and which will be used to measure the static and
residual pressures (see Figure 6-2). All hydrants should be at approximately the same elevation. Otherwise, test results may have to be corrected for
elevation.
2. Review previous tests to estimate the flow and pressures that can be
expected.
3. Select a day for testing when system consumption will be normal and
weather predictions indicate that conditions will be reasonable. The
operating division should be notified as to the time and location of the tests
so necessary adjustments to the system can be made. Investigate traffic
patterns, as the tests may affect traffic flow.

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 62

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Suggested flow-test locations

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44

FIRE HYDRANTS

FIELD PROCEDURE FOR FLOW TESTS _______________________


1. Make provisions for minimizing interruptions to traffic and for adequate
drainage of water.
2. Locate the residual hydrant and do the following:
a. Flush the residual hydrant to eliminate sediment that may damage
the gauge.
b. Install the outlet-nozzle cap equipped with the pressure gauge on a
hydrant nozzle.
c. Open the main valve slowly until the air is vented. Close the vent and
open the main valve fully.
d. Read the gauge. This is the static pressure reading.
3. Locate the flow hydrant(s) and do the following:
a. Measure and record the inside diameter (ID) of the outlet nozzle from
which the flow is measured. The inside diameter (ID) measurement is
taken to the nearest 1/16 in. (0.159 cm).
b. Determine the discharge. At the hydrants used for flow during the
test, the discharges from the open butts are determined from
measurements of the diameter of the outlets flowed, the velocity
pressures of the streams as indicated by the Pitot gauge readings,
and the coefficient of the discharge outlet being flowed as determined
from Figure 6-3. If flow tubes or stream strengtheners are utilized,
a coefficient of 0.95 is suggested unless the coefficient of the tube
is known.
The formula used to compute the discharge. Q in gpm from those
measurements is:
Q = 29.83cd 2 P
Where:
c
d
P

Figure 63

=
=
=

the coefficient of the discharge


the diameter of the outlet, in in.
Pitot gauge pressure, in psi

Outlet nozzle coefficients

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--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FLOW TESTS

45

4. Conduct the flow test as follows:


a. Station one observer at the residual hydrant and one observer at each
flow hydrant.
b. Open each flow hydrant slowly until it is fully open. Open one
hydrant at a time to avoid a pressure surge.
c. When the pressure at the residual hydrant is stabilized, the observer
signals the persons stationed at the flow hydrants to take the
readings. The readings for residual pressure and the Pitot-tube
readings of each flow hydrant must be taken simultaneously. The air
should be exhausted from the flowing hydrant before the reading is
taken. For an accurate reading, hold the Pitot tube in the center of
the nozzle, with the axis of the Pitot tube opening parallel to the
direction of flow. The Pitot tube should be held away from the end of
the nozzle at a distance of about half the nozzle diameter (see
Figure 6-1).
d. Record the residual reading and the Pitot-gauge reading at each flow
hydrant. Then close the flow hydrants one at a time.
For reasonably accurate test results, the pressure drop between the static and
the residual pressures should be at least 10 psi (70 kPa). If the distribution system is
strong (as it should be near a supply main) and the pressure drop is less than 10 psi
(70 kPa), an additional flow hydrant should be added to the test.
It is best for observers to calculate the flow in the field so that if the results
appear in error, the test can be repeated immediately.

CAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED WHEN FIELD TESTING _________


Opening a hydrant rapidly can cause a negative pressure fluctuation. Therefore,
hydrants should be opened slowly until fully opened. Closing the hydrants is more
critical, and it must be done very slowly until after the flow has diminished to about
20 percent of full flow. Closing a hydrant rapidly causes a pressure surge, or water
hammer; this could cause a weakened main to fail.
Hydrants should be opened and closed one at a time to minimize the effect on
the distribution system. Dry-barrel hydrants must be opened fully because the drainvalve mechanism operates with the main valve. A partially opened hydrant could
force water through the drain outlets under pressure, eroding the thrust support
from behind the hydrant. After the test, the hydrant barrel should be drained before
tightening the outlet-nozzle capa tight outlet-nozzle cap could prevent proper
drainage and possibly cause ice blockage in either the upper or lower barrels.
Gauge measurements should be taken only when the water is running clear
because sediment could damage the instruments.*

DECHLORINATION REGULATIONS __________________________


The US and Canada regulatory agencies have established criteria to protect receiving
streams and other bodies of water from substances toxic to aquatic life. Chlorine and
chlorine compounds used to disinfect distribution systems are among these
HiddenPlaceholder

*See warnings about rigid diverters, Sec. Dechlorination Regulations.

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46

FIRE HYDRANTS

substances. Many states and provinces have established regulations that require
dechlorination of chlorinated water from fire hydrants that discharge to a body of
water. The applicable regulatory agencies should be consulted to determine
dechlorination practices needed to conform to local regulations.
Dechlorination information is available in the following: ANSI/AWWA C651,
Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains; ANSI/AWWA C652, Standard for Disinfecting
Water Storage Facilities; ASNI/AWWA C653, Standard for Disinfection of Water
Treatment Plants; ANSI/AWWA C654, Standard for Disinfection of Wells; and
Guidance Manual for Disposal of Chlorinated Water, AwwaRF.

WARNING ABOUT RIGID DIVERTERS ________________________


Never use a rigid diverter when flushing or flow testing wet- or dry-barrel fire
hydrants. A rigid diverter consists of a pipe screwed onto the outlet nozzle. The
diverter extends to a desired length, then bends at an angle of up to 90 to change the
direction of the water before discharging the full flow into the atmosphere.
The discharge generates a potentially dangerous thrust. This thrust is
magnified by the distance from the outlet nozzle to the bend in the diverter. Because
of leverage, the discharge through the diverter can generate a very high torque on
the hydrant. A rigid diverter several feet long can produce many hundreds of footpounds of torque on the fire hydrant, which may damage the hydrant and the
connections leading to the hydrant. Maximum danger exists when the rigid diverter
is installed so that the line pressure creates sufficient torque to unscrew any portion
of the top section of a wet-barrel hydrant from the bury section or unscrew the lower
barrel of a frost-jacket hydrant from the base.
To prevent bodily injury, property damage, or damage to the fire hydrant and its
supporting structures, use only a diffuser or a flexible hose (properly restrained at
the point of discharge) for flushing or flow testing.

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

DETERMINING AVAILABLE FLOW___________________________


The standard condition for determining the flow available in a system is at a residual
pressure of 20 psi (140 kPa). Obviously, it is not reasonable to obtain this exact
residual during the field flow test. The flow, as measured under field conditions, is
converted by calculation to determine the flow available at a residual pressure of
20 psi (140 kPa) or other residual pressure. Tables 6-1 and 6-2 can be used to
simplify the calculations. It is important to note that when converting to a desired
residual pressure, the flow represents the flow available in the distribution system
at that location; this figure generally exceeds the flow available at the hydrants
used in the test.*

*The tables and equations given in this section use US customary units. Where metric data
is available, the data should be converted to US customary units before performing any calculations. Conversion factors required include: 1 mm = 0.039 in.; 1 kPa = 0.145 psi; and (to convert
the result to metric) 1 gpm = 0.063 L/sec.

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--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FLOW TESTS

47

Table 61 Discharge for circular outlets, 214-in. through 21116-in. with outlet-nozzle
coefficient 0.90
Outlet Diameter, in.
Outlet
Pressure,*
psi
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

1
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

2
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

3
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

4
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

5
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

6
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

7
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

8
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

9
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

10
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

21/4

25/16

27/16

21/2

29/16

25/8

211/16

80
120
150
170
190
210
220
240
250
270
280
290
300
310
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
390
400
410
420
430
440
440
450
460
470
480
480
490
500
500
510
520
520
530
540
540
550

90
120
150
180
200
220
230
250
260
280
290
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
480
490
500
510
510
520
530
540
540
550
560
570
570
580

90
130
160
180
210
230
240
260
280
290
310
320
330
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
510
520
530
540
550
550
560
570
580
580
590
600
610

100
140
170
190
220
240
260
270
290
310
320
340
350
360
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
560
570
580
590
600
600
610
620
630
640

gpm
70
100
120
140
150
170
180
190
200
220
230
240
250
250
260
270
280
290
300
300
310
320
330
330
340
350
350
360
370
370
380
380
390
400
400
410
410
420
420
430
440
440
450

70
100
120
140
160
180
190
200
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
300
310
320
330
340
340
350
360
370
370
380
390
390
400
410
410
420
420
430
440
440
450
450
460
470
470

NOTE: Flows are to the nearest 10 gpm.


*Outlet pressure measured by Pitot-tube gauge.

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23/8

80
110
130
150
170
190
200
210
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
350
360
370
380
390
390
400
410
410
420
430
440
440
450
450
460
470
470
480
480
490
500

80
110
140
160
180
200
210
230
240
250
260
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
370
380
390
400
410
410
420
430
440
440
450
460
460
470
480
480
490
500
500
510
520
520

Table continued next page.

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48

FIRE HYDRANTS

Table 61 Discharge for circular outlets, 214-in. through 21116-in. with outlet-nozzle
coefficient 0.90 (continued)
Outlet Diameter, in.
Outlet
Pressure,*
psi
11
1
--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

/4
1
/2
3
/4
12
1

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

21/4

25/16

23/8

27/16

21/2

29/16

25/8

211/16

560
560
570
580
580
590
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
710
720
730
740
750
770
790
810
820
840
860
870
890
910
920
940
950
970
980
990
1,010

590
590
600
600
610
620
640
650
660
670
680
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
790
810
830
850
860
880
900
920
930
950
970
980
1,000
1,010
1,030
1,040
1,060

610
620
630
630
640
650
670
680
690
700
720
730
740
750
760
770
780
800
810
820
830
850
870
890
910
920
940
960
980
1,000
1,010
1,030
1,050
1,060
1,080
1,090
1,110

640
650
660
660
670
690
700
710
730
740
750
760
780
790
800
810
820
830
840
860
870
890
910
930
950
970
990
1,010
1,020
1,040
1,060
1,080
1,100
1,110
1,130
1,140
1,160

gpm
450
460
460
470
470
480
490
500
510
520
530
540
540
550
560
570
580
590
590
600
610
620
640
650
670
680
690
710
720
730
750
760
770
780
790
810
820

480
480
490
490
500
510
520
530
540
550
560
570
570
580
590
600
610
620
630
640
640
660
670
690
700
720
730
750
760
770
790
800
810
830
840
850
860

500
510
510
520
520
540
550
560
570
580
590
600
610
620
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
710
730
740
760
770
790
800
820
830
840
860
870
880
900
910

530
530
540
550
550
560
570
590
600
610
620
630
640
650
660
670
680
690
700
700
710
730
750
770
780
800
810
830
840
860
870
890
900
920
930
940
960

NOTE: Flows are to the nearest 10 gpm.


*Outlet pressure measured by Pitot-tube gauge.

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FLOW TESTS

49

Table 62 Discharge for circular outlets, 414-in. through 41116-in. with outlet-nozzle
coefficient 0.90
Outlet Diameter, in.
Outlet
Pressure,*
psi

41/4

240
340
420
490
540
600
640
690
730
770
810
840
880
910
940
970
1,000
1,030
1,060
1,090
1,110
1,140
1,170
1,190
1,220
1,240
1,260
1,290
1,310
1,330
1,350
1,380
1,400
1,420
1,440
1,460
1,480
1,500
1,520
1,540
1,560
1,580
1,590

1
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

2
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

3
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

4
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

5
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

6
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

7
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

8
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

9
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

10
1

/4
/2
3
/4
1

47/16

41/2

49/16

45/8

411/16

270
390
470
550
610
670
720
770
820
860
900
940
980
1,020
1,050
1,090
1,120
1,160
1,190
1,220
1,250
1,280
1,310
1,330
1,360
1,390
1,420
1,440
1,470
1,490
1,520
1,540
1,570
1,590
1,610
1,630
1,660
1,680
1,700
1,720
1,740
1,760
1,790

280
400
490
560
630
690
740
790
840
890
930
970
1,010
1,050
1,080
1,120
1,150
1,190
1,220
1,250
1,280
1,310
1,340
1,370
1,400
1,430
1,450
1,480
1,510
1,530
1,560
1,580
1,610
1,630
1,650
1,680
1,700
1,720
1,750
1,770
1,790
1,810
1,830

290
410
500
570
640
700
760
810
860
910
950
1,000
1,040
1,070
1,110
1,150
1,180
1,220
1,250
1,280
1,320
1,350
1,380
1,410
1,440
1,470
1,490
1,520
1,550
1,570
1,600
1,620
1,650
1,680
1,700
1,720
1,750
1,770
1,790
1,820
1,840
1,860
1,880

300
420
510
590
660
720
780
840
890
940
980
1,020
1,060
1,100
1,140
1,180
1,220
1,250
1,290
1,320
1,350
1,390
1,420
1,450
1,480
1,510
1,540
1,560
1,590
1,620
1,640
1,670
1,700
1,720
1,750
1,770
1,800
1,820
1,840
1,870
1,890
1,910
1,940

gpm
250
350
430
500
560
610
660
710
750
790
830
870
900
940
970
1,000
1,030
1,060
1,090
1,120
1,150
1,180
1,200
1,230
1,250
1,280
1,300
1,330
1,350
1,370
1,390
1,420
1,440
1,460
1,480
1,500
1,520
1,540
1,560
1,580
1,600
1,620
1,640

NOTE: Flows are to the nearest 10 gpm.


*Outlet pressure measured by Pitot-tube gauge.

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

43/8

260
360
450
520
590
630
680
730
770
810
850
890
930
970
1,000
1,030
1,060
1,090
1,120
1,150
1,180
1,210
1,240
1,260
1,290
1,310
1,340
1,360
1,390
1,410
1,430
1,460
1,480
1,500
1,520
1,540
1,570
1,590
1,610
1,630
1,650
1,670
1,690

260
370
460
530
590
650
700
750
800
840
880
920
960
990
1,030
1,060
1,090
1,120
1,150
1,180
1,210
1,240
1,270
1,300
1,320
1,350
1,380
1,400
1,430
1,450
1,480
1,500
1,520
1,540
1,570
1,590
1,610
1,630
1,650
1,670
1,700
1,720
1,740

Table continued next page.

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--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

/4
/2
3
/4
1

45/16

50

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table 62 Discharge for circular outlets, 414-in. through 41116-in. with outlet-nozzle
coefficient 0.90 (continued)
Outlet Diameter, in.
41/4

Outlet
Pressure,*
psi

45/16

43/8

47/16

41/2

49/16

45/8

411/16

1,810
1,830
1,850
1,870
1,890
1,930
1,970
2,000
2,040
2,080
2,110
2,150
2,180
2,210
2,250
2,280
2,310
2,350
2,380
2,410
2,440
2,500
2,560
2,610
2,670
2,720
2,780
2,830
2,880
2,940
2,990
3,030
3,080
3,130
3,170
3,220
3,270

1,860
1,880
1,900
1,920
1,940
1,980
2,020
2,060
2,090
2,130
2,170
2,220
2,240
2,270
2,310
2,340
2,370
2,410
2,440
2,470
2,500
2,560
2,620
2,680
2,740
2,800
2,850
2,910
2,960
3,020
3,070
3,120
3,170
3,220
3,260
3,310
3,360

1,910
1,930
1,950
1,970
1,990
2,030
2,070
2,110
2,150
2,190
2,230
2,260
2,300
2,330
2,370
2,400
2,440
2,470
2,510
2,540
2,570
2,630
2,700
2,760
2,820
2,870
2,930
2,990
3,040
3,090
3,150
3,200
3,250
3,300
3,350
3,400
3,450

1,960
1,980
2,000
2,020
2,050
2,090
2,130
2,170
2,210
2,250
2,290
2,330
2,360
2,400
2,440
2,470
2,510
2,540
2,580
2,610
2,640
2,710
2,770
2,830
2,890
2,950
3,010
3,070
3,130
3,180
3,240
3,290
3,340
3,390
3,440
3,490
3,540

gpm

11
1

/4
1
/2
3
/4
12
1

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

/2

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

1,610
1,630
1,650
1,670
1,690
1,720
1,750
1,790
1,820
1,850
1,880
1,910
1,940
1,970
2,000
2,030
2,060
2,090
2,120
2,140
2,170
2,220
2,280
2,330
2,380
2,430
2,480
2,530
2,580
2,620
2,670
2,710
2,750
2,790
2,830
2,870
2,910

1,660
1,680
1,700
1,720
1,730
1,770
1,800
1,840
1,870
1,910
1,940
1,970
2,000
2,030
2,060
2,090
2,120
2,150
2,180
2,210
2,240
2,290
2,350
2,400
2,450
2,500
2,550
2,600
2,650
2,700
2,740
2,790
2,830
2,880
2,920
2,960
3,000

1,710
1,730
1,750
1,760
1,780
1,820
1,850
1,890
1,930
1,960
1,990
2,030
2,060
2,090
2,120
2,150
2,180
2,210
2,240
2,270
2,300
2,360
2,420
2,470
2,520
2,580
2,630
2,680
2,730
2,770
2,820
2,870
2,920
2,960
3,000
3,040
3,080

1,760
1,780
1,800
1,820
1,840
1,870
1,910
1,950
1,980
2,020
2,050
2,090
2,120
2,150
2,180
2,220
2,250
2,280
2,310
2,340
2,370
2,430
2,490
2,540
2,600
2,650
2,700
2,750
2,800
2,850
2,900
2,950
3,000
3,040
3,090
3,140
3,180

NOTE: Flows are to the nearest 10 gpm.


*Outlet pressure measured by Pitot-tube gauge.

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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FLOW TESTS

51

The calculations for converting flow as measured in a field test to flow available
at a residual pressure of 20 psi (140 kPa) are as follows:
1. With the outlet-nozzle ID and the Pitot-tube gauge reading, use Table 6-1
to determine the flow.
Example:
Outlet-nozzle ID = 21/2 in.
Pitot-tube gauge reading = 27 psi
Outlet-nozzle coefficient = 0.9 (see Figure 6-3).
From Table 6-1: Flow from the hydrant = 870 gpm. (Flows are listed to the
nearest 10 gpm.)
2. Table 6-1 assumes an outlet-nozzle coefficient of 0.9. Use Eq 6-1 to
calculate the adjusted flow for hydrants with a flow coefficient of less than
0.9 (see Figure 6-3). Generally, this is necessary only for older hydrants.
actual nozzle coefficient
Q f = Q m ----------------------------------------------------------------------0.9

(6-1)

Where:
Qf
Qm

=
=

the actual flow, in gpm


the flow shown in Tables 6-1 and 6-2, in gpm

Example:
Outlet-nozzle ID = 21/2 in.
Pitot-gauge reading = 27 psi
Outlet-nozzle coefficient = 0.8
Q f = 870 gpm 0.8 0.9 = 773
The adjusted flow is 770 gpm.
3. Summarize the flow from each of the flowing hydrants.
Hydrant 1 = 770 gpm
Hydrant 2 = 940 gpm
Total flow = 770 + 940 = 1,710 gpm
4. Calculate the total flow available at a predetermined residual pressure.
This predetermined pressure is that measured at the residual hydrant
during the field test.
h r0.54
Q r = Q f -----------h 0.54
f

(6-2)

Where:

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
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Qr

Qf

the flow available at the desirable residual pressure,


in gpm
the sum of the flows from all hydrants (from step 2),
in gpm

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--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Example:

52

FIRE HYDRANTS

hr

hf

NOTE:

Table 63

the difference in pressure between the static pressure


measured at the residual hydrant and the desired
residual pressure, in lb/in.2
= the difference between the static pressure and the
residual pressure measured at the residual hydrant,
in lb/in.2
Table 6-3 is used to convert hr and hf to h r0.54 and h 0.54
.
f

Equation and table for computing fire flow test results


0.54

QR = QF

hr
-----------h 0.54
f

Where:
QR
QF
hr
hf

=
=
=
=

flow available at desired residual pressure


flow during test
pressure drop to desired residual pressure
pressure drop during test
Values of h to the 0.54 Power

h0.54

h0.54

h0.54

h0.54

h0.54

h0.54

h0.54

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

1.00
1.45
1.81
2.11
2.39
2.63
2.86
3.07
3.28
3.47
3.65
3.83
4.00
4.16
4.32
4.47
4.62
4.76
4.90
5.04
5.18
5.31
5.44
5.56
5.69

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

5.81
5.93
6.05
6.16
6.28
6.39
6.50
6.61
6.71
6.82
6.93
7.03
7.13
7.23
7.33
7.43
7.53
7.62
7.72
7.81
7.91
8.00
8.09
8.18
8.27

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

8.36
8.44
8.53
8.62
8.71
8.79
8.88
8.96
9.04
9.12
9.21
9.29
9.37
9.45
9.53
9.61
9.69
9.76
9.84
9.92
9.99
10.07
10.14
10.22
10.29

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

10.37
10.44
10.51
10.59
10.66
10.73
10.80
10.87
10.94
11.01
11.08
11.15
11.22
11.29
11.36
11.43
11.49
11.56
11.63
11.69
11.76
11.83
11.89
11.96
12.02

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

12.09
12.15
12.22
12.28
12.34
12.41
12.47
12.53
12.60
12.66
12.72
12.78
12.84
12.90
12.96
13.03
13.09
13.15
13.21
13.27
13.33
13.39
13.44
13.50
13.56

126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150

13.62
13.68
13.74
13.80
13.85
13.91
13.97
14.02
14.08
14.14
14.19
14.25
14.31
14.36
14.42
14.47
14.53
14.58
14.64
14.69
14.75
14.80
14.86
14.91
14.97

151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175

15.02
15.07
15.13
15.18
15.23
15.29
15.34
15.39
15.44
15.50
15.55
15.60
15.65
15.70
15.76
15.81
15.86
15.91
15.96
16.01
16.06
16.11
16.16
16.21
16.26

NOTE: Method of use: Insert in the equation the values of hr0.54 and h0.54
determined from the table, and the value of
f
QF, and solve the equation for QR.

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


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FLOW TESTS

53

Example:
Static pressure = 68 psi
Residual pressure = 43 psi
Total field flow = 1,710 gpm
Desired residual pressure = 20 psi
( 68 20 ) 0.54
48 0.54
8.09
- = 1,710 ----------- = 2,430 gpm
=
1,710
Q R = 1,710 gpm --------------------------------
--------------0.54
0.54

5.69
(
68

43
)
25

These calculations show that 2,430 gpm is available at the hydrant tested
at a residual pressure of 20 psi.

Stable Pressure
Determining the flow available is performed with the assumption that the system
pressure at the water-supply source will remain relatively constant during the test.
If the source pressure changes significantly during the test, a corresponding notation
should be made on the test record and should be considered in evaluating the flowtest data. For additional information review Recommend Practice for Fire Flow
Testing and Marking of Fire Hydrants, NFPA Standard 291.

Use of Pumper Outlets


When it is necessary to use a pumper outlet and flow tubes (stream strengtheners)
are not available, the best results are obtained with the velocity pressure maintained
between 5 and 10 psi (34 and 70 kPa). For pumper outlets, the approximate discharge
can be computed from the equation using the pitot gauge pressure at the center of
the stream and multiplying the result by one of the coefficients in Table 6-4,
depending on the pressure. These coefficients are applied in addition to the coefficient
in equation 6-1 and are for average type hydrants.

Table 64

Table for pumper outlet coefficients


Pressure, psi

Coefficient

2
3
4
5
6
7

0.97
0.92
0.89
0.86
0.84
0.83

NOTE: National Board of Fire Underwriters developed these pumper outlet coefficients.

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This page intentionally blank

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AWWA MANUAL

M17

Appendix

Illustrated Guide to
Dry-Barrel and Wet-Barrel
Hydrant Nomenclature
Appendix A contains drawings of many dry-barrel and wet-barrel fire hydrants
currently available or in use. Accompanying each drawing is a parts list that gives
the part names and numbers used by the manufacturer.
Each manufacturer supplies a variety of hydrants, but because of limited space
not all models or manufacturers may be included. For more information on a specific
hydrant, the manufacturer should be contacted.
The inclusion of any manufacturer or hydrant in this appendix is not to be
construed as a recommendation by AWWA or the AWWA Standard Committee on
Fire Hydrants; nor is the failure to include any manufacturer or hydrant to be
construed as a comment on the quality or usability of units not included.
Finally, because of differences in each make of hydrant, not all components are
identical or comparable by term. Therefore, some hydrants have components for
which there is no preferred term.

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Copyright American Water Works Association


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

55
Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon
Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

56

FIRE HYDRANTS

Dry-Barrel & Wet-Barrel Hydrants Included in App. A, Alphabetically by Manufacturer


Manufacturer and Model(s)
American AVK Company:
Series 24: 2470, 2490 (wet-barrel)
Series 2700 (dry-barrel)
Series 2780 (dry-barrel)

American Flow Control:


American Darling B62B-5 (dry-barrel)
American Darling B84B-5 (dry-barrel)
American Darling M73T-5 (dry-barrel)

Clow Valve Company:

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Medallion (dry-barrel)
850 (wet-barrel)
860 (wet-barrel)
950 (wet-barrel)
2050 (wet-barrel)
2060 (wet-barrel)

East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.:


WaterMaster 5-BR (dry-barrel)
WaterMaster 5BR250 (dry-barrel)

James Jones Company:


344HP (wet-barrel)
J380 (wet-barrel)
J3700+ (wet-barrel)
J3761 (wet-barrel)
J4040 (wet-barrel)
J4060 (wet-barrel)

Kennedy Valve:
Guardian K81-A (dry-barrel)

M&H Valve:
Style 129 (dry-barrel)

Table continued next page.

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APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

57

Dry-Barrel & Wet-Barrel Hydrants Included in App. A, Alphabetically by Manufacturer (continued)


Manufacturer and Model(s)
Mueller Group:
A415 (dry-barrel)
IMP-PRT2 (dry-barrel)
S-CENTPT (dry-barrel)
STND-PRT (dry-barrel)

US Pipe & Foundry Company:


--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Metroflow M03 (dry-barrel)


Metropolitan 250 M-94 (dry-barrel)
S Series (dry-barrel)

Waterous Company:
WB67-250 (dry-barrel)

Copyright American Water Works Association


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58

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 2470, 2490


Manufacturer: American AVK Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

19
22
23
24
25
28
31
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

Part Name

Preferred Term

Hose Nozzle Cap


Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Nozzle Retaining Screw
Chain Set
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section Washer
Nozzle Section
2.5 in. Valve Stem
2.5 in. Valve Carrier
Valve Carrier O-Ring
2.5 in. Valve Disc
2.5 in. Valve Retainer
Slotted Nut
Cotter Pin
Outer Stem Nut O-Ring
Stem Nut
Inner Stem Nut O-Ring
Dummy Nut
Dummy Nut Retaining Bolt
Stem Nut Retaining Screw
Hose Nozzle Cap Gasket
Hose Nozzle
4 in.-4.5 in.Valve Stem
4 in.-4.5 in.Valve Disc
4 in.-4.5 in.Valve Retainer
Pumper Cap Gasket
4 in.-4.5 in.Valve Carrier
Nozzle Section Bolt
Wet Barrel Flange O-Ring
Break Ring
Nozzle Section Nut
Pumper Nozzle
Wet Barrel Flange Section

Outlet Nozzle Cap

Copyright American Water Works Association


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Outlet Nozzle Cap


Hydrant Head
Stem
Valve Carrier
Valve Washer
Valve Washer Retainer
Retaining Nut
Stuffing Box

Hose Outlet Nozzle


Stem
Valve Washer
Valve Washer Retainer
Valve Carrier

Pumper Outlet Nozzle

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

59

105

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

American AVK Company: Series 24 (2470, 2490)

123

127

31

118

121

114

110

111

112

113

117

109

101

Series 2490 3 Outlet

122

125

124

24

25

126

120

119

108

28

107

104

103

102

Series 2470 2 Outlet

106

116

115

19

22

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

60

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 2700
Manufacturer: American AVK Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model
--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
15
16
17
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
46
49
50
51
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
61
62
64
67
71
75

Part Name
Weathershield Bolt
Weathershield
Lock Plate Screw
Lock Plate
Inner Thrust Nut O-Ring
Thrust Nut
Outer Thrust Nut O-Ring
Anti-Friction Washer
Lubrication Hole Seal
Operating Nut
Stop Nut
Stem Seal O-Rings
Upper Stem Rod
Barrel Gasket
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Cap Gasket
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Nozzle Retaining Screw
Chain Set
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section
Nozzle Section Bolt
Nozzle Section Washer
Lock Ring
Breakable Flange
Nozzle Section Nut
Upper Barrel
Coupler Pin
Breakable Stem Rod Coupling
Spring Pin
Spider
Spider Bolt
Lower Stem Rod
Standpipe Flange
Lower Barrel
Lower Barrel O-Ring
Valve Seat O-Ring
Valve Seat O-Ring
Drain Ring
Brass Plug
Brass Fitting
Main Valve Flange
Stop Pin
Main Valve Retaining Pin
Main Valve Disc
Base Gasket
Stud Bolt
Base
Modern Nozzle Section Bolt
Zerk Fitting

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Preferred Term
Weathershield

Operating Nut
Stop Nut
Stem
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Hose Outlet Nozzle

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section

Breakable Flange
Upper Barrel
Frangible Stem Coupling

Stem
Lower Barrel

Seat Ring Insert


Drain Outlet

Main Valve
Base

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

1
2
9
5
6
7

3
4
8

28
27
26
23
24

25

See Detail "A"

41
49

22
21
19

75
10
11
15
29
17
31
71
16
35
30
31
34
36
37
38
39

61

20
Detail "A"

64
34
31
46
50
51 53
54
55
62

58
61
60

57
56

Detail "B"

40
32

See Detail "B"


Rotated 20

American AVK Company: Series 2700

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

67

62

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 2780
Manufacturer: American AVK Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
14
15
16
17
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
36
37
38
39
40
41
46
49
50
51
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
61
62
64
67
75

Part Name
Weathershield Bolt
Weathershield
Lock-Plate Screw
Lock Plate
Inner Thrust Nut O-Ring
Thrust Nut
Outer Thrust Nut O-Ring
Antifriction Washer
Lubrication Hole Seal
Operating Nut
Stop Nut
Bonnet
Stem Seal O-Rings
Upper Stem Rod
Barrel Gasket
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Cap Gasket
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Nozzle Retaining Screw
Chain Set
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section
Nozzle Section Bolt
Nozzle Section Washer
Lock Ring
Breakable Flange
Nozzle Section Nut
Coupler Pin
Breakable Stem Rod Coupling
Spring Pin
Spider
Spider Bolt
Lower Stem Rod
Standpipe Flange
Lower Barrel
Lower Barrel O-Ring
Valve Seat O-Ring
Valve Seat O-Ring
Drain Ring
Brass Plug
Brass Fitting
Main Valve Flange
Stop Pin
Main Valve Retaining Pin
Main Valve Disc
Base Gasket
Stud Bolt
Base
Zerk Fitting

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Preferred Term
Weathershield

Operating Nut
Stop Nut
Bonnet
Stem
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Hose Outlet Nozzle

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section

Breakable Flange
Frangible Stem Coupling

Stem
Lower Barrel

Seat Ring Insert


Drain Outlet

Main Valve
Base

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number:

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

1
2
9
5
6
7
14
17
18
28

3
4
8
75
10
12
13

27
26
23
24
25

See Detail "A"

17
32

33

41
49

11
15
16
29
30
31
34

22
21
19

Detail "A"

64
34
31
46
50
51 53
54
55
62

58
61
60

57
56

36
37
38

Detail "B"

39
40

32
67
See Detail "B"
Rotated 20

American AVK Company: Series 2780

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

20
24

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

63

64

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: American Darling B62B-5


Manufacturer: American Flow Control
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model

Part Name

62-1
62-2-1
62-2-2
62-4-4
62-5-3
62-7-7
62-9
62-11-2
62-13
62-14
62-15
62-16
62-18-60
62-19-SR
62-20-60
62-20-61
62-20-62
62-21
62-22
62-23-1
62-23-18
62-25-60
62-25-61
62-25-62
62-26
62-27
62-29-14
62-29-15
62-29-16
62-29-30
62-29-31
62-30-03
62-30-04
62-30-06
62-30-07
62-30-11
62-30-12
62-31
62-35-OR
62-36-2
62-36-3
62-37-OR
62-38
62-38-1
62-38-6
62-39
62-39-9
62-40
62-41
62-42
62-46-5
62-144
62-145
62-146

Operating Nut
Cover O-Ring
Housing O-Ring
Thrust Washer
Pipe Plug
Weather Cover
Housing Cover
Cover Cap Screws
Cover Gasket
Housing Gasket
Housing
Housing Bolts & Nuts
Upper Barrel
Lower Barrel
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Seal
Hose Nozzle Retainer
Hose Caps
Hose Cap Gaskets
Hose Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Seal
Pumper Nozzle Retainer
Pumper Cap
Pumper Cap Gasket
Snap Rings
Breakable Flange
Base Flange
Rod Coupling
Coupling & Cotter Pins
Hydrant Spring
Spring Plate
Travel Stop Nut
Spring Plate Pin
Upper Rod
Lower Rod
Drain Lever
Hydrant Seat
Seat O-Ring Outside
Seat O-Ring Inside
Drain Ring
Drain Ring Gasket
Barrel Gasket
Base Gasket
Base Bolts & Nuts
Barrel Bolts & Nuts
Valve Top
Hydrant Valve
Valve Bottom
Mechanical Joint Base
Weather Shield
Rod Sleeve
Sleeve O-Rings

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Preferred Term
Operating Nut

Bonnet
Packing Gland

Stuffing Box, Packing Plate


Nozzle Section
Lower Barrel
Hose Outlet Nozzle
Outlet-Nozzle Cap

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet-Nozzle Cap
Breakable Barrel Coupling
Frangible Stem Coupling

Stop Nut
Stem
Stem
Drain Valve
Valve-seat Ring
Seat-Ring Insert

Upper Valve Plate


Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

American Flow Control: American Darling B62B-5

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

65

66

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Model: American Darling B84B-5


Manufacturer: American Flow Control
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model
Part
Number

Part Name

Preferred Term

84-1
84-2-1
84-2-2
84-4-4
84-5-3
84-7-7
84-9
84-11-2
84-13
84-14
84-15
84-16
84-18-60
84-19-SR
84-20-60
84-20-61
84-20-62
84-21
84-22
84-23-1
84-23-18
84-25-60
84-25-61
84-25-62
84-26
84-27
84-29-13
84-29-14
84-29-30
84-29-31
84-29-45
84-30-03
84-30-04
84-30-06
84-30-07
84-30-11
84-30-12
84-31
84-35-02
84-36-1
84-37
84-38
84-38-1
84-39
84-39-9
84-40
84-40-4
84-41
84-42
84-46-5
84-144
84-145
84-146

Operating Nut
Cover O-Ring
Housing O-Ring
Thrust Washer
Pipe Plug
Weather Cover
Housing Cover
Cover Cap Screws
Cover Gasket
Housing Gasket
Housing
Housing Bolts & Nuts
Upper Barrel
Lower Barrel
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Seal
Hose Nozzle Retainer
Hose Caps
Hose Cap Gaskets
Hose Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Seal
Pumper Nozzle Retainer
Pumper Cap
Pumper Cap Gasket
Barrel Flanges
Snap Rings
Rod Coupling
Coupling & Cotter Pins
Breakable Flange
Hydrant Spring
Spring Plate
Travel Stop Nut
Spring Plate Pin
Upper Rod
Lower Rod
Drain Lever
Hydrant Seat
Seat O-Rings
Drain Ring
Drain Ring Gaskets
Barrel Gasket
Base Bolts & Nuts
Barrel Bolts & Nuts
Valve Top
Valve Top Cotter Pin
Hydrant Valve
Valve Bottom
Mechanical Joint Base
Weather Shield
Rod Sleeve
Sleeve O-Rings

Operating Nut

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Bonnet
Packing Gland

Stuffing Box, Packing Plate


Nozzle Section
Lower Barrel
Hose Outlet Nozzle
Outlet-Nozzle Cap

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet-Nozzle Cap

Frangible Stem Coupling


Breakable Barrel Coupling
Stop Nut
Stem
Stem
Drain Valve
Valve-Seat Ring
Seat-Ring Insert

Upper Valve Plate


Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

67

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

American Flow Control: American Darling B84B-5

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

68

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: American Darling M73T-5


Manufacturer: American Flow Control
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Part Name

Preferred Term

73-1
73-2-1
73-2-2
73-4-4
73-5-3
73-7-7
73-9
73-11-2
73-13
73-14
73-15
73-16
73-18-60
73-19-SR
73-20-60
73-20-61
73-20-62
73-21
73-22
73-23-1
73-23-18
73-25-60
73-25-61
73-25-62
73-26
73-27
73-29-13
73-29-14
73-29-30
73-29-31
73-29-45
73-30-03
73-30-04
73-30-06
73-30-07
73-30-11
73-30-12
73-31
73-35-02
73-36-1
73-37
73-38
73-38-1
73-39
73-39-9
73-40
73-40-4
73-41
73-42
73-46-5
73-144
73-145
73-146

Operating Nut
Cover O-Ring
Housing O-Ring
Thrust Washer
Pipe Plug
Weather Cover
Housing Cover
Cover Cap Screws
Cover Gasket
Housing Gasket
Housing
Housing Bolts & Nuts
Upper Barrel
Lower Barrel
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Seal
Hose Nozzle Retainer
Hose Caps
Hose Cap Gaskets
Hose Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Cap Chain With S-Hook
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Seal
Pumper Nozzle Retainer
Pumper Cap
Pumper Cap Gasket
Barrel Flanges
Snap Rings
Rod Coupling
Coupling & Cotter Pins
Breakable Flange
Hydrant Spring
Spring Plate
Travel Stop Nut
Spring Plate Pin
Upper Rod
Lower Rod
Drain Lever
Hydrant Seat
Seat O-Rings
Drain Ring
Drain Ring Gaskets
Barrel Gasket
Base Bolts & Nuts
Barrel Bolts & Nuts
Valve Top
Valve Top Cotter Pin
Hydrant Valve
Valve Bottom
Mechanical Joint Base
Weather Shield
Rod Sleeve
Sleeve O-Rings

Operating Nut

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Bonnet
Packing Gland

Stuffing Box, Packing Plate


Nozzle Section
Lower Barrel
Hose Outlet Nozzle
Outlet-nozzle Cap

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet-nozzle Cap

Frangible Stem Coupling


Breakable Barrel Coupling
Stop Nut
Stem
Stem
Drain Valve
Valve-Seat Ring
Seat-Ring Insert

Upper Valve Plate


Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

American Flow Control: American Darling M73T-5

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

69

70

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: Medallion
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Part Name

Preferred Term

Hex Head Bolt


Weather Shield
Thrust Nut
Operating Nut
Cover
Stem Sleeve
Cover O-Ring
Hose Nozzle
Hose Cap
Upper Stem
Nozzle Section
Safety Coupling
Cotter Pin
Barrel Upper Flange
Safety Flange
Lower Stem
Upper Valve Plate
Upper Valve Plate Pin
Lower Flange O-Ring
Drain Ring O-Ring
Seat Ring
Valve Rubber
Lower Valve Plate
Operating Nut O-Ring
Thrust Nut O-Ring
Thrust Bearing
Cover O-Ring
Jam Nut (Optional)
Upper Stem O-Ring
Nozzle O-Ring
Nozzle Cap Gasket
Steamer Cap
Steamer Nozzle
Chain
Safety Coupling Pin
Hex Head Bolt
Hex Nut
Standpipe
Upper Valve Plate Drain Slides
Barrel Lower Flange
Seat Ring O-Ring
Drain Ring
Seat Ring O-Ring
Shoe

Operating Nut
Bonnet
Bonnet O-Ring
Hose Outlet Nozzle
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Stem
Nozzle Section
Frangible Stem Coupling
Breakable Flange
Stem
Upper Valve Plate

Valve Seat Ring


Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate

Bonnet O-Ring

Outlet Nozzle Cap


Pumper Outlet Nozzle

Lower Barrel

Seat Ring Insert


Bottom

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

71

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

Clow Valve Company: Medallion

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

72

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 850
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Part Name

Preferred Term

21/2 in. Pro-Cap


21/2 in. Pro-Cap Gasket
21/2 in. Outlet
21/2 in. Outlet O-Ring
21/2 in. Outlet Stem
Body
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Sleeve
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
21/2 in. Carrier
21/2 in. Carrier O-Ring
21/2 in. Valve Seat
21/2 in. Retainer
Retaining Nut
Cotter Pin
4 or 41/2 in. Pro-Cap
4 or 41/2 in. Pro-Cap Gasket
4 or 41/2 in. Outlet
4 or 41/2 in. Outlet O-Ring
4 or 41/2 in. Stem
4 or 41/2 in. Carrier
4 or 41/2 in. Valve Seat
4 or 41/2 in. Retainer

Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Cap Gasket
Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Stuffing Box O-Ring


Stuffing Box
Stuffing Box O-Ring

Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Cap Gasket
Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring
--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

73

Clow Valve Company: 850

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

74

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 860
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Part Name

Preferred Term

Pro-Cap
Pro-Cap Gasket
Outlet

Outlet Nozzle Cap

Outlet O-Ring
Stem
Body
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Sleeve
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Carrier
Carrier O-Ring
Valve Rubber
Retainer
Retaining Nut
Cotter Pin
Chain Assembly

Hose Outlet Nozzle or


Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Stuffing Box
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Valve Carrier
Valve Washer
Valve Washer Retainer

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

75

Clow Valve Company: 860

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

76

FIRE HYDRANTS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Model: 950
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Part Name

Preferred Term

Pro-Cap
Pro-Cap Gasket
Outlet

Outlet Nozzle Cap

Outlet O-Ring
Stem
Body
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Sleeve
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Carrier
Carrier O-Ring
Valve Rubber
Retainer
Retaining Nut
Cotter Pin
Chain Assembly

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Hose Outlet Nozzle or


Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Stuffing Box
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Valve Carrier
Valve Washer
Valve Washer Retainer

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

77

Clow Valve Company: 950

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

78

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 2050
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Part Name

Preferred Term

Pro-Cap
Pro-Cap Gasket
Outlet

Outlet Nozzle Cap

Outlet O-Ring
Set Screw
Stem
Body
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Sleeve
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Nut
Carrier
Valve Rubber
Retaining Nut
Chain Assembly

Hose Outlet Nozzle or


Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring

Stuffing Box O-Ring


Stuffing Box
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Valve Carrier
Valve Washer

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

79

Clow Valve Company: 2050

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

80

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: 2060
Manufacturer: Clow Valve Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Part Name

Preferred Term

Pro-Cap
Pro-Cap Gasket
Outlet

Outlet Nozzle Cap

Outlet O-Ring
Set Screw
Stem
Body
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Sleeve
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Stem Nut
Carrier
Valve Rubber
Retaining Nut
Chain Assembly

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Hose Outlet Nozzle or


Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Nozzle O-Ring

Stuffing Box O-Ring


Stuffing Box
Stuffing Box O-Ring
Valve Carrier
Valve Washer

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

81

Clow Valve Company: 2060

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: WaterMaster 5-BR


Manufacturer: East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model
Part
Number
1-A
1-B
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12-A
12-B
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
34
35
36
37
38

Part Name

Preferred Term

Standpipe Lower Section


Traffic Standpipe Upper
Bottom Inlet
Top Bonnet
Drip Shut Off
Valve Seat
Valve Washer
Hold Down Nut
Operating Nut
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Reservoir O-Rings
Operating Stem Top 211/2 in.
Operating Stem Lower
Flange Bolt & Nut
Swivel Flanges
Flange Gaskets
Seating Valve
Inserts
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Hose Nozzle O-Rings*
Drive-Loc Pin
Hose Nozzles*
Hose Nozzle Caps*
Hose Nozzle Gasket*
Chains*
Valve Seat O-Rings
Weather Seal O-Ring
Coupling Pin & Cotter Key
Stem CouplingBreakable
Set Screw*
Brass Liner
Brass Collar
Set Screw
Thrust Washer

Lower Barrel
Upper Barrel
Base
Nozzle Section
Upper Valve Plate
Valve Seat Ring
Lower Valve Plate
Operating Nut
Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Outlet-Nozzle Cap
Stem
Stem
Breakable Flange
Main Valve
Drain Valve

Hose Outlet Nozzle


Outlet Nozzle Cap

Frangible Stem Coupling


Seat Ring Insert

* Not shown

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

82

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

East Jordan Iron Works: WaterMaster 5-BR

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

83

84

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: WaterMaster 5BR250


Manufacturer: East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model
Part
Number

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Part Name

Preferred Term

Operating Nut
Hold Down Nut
Weather Seal O-Ring
Set Screw*
Bonnet
Thrust Washer
Operating Stem Top 211/2 in.
Hose Nozzle O-Rings*
Hose Nozzles*
Hose Nozzle Caps*
Hose Nozzle Gasket*
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Pipe Plug
Chains*
Brass Collar
Reservoir O-Rings
Bonnet Bolts & Nuts
Quad-Seal Ring
Drive-Loc Pin
Traffic Standpipe Upper
Safety Flange Bolts & Nuts
Swivel Flanges (Frangible)
Coupling Pin & Cotter Key
Stem Coupling (Frangible)
Standpipe Lower Section
Operating Stem Lower
Drip Shut Off
Inserts
Valve Seat
Bronze Liner
Valve Seat O-Ring
Inlet Flange O-Ring
Drain Hole Bushing*
Inlet Flange Bolts & Nuts*
Seating Valve Rubber
Valve Washer
Bottom Inlet

Operating Nut

Nozzle Section
Stem

Pumper Outlet Nozzle


Outlet-Nozzle Cap

Upper Barrel
Breakable Flange
Frangible Stem Coupling
Lower Barrel
Stem
Upper Valve Plate
Drain Valve
Valve Seat Ring
Seat Ring Insert

Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base

* Not shown

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

East Jordan Iron Works: WaterMaster 5BR250

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

85

86

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J344HP
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number

Hydrant Body
Bonnet Retainer Nut
Bonnet
Packing Nut
Pent Nut
Pent Nut Retainer
Stem
Stem Locknut
Disc Holder
Sealing Disc
Disc Retainer
Hose Cap Gasket
Hose Cap

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Part Name

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

87

James Jones Company: J344HP

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

88

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J380
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Part Name
Hydrant Body
Bonnet
Packing Nut
Handle
Handle Retaining Nut
Stem
Disc Holder
Sealing Disc
Disc Retainer

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

89

James Jones Company: J380

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

90

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J3700+
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Part Name
Hydrant Head Body
Hydrant Spool
Dome Cap
Removable Nozzle
Hose Caps
Hydrant Stem
Stem Locknut
Beveled Hydrant Disc
Hydrant Disc Locknut
Stem Insert
Pent Nut
Pent Nut Retainer
Hydrant Disc Holder
Nozzle Gasket

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

91

James Jones Company: J3700+

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

92

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J3761
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Part Name
Hydrant Body
Hose Caps
Hydrant Stem
Stem Locknut
Beveled Hydrant Disc
Hydrant Disc Locknut
Stem Insert
Pent Nut
Pent Nut Retainer
Hydrant Disc Holder
Nozzle Gasket

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

James Jones Company: J3761

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

93

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

94

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J4040
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Part Name
Hydrant Body
Hose Caps
Stem Insert
Pent Nut
Nozzle Gasket
Nozzle Inserts
Beveled Hydrant Disc
Hydrant Stem
Stem Locknut
Hydrant Disc Holder
O-Rings
Hydrant Disc Locknut
Pent Nut Retainer

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

95

James Jones Company: J4040

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

96

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: J4060
Manufacturer: James Jones Company
Classification: Wet-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Part Name
Hydrant Body
Nozzle Inserts
Hose Caps
Hydrant Stem
Stem Locknut
Beveled Hydrant Disc
Hydrant Disc Locknut
Stem Insert
Pent Nut
Pent Nut Retainer
Hydrant Disc Holder
Nozzle Gasket
O-Rings

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

97

James Jones Company: J4060

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

98

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: Guardian K81-A


Manufacturer: Kennedy Valve
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Part Name

K8101
K8102
K8103
K8104
K8105
K8106
K8107
K8108
K8109
K8110
K8111
K8112
K8114
K8115
K8116
K8117R
K8118
K8119
K8120
K8121R
K8122R
K8123
K8124
K8125
K8126A
K8127
K8128
K8129
K8130
K8131
K8132
K8133
K8134
K8135
K8136
K8137
K8139
K8140
K8141
K8142
K8143
K8144
K8145
K8146
K8147
K8148
K8149
K8150

Alemite Fitting
Operating Stem Nut
Dirt Shield
Stem Lock Nut
O-Ring
Thrust Washer
Hydrant Cap
Cap Bolts & Nuts
Cap Gasket
Stem Ferrule
O-Ring
O-Ring
Upper Stem
Upper Barrel
Stem Breaking Coupling
Cotter Pin
Bolts & Nuts
Breaking Ring
O-Ring
Bridge Pin
Clevis Pins
Lower Stem
Lower Barrel
Elbow Gasket
O-Ring
Seat Ring Insert
Seat Ring
Drain Tube
O-Ring
Main Valve
Bottom Plate
Drain Valve Pin
Elbow
Elbow Bolts & Nuts
Drain Valve
Drain Valve Facing With Insert
Nozzle Cap Chain
Nozzle Chain Band
Nozzle Retaining Screw
Nozzle
Nozzle Cap Gasket
Nozzle Cap
O-Ring
Allen Head Set Screw
Seat Removal Wrench
Nozzle Removal Tools
Collision Repair Kit
Grade Extension Kit

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Kennedy Valve: Guardian K81-A

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

99

100

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: Style 129


Manufacturer: M&H Valve
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

Part Name
Weather Shield
Weather Shield Bolt and Oil Fill Plug
Operating Nut
Holddown Nut O-Ring
Holddown Nut
Thrust Washer
Bonnet
Bonnet Bolts
Bonnet Nuts
Bonnet/Nozzle O-Ring
Bonnet/Stem O-Ring
Hose Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle
Upper Stem Assembly
Pumper Nozzle Cap Gasket
Hose Nozzle Cap Gasket
Seat Ring O-Ring (Retainer Ring)
Safety Stem Coupling
Chain
Retaining Clip
Clevis Pin
Safety Flange Bolts
Safety Flange Nuts
Stem Sleeve O-Ring
Lower Stem
Safety Flange
Drain Valve Facing
Stand Pipe Upper Flange
Stand Pipe Lower Flange
Stand Pipe
Seat Ring Upper O-Ring
Upper Valve Plate
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Lower Stem Pin
Seat Ring
Shoe Bolts & Nuts
Seat Ring Lower O-Ring
Main Valve Seat
Drain Hole Bushings
Lower Valve Plate
Lower Valve Plate Lockwasher
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Top Plate Rivets
Shoe
Nozzle Section
Retainer Ring, Shoe
Set Screw, Hose Outlet

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

M&H Valve: Style 129

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

101

102

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: A415
Manufacturer: Mueller Group
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Part Name
Flush Box Lid (Nonlocking)
Lift Handle
Lift Handle Nut
Flush Box
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Hose Nozzle
Oil Screw for Operating Nut
Operating Nut
Oil Screw in Hold Down Nut
Hold Down Nut
Upper Barrel
Hold Down Nut O-Ring
O-Ring Seal
Cap Screw
Barrel Flange Gasket
Lower Barrel
Stem
Upper Valve Plate
Drain Valve Facing
Drain Valve Facing Screw
Seat Ring
Show Bolt & Nut
Stem Pin
Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Valve Plate Nut
Cap Nut Seal
Lock Washer
Drain Ring
Drain Ring Housing
Shoe
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Nozzle Lock
Chain Hook
Chain
Top Seat O-Ring
Bottom Seat O-Ring
Drain Ring O-Ring

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

9
8
14
11
12
13
1
5
2
3

16
39
38

6
41
40
18
19
42

44
35

7
37
39
4
17
10
15
21
20
28
24
23
22
26
25
34
43

32
29
30
33
31
36

Mueller Group: A415

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

103

104

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: IMP-PRT2
Manufacturer: Mueller Group
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant

51
52
53
59
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
76
77
78
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
96
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
125
136
137

Part Name
Operating Nut
Weather Cap
Hold Down Nut
Bonnet Gasket
Bonnet Bolt
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Nozzle Cap Chain
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Upper Barrel
Safety Flange Gasket
Safety Flange
Safety Flange Bolt
Lower Barrel
Drain Valve Facing
Drain Valve Facing Screw
Upper Valve Plate
Shoe Gasket
Shoe Bolt
Metallic Gasket
Seat Ring
Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Valve Plate Nut
Cap Nut
Shoe
O-Ring Packing
Hydrant Lubricating Oil (Not Shown)
Oil Filler Plug
Bonnet
Bonnet O-Ring
Hold Down Nut O-Ring
Lock Washer
Upper Stem
Lower Stem
Safety Stem Coupling
Clevis Pins
Cotter Pins

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

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Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

102
51
52
101
100
53
98
99
59
65
93
66
67
70
68
71
72
69
73
103
136
125
78
76
77
137
104
80
81
82
83
84
82
87
86
88
89
90
91
92

Mueller Group: IMP-PRT2

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


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105

106

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: S-CENTPT
Manufacturer: Mueller Group
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
84
85

Part Name
Operating Nut
Weather Cap (Not Shown)
Hold Down Nut O-Ring
Hold Down Nut (Not Shown)
Bonnet O-Ring
Antifriction Washer
Oil Plug
Bonnet
Bonnet Bolt & Nut
Bonnet O-Ring
Upper Stem
Stem O-Ring
Nozzle Lock
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Hose Nozzle Cap
Cap Chain
Chain Ring
Upper Barrel Less Nozzles
Safety Coupling
Safety Flange Bolt & Nut
Safety Flange O-Ring
Safety Flange
Cotter Pin
Clevis Pin
Lower Stem
Lower Barrel
Stem Pin
Drain Valve Facing
Drain Valve Screw
Upper Valve Plate (Includes 34 & 35)
Shoe Bolt & Nut
Drain Ring Housing O-Ring
Seat Ring Top O-Ring
Drain Ring Housing
Drain Ring Housing Bolt & Nut (Not Shown)
Drain Ring
Seat Ring
Seat Ring Bottom O-Ring
Reversible Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Cap Nut Seal
Lock Washer
Lower Valve Plate Nut
Shoe
Hold Down Nut
Weather Seal
10.5 oz. Hydrant Lubricating Oil (Not Shown)

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Mueller Group: S-CENTPT

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

107

108

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: STND-PRT
Manufacturer: Mueller Group
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant

1
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
31
33
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Part Name
Oil Screw For Operating Nut
Operating Nut
Hold Down Nut
Bonnet
O-Ring
Bonnet Gasket
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Stem
Drain Valve Screw
Upper Valve Plate
Drain Valve Facing
Shoe Gasket
Main Valve
Shoe
Valve Plate Nut
Lower Valve Plate
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Seat Ring
Metallic Gasket
Oil Screw for Hold Down Nut
Bonnet Bolt & Nut
Nozzle Cap Chain
Barrel Flange Bolt & Nut
Gasket For Barrel Flange
Shoe Bolt & Nut
Upper Barrel
Lower Barrel
O-Ring
Cap Nut (For 5-1/4 in. Only)

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
Number

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

31
1
2
6
3
42
5
33
7
8
9
23
10
11
12
36
40
37
38
41
13
14
15
16
39
17
24
25
18
21
20
19
43

Mueller Group: STND-PRT

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

109

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

110

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: Metroflow M03


Manufacturer: US Pipe & Foundry Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
84
85

Part Name

Preferred Term

Operating Nut
Hold Down Nut O-Ring
Bonnet O-Ring
Antifriction Washer
Oil Plug
Bonnet
Bonnet Bolts & Nuts
Bonnet O-Ring
Upper Rod
Upper Rod O-Ring
Nozzle Lock Key
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle O-Ring
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Hose Nozzle O-Ring
Hose Nozzle Cap
Cap Chain
Chain Ring
Standpipe Upper
Safety Coupling
Safety Flange Bolts & Nuts
Safety Flange O-Ring
Safety Flange
Cotter Pin
Clevis Pin
Lower Rod
Standpipe Lower (Specify Bury)
Stem Pin
Drain Valve Facing
Drain Valve Screw
Valve Top Plate
Elbow & D.R.H. Bolts & Nuts
Drain Ring Housing O-Ring
Seat Ring O-Ring (Top)
Drain Ring Housing
Drain Ring
Seat Ring
Seat Ring O-Ring (Bottom)
Main Valve
Valve Bottom Plate
Cap Nut Seal
Lock Washer
Valve Bottom Plate Nut
Elbow
Lubricant (In Chamber)
Hold Down Nut
Weather Seal

Operating Nut

Bonnet
Stem
Pumper Outlet Nozzle

Hose Outlet Nozzle


Outlet Nozzle Cap
Nozzle Section
Frangible Stem Coupling
Breakable Flange
Stem
Lower Barrel
Drain Valve
Upper Valve Plate

Seat Ring Insert


Valve Seat Ring
Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate

Base
Stop Nut
Weather Shield

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

85

3
84
5

14

10

51

13

11

15

12

16

18
19
20

17

21
33

23
24
22
25
26
30
27

28

31
32
33

29

34
35
43

36
37
38
39
40

44
42
45
46
47
48
49

50

US Pipe & Foundry Company: Metroflow M03

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

111

112

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: Metropolitan 250 M-94


Manufacturer: US Pipe & Foundry Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
39
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

Part Name

Preferred Term

Operating Nut
Operating Nut Seal
Operating Nut Locking Pin
Lubricant (In Chamber)
Travel Stop Nut
Hold Down Nut
Hold Down Nut Screw
Bonnet (Specify Direction)
Bonnet Locking Screw
Bonnet Seal
O-Ring
Bonnet-Revolving Nut O-Rings
Revolving Nut (Specify Direction)
Inner Revolving Nut O-Rings
Pumper Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle Cap Gasket
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Hose Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Cap Gasket
Hose Nozzle Cap
Hose nozzle Gasket
Chain Assembly
Rod Upper (Specify Direction)
Including Sheath With UL O-Ring
Rod PinShear Proof
Standpipe Upper (Specify V.O.)
Rod Coupling (Frangible)
Coupling Retaining Rings
Rod Coupling Pins
Standpipe Coupling Seal
Sp. Coupling Halves (Frangible)
Standpipe Coupling Bolt & Nut
Valve Rod Lower (Specify Bury)
Standpipe Lower (Specify Bury)
Top Plate PinShear Proof
Valve Top Plate (Specify V.O.)
Elbow Locking Key
O-Ring Gasket
Drain Valve Facing
Seat Ring (Specify V.O.)
Seat Ring O-Ring
Main Valve
Valve Bottom Plate
Elbow, Including Sub-seat
Drain Hole Liner
Antifriction Bearing
Nozzle Wedge Lock
Dampener

Operating Nut

Stop Nut
Bonnet

Stem Nut
Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Hose Outlet Nozzle

Stem
Nozzle Section
Frangible Stem Coupling

Breakable Barrel Coupling


Stem
Lower Barrel

Drain Valve
Valve Seat Ring
Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

2
3
6
8

7
12

11

47

10

9
24

13
14

22
19

15 16 17 18

20

21

23

25

26
29
30
USP

31
27 28 49

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

33

32

34
39

35

37
42

38
43

44
45

46

US Pipe & Foundry Company: Metropolitan 250 M-94

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

113

114

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: S Series
Manufacturer: US Pipe & Foundry Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Part
Number

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
57
58

Part Name

Preferred Term

Elbow Mechanical Joint End


O-Ring Seal Plate
Seal Plate O-Ring
Hold Down Nut O-Ring
Bonnet
Hose Nozzle Cap
Pumper Nozzle Cap
Valve Bottom Plate
Valve Seat Ring
Operating Nut (Yoke Stem Nut)
Drip Cup
Drip Rod Guide
Drip Rod Upper Extension
Drip Rod Lower Extension
Drip Rod Upper Extension Nut
Wrench Guide Set Screw
Hold Down Nut Screw
Cross bar
Hold Down Nut
Wrench Guide Set Screw
Main Valve Rod Bottom Cap Nut
Extension Stem
Shear Pin
Spring Washer
Valve Rod Spring
Main Rod Sleeve Upper Gasket
Bottom Cap Nut Gasket
Key Pin for Valve Rod
Drip Rod
Cross Bar Screw
Cross Bar Screw Lock Nut
Elbow Bolt and Nut
Seal Plate Bolt and Nut
Bonnet Bolt and Nut
Hose Nozzle
Pumper Nozzle
Hose Nozzle Gasket
Pumper Nozzle Gasket
Valve
Seat Ring Gasket
Drip Cup Washer
Nozzle Cap Chain and Bail Rings
Seal Plate Gasket
Elbow Gasket
Standpipe Coupling Socket Head Cap
Standpipe Coupling
Main Rod Coupling
Main Rod Coupling Pins
Main Rod Coupling Springs
Standpipe Middle O-Ring
Standpipe Upper Nozzle Section
Standpipe Lower Section
Main Valve Rod Upper Section
Main Valve Rod Lower Section
Valve Top Plate
Drain Hole Liner

Base

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Bonnet
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Lower Valve Plate
Valve Seat Ring
Operating Nut

Hose Outlet Nozzle


Pumper Outlet Nozzle
Main Valve

Breakable Barrel Coupling


Frangible Stem Coupling

Nozzle Section
Lower Barrel
Stem
Stem
Upper Valve Plate
Drain Outlet

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

10

22

17

19

43

5
12
34
33
30 31

13
15
18

37

23
24
25

35

36 38

53
51

42
48 49
45 46

50
47
54

29

52
26

16 20

57

14

41

40

44

32

11
58

28

39
8

27
21

US Pipe & Foundry Company: S Series

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

115

116

FIRE HYDRANTS

Model: WB67-250
Manufacturer: Waterous Company
Classification: Dry-barrel hydrant
Compressionopen against pressure
Dry top
Traffic model
Part
Number

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3
5
6
6A
6A
6C
7
8
10
11
12
16
17A
17B
25
29
30
31
34
35
36
37
40
54
56
57
59
60
61
61
62B
63
64
67
71
72
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
92
113

Part Name
O-Ring Packing
Flange Gasket
Hex HD Bolt 5/8-11 3-in.
Hex HD Bolt 5/8-11 33/4-in.
Hex HD Bolt 5/8-11 3-in.
Hex Nut 5/8-11
Drain plunger
Cotter pin 1/4 in. by 11/2 in.
Nozzle Cap (Hose or Pumper)
Cap Gasket
Nozzle (Hose or Pumper)
Flat HD Screw 1/4-20 1/2-in.
Operating NutLower
Operating NutUpper
Valve-Rod Bushing
Standpipe
Crossarm
Valve Seat
Upper Valve Washer
Main Valve
Lower Valve Washer
Hydrant Bottom
Upper Standpipe
Drain Bushing
Support
O-Ring Packing
O-Ring Packing
Nozzle Section
Bury Depth Plate
Bury Depth Plate Washer
Upper Standpipe Flange
Standpipe Flange
Flange Lock Ring
Coupling Sleeve (Two Halves)
Upper Rod Assembly
Lower Rod
Groove Pin 3/32 in. 7/16 in.
Upper Tube Seal
Lower Tube Seal
Support Gasket
Support Tube
Stop Nut
Coupling Nut
Coupling Stud
Operating-Nut Bushing
Thrust Ring
Upper Standpipe Gasket
Breakable Flange

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Preferred Term

Drain Valve
Outlet Nozzle Cap
Outlet Nozzle
Stem Nut
Operating Nut
Lower Barrel
Valve Seat Ring
Upper Valve Plate
Main Valve
Lower Valve Plate
Base
Upper Barrel
Drain Outlet
Packing Plate
Nozzle Section

Frangible Stem Coupling


Stem
Stem

Stop Nut

Breakable Flange

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

117

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A: ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HYDRANT NOMENCLATURE

Waterous Company: WB67-250

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

118

FIRE HYDRANTS

Bibliography
Fire Flow Tests: Discharge Tables for Circular Outlets Friction Losses in Pipes.
1981. NFPA, Quincy, Mass.
Form and Procedures for Fire Flow Tests.
1976. Jour. AWWA, 68:5:264.
Guidance Manual for Disposal of Chlorinated
Water. 2001. AwwaRF, Denver, Colo.
Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing
and Marketing of Hydrants. 2002.
NFPA Standard 291. NFPA, Quincy,
Mass.
Simplified Water Supply Testing. 6th Ed.
1982. Alliance of Amer. Insurers,
Schaumberg, Ill.
Standard for Dry-Barrel Fire Hydrants.
AWWA Standard C502. AWWA, Denver,
Colo.

Standard for Wet-Barrel Fire Hydrants.


AWWA Standard C503. AWWA, Denver,
Colo.
Standard for Installation of Ductile-Iron
Water Mains and Their Appurtenances.
AWWA Standard C600. AWWA, Denver,
Colo.
Supply Testing for Fire Department and
Insurance. Amer. Insurance Assn. New
York, N.Y.
Sweitzer, R.J. 1958. Basic Water Works
Manual. Amer. Concrete Pressure Pipe
Assn., Vienna, Va.
Water Transmission and Distribution. Principles and Practices of Water Supply
Operations, Third Edition. 2004.
AWWA, Denver, Colo.

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

Index
NOTE: f. indicates a figure; n. indicates note; t. indicates a table.
Drain
bushing, 16
cup, 16
outlet, 16, 26
ring, 15
valve, 16
Drainage tests (dry-barrel hydrants), 28
Drain-hole liner, 16
Drip tubing, 16
Dry-barrel hydrants, 5
auxiliary components, 16
basis for name, 5
component nomenclature, 1116, 12f., 13f.
compression type, 5, 6f., 7f.
construction terminology, 10
drainage, 26
drainage tests, 28
early, 2, 3f.
flush type, 2, 4, 7
frost-jacket type, 7
high-pressure pilot-valve type, 9
high-pressure type, 8
inspection, 3032
installation, 23f.
installation terminology, 1011
with large valve openings, 4
post type, 23, 4, 10
slide-gate type, 6, 9f.
standard (ANSI/AWWA C502), 8, 8n.
toggle type, 6, 8f.
traffic model, 4, 10, 3435
and valves, 2, 3f.
See also American AVK Company,
American Flow Control, Clow Valve
Company, East Jordan Iron Works,
James Jones Company, Kennedy
Valve, M&H Valve, Mueller Group,
US Pipe & Foundry Company,
Waterous Company for specific models
Dry-top hydrants, 10

American AVK Company, 56


Series 24 (2470, 2490), 58, 59f.
Series 2700, 60, 61f.
Series 2780, 62, 63f.
American Flow Control, 56
American Darling B62B-5, 64, 65f.
American Darling B84B-5, 66, 67f.
American Darling M73T-5, 68, 69f.
ANSI/AWWA C502, 8, 8n.
ANSI/AWWA C503, 8, 8n.
ANSI/AWWA C600, 22
ANSI/AWWA C651C654, 46
Auxiliary valve, 10, 18, 22
Backflow-prevention devices, 16
Ball hydrants, 2, 3f.
Barrel, 19, 19f.
Base, 16
Body, 19, 19f.
head, 19
Bonnet, 12f., 13f., 14
Boot, 16
Bottom, 16
plate, 15
Breakable barrel coupling, 15
Breakable bolt, 12f., 13f., 15
Breakable coupling, 15
Breakable flange, 12f., 13f., 15
Breakaway flange, 15
Bury
defined, 10, 18
section, 19, 19f.

--`,`,``,````,,`,,`,`,``,`,``,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Carrier, 19
Clow Valve Company, 56
Medallion, 70, 71f.
Model 850, 72, 73f.
Model 860, 74, 75f.
Model 950, 76, 77f.
Model 2050, 78, 79f.
Model 2060, 80, 81f.
Color scheme to indicate flow capacity, 26,
27t.
Compression-type hydrants, 5, 6f., 7f.
Cover, 11, 14, 18

East Jordan Iron Works, 56


WaterMaster 5-BR, 82, 83f.
WaterMaster 5BR250, 84, 85f.
Elbow, 16
Fire hydrants
defined, 5
history, 14
placement from curb, 22

Direction to open, 10, 17


Disc, 20
holder, 19
retaining nut, 20
Disinfection, 2627

119
Copyright American Water Works Association
Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

FIRE HYDRANTS

predecessors in early distribution systems,


12
tamperproof, 4
See also Ball hydrants, Compression-type
hydrants, Dry-barrel hydrants, Drytop hydrants, Flow hydrants, Flush
hydrants, Frost-jacket hydrants,
High-pressure hydrants, Highpressure pilot-valve hydrants, Inspection, Installation, No-drain hydrants,
Placing in service, Post hydrants,
Slide-gate hydrants, Testing, Toggle
hydrants, Traffic model, Wet-barrel
hydrants, Wet-top hydrants
Fire plugs, 1, 2
and cisterns, 2, 3f.
Flow hydrants, 41
Flow tests, 41
avoiding rigid diverters, 46
cautions, 45
dechlorination of discharge water, 4546
determining available flow, 4653,
47t.48t., 49t.50t., 52t.
equipment, 4243
field procedure, 4445, 44f.
pre-planning, 43, 43f.
and pumper outlets, 53, 53t.
report, 35, 39f.
and stable pressure, 53
terminology, 41
Flush hydrants, 2, 4, 7
Frangible bolt, 15
Frangible standpipe coupling, 15
Frangible stem coupling, 12f., 13f., 15
Frangible valve-rod coupling, 15
Frost jacket, defined, 10
Frost-jacket hydrants, 7
Gate, 16
Gland bushing, 14
Ground line, 11, 18, 19f.
Higbee cut, 16, 20
High-pressure hydrants, 8, 17
High-pressure pilot-valve hydrants, 9
Hose
cap, 20
connection, 10, 18
gate, 10, 14, 18
outlet nozzles, 12f., 13f., 14, 20
valve, 14
valve nozzle, 20
Hydrant cap, 14
Hydrant control valve, 10
Hydrant gate, 10, 11, 18
Hydrant head, 19, 19f.
Hydrant lead, 11, 18, 26
Hydrant meters, 16
Hydrant-valve top, 15

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Independently gated outlets, 16


Insert, 20
ring, 15
Inspection
as part of maintenance, 3032
pre-installation, 2122
Installation, 22
dry-barrel hydrants, 23f.
recommendations, 2227
standard (ANSI/AWWA C600), 22
wet-barrel hydrants, 24f.
James Jones Company, 56
Model 4060, 96, 97f.
Model J344HP, 86, 87f.
Model J380, 88, 89f.
Model J3700+, 90, 91f.
Model J3761, 92, 93f.
Model J4040, 94, 95f.
Kennedy Valve, 56
Guardian K81-A, 98, 99f.
Leak testing, 2122, 27
Lower barrel, 12f., 13f., 15
Lower body, 19
Lower bury ell, 19f., 20
Lower cap nut, 15
Lower rod, 11
Lower valve plate, 15
Lower valve washer, 15
M&H Valve, 56
Style 129, 100, 101f.
Main gate, 16
Main valve, 15
opening, 10
Maintenance, 29
and adequate fire flow, 29
adjusting hydrant height, 35
inspection (dry-barrel hydrants), 3032,
35, 38f.
inspection (wet-barrel hydrants), 3031,
32, 35, 38f.
lubrication, 33
master record, 35, 36f.
packing replacement, 34
record keeping, 35, 36f.40f.
repairs, 3335
report form, 35, 37f.
and special or unauthorized uses, 2930
traffic-model repair, 34
Midsection, 20
Mueller Group, 57
A415, 102, 103f.
IMP-PRT2, 104, 105f.
S-CENTPT, 106, 107f.
STND-PRT, 108, 109f.

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120

INDEX

NFPA 291, 26
No-drain hydrants, 10
Nozzle, 14
Nozzle section, 12f., 13f., 14, 15
Nut, 20
Operating nut, 11, 12f., 13f., 19f.
Operating stem nut, 11
Outlet, 20
Outlet nozzles, 12f., 13f., 14, 22
caps, 12f., 13f., 14, 20
coefficients, 44, 44f.

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Packing box, 14
Packing gland, 12f., 14
Packing plate, 12f., 14
Packing pusher, 14
Packing replacement, 34
Pipe connection, 10, 18
Pitot pressure, 41
Pitot tubes, 41, 42f.
Placing in service, 28
Post hydrants, 23, 4, 18
defined, 10
Pressure tests, 2122
at main pressure, 2728
at pressures above main pressure, 28
Pro-cap, 20
Protection cover, 10
Pumper
connection, 10, 14, 16, 18, 20
nozzle, 14
outlet nozzles, 12f., 13f., 14, 20, 22
outlet nozzles and flow tests, 53, 53t.
Residual pressure, 41
Retainer, 20
ring, 15
Retaining nut, 19f., 20
Revolving nut, 11
Riser, 19f., 20
Rod coupling, 15
Seal plate, 14
Seat, 20
ring, 15, 20
ring insert, 15
Shoe, 16
Slide-gate hydrants, 6, 9f.
Slotted nut, 20
Spool, 19
Spud, 14
Standards, 8, 8n., 11, 18, 22, 26, 46
Standpipes, 2, 3f., 15, 20
Static pressure, 41
Steamer
connection, 14, 16, 20
nozzle, 14

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Stem, 11, 12f., 19, 19f.


bushing, 20
coupling, 15
guide, 20
nut, 11
sleeve, 20
stop, 14
Stop nut, 14
Stuffing box, 12f., 14, 19f., 20
Subseat, 15
Support ring, 14
Testing
hydrant test report, 35, 40f.
See also Drainage tests (dry-barrel
hydrants), Flow tests, Leak testing,
Pressure tests
Thrust restraint, 22, 25f., 26
Toggle hydrants, 6, 8f.
Top plate, 15
Top section, 19, 19f.
Traffic flange, 15
Traffic model, 4
defined, 10
repair, 34
Travel-stop nut, 14
Trench, 11, 18
Upper barrel, 12f., 13f., 14, 15
Upper rod, 11
Upper standpipe, 14, 15
Upper valve
plate, 15
washer, 15
US Pipe & Foundry Company, 57
Metroflow M03, 110, 111f.
Metropolitan 250 M-94, 112, 113f.
S Series, 114, 115f.
Valve, 15
carrier, 19, 19f.
disc, 15
gasket, 15
insert, 20
opening, 18
plate, 15
rubber, 15, 20
seat, 15, 20
seat ring, 15
stem, 19
top plate, 15
washer, 19f., 20
washer retainer, 19f., 20
Valve ball
bottom, 15
rubber, 15
top, 15

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121

122

FIRE HYDRANTS

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Waterous Company, 57
Model WB67250, 116, 117f.
Weather shield (cap), 11, 12f., 13f.
Wet-barrel hydrants, 4, 17
See also American AVK Company, Clow
Valve Company, James Jones
Company for specific models
component terminology, 1820, 19f.
construction terminology, 1718
high-pressure type, 17
inspection, 3031, 32
installation terminology, 18
installation, 24f.
standard (ANSI/AWWA C503), 8, 8n.
Wet-top hydrants, 10

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT

M1,

M2,
M3,
M4,

M5,
M6,

M7,

M9,
M11,

M12,

M14,

M17,

M19,

M21,
M22,

M23,
M24,
M25,

M27,

M28,

Principles of Water Rates, Fees,


and Charges, Fifth Edition, 2000,
#30001PA
Instrumentation and Control, Third
Edition, 2001, #30002PA
Safety Practices for Water Utilities,
Sixth Edition, 2002, #30003PA
Water Fluoridation Principles and
Practices, Fifth Edition, 2004,
#30004PA
Water Utility Management Practices,
Second Edition, 2006, #30005PA
Water MetersSelection, Installation,
Testing, and Maintenance, Second
Edition, 1999, #30006PA
Problem Organisms in Water:
Identification and Treatment, Third
Edition, 2004, #30007PA
Concrete Pressure Pipe, Second
Edition, 1995, #30009PA
Steel PipeA Guide for Design and
Installation, Fifth Edition, 2004,
#30011PA
Simplified Procedures for Water
Examination, Third Edition, 2002,
#30012PA
Recommended Practice for Backflow
Prevention and Cross-Connection
Control, Third Edition, 2003,
#30014PA
Installation, Field Testing, and
Maintenance of Fire Hydrants,
Fourth Edition, 2006, #30017PA
Emergency Planning for Water
Utility Management, Fourth Edition,
2001, #30019PA
Groundwater, Third Edition, 2003,
#30021PA
Sizing Water Service Lines and
Meters, Second Edition, 2004,
#30022PA
PVC PipeDesign and Installation,
Second Edition, 2003, #30023PA
Dual Water Systems, Second Edition,
1994, #30024PA
Flexible-Membrane Covers and
Linings for Potable-Water Reservoirs,
Third Edition, 2000, #30025PA
External CorrosionIntroduction to
Chemistry and Control, Second
Edition, 2004, #30027PA
Rehabilitation of Water Mains,
Second Edition, 2001, #30028PA

M29, Water Utility Capital Financing,


Second Edition, 1998, #30029PA
M30, Precoat Filtration, Second Edition,
1995, #30030PA
M31, Distribution System Requirements for
Fire Protection, Third Edition, 1998,
#30031PA
M32, Distribution Network Analysis for
Water Utilities, Second Edition, 2005,
#30032PA
M33, Flowmeters in Water Supply, Second
Edition, 1997, #30033PA
M36, Water Audits and Leak Detection,
Second Edition, 1999, #30036PA
M37, Operational Control of Coagulation
and Filtration Processes, Second
Edition, 2000, #30037PA
M38, Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis
Reversal, First Edition, 1995,
#30038PA
M41, Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings,
Second Edition, 2003, #30041PA
M42, Steel Water-Storage Tanks, First
Edition, 1998, #30042PA
M44, Distribution Valves: Selection,
Installation, Field Testing, and
Maintenance, First Edition, 1996,
#30044PA
M45, Fiberglass Pipe Design, Second
Edition, 2005, #30045PA
M46, Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration,
First Edition, 1999, #30046PA
M47, Construction Contract Administration,
First Edition, 1996, #30047PA
M48, Waterborne Pathogens, Second
Edition, 2006, #30048PA
M49, Butterfly Valves: Torque, Head Loss,
and Cavitation Analysis, First
Edition, 2001, #30049PA
M50, Water Resources Planning, First
Edition, 2001, #30050PA
M51, Air-Release, Air/Vacuum, and
Combination Air Valves, First
Edition, 2001, #30051PA
M52, Water Conservation ProgramsA
Planning Manual, First Edition,
2006, #30052PA
M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration
Membranes for Drinking Water,
First Edition, 2005, #30053PA
M54, Developing Rates for Small Systems,
First Edition, 2004, #30054PA
M55, PE PipeDesign and Installation,
First Edition, 2006, #30055PA

To order any of these manuals or other AWWA publications, call the Bookstore toll-free at
1-(800)-926-7337.

123
Copyright American Water Works Association
Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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AWWA Manuals

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This page intentionally blank

Copyright American Water Works Association


Provided by IHS under license with AWWA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Licensee=ATLATEC S A DE C V/5972499001, User=Yaez, Simon


Not for Resale, 09/07/2009 17:07:15 MDT