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Advanced Journal of Agricultural Research

Vol. 2(010), pp. 159-165, October, 2014

ISSN: 2360-9354
2014 Advanced Journals

Full Length Research Paper

Combination of Anthocephalus cadamba and Oryza sativa in the
Plantation Forest Project in Boven Digoel, Papua
Wahyudi*, Johansyah, Reni Rahmawati and Antonius Triyadi
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Forestry, Palangkaraya University Jl. Yos Sudarso Kampus Unpar Palangkaraya,

*Corresponding author. E-mail: wahyudi888@yahoo.com

Submitted 10th October, 2014; Revised 24th October 2014; Accepted 26th October, 2014
The aim of this research is to compare the combination of Anthocephalus cadamba and Oryza sativa plantation and
mono-cultural plantation of Anthocephalus cadamba systems in order to increase land productivity in Papua. This
research consisted of two treatments, of 15 plots each. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and LSD test
was done using SPSS 19.0. Research was conducted in the plantation forest project areas in Boven Digoel, Papua
Province in 2013. The result showed that in the first year, mean annual increment (MAI) of Anthocephalus cadamba
in combination system plants was 3.88 cm in diameter and 4.12 m in height, whereas mono-cultural system was just
2.54 cm in diameter and 2.31 m in height. The first and second treatments were significantly different at P<0.05
level. In the plant combination system, rice of 2.19 ton ha-1 was also produced in the first year. Therefore, the
combination of Anthocephalus cadamba and Oryza sativa plantation is better than mono-cultural plantation of
Anthocephalus cadamba. This system leads to better growth of Anthocephalus cadamba and adds to the value of
rice, and also improves local community perception regarding forest development, protection, and prevention of
forest fire to reduce forest degradation and deforestation.
Key word: Mean annual increment, land productivity, plants combination.

Papua is the second largest island in the world after
Greenland Island (Wahyudi and Ogbinar, 2011; Wahyudi.
2012; Suratmo et al., 2003). Degraded forest lands in
Indonesia are 21.94 million ha (Ministry of Forestry and
Estate, 1998; Ministry of Forestry and Estate, 2000;
Ministry of Forestry, 2007; Ministry of Forestry, 2010).
Forest plantation is one of Indonesias Government
Programs that aims at increasing degraded forest lands.
Based on regulation of Indonesia Ministry of Forestry

No.10.1/Kpts-II/2000 and regulation of Indonesia

Government No.34/2002, forest plantation is directed to
degraded forest areas such as shrub, bushes,
underbrush, grassland, and other critical land including
poor timber potential caused by illegal logging. The
development of Industrial Forest Plantation (IFP) started
in the 1980s until the middle of the 1990s, especially in
Kalimantan and Sumatra. Sadly, until the 2000s, the
attainment of IFP is less than 30% (Ministry of Forestry


Adv. J. Agric. Res.

and Estate, 2000). Since 2007, Indonesia Ministry of

Forestry has launched the People Plantation Forest
(Ministry of Forestry, 2007),and in the mean time, the
National Movement for Forest and Land Rehabilitation
was launched; but as previously, these programs are less
successful notably in Kalimantan and Sumatera(Ministry
of Forestry, 2010; Wahyudi. 2012).
Adverse result of Industrial Forest Plantation, especially outside Java is caused by adverse edaphic factor
(Ministry of Agriculture, 2003; Noor, 1996; Sutedjo and
Kartasapoetra, 1991), less appropriate silvicultural
technique and technology (Wahjono, 2010; Fisher and
Binkley, 2000) and socio-cultural factor (Ministry of
Agriculture, 2008). The adverse soil is caused by
marginal podzolic red-yellow soil (ultisol) (McKinnon et
al., 2000) and also acidic soil with high content of Fe and
Al that causes the binding of Phosporous in the ground
(Fisher and Binkley. 2000; McKinnon et al., 2000). Poor
knowledge of silvicultural technique, heavy degradation,
and poor forest management has caused poor growth of
planted forest for some years (Sutedjo and
Kartasapoetra, 1991; De Foresta et al., 2000; Soeseno
OHandNaiem, 1995). Lack of local societys involvement
in plantation forest activity often becomes serious
problem, especially on forest fire, illegal logging and land
occupation (Suratmo et al., 2003; Suyatno 2004; Wibowo
Some species which are recommended for forest
plantation are Anthocephalus cadamba, Acacia
mangium, Eucalyptusspp, Paraserianthes falcataria,
Hevea brasiliensis, Gmelina arborea, Peronema
canescens etc (Ministry of Forestry and Estate, 1998).
Forestry development policy in Indonesia should have
been directed to the integrated forest management,
including plantation forest development using plants
combination system involving local community (Wahyudi
and Ogbinar, 2011; De Foresta et al., 2000). Plants
combination system is optimal for farming (Wahjono
2010), creates better nutrient cycle (Fisher and Binkley,
2000; Kosasih et al., 2006), enhances biodiversity
(Kosasih et al., 2006) and also improves growth and yield
(Sabarnurdin, 2008). Mono-cultural system had been
applied in Industrial Forest Plantation some years ago.
Some forest concessionaries have applied the plants
combination system as part of their plantation system,
like Austral Byna, Aya Yayang, Tunas Timber Lestari etc
(Ministry of Forestry, 2007). In some places in the South
of Kalimantan and others, the community has developed
plants combination system on their farm. This effort

minimizes the use of inorganic manure and tending

activity, improves growth and yield of plantation, creates
positive impact on the local peoples in the form of
improved production, better perception and also creates
care for natural resources and environment.

The objectives of the research

The aim of this research is to compare the systems of
plants combination (Anthocephalus cadamba and Oryza
sativa) and monoculture plantation in order to increase
land productivity.
Research site and date
This research was conducted in the plantation forest
project land in Boven Digoel District, Papua Province. Its
climate type is A (Schmidt and Ferguson, 1951), with
precipitation of2.500 mm year-1. Initially vegetations
were bushes, underbrush and grassland (Imperata
cylindrica). Other species were Macaranga peltata, M.
triloba, M. grandifolia, Melastoma malabathricum, Vitex
sp,Hyptis capitata, Cyperus spp., etc. Soil type is
podzolic red-yellow (ultisol) and soil texture is sandy
clay. Research was done in 2013.

Research Procedures
Disc plow was used to prepare the plantation land (land
clearing). The soil was treated with Calcium (CaCO3) of
750 kg ha-1, for 1 week before plantation.
Anthocephalus cadamba seedling was planted in
November 2013, with spacing of 2.5 m x 2.5 m. All
seedlings of Anthocephalus cadamba were from the
nursery with the same treatment.
Plot establishment. Plot 1 (treatment 1) has plants
combination system, that is, the mixing of
Anthocephalus cadamba and mount-paddy (Oryza
sativa) with continued manuring; and plot 2 (treatment
2) has intensive monocultural system (Anthocephalus
cadamba plantation with continued manuring). Each
treatment consisted of 15 plots as replication, and size of
each plot was 15 m x 10 m (= 150 m2), which was
randomly placed.
First, the tree height of Anthocephalus cadamba was

Wahyudi et al.


Table 1. Mean of diameter and height of Anthocephalus cadamba in the 2 treatments and 15 plots of replications
on the research plots.

Mean of diameter (cm)



Mean of height (m)



Notes= t1: plants combination system (Anthocephalus cadamba and Oryza sativa), t2: monoculture plantation.

measured and dung was used to manure all the plots

continuously for 2 weeks after planting Anthocephalus
cadamba. An organic urea manure and KCl of 500 kg ha1
. During the 2 to 3 weeks after Anthocephalus cadamba
was planted, mount-paddy (Oryza sativa) was planted in
plot 1 (t1) with dibble (that is wooden tool with a sharp
end for making holes in the ground). Planting holes
spacing was 25 cm x 25 cm and each hole was filled with
2 to 4 seeds of mount-paddy and then covered by
Replanting (replacement of dead seedling with a new
one) was conducted on the 3rd and 7th months after
planting Anthocephalus cadamba. Harvesting of mountpaddy was done at 4.5 months after planting. Result of
rice yield was recorded.
Data Analysis
Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and LSD test was done with SPSS 19.0.


Growth of Anthocephalus cadamba
Growth of diameter and height of Anthocephalus
cadamba in plants combination system (t1) and mono-

culture plantation system is shown in Table 1. The data

indicated that in the first year, plants combination
system has the best growth, with mean of diameter and
height of 3.88 cm and 4.12 m, respectively; meanwhile
monoculture plantation has just 2.54 cm and 2.31 m
respectively. Figure 1 shows Anthocephalus cadamba
plantation of 5 months old.
Based on the homogeneity test, the data of diameter
and height had significant value each equal to 0.021 and
0.019 which were smaller than 0.05; so all the data were
homogeneous. The analysis of variation in diameter and
height growth of Anthocephalus cadamba showed
significant value of P< 0.05 ( SPSS 19.0); so there were
significant differences between the treatments at 0.05
level. Therefore, diameter and height growth of
Anthocephalus cadamba in the plants combination
system (t1) was better than that of the monocultural
system (t2). Picture 1 showed a diameter growth (a) and
height growth (b) of Anthocephalus cadamba.
The data showed that there is positive correlation
between diameter and height growth of Anthocephalus
cadamba and both represent important parameters in
tree growth21 and also an indicator that Anthocephalus
cadamba plant grows normally ( Barnett and Jeronimidi,
2003). The tree growth quality was represented by
function of density which could be arranged through
their spacing (Manan, 1995; Yulianti and Wahyudi,
2012). The good wood quality was obtained from well-


Adv. J. Agric. Res.

Figure 1. Antocephallus cadamba at 5 months old in research plots

in Boven Digoel, Papua

Diameter growth of Anthocephallus cadamba (cm)


Diameter t1









Diameter t2

Height growth of Anthocephallus cadamba (m)

Height t1





Height t2

balanced and good tree growth at the initial stage
(Barnett and Jeronimidi, 2003; Haygreen and Jim 1982).
The 2.5 m x 2.5 m spacing in Anthocephalus cadamba

plantation has a good influence on the architecture of

Anthocephalus cadamba because it produces wellbalanced effect of phototrophism (Figure 2).

Wahyudi et al

Plant combination system is the best for the growth of

the diameter and height of Anthocephalus cadamba
plantation (Table 1). This plant is a fast growing species
that needs the availability of nutrient to balance its
growth rate (Yulianti and Wahyudi, 2012; Akbar et al.,
Plantation area includes critical land and
degraded land (Regulation of Indonesias Government
No.34/2002); it has some limited factors (Ministry of
Forestry, 2010): marginal land, podzolic red-yellow soil,
pH of 4 to 5.5 - that is acid soil with high Fe and Al
(Sutedjo and Kartasapoetra, 1991; McKinnon et al.,
2000; Siswomartono, 1989). But if given base manure of
calcium chloride (CaCO3) equals to 750 kg ha-1 and with
continuous application of urea fertilizer (250 kg ha -1)
and KCl (250 kg ha-1) , it could yield better growth of
Anthocephalus cadamba. Fisher and Binkley expressed
that growth of plant was influenced by soil tilage, site
and species (Fisher and Binkley. 2000). Soil tilage with
plowing could also have positive effect on mixed mineral
soil above and underground. Waste and other organic
substance are the sources of soil nutrient; therefore,
they need to be retained. The marginal land has low
potency for cultivation, but with technological treatment
and correct processing system it can become productive
land (Noor 1996).
The use of basic manure and
continuous manuring is recommended and also
suggested to promote growth on marginal farm (Noor
1996; Fisher and Binkley, 2000; Manan, 1995; Yulianti
and Wahyudi, 2012).

Plants combination System

Plots of plants combination system (t1) produced
average yieldof mount-paddy (Oryza sativa) of2.19 ton
ha-1 in the first year. This paddy yield was better than
the result of mount-paddy from the local people or
shifting cultivation that is less environmental friendly,
which is 0. 5 to 1.3 ton ha-1. The Anthocephalus cadamba
canopy was wide and big; it progressively decreased light
intensity which was distributed on the forest floor
(Manan, 1995). It reduced photosynthetic quality and
quantity and also decreased the paddy productivity
(Gardner et al. 1991).
In Pursuance of this research result, the growth of
Anthocephalus cadamba on the plants combination
system is better than that of the monoculture system.
Based on the evaluation of social, economic and cultural
aspects, the plants combination system was the best


method compared to the monocultural system because

in it, more labour is employed, income of local peoples is
improved, cooperation among the local people and
management unit is created, contributing to sustainability of natural resources (Wahyudi and Ogbinar,
2011). It also improves the positive perception about
forest development and plants combination system in
the forest region.
The other areas of the plants combination system
involved securing the forest from fire. A lot of study
expressed that most causes of forest fire were human
factors (Suyatno 2004; Wibowo 2003; Sagala, 1988). The
local peoples tradition, especially in the surrounding
forest region, involves opening the farm by combustion
and it causes forest fire (Suyatno 2004; Sagala, 1988).
Plants combination system could reduce the number of
forest fire because the local community can take care of
their plants.
Plants combination system is believed to be able to
depress the number of forest damage (Singh et al. 1995),
because the local people in the settled cultivation are
more productive with intensification pattern. The
involvement of the local people in managing natural
resources using participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
concept has been adopted by some management units
in Indonesia (Sagala, 1988). With this concept, the local
people had to make the planning, managing and
controlling of natural resources in the surrounding
habitation with sustained principles (Siswomartono,
1989, Gardner et al. 1991). Plants combination system is
the better solution to increase land productivity and
income of the local people.
Constraint of plants combination system for wider
scale is land accessibility and continuous activity.
Generally, the society prefers to establish plants combination activity on the land close to their habitation. They
cannot use the same location after two or three times of
planting period, so they have to look for a new farm
afterward. Good planning in the plants combination
management can create continuous activity.

Plants combination between Anthocephalus cadamba
and Oryza sativa is the best system for increasing land
productivity in Boven Digoel District, Papua Province,
because besides leading to better growth of
Anthocephalus cadamba plantation (3.88 cm year-1 and


Adv. J. Agric. Res.

4.12 m year-1for diameter and height respectively), this

system also increases the local peoples income from
yield of rice (Oryza sativa) of 2.19 tonnes ha-1.

The authors thank Bella and Zory for the use of plots in
Anthocephalus cadamba Forest Plantation and also our
friends in PT TTL office, Boven Digoel District, Papua

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