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I.M.YAGLOM

AN UNUSUAL

ALGEBRA

Mir Publishers. Moscow

ПОПУЛЯРНЫЕ ЛЕКЦИИ ПО МАТЕМАТИКЕ

II. М.

Яглом

НЕОБЫКНОВЕННАЯ

АЛГЕБРА

И З Д А Т Е Л Ь С Т В О « Н А У К А » МОСКВА

L I T T L E MATHEMATICS LIBRARY

I.M.Ya^lom

AN UNUSUAL

ALGEBRA

Translated

from

the

Russian

by

1. G .

MIR

Volosova

P U B L I S H E R S

\1< ) S ( '.( ) \ V

Mir P u b l i s h e r s . 1978 .F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1978 Second printing 1984 Ha amAuùcitoM naut.e © E n g l i s h translation.

in the second reading of the book it is advisable to study Sec. 7 and Appendix which are starred in the table of contents) that can be omitted in the first reading of the book. if not all. The author is grateful to S. However. — Tr.Preface The present book is based on the lecture given by the author to senior pupils in Moscow on the 20th of April of 1966. The distinction between the material of the lecture and that of the book is that the latter includes exercises at the end of each section (the most difficult problems in the exercises are marked by an asterisk). . The bibliography given at the end of the book lists some books which can be of use to the readers who want to study the theory of Boolean algebras more thoroughly. 7 since it contains some material important for practical applications of the theory of Boolean algebras. Gindikin for valuable advice and to F. The book contains some optional material (in particular. I. 1 ) *) The present translation incorporates suggestions m a d e b y the author. because only after the problems have been solved can the reader be sure that he understands the subject matter of the book. At the end of the book are placed answers and hints to some of the problems. Sec. G. Kizner for the thoroughness and initiative in editing the book. The corresponding parts of the text of the book are marked by one star at the beginning and by two stars at the end. The reader is advised to solve most of the problems.

. S e t s and Propositions. Further Properties of B o o l e a n Algebras. N o r m e d B o o l e a n Algebras A p p e n d i x * . B o o l e a n Algebra 3. "Laws of Thought". Implication 7* 1 ).Contents Preface 5 1. P r o p o s i t i o n s and S w i t c h i n g Circuits 8. R u l e s for D e d u c t i o n 6. P r o p o s i t i o n a l Algebra 5. B o o l e a n E q u a l i t i e s and I n e q u a l i t i e s 4. Principle of D u a l i t y . Algebra of N u m b e r s and Algebra of S e t s 2. D e f i n i t i o n of a B o o l e a n Algebra Answers and Hints 7 23 37 54 63 B9 89 100 117 120 Bibliography 125 Name Index 126 Subject Index 127 The starred i t e m s indicate those sections w h i c h m a y be o m i t t e d in the first reading of the book. Further E x a m p l e s of A p p l i c a t i o n of R u l e s for D e d u c t i o n .

there cannot be —3 books on a book shelf. and there can even be 6 1 / 2 books on a book shelf. there cannot of course be 33 1 / 2 boys in a class or 3 x / 4 plates on the table. in the further course of the study of mathematics the pupils come across new and still new "numbers" (such as fractional numbers. However. a film can last for l 3 / 4 hours. but at the same time. for instance. such n u m b e r s as 1 or — 3 ' 2 or Y 2 are termed real numbers). By the way. 7 . Of course. in this case we cannot say that the owner of the books handles them well!) The moment we get used to the fact that a fractional number of objects in a collection can make sense we pass to negative numbers. A whole number gives information on how many objects there are in a given collection. When the pupils get used to a new class of numbers they are no longer puzzled by them. but yet at every stage of the extension of the notion of a number they lose some of their illusions. how many apples there are in a basket or how many pages there are in a book or how many boys there are in a class.1. Senior pupils study still more "frightening" numbers: first the so-called irrational numbers such as 1^2 and then the imaginary numbers such as 1 + 2i1) (the terms "irrational" and "imaginary" clearly indicate how strange these numbers seemed to the people until they got used to them). As to the fractions. (This would be quite unnatural!) But a thermometer can read —5° and it even makes sense to say that a person has —50 copecks (the latter situation may worry the person but this is of no importance to mathematics!). if the reader is not yet familiar with irrational and imaginary numbers.). (Of course. this will not prevent x ) In modern m a t h e m a t i c s the n u m b e r s of the t y p e of 1 + 2i are called complex numbers while b y imaginary (or pure imaginary) numbers are m e a n t such numbers as 2i or —~\f 2i (in contrast to t h e m . At the beginning the pupils study whole numbers whose understanding causes no difficulties because most pupils are to some extent familiar with these numbers before they start going to school. Algebra of Numbers and Algebra of Sets When studying arithmetic and algebra at school pupils deal with numbers of various nature. there can be 4V2 apples on the table. irrational numbers etc.

Although the concepts of irra tional and imaginary numbers have little in common with the primary idea of a whole number as a quantitative characteristic of a collection of objects we nevertheless speak of them as "numbers". N i v e n . So it is natural to ask what is the common feature of all these kinds of numbers which allows us to apply the term "number" to all of them. the number of objects in the union of two collections the first of which contains a objects and the second b objects. when we multiply two positive integers a and b we find the number of objects in a union of a collections each of which contains b obfects. Similarly. 8 . x ) A n e l e m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s n u m b e r s c a n be f o u n d in t h e b o o k : I.ab apples j. N e w York. Rational and Irrational. w e c a n n o t s u b t r a c t the n u m b e r 5 f r o m the n u m b e r 3 and if we k n o w o n l y t h e w h o l e n u m b e r s we c a n n o t d i v i d e the n u m b e r 7 b y the n u m b e r 4. for i n s t a n c e . If there are 35 pupils in a class and 39 in another class then there are 35 + 39 — 74 pupils in both classes (also see Fig. For instance._ a*b apples Ù Û ! 0 ÔIO 0 ! 0 Ù ÛÛOlOOOO o o o i û û û û û û ô a apples ' û ù û b apples Fig. 2 ) B u t n o t s u b t r a c t e d or d i v i d e d : i f . 2 him from reading this book 1 ). It can easily be noticed that the main common feature of all these kinds of numbers is that all the numbers can be added together and multiplied by each other 2 ). Numbers'. w e are f a m i l i a r o n l y w i t h p o s i t i v e n u m b e r s . R a n d o m H o u s e . However. 1 û ô û j ô o i o û i ô ô Û Û I O Ù I Û Û I Û Ù b apples b apples b apples b apples a groups of apples Fig. this similarity between the various kinds of numbers is conditional: the matter is that although we can perform addition and multiplication of all kinds of numbers these operations themselves have a different sense in different cases. 1). 1961. when we add together two positive integers a and b we find.

the sum and the product of rational numbers (fractions) are defined by the following rules: a . We also know that. y . for instance. b. It is however evident that this interpretation of addition and multiplication applies neither to the operations on fractions nor to the operations on negative numbers. However. For instance. here we have gone too far: it turns out that there is in fact a great similarity between the operation of addition of the whole numbers and the operation of addition of the fractions. For instance. for the numbers of any nature we always have the identities the commutative law tor addition of numbers ') Wo do not discuss in detail irrational and imaginary n u m b e r s here and o n l y note t h a t the complex numbers are added together and m u l t i p l i e d b y each other according to the rules (a + bi) + (c + (a + bi) (c + di) = (a + c) + (6 + d)i and di) = (ac — bd) -f (ad + 6c)i These rules m a y seem strajige to the reader who is not yet familiar with c o m p l e x numbers but they are m u c h simpler than the d e f i n i t i o n s of the sum and of the product of irrational numbers. ). for the signed numbers there exists the rule (—«)•(—6) = ab 1 etc. c and d are whole numbers). 2). Thus. More precisely. c ad-\-bc bd and a c ~b'~d ac ~bd (here a.If. for instance. we can draw the following conclusion: the term "number" is applied to numbers of different kinds because they can be added together and multiplied by each other but the operations of addition and multiplication themselves are completely different for different kinds of numbers. the definitions of these operations are different but the general properties of the operations are completely similar. there are 3 classes in each of which there are 36 pupils then there are 3-36 = 108 pupils in all these classes (also see Fig.

for any numbers a.and ab = ba the commutative law for multiplication of numbers and also the identities (a + b)+c = a + (br>rc) the associative law for addition of numbers and (ab) c = a (be) the associative law for multiplication of numbers Also. For instance. in all the cases there exist two "special" numbers 0 and 1 such that the addition of the first of them to any number and the multiplication of any number by the second one do not change the original number: for any number a we have a + 0 = a and a -1 = a What has been said accounts for the point of view of modern mathematics according to which the aim of algebra is to study some (different) systems of numbers (and other objects) for which the operations of addition and multiplication are defined so that the above laws and some other laws which will be stated later are fulfilled. It is due to this analogy that so many people often confuse the notion of the (additive) inverse of a number a (which is the number —a whose addition to the given number a results in 0) and the notion of the recip10 . There is a certain kind of analogy between the operations of addition and multiplication which is particularly noticeable because the properties of addition are in many respects similar to the properties of multiplication. For instance. b and c the identity (a-\-b) c = ac-\-bc the distributive law for multiplication over addition must hold. if we set the unusual "proportion" addition subtraction multiplication ? then everybody will substitute the word "division" for the interrogation sign even without analysing the meaning of the "proportion".

For instance. this analogy is not complete.b) c = ac + be and interchange addition and multiplication we get the "equality" ab + c = (a e) (b + c) with which nobody of course can agree.) There are however some other algebraic systems whose elements are not numbers such that it is also possible to deiine the operations of addition and multiplication for them and the similarity between the addition and the multiplication of these elements is even closer than the similarity *) If the e q u a l i t y a + 1 = 1 were fulfilled for any a then it would be impossible to subtract 1 from a n y number different from 1. However. By the same reason. But if we replace in this identity multiplication by addition and zero by unity we arrive at the meaningless "equality" a + 1 = 1 which can hold only when a = 0 1 ). the number 0 plays a special role not only in the addition but also in the multiplication because we have o-0 = 0 for any number a (in particular. we see much similarity between the properties of an arithmetic progression (which is a sequence of numbers for which the difference between any member and the preceding member is one and the same) and a geometric progression (which is a sequence of numbers for which the ratio of any member to the preceding one is one and the same). from the last identity it follows that a number different from 0 cannot be divided by 0).(tïie multiplicative inverse) of a number a (which is the number —whose product by the given number a rocal is equal to 1). 11 . Further. I n reality t h i s is not the case: for instance. if we take the distributive law (a -(. (Since we obviously have (a + c) (b + c) = ab + ac + be + c2 = = ab -f c (a + b -f c) it follows that (a + c) (b + c) — ab -f c only when c — 0 or when a + b + c = 1. 3 — 1 = 2.

The fact that we have defined a completely new operation and have called it "addition" must not seem strange: it should be remembered that earlier when we passed from numbers of one kind to numbers of another kind we defined the operation of addition in a different way. 3 the set of even numbers. the set of grammar mistakes in your composition etc. the sum of the numbers 5 and (—S) is equal to the difference between the (positive) numbers 5 and 8. By a set is meant any collection of arbitrary objects.. If the set A consists of the points belonging to the area shaded by horizontal lines in Fig. the set of points bounded by a circle. 3.c/d = {ad bc)!bd differs from the addition of whole 12 . 8. 16. if A is the set of the boys in a class and В is the set of the girls in that class then A + В is the set of all the pupils in the class. if A is the set of all even positive integers and В is the set of the positive integers divisible by 3 then {2. we can consider the set of the pupils in a given class. the addition of fractious performed according to the rule alb + -f. the set of elements in the periodic system. let us consider a very important example of an algebra of sets. 3 and the set В consists of the points in the area shaded by inclined lines then the set A + В is the whole area shaded in Fig. 3. For instance. 15. 22. 12. Similarly. similarly. 6. For instance. the set of elephants in India. It is clear that the addition of positive numbers and the addition of negative numbers are completely different operations: for instance. 9. 4. For instance.} is the set A + В which consists of both groups of numbers. 14.which are called the elements of the set. It is quite evident that the addition of two sets can be defined in the following way: by the sum A В of a set A and. 20. . the set of points in a square. 10. 21. Fig. 18. a set В we shall simply mean the union of these sets.between the same operations on numbers..

therefore. which is the same. it is obvious that for any sets А. To facilitate the analysis it is convenient to consider special diagrams demonstrating operations on sets. we have A + В = В + A for any two sets A and B. within this square we can mark different points representing some concrete elements of the set (for instance. Now let us check whether these laws remain valid for the new operation of "addition". Such diagrams are often called Venn's diagrams after the English mathematician John Venn (1834-1923) who used these diagrams in his study of mathematical logic. Further. for instance. to fractions: in both cases the operation of addition turned out to be commutative and associative. Let us make the following convention: the set of all the elements under consideration (for instance. the numbers 3 and 5 or the pupils Peter and Mary). 1) given on page 8 is inapplicable to the description of the addition of fractions. 13 . that is for the addition of sets. the set of all whole numbers or the set of all p upils in a school) will be represented as a square. Euler represented differ1'iit sets of objects by circles in the plane. The usage of one and the same term "addition" in all the cases was accounted for by the fact that the general laws for the operation of iddition of whole numbers remained valid when we passed. Venn 2 ). It follows that the set (A + B) -f С (or. 1 ) Leonard Euler (1707-1783). in principle. Euler 1 ) used such diagrams much earlier than J. As is clearly seen from Fig. 2 ) In his studies in mathematical logic L. It would be more precise to call them Euler's diagrams because L. В and С there always holds the identity (A + В) + С = A + (В + C) This means that the addition of sets obeys the associative law. 3. a famous Swiss mathematician who spent most of his life in Russia and died in St. which means that the commutative law holds for the addition of sets. In this representation the sets consisting of some of the elements of the given set (for instance the set of even numbers or the set of excellent pupils) are represented by some parts of that square. do not differ from Venn's diagrams) "t 1 often referred to as Euler's circles. the corresponding •liagrams (which.numbers: the definition of the addition of the positive integers (see Fig. Petersburg.

} This set consists of all positive integers divisible by 6. it is also obvious that "the set of the chess-players who can swim" and "the set of the swimmers 14 . For instance. that is the intersection of these sets (also called the meet of A and В). if A is the set of the chess-players in your class and В is the set of the swimmers in your class then А В is the set of those chess-players who can also swim.В -f С coincides with the whole area shaded in this figure). It is quite clear that the multiplication of sets defined in this way obeys the commutative law. 4 where the set A -f. 5 the set A + (B -f.Fig. if A is the set of the positive integers and В is the set of numbers divisible by 3 then the set А В is {6. 5. . . 18. 24. Now let us agree that by the product А В of two sets A and В will be meant their common part. В and С (see Fig. . that is for any two sets A and В we have AB = BA (see the same Fig. 5 by horizontal lines and the set В consists of the points in the area shaded by vertical lines then the set AB is the area in the figure which is cross-hatched.C)) can simply be denoted as A + В + С without using parentheses. 12. the set A + В + С is nothing but the union of all the three sets A. 4 Fig. If the set A consists of the points lying in the area shaded in Fig.

15 . On the other hand. it is quite evident that the associative law also holds for the multiplication of sets.' if. The set (A -(. В and С we have (AB) С = А (ВС) The associative law allows us to denote the set (AB)C or. Further. we see that А (ВС) coincides with the set (AB)C of all integers divisible by 30. But it is quite clear that exactly the same set can be obtained if we form the union AC + ВС of the set А С of the chess-players Here is one more example demonstrating the associative law for the product of sets. that is for any three sets A. hence. the set А (ВС) simply as ABC without using parentheses. В and С (in Fig. В and С there also holds the distributive law (A + В) С = AC + ВС which means that intersection distributes over union.who can play chess" coincide: this is simply one and the same set). 6 the set ABC is covered by the network of the three families of hatching lines 1 ). that is the set of those pupils who can play chess or draughts or both. ВС is the set of integers divisible by 15 and A(BC) is the set of even integers divisible by 15. for instance. A remarkable fact is that for any three sets A. В the set of integers divisible by 3 and С the set of integers divisible by 5. Let A be the set of integers divisible by 2. A is the set of the chess-players in your class and В is the set of the pupils who can play draughts while С is the set of the swimmers then the set A + В is the union of the set of the chess-players and the set of the pupils who can play draughts. Indeed. that is divisible by 30. Then AB is the set of integers divisible by 6 and (AS)C is the set of integers divisible both by 6 and 5.В) С can be obtained from the set A + В if we choose from the latter only those pupils who can swim. which is the same. the set ABC is the common part (the intersection) of the three sets A.

If we did so this would resemble the exclusion of the number 0 from the number system: a "collection" containing zero elements is also "empty" and it may seem senseless to speak of the "number" of elements contained in such a collection. But it is in fact by far not senseless. Thus. 7. 7 who can swim and the set ВС of the pupils who can play draughts and can swim. О is an empty set (it is also referred to as a void or null set). 7. But it is clearly seen that the area AC + ВС in Fig. if this set (we shall denote it 0) is added to an arbitrary set the latter must not change and therefore the set О must contain no elements at all. Indeed. it is quite meaningful. If we did not introduce the number 0 it would be impossible 16 . 7. The verbal explanation of the distributive law is rather lengthy. 7.b the sets AC and ВС are shaded by lines with different inclination.a the set A + В is shaded by horizontal lines and the set С by vertical lines so that the set (A + В) С is covered by a network of hatching lines. One may think that since the set О is empty and contains no elements there is no need to take it into account. To explain this law it is also possible to use the graphical demonstration. In Fig. Buttt would be in fact quite unreasonable to exclude the empty set from the consideration. the set А С + ВС in the figure coincides with the whole shaded area. moreover. In Fig.b does not differ from the area {A + В) С covered by cross-hatching in Fig.a.(b) Га) Fig. It is easy to understand which "set" plays the role of "zero" in the "algebra of sets".

the intersection of the sets A and В shown in Fig. the intersection of the set of excellent pupils in your class and the set of elephants is also empty. if we did not introduce the notion of an empty set О it would be impossible to speak of the product (the intersection) of any two sets: for instance. It is quite clear that if О is an empty set then we have A + О = A for any set A .5 m is empty. -420 17 . eight ones and no tens! There are many other important tilings which would be Fig. (For instance.) The last identity is known as one of the intersection laws (the other intersection law will be presented later). it would be impossible to speak of "the set of the pupils in a class whose name is Peter" because this set may not exist at all. Similarly. that is it may turn out to be an empty set. That is why the introduction of the number zero is considered one of the most remarkable events in the history of the development of arithmetic. 8 is empty. for instance. It is also evident that for any set A we always have AO — О because the intersection of an arbitrary set A and the set О (which contains no elements) must be empty. If we did not have the notion of an "empty" set it would be even impossible to mention some sets: for instance. I lie intersection of the set of the girls in your class and the set of all those pupils whose height exceeds 2. the difference 3—3 would be equal to no number in this case). Analogously. 8 impossible without the number zero.(о subtract any number from any other number (because. Without having the number 0 at our disposal it would be very difficult to write the number 108 in the decimal number system because this number contains one hundred.

Fig. we can limit ourselves to the positive integers (then A can be. We can also consider the sets of points forming various geometrical figures lying within a definite square such as those represented in Figs.This set (we shall denote it as I) must be such that the product (that is the intersection) of the set I and any set A coincides with A. the set of the even positive integers and В can be the set of prime numbers which have 110 divisors except themselves and unity). as the set / we can take the set of all the pupils of a given school or class or the set of all positive integers or the set of all the points of 18 . 9 Now we proceed to a more complicated question concerning a set playing the role analogous to that of the number 1 in the system of numbers. for instance. From this requirement it follows that the set I must contain all the elements of all the sets A\ It is clear however that such a set can only exist if we limit ourselves to those sets whose elements are taken from a definite store of "objects": for instance.) Thus. if we limit ourselves to the sets of pupils of one definite school or of one definite class (such a set A may be the set of excellent pupils and another set В may be the set of the chess-players). by / we shall always mean some underlying basic set containing all the objects admissible in a particular problem or discussion. For instance. Similarly. (We remind the reader that when we introduced Venn's diagrams on page 13 we stipulated the existence of such a "set of all the elements under consideration". 3-8.

As has been shown. let. В the set of the pupils who play draughts and С the set of the 19 . the situation is quite different: in this case we always have A + I = I Indeed. as was already mentioned. Thus. For instance. But in the algebra of sets the situation is reverse: in this case we always have (for any sets A. A be again the set of the chess-players. in the general case the rule obtained from the equality a -0 = 0 by replacing multiplication by addition and zero by unity does not hold for numbers: for almost all numbers a we have a -f 1 Ф 1. the set / contains all the objects under consideration and therefore it cannot be enlarged: when we add an arbitrary set A (this set A must of course belong to the class of sets we deal with) to the universal set I we always obtain the same set I. by definition. for instance. In "algebra of sets" the set / is referred to as the universal sel. if we take the distributive law (a + b) с = — ас be which holds for numbers and interchange addition and multiplication in it we arrive at the meaningless "equality" ab + с = (a + c) (b + c) which turns out to be wrong for numbers in almost all cases. Indeed. 9). В and C) the equality AB + С = (A + С) (В + С) expressing the second distributive law of set theory (this is the distributive law for addition over multiplication). we see that the operation laws for the "algebra of sets" we have constructed are in many respects similar to the laws of elementary algebra dealing with numbers but at the same time the former laws do not completely coincide with the latter laws. It is evident that for any "smaller" set A (and even for the set A coinciding with /) we have the second intersection law AI = A The last identity resembles the well-known arithmetic equality defining the number unity. Further.a square (Fig. As to the algebra of sets. almost all basic laws which are known for numbers also hold for the algebra of sets but the algebra of sets also has some other completely different laws which may seem strange when they are first encountered.

10. the whole shaded area in the figure represents the set A B + C. On the other hand. 10. But it is readily seen that the area covered by the network of horizontal and vertical lines in Fig. In Fig. This verbal explanation may seem too lengthy and therefore we shall also present the graphical demonstration of the second distributive law of the set theory. draughts and can swim). which proves the second distributive law.6 the union A + С of the sets A and С is shaded by horizontal lines and the union В -} С of the sets В and С is shaded by vertical lines. 10. which means that this intersection coincides with the set A B + C. the unions A + С and В + С of the sets A and С and of the sets В and С respectively consist of the pupils who can play chess or can swim or both and of the pupils who can play draughts or can swim or both. the intersection А В of the sets A and В consists of all the pupils who can play both chess and draughts and the union A B -f. 10. obviously. In Fig. 10 20 . Then. It is clear that the intersection {A -f С) {В + С) of these two unions includes all the pupils who can swim and also those pupils who cannot swim but can play both chess and draughts. perhaps.С of the sets AB and С consists of all the pupils who can play both chess and draughts or can swim (or. can play chess. the intersection (A + С) (В + C) of these two unions is covered by the "network" of hatching lines.swimmers in your class.a the intersection А В (of the sets A and B) and the set С are shaded by hatching lines with different inclinations.6 exactly coincides with the whole area shaded in Fig.a. fa) гь) Fig.

and •. In other words. when we pass from whole numbers to fractions or to signed numbers supplied with the signs "plus" or "minus"). when we pass from numbers to sets we encounter a completely different situation: it turns out t h a t there are a number of laws of algebra of numbers which are inapplicable to the algebra of sets 1 ). However. But it is nevertheless expedient to write down here the basic laws of set algebra using the standard settheoretic notation: A[} B = B \) A and A ft B = B A the c o m m u t a t i v e l a w s (A U В) и c = A (J {В и С) and (А П В) П С = А Г) (В Г) С) the associative laws 21 . In the present book we shall deal not only with algebra of sets but also with some other algebraic systems in which the operations of "addition" and "multiplication" obey the same laws as in algebra of sets. therefore for our aims it is natural to use the ordinary symbols -f. The usage of the symbols + and • makes it possible to indicate in a visual way the similarity between elementary algebra and the new algebraic systems. in all such cases related to algebra of numbers we have to learn some new facts and laws but the facts learned previously remain valid. It is easy to understand that for any set A the union of this set and another replica of the same set and also the intersection of the set A with itself coincide with the original set A: A + A = A and AA = A These two identities are called idempotent laws (the first of them is the idempotent law for addition and the second is the idempotent law for multiplication). but in a completely different way: the union of sets A and В is denoted as A U В and the intersection of these sets as А П B.In conclusion we present two more laws of algebra of sets which essentially differ from what is known from elementary algebra dealing with numbers. l ) It is this distinction between the laws of algebra of sets and the laws of algebra of numbers that accounts for the fact that in many books the addition and the multiplication of sets (that is the operations of forming the union and tne intersection of sets) are denoted not by the usual symbols + and -. The fact that the general laws of algebra retain one and the same form for all kinds of numbers is very important: this makes i t possible to use our experience acquired in studying numbers of one kind when we pass to another kind of numbers (for instance. instead of the symbols [J and f| used in set theory.

the idempotent laws A + A = A and + D AA = A are completely new to us.. that is why... in algebra of sets we have (A +D)(B + D) (C + D) = [{A + D) (В +/))] (С + D) = = (AB + D) (C + D) = (AB) С + D = ABC Finally.(А П С) и (В n С) and (A f] В) U С = = (А и С) П (В и С) the distributive laws A U the А ^ idempotent A and Аlaws Г\ Л = А 22 . we have (A +B)(B + C) (C'+A) = ABC + = AAB = (ABC + ABC) A\j 0 = A ACC + + BBC + ABB + AAC + + ВС С + ABC = + (AB + AB) + and A [] 1 = A A U / = / and A f\ 0 = 0 the properties of the empty set О and of the universal set 1 (А и В) n с . Another peculiarity of algebra of sets is the way in which the "parentheses are opened" using the second distributive law (A + C) (B + C) = AB -f.С For instance. we can express the meaning of these laws verbally by saying that the algebra of sets involves neither exponents nor coefficients. for instance.A = A n times for any A and n.Let us enumerate these new laws. ..+A = A • n times and A-A . We first of all mention the relation A + I = I which indicates a significant distinction between the universal set / and the number 1.. For in the algebra of sets we have A + A+.

Exercises 1'rove the following equalities in which capital letters denote sets (the letter О always denotes the empty set and (lie letter I denotes the universal set): 1. Boolean Algebra Let. (A -f В) (A + С) (B + D) (C + D) = AD 2. A (A + I) {В + 0)= AB 6. (A+B) (A + 1) + (A + В) (В + О) = A 9. AB + A = A 4.+ (AC + AC) + (ВС + ВС) = + = ABC + AB AC + ВС (cï. (A + B)(B + I)(A +0) = A 10. us write down all the general laws of algebra of sets we have established: A+ B= B+ A and AB = В A Uk* C o m m u t a t i v e l a w s . (A + В) (В + С) (C + A) = AB + ВС + 7. (A + В + С) (В + С + D) (С + D + А) = AB + AD + BD + С Example: A (A + 6) (В + С) = + ВС СA BD + В - A[(A + C) X the a s s o c i a t i v i t y of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n X (B -f C)] = A(AB + C) the second distributive law = (AB)A-{~CA the first d i s t r i b u t i v e law = (AB + C)A = the e o m m u t a t i v i t y of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n = (AA)B + AC = the e o m m u t a t i v i t y and the a s s o c i a t i v i t y of multiplication = AB + AC t h e idempotent l a w for m u l t i p l i c a t i o n 2. A (A + В) = A 3. (A + В) (В + С) (C + D) = AC + ВС + 8. Exercise 6 below). A (A + С) (B + C) = AB + AC 5.

of course. First of all. the algebra of sets is.C) the distributive laws A + A = A and AA = A the idempotent laws Besides. tlie set algebra contains two "special" elements (sets) О and / such that A + О = A and AI = A A + I = / and AO — О Those laws (identities) are similar to the ordinary laws of the algebra of numbers but they do not coincide completely with the latter. is there only one realization of such an algebra or is there also a number of these "algebras" which differ from one another in the elements on which the operations are performed and in the definitions of the operations (as before we shall call these operations a d d i t i o n ' a n d multiplication) b u t at the same time are similar in the basic properties of the operations? The reader can undoubtedly anticipate the answer to the question: there are in fact many algebras similar to the algebra of sets (in these algebras the same general operation rules hold). also an "algebra" but it is new to us and rather unusual. Now it should be noted t h a t we have in fact not one ordinary algebra of numbers but m a n y such "algebras": indeed. the "algebra of complex numbers" (that is of the real and the imaginary numbers) and so on. All these "algebras" differ from one another in the numbers on which the operations are performed and in the definitions of the operations of addition and multiplication but the general properties of the operations remain the same in all the cases. In this connection it now appears natural to ask. the "algebra of signed numbers" (that is of the positive and non-positive numbers) and also the "algebra of real numbers" (that is of the rational and irrational numbers).{A + B) + C ^ A + {B + C) and (AB)C = A ( B C ) the associative laws (A + В) С = AC + ВС and AB-\-C — (A -f С) (В -f. the "algebra of rational numbers" (by the rational numbers are meant both the integers and the fractions). what is the situation in the unusual algebra of sets? In other words. we can consider the "algebra of positive integers". there are a variety of algebras 24 .

Now we proceed to the examples. the sum and the product of a and b: с — a -f b and d = ab These rules must be chosen so that all the laws characteristic of the algebra of sets are fulfilled. But there are also completely different examples of algebras having similar properties. . of course. t h a t is when they satisfy definite general logical requirements. the "algebra of sets of books in a library" and the "algebra of sets of stars in the sky". For instance. means to indicate some rules according to which we attribute to any two objects a and b two other objects с and d called. Some definitions given below may seem strange because they are new. a completely different algebra!). why the sum of a and b is equal to c? Indeed. we shall call these elements 25 . 2 on page 8). below we shall discuss some examples of this kind. . respectively. these new rules and definitions may of course seem strange to the pupils until they get used to them. and new things always seem strange when they are first encountered. Example 1.of sets themselves: for instance. we define the sum a -f b as being the element с and. the "algebra of sets of points lying within a square" (see Figs. Algebra of two numbers (elements). Let us assume that the algebra consists of only two elements. 1 on page 8) and t h a t the product ab is equal to the number of objects in the union of a collections each of which contains b objects (Fig. the "algebra of sets of numbers" (these numbers can be of different kinds). 3-10). the definitions must not be discussed when they are consistent. as is known. we can consider the "algebra of sets of pupils in your class". pupils are first told that the sum of two numbers a and b is the number of objects in the union of a collection containing a objects and a collection of b objects (see Fig. . 'or the sake of simplicity. Before proceeding to these examples the reader should realize that to define the operations of addition and multiplication in a set of objects (elements) a. the "algebra of sets of animals in a zoo" (this is. b. But after these rules have been chosen we have no right to ask. Later the pupils are taught fractions and are told that the sum and the product of fractions alb and dd are defined according to the rules given on page 9.

the associative law holds. It is also clearly seen that the idempotent laws also hold for this algebra: a + a —a and aa = a for any a that is for a = 0 and for a = 1 (now we see why it was necessary to put 1 + 1 = 1!).с = a -f. the "addition table" in this new algebra has the form 0 i + 0 1 1 1 0 1 It is obvious that in the algebra thus defined both commutative laws hold: a + b = b + a and ab = ba for any a and b It can readily be verified that the associative laws also hold for this algebra: [a -}. we shall define it in an "almost ordinary way" with the only distinction from the ordinary arithmetic that now the sum 1 + 1 is not equal to 2 (this "algebra of two numbers" does not contain the number 2 at all!) but is equal to 1."numbers" and denote them by the familiar symbols 0 and 1 (but in the case under consideration these symbols have a completely new meaning). Thus. We shall deline the multiplication of these numbers in exactly the same way as in ordinary arithmetic.b) -f.(b c) and (ab) с = a (be) for any a. as we know. b and с There is no need to verify the associative law for multiplication because the "new" multiplication completely coincides with the multiplication of numbers for which. It is a little more difficult 26 . that is by means of the following "multiplication table": 0 1 • 0 1 0 0 0 1 As to the addition.

l = l . b and с -f. Suppose that the elements of the algebra are four "numbers" which we shall denote as the digits 0 and 1 and the letters p and q. in this case we also have a -j. if we agree that the number 0 plays the role of the element 0 and the number 1 plays the role of the element I. The addition and the multiplication in this algebra will be defined with the aid of the following tables: + 0 p 1 1 0 p 4 1 и p я 1 p p 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 p q 1 0 0 0 0 0 p 0 p 0 q 0 0 <7 p я l 0 p q l As can readily be checked by means of the direct computation.be and ab \-c -= (a 4 c) (b + c) a for any a.b = b + a and ab = ba for any a and b (a + b) -f с = a + (b + c) and (ab) с = a (be) for any a.0 = 0 Example 2. in this algebra of two elements we have (1 l ) .a = a and aa — a for any a (that is for a = 0.p. l = 1 and (1-1) + (1-1) = 1 + 1 = 1 (1-1) + 1 = 1 + 1 = 1 and (1 + 1)-(1 + 1) = M = 1 Finally. Algebra of four numbers (elements). b and с For instance. the rules concerning the "special" elements О and I will also hold. This is a slightly more complicated example of the same kind.to verify the distributive laws: (a + b) с = ас + be and ab + с = (a + c) (b + c) for any a. a — q and a = 1) 27 . that is we shall always have (for a = 0 and for a = 1) a + 0 = a and a-1 = a\ a + 1 = 1 and a . a -—. b and с ta -L Ь) с — ас -f.

let us assume that the sum i f f i у of two numbers x and у is equal to the greatest (the maximum) of these numbers in case x Ф у and to any of them in case x = y. Namely.0 = 0 Example 3. . the numbers 0 and 1 play the roles of the elements О and I of the algebra of sets respectively because for any a we have a + 0 = a and a . . 2/3 and 1 then the "addition table" and the "multiplication table" for these numbers have the form 1 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 Ф 0 1 3 i 0 0 i 1 ® 0 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 о 1 3 1 2 2 3 2 . that is numbers lying between 0 and 1 and the numbers 0 and 1 themselves. 2 is often denoted in mathematics as max Iu. To avoid the confusion between the ordinary addition aild multiplication and the new operations we shall even denote the latter by the new symbols ® (addition) and ® (multiplication). all) numbers x satisfying the condition 0 x ^ 1. z] and the minimum number among these 28 . For instance.3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 \i 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 I The maximum number among two or several numbers u. .Besides. As the elements of the algebra let us take the numbers contained in an arbitrary (bounded) number set. . we shall define them in a completely new manner. 1/3.1 = a\ a 1 = 1 and a . Algebra of maxima and minima. 1/2.. v. v. perhaps. .. let us agree that the elements of the algebra are some (or. As to the operations of addition and multiplication. for instance.. if the elements of the algebra are the numbers 0. By the product x ® у of two numbers x and у we shall mean the least (the minimum) of these numbers in case x Ф у and any of them in case x = y.

Х9у

<У

АГ®У

—О—

X

Oh

У

Fig. i l

**numbers as min [и, v, . . ., zj. Thus, in this "algebra of
**

maxima and minima", we have, by definition,

х ф y = max [x, y]

and

x <8> y = min [x, y 1

**We can also agree to represent numbers as points on the
**

number line. Then the numbers x satisfying the condition

0 ^ x ^ 1 are represented by the points of a horizontal

line segment of length 1, the sum x ф y of two numbers

x and y is represented by the rightmost of the points x and

y and their product x ® y is represented by the leftmost point

(Fig. 11).

It is clear that the new operations of addition and multiplication we have defined satisfy the commutative laws:

x Ф у —у Ф x

and

x <g> y = y <8> x

**The associative laws
**

(x Ф у) Ф z = x ф (у Ф z) and

(x <g) i/) <S> z = .r ® (?/ ®

z)

**also obviously hold because the number (x ® у) ф z (or,
**

wiiich is the same, the number x Ф (у Ф z)) which can

simply be denoted as x Ф у Ф z without the parentheses

is nothing but max [x, y, z] (Fig. 12) while the number

(x ® y) ® z (or, which is the same, x <g> (у ® z)) which

can simply be written as x <8> y ® z without the parentheses is nothing but min [x, y, z] (see the same Fig. 12).

It is also quite clear that the idempotent laws also

hold here:

x Ф x = max [x, x] — x and x <S> x = min [x, x] = x

Finally, let us check the validity of the distributive laws

(x Ф y) ® z = (x О z) Ф (y (8) z)

01

о

y 97

О

«®у-- y Ф / : * ® y ®Z

-OУ

7

Fig. 12

29

**(x®y)®z=(x®z)@(y®z)
**

y®Z

x®z

о h-о

о

у

Z

y

О Н /

X

y®Z

О I—о

у

(а)

**(x®y)®z=(x®z)g)(y®z)
**

x©y=x®z

о

О

х

Z

11

(Ь)

Fig. 13

and

H } ) 0 z

=

(iez)»(!/®z)

**It is evident that the number
**

(x © y) ® z = min {max [x, y], z}

is equal to z if at least one of the numbers x and у is greater

than z and is equal to the greatest of these numbers if both

x and у are less than z (Fig. 13,a and b). It is also clear that

the number

(x <8> z) © (у ® z) = max {min [x, z], min [y, z]}

is equal to the same value (see again Fig. 13). Analogously,

the number

(x <8> y) © z = max {min [x, y], z}

is equal to z if at least one of the numbers x and у is less than z

and is equal to the minimum of the numbers x and у if

both x and у exceed z (Fig. 14,a and b). As is seen from the

same Fig. 14, the number

(x © z) <8> (у © z) = min {max [x, z], max [y, z]}

is also equal to the same value.

Now to make sure that all the laws of the algebra of sets

hold for the n:w unusual algebra of maxima and minima

it is sufficient to note that the role of the elements О and I

of the algebra of sets is played by the smallest number 0

among all the numbers under consideration and by the greatest number 1 respectively. Indeed, for any number x satis( х ® у ; ф z=(x®zmy@z)

x®z = y®z

x®y

oi—o-!.

у

х

о

Z

ii

oi—о

(a)

о

X

(b)

Fig. 14

30

Z

**(x®y)®z=(x®z)®(y®z)
**

x®y=x®z

У®г

о

y

II

**the condition 0 ^ x ^ 1 we always have
**

x © 0 = max [x, 0] = x

and x ® 1 = min [x, 1] = x

x Ф 1 — max [x, 1] = 1 and x ® 0 = min [x, 0] = 0

lying

**Example 4. Algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors. Let N be an arbitrary integer. As the
**

elements of the new algebra we shall take all the possible

divisors of the number N. For instance, if N = 210 =

= 2 -3 -5 -7 then the elements of the algebra in question are

the numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 21, 30, 35, 42,

70, 105 and 210. In this example we shall define the addition and the multiplication of the numbers in a completely

new way: by the sum m © n of two numbers m and n we

shall mean their least common multiple (that is the smallest

positive integer which is divisible by both numbers m and n)

and as the product m ® ж of the numbers m and n we shall

take their greatest common divisor (that is the greatest integer

by which both m and n are divisible). For instance, if N = 6

(in this case the algebra contains only the four numbers

1 , 2 , 3 and 6) the addition and the multiplication of the

elements of the algebra are specified by the following tables:

1 2 3 6

e

i

2

3

6

1

2

3

6

2

2

6

6

3

6

3

6

6

g

<8>

and

6

6

1

2

3

6

1 2 3 6

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

3

3

1

2

3

6

**In "higher arithmetic" (number theory) the least common
**

multiple of two or several numbers m, n, . . ., s is often

denoted as [m, n, . . ., s] and the greatest comtaon divisor

of the same numbers is denoted as (m, n, . . ., s). Thus, for

this algebra we have, by definition,

m Ф n = \m, n\

and

m ® n = (m, n)

**For instance, if the algebra contains the numbers 10 and 15
**

! lien

Ю e 15 = [10, 151 = 30

and

10 ® 15 = (10, 15) = 5

**It is evident that in this algebra we always have
**

m ф n = n ф m

and

m <8> n -= n <8> m

31

105) = (70. we have (m © re) © p = m © (re © p) = [to. the number (m ® n) © p = [(m. re). The number (m © re) ® p = ([m. (n. 7] = 35 Analogously. re. The idempotent laws m © m = [m. p] (we can denote this number simply as m © re © p without the parentheses) and also (m ® re) ® p = m ® (re ® p) = ( m . The verification of the distributive laws is a little more lengthy. m] = m and m ® m = (m. p] is the least common multiple of the number p and the greatest common divisor of the numbers m and re. n]. 105) = 35 and (10 ® 105) © (14 ® 105) = [(10. 105)] = = [5. This number contains those and only those prime factors which are contained in p and are simultaneously contained in at least one of the numbers m and n. 105). p) is nothing but the greatest common divisor of the number p and the least common multiple of the numbers m and n (think carefully about this expression!). m) — m are also quite evident. re. it contains those and only those prime factors which are contained in p or in both numbers m and re or in all the three numbers p. if we limit ourselves to the divisors of the number 210 then we have (10 © 14) ® 105 = (110. (14. in 32 .Further. 14]. p) (the latter number can simply be denoted as m ® n ® p). p). p)] and therefore we always have (m © re) ® p = (m ® p) + (re <8> p) For instance. But it is evident that these (and only these) prime factors are also contained in the number (m ® p) © (n <g> p) = [(m.

**;i!i(i п. But exactly the same factors are contained in the
**

number

(m фр) <8> (n ® p) = ([m, p], [n, p])

,IH1 therefore we always have

(m ® n) © p = (m Ф p) <S> {n ф p)

For instance,

(10 ® 14) ф 105 = [(10, 14), 105] = [2, 105] = 210

and

(10 e 105) ® (14 0 105) = ([10, 105], [14, 105]) ==

= (210, 210) = 210

Finally, in this case the roles of the elements О and 1

of the algebra of sets are played by the smallest number 1

among the collection of numbers we deal with and by the

greatest number N respectively. Indeed, this algebra only

contains the divisors of the number N and we obviously have

m Ф 1 = [m, 1] = m

m ф N = [m, N] = N

and

and

m ® N = (m, N) = m

m ® 1 = (m, 1) = 1

**We thus see t h a t for this algebra all the laws of the algebra
**

of sets are fulfilled.

llence, there are different systems of "objects" (of elements

of the algebra in question) for which it is possible to define

the operations of addition and multiplication

satisfying all

the known rules fulfilled in the algebra of sets: the two commutative laws, the two associative laws, the two distributive laws, the two idempotent laws and the four rules specifying the properties of the "special" elements whose role in

these algebras is close to that of zero and unity. Later on we

f-hall consider two more important and interesting examples

of such algebras.

Now we proceed to the study of the general properties

«>! all such algebras and our immediate aim is to give a general

"name to all of these algebras. Since algebras with such

grange properties were first considered by the distinguished

English mathematician George Boole who lived iu the

1'tth century, all the algebras of this kind are called Boolean

algebras1). For the basic operations on the elements of a Boo!

**\ Л rigorous definition of a Boolean algebra is stated in Appendix
**

117.

33

G E O R G E BOOLE

(1815-1864)

lean algebra we shall retain the terms "addition" and "multiplication" (but the reader should bear in mind that in

the general case these operations differ from the ordinary

addition and multiplication of numbers!). We shall also

sometimes refer to these operations as the Boolean addition

and the Boolean

multiplication.

In his "Laws of Thought" which first appeared in 1854,

that is more than a hundred years ago, G. Boole investigated

in detail this unusual algebra. The title of G. Boole's work

may first seem strange; however, after the reader has studied

this book it will become clear what is the relationship between unusual algebras considered in the book and the laws

of human thought. At present we only note that it is this

relationship between the Boolean algebras and the "laws of

thought" that accounts for the fact that the work of G. Boole

to which his contemporaries paid little attention is of such

great interest nowadays. In recent years the book by G. Boole

has been many times republished and translated into various

languages.

Exercises

1. Verify directly that for all triples of elements of the

"Boolean algebra containing two numbers" (see Example

1 on page 25) there hold both distributive laws.

2. Check the validity of both distributive laws for several

triples of elements of the "Boolean algebra with four elements" (Example 2 page 27).

3. (a) Let there be a family in which there is only one

schoolboy. Then all the "sets of the schoolboys in the family"

are the following: the set / containing one schoolboy and

the set О containing no schoolboys (the empty set). Compile

the "addition table" and the "multiplication table" for the

"algebra of sets of schoolboys in the family" (this algebra

consists of only two elements О and I) and compare these

tables with the tables on page 26. Proceeding from this

comparison show that in the "algebra of two numbers"

considered in Example 1 of this section all the laws of the

Boolean algebra hold.

(b) Let there be a family in which there are two schoolchildren Peter and Mary who go to school. Then the "algebra

of sets of schoolchildren in the family" consists of four elements: the set / containing both schoolchildren, the two

3

35

min[i. 30]. [30. h phh Then any two divisors m and n of this number can be written as where 36 m = pVp? • • • Plh 0 < а 1 < Л 1 . m a x [ { . 6*. (b) Compile the "addition table" and the "multiplication table" for the algebra of the divisors of the number 12 in which m Ф n = [m... 1 ] . i]} = min{max[-i. 8). I ] . 4. . n] and m ® n — (m. (a) Compile the "addition table" and the "multiplication tablé" for the Boolean algebra consisting of the three numbers 0. 0 < а 2 < Az.. n). Compile the "addition table" and the "multiplication table" for this algebra of sets and compare them with the tables on page 27. = = max{min[i. 30). Proceeding from this comparison show that in the "algebra of four elements" considered in Example 2 of this section there hold all the laws of the Boolean algebra. (30. 1 ] . y] and x <8> y = min \x.. -j and 1 in which x © y = max [x. Check that (a) m i n { m a x [ 4 . . 8]. у]. . 8]) 5. Verify the validity of the laws of the Boolean algebra for this algebra of three elements. T]> T } = ([12. ±]} and m a x { m i n (b) [ y . 8)] and [(12. Show that some of the laws of the Boolean algebra are fulfilled for this algebra of the divisors. Let the decomposition of a (positive integral) number N into prime factors be of the form •r At N = рТрг Аг A . 0 <Cah^Ah .sets P (Peter) and M (Mary) each of which contains one of the two schoolchildren and the empty set 0 . 8) = [(12. 8] = ([12.

n = pSpo b h p^ where о<А<Л„ 0<&2<л2. bh can be equal to zero). .. the similarity between the operations is so close that in every (correct) formula of a Boolean algebra we can interchange the addition and the multiplication: the equality resulting from the interchange remains valid. . n) (the greatest common divisor of the numbers m and n)l Using these decompositions prove t h a t the set of all the divisors of the number N with the operations m © n = [m. see the exercises to Sec. It should be taken into account t h a t when an equality fulfilled for a Boolean algebra involves the "special" elements 0 and I then the interchange of the Boolean addition and the Boolean multiplication in this equality must be followed by the internange of the elements 0 and I. . . For instance.. . I o n page 23). in a Boolean algebra there holds the equality A (A + С) (B + C) = AB + AC (which was proved earlier for the algebra of sets.. ah and b1. b2. the validity 37 . n\ and m (g) n = (m... n) is a Boolean algebra. For instance. On interchanging the addition and the multiplication in this equality we obtain A + AC + BC=(A + B)(A + C) • he latter equality is also valid (see page 39). n] (the least common multiple of the numbers m and n) and of the numbers (m. Principle of Duality.. a2. Further Properties of Boolean Algebras. . We first of all see a complete parallelism between the properties of the Boolean addition and the Boolean multiplication. .and bi i>2 . Boolean Equalities and Inequalities Let us continue to study Boolean algebras.О<А<Л„ (some of the numbers аг.. W h a t form have in this case the decompositions into prime factors of the numbers [m. 3.

of the equality (A + B)(A + / ) + (A + В) (В + 0)= A + В (see Exercise 8 on page 23) implies that the equality {А В + AO) (AB + В I) = AB must also hold. Examples of dual pairs of laws are the commutative law for addition and the commutative law for multiplication. The principle of duality follows from the fact that the list of the basic laws of a Boolean algebra (when proving various Boolean relations we can only proceed from these laws) is completely "symmetric". Similarly. the idempotent law for addition and the idempotent law for 1 ) The "new" equality obtained from a formula of a Boolean algebra by means of the interchange of the addition and the multiplication and of the elements О and I may sometimes coincide with the original relation. if we take the correct equality (A + В) (В + С) (C + A) = AB + ВС + CA (see Exercise 6 on page 23) and interchange the addition and the multiplication in it we obtain the equality AB + ВС + CA = {A + В) (В + С) (С + A) coinciding with the original equality. i. the associative law for addition and the associative law for multiplication. The just stated property of the Boolean algebras which allows us to obtain automatically (that is without proof) from any equality a new one1) is called the Principle of Duality and the formulas which are obtained from each other with the aid of this principle are called dual formulas. the application of the principle of duality to the correct equality (A + В) (В + С) (С + D) = AC + ВС + BD (see Exercise 7 on page 23) results in the equality AB + ВС + CD = (A + С) (В + С) (В + D) which only slightly differs from the original relation (it simply turns into the original relation if we interchange the letters В and C). 38 .e. together with every law it also includes another law dual to the former. that is the law which is obtained from the former law by interchanging the addition and the multiplication and by interchanging simultaneously the elements О and I. In this case we deal with a self-dual relation and the application of the duality principle does not give us a new formula. For instance.

finally. the equalities А Ц.multiplication. this operation (we shall refer to it as the "bar" operation) is such that A + B = AB and ÂB = Â + B Further.laws.A + B)C + A the c o m m u t a t i v i t y of addition = the second distributive law = [(A + B) + A](C + A) the c o m m u t a t i v i t y and the associativ i t y of addition = l(A + A) + B](A + C) = {A + B)(A + C) the idempotent law of addition (cf. Let us prove the equality A + AC + ВС = (A + В) (A + C) It can readily be seen that this equality is the dual of the relation A {A + С) {В + С) = AB + AC Indeed. the proof of the equality A (A + С) (B + C) = . Example.(AC + ВС) the associativity of addition = A + {A + B)C = the first distributive law = (. A + AC + BC = A -f.О = A and A . the first and the second distributive laws are dual and. In other words. under the "bar" operation the element A goes into the original element A. That is why when we prove an equality by using some basic laws of a Boolean algebra we can similarly prove the dual equality by using the corresponding dual.AB + AC on page 23). An alternative proof of the principle of duality is connected with a special operation defined in Boolean algebras which transforms every element A of a Boolean algebra into a new element A and under which addition and multiplication are interchanged. Similarly. this operation possesses the properties 0 = 7 and 1=0 Finally.f I = I are dual to the equalities AI = A and AO = О respectively. that is for every element A 39 .

It is also evident that 0 = 1 and 1= 0 Finally. 15). A of the set A directly implies that It also follows from the definition that A+ A= I and AA = 0 (see Fig. if we take the set of all the pupils in your class as the universal set and if A is the set of those pupils who got at least one bad mark then A is the set of those pupils who got no bad marks. they are also referred to as the De Morgan formulas 40 . The definition of the complément. let us prove that in the set algebra there hold the following highly important properties of the "bar" operation : A+B=AB and ÂB = Â + B The last two relations express the so-called laws of dualization. the last two equalities expressing the so-called complementation laws can even be taken as the definition of the set A). 15. For instance. 15 By A we mean the so-called complement of the set Л wnich is.of a Boolean have algebra we A = (A) = A In the algebra of sets the "bar" operation (this operation makes it possible to form a new element of a Boolean algebra from one given element of the algebra and not from two given elements as in the case of ddition or multiplication) has the following meaning. Fig. by definition. the set containing those and only those elements of the universal set I which are not contained in the set A (see Fig.

166 show the complement В of the set B. 166 represents the set A B. It is evident. 16a. The first of these relations is also called the De Morgan theorem for union-complement and the second is called tlie De Morgan theorem for intersection-complement. in Fig. the cross-hatched area in Fig. a contemporary and associate of George Hoole.Fig. the whole shaded area in Fig. The comparison of Fig. 16a represents the set A + В while the cross-hatched area in Fig.English mathematician Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871). t h a t these l s. The horizontal lines in Fig. 16a and Fig. 166 indicates t h a t the cross-hatched area in Fig.h hatching lines inclined to the right. 16a the area representing the set A is shaded by hatching lines inclined to the left. sents the set A + B. The whole shaded area in Fig. sents the set AB. In Fig. 166 is the complement of the set represented by the whole shaded area in Fig. 16 (or iules) after the . 16a repre166 repretwo areas that is АВ = 1 + В 41 . which proves the first of the De Morgan formulas: 4+7? = Jfl " " the other hand. 16a cover the area representing the set B. 166 the complement A of the set A (with respect to the whole square I) is shaded • it.1 ts) are also the complements of each other. the vertical lines in Fig.

42 1 4 P 0 g q 0 0 P 0 P 0 1= 0 0 0 0 b can be checked in a similar . Further. to prove the relation a b = ab it suffices to compare the following two tables: + 0 p <1 l 0 p 4 1 0 p 1 1 p p 1 1 4 1 g l i l l l 0 = 1 p = q q=p 0=1 p=q q=p 1=0 The relation ah = a + manner.which proves the second of the De Morgan formulas. For the algebra of two elements (Example 1 on page 25) we put 0= 1 and 1= 0 It is quite evident that for any element a of this algebra (that is for a = 0 and for a = 1) we have a = a. q= p and 1=0 In this case it is also quite clear that a = a for any element a of this algebra. the comparison of the "addition table" and the "multiplication table" compiled for the numbers 0 = 1 and 1 = 0 which have the form + 0 1 (I 1 0 1 1 1 and ô=i 1=0 0=1 1=0 1 0 0 0 shows that a + b = ab in all the cases. As above. De Morgan's second rule is verified in an analogous way: ab = a + b. * Now let us discuss the meaning of the "bar" operation for the other examples of Boolean algebras considered earlier. p=q. For the algebra of four elements (Example 2 on page 27) we put 0=1.

unfortunately. 0=1. y] For the De Morgan rules to hold in this algebra we must have _ г © y = x ® y and x <g) y — x © y This means that there must be max [x. let us consider the algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors whose elements are all 43 . Finally. Then. we can assume t h a t the points x and x are symmetric about the midpoint 1/2 of the closed interval [0.x = 1 and xx = 0 do not hold here (cf. \1 17 Now let us consider the algebra of maxima and minima whose elements are numbers x such that 0 ^ x ^ 1 for which the Boolean addition © and the Boolean multiplication <Э are defined as x Ф у = max [x. obviously. when the elements of the algebra are all the numbers x satisfying the condition 0 ^ x ^ 1 then. y] = min [x. 17). г/] and x <8> у = min [x. Therefore. y] and it is also necessary that the "bar" operation should reverse the order of elements. However. y] and min [x. 18a and b). y] = max [x. for instance. 1=0 and x= x In this case the De Morgan rules also obviously hold: x@y~x®y and x ® y = x © y see Figs. we can put x= 1—x In other words. 1] (Fig. that is it is necessary t h a t the condition x ^ y should imply x ^ y (why?). the rules x +.X 01 о * * 1 о * 2 Fig. what is said in this connection on page 117).

3 = 70. 15 = 14.х© у=х®у 01 О У хфу О * * i О * О У л®у 1/ 01—О л О У fa) х®у=л©у * 1 О У О—II * ( b) Fig. n] is the least common multiple of the numbers m and n and (m. Let us put — N m— — m for this algebra. 6 ® 2 1 = 3 5 ® 1 0 = = (35. 211 = 42. 35 = 6. 42 = 5. in the case N=210 ered earlier we have consid- 1 = 2 1 0 . © n = [m. it is evident that - N = m m = -rr-— N/rn The De Morgan rules also hold here: rn © n = m 0 n and m 0 n= m © n For instance. 10] = 70 and 3 = 70 . 14 = 15. 30 = 7. 21) = 3. 21 = 10. 6 © 21 = 35 © 10 = = [35. 2 = 105. ri) is their greatest common divisor. и) where [m. 10) = 5 and 42 = 5 and also 6 0 21 = (6. in the case N = 210 we have 6 ф 21 = 16. 18 the possible divisors of a positive integer N for which the Boolean addition ® and the Boolean multiplication 0 are defined as m. 210 = 1 It is clear that in the general case of an arbitrary number N we have i = N and N = 1 Besides. 70 = 3. For instance. 7 = 30. 6 = 35. 5 = 42. 10 = 21. n] and m ® n = (те. 105 = 2.

В and С it remains valid if we simply denote the elements A. this yields the equality A + AC + ВС = (A + В) (A + C) which is the dual of the original equality. We see that the principle of duality is a consequence of the properties of the "bar" operation (and first of all. В and С of the Boolean algebra by the letters А. by virtue of the equalities 0 = 1 and 7=0 the transformed (dual) equality involves I instead of О and О instead of I. of the De Morgan rules). for instance. В and С. in other words. the equality A (A + С) (В + С) = AB + AC which we have already mentioned. by virtue of the De Morgan rules. 45 . The application of the "bar " operation to both members of this equality results in A{A + C) (B + C) = AB + AC However. * * \'ow suppose that we have an arbitrary relation holding in any Boolean algebra. in the passage to the dual equality we must interchange О and / . we have A(A + C) (B + C) = [A(A + C)](B + C) = =-A(A + C) + B + C = I + A + C + BC = Â+ÂC + BC and AB + AC = ÂBÂC = (Â + B)(Â+C) Thus.Let the reader prove the De Morgan rules l'or the general case of an arbitrary A' (in this connection also see Exercise 5* on page 52). It should be however borne in mind that if the original equality involves the "special" elements О and / then. we finally obtain Â + ÂC + BC = (À + B) {Â+ С) Since the last equality is fulfilled for any А .

* * Now we also note that the proof of the principle of duality we have presented allows us to extend immediately its statement. on applying the "bar" operation to both sides of the equality A (A + I) (B + 0) = AB (see Exercise 5 on page 23) we obtain A(A + I) (B-f-O) = ÂB Now. up till now we have spoken of those "Boolean equalities" which only involve the operations of addition and multiplication. a given formula involves an element A then the application of the "bar" operation to both members of the formula results in the transformation of A into the element A = A. if we replace in the resultant equality the elements А. It is obvious that if. С etc. It turns out t h a t the relation A = A makes it possible to extend the duality principle to equalities involving the "bar" operation as well. since A {A +1) (B + 0) = A {A +1) + ~B + 0 =r-A + and Z+7+ + 5 + 0 = 1 + 4 7 + 5 0 = Л + Ж? + £ / lB=A we can also write the + B relation Â=ÂO + BI = Â+B The last relation (note that A and В are arbitrary in it) is equivalent to the relation A + AO + BI = A + В which can be obtained from the original equality by interchanging addition and multiplication and interchanging simultaneously 0 and I. Finally. В. Namely. by their 46 .* For instance. for instance.

complements A = А. B e A The last two relations have one and the same meaning (note that the form of these relations resembles that of the relations fif>& and b < . Every Boolean algebra involves the equality relation between elements of the algebra (an equality A = В simply means that A and В are one and the same element of the Boolean algebra) and it also involves one more i m p o r t a n t relation (the inclusion relation) between elements whose role is analogous to that of the relation "greater than" (or "less than") in the algebra of numbers. similarly. then instead of A we must again write A. It should also be taken into account t h a t when two sets A and В coincide it is also correct to write A zd В because in this case as well the set В is entirely contained in the set A. Exercise 2 (d) below) is the evident relation A {A + B) = AB. В = В. the dual of the equality A + A B = A + В (cf. if A is the set of the pupils in your class who have no bad marks and В is the set of the excellent pupils then. to explain this fact we must present one more notion playing an extremely important role in the theory of Boolean algebras. A zd B. which is the same. It follows that when we pass u from a given formula to its dual the bar" operation goes into itself. The inclusion relation is denoted by the symbol ZD (orcz). It turns out that the principle of duality has even a wider range of application because it applies not only to Boolean equalities but also to "Boolean inequalities". 19). For instance. In the algebra of sets the relation A zd В means that the set A contains the set В as its part (see Fig. For instance. С = С etc. We see. Similarly. of course. a in the algebra of numbers). for two elements A and В there may exist the inclusion relation A zd В or. the De Morgan formulas Â+B = AB and ~ÂB = Â+B are the duals of each other and. t h a t the relation I D for ele47 . However. if A 2 is the set of the even numbers and A e is the set of the integers divisible by 6 then obviously A2 zd Ae.

For instance. It is clear t h a t if А zd В and В zd C. Similarly. 21). 20 ments of a Boolean algebra is closer to the relation ^ ("greater than or equal to") t h a n to the relation > ("greater than") used in the algebra of numbers. Any two (real) numbers a and b are comparable in the sense t h a t at least one of the relations a ^ b and 48 . Up till now we have compared the properties of the relation zd for sets w i t h the properties of the relation ^ for numbers to stress the similarity between (he relations. then A zd С (see Fig. 19 Fig. F u r t h e r . then A = В For numbers we know the similar fact t h a t the relations a ^ b and b ^ a i m p l y a — b. Now we indicate an essential distinction between these relations. il A zd В and В zd A. when we deal with numbers the relations a b and b ^ с imply t h a t a ^ c. since the set of the pupils in your class is wider t h a n the set of the excellent pupils it follows t h a t the set of the pupils having at least one bad m a r k is contained in the set of the pupils who are not excellent pupils.Fig. Finally (this fact is particularly important). if A zd В then A czB (see Fig. 20).

b a must be fulfilled for them 1 ). 22 I n case b o t h relations hold simultaneously the numbers a and b are s i m p l y equal. it is evident t h a t if A zd В then A + В = A and AB = В (see Fig. 22). In contrast to it. We also note t h a t for any element A of an algebra of sets we have I ZD A. Since A zd A for a n y A the last two equalities can be considered a generalization of the idempotent laws A f A — A and A A — A. 21 A and А В cz A (Fig. A (a) S (b) Fig. Finally. in the general case. 19). for two arbitrary sets A and В neither of the relations л гэ В and В zd A holds (see Fig. A ZD О and t h a t there always hold (for any A and В) the inclusion relations /1 + В zd Fig. 23). .

>: we assume that two elements x and у of this algebra are connected by the relation x ZD у if the number x is not less than the number у (for instance. 1 Z D с/.* Let us discuss the meaning of the relation ZD for the other Boolean algebras known to us. /) Z 3 0 and q ZD 0 (the elements p and q of this algebra are incomparable. for instance. * Now it appears natural to apply the term "Boolean inequality" to any formula whose left-hand and right-hand members are connected by the relation ZD (or cz). in this case we have 42 ZD 6 while the numbers 42 and 35 are incomparable in this algebra (that is neither of the relations 42 ZD 35 and 42 cz 35 takes place). t h a t is neither of the relations p ZD q and q ZD p holds for them). 1 :z> p . For the "algebra of two numbers" (Example 1 on page 25) this relation is specified by the condition A+B 1 ZD 0 В For the "algebra of four numbers" (Example 2 on page 27) the relation ZD is specified by the conditions F i g . in the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" (Example 4 on page 31) the relation m ZD n means that the number n is a divisor of the number m. Let the reader check that the relation ZD defined in the above indicated way in each of the algebras we have considered possesses all the enumerated properties of the relation ZD in the algebra of sets. For the "algebra of maxima and minima" (Example 3 on page 28) the relation гз coincides with the relation . 50 . we have 1/2 ZD 1/3 and 1 ZD 1 in this case) 1 ). 23 IZDO. We shall 1 ) I n this Boolean algebra for any two elements x and y at least one of the relations x г:> y and y z: x holds. Finally.

since the inequality (A В) X X {A — С) (A + I) zd ABC holds and since we have the rule "if A zd В then A cz B. A ^ > 0 . For instance. For instance. from the relation (A + В) {A + C){A (see Exercise 8 have + / ) => ABC (b) on page 53) it follows that we always AB + AC + AO с A + В + С * To prove the general principle of duality it suffices to apply the "bar" operation to both members of the original inequality. . C. of a Boolean algebra entering into the inequalities in question. For instance. on changing the sign of inequality to the opposite (that is on replacing the relation ID by the relation с or vice versa) we again arrive at a correct inequality (that is at an inequality which is fulfilled for all the values of the elements of the Boolean algebra which enter into it). we conclude that for any the inequality +C А. В and С there holds AB + AC + AO czÂ+B +C . . Tbc^I+B rims. such are the inequalities I ^ > A . . В. taking into account that 1 = 0 . By the De Morgan rules. The principle of duality states t h a t if addition and multiplication are interchanged in such an inequality and if the elements О and. it follows that the inequality (A + B)(A+ C) (A +1) cz ABC is also valid. I are also interchanged (provided that О or / or both enter into the enequality) then. A + B ^ > zd A and A zd AB considered above.speak of only those inequalities which hold for all the possible values of the elements A. we obtain RTB)(A + C)(A + I) = (A + B) (A + C) + = A + B + A + C +1f I+T= Г ÂB + AC + AO Similarly.

Prove that in this case the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" whose elements are the divisors of the number N reduces to the "algebra of maxima and minima" defined in the set consisting of the numbers 0 . since А. Prove t h a t in this case the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" whose elements are the divisors of the number N (see Example 4 on page 31) reduces to the "algebra of the subsets of the universal set / = p2.Now. p2. .b. Ph a r e pairwise different. (a) Let N = ргр2 . (b) Let TV = pA where p is a prime number and A is a positive integer.. (b) and (c) by means of the principles of duality? 4. Show that in this "algebra 52 . 2. Check that in the "algebra of four numbers" (Example 2 on page 27) there holds De Morgan's second rule ab = a -). ph}". A. * in the sense de- * Exercises 1. Write down the dual equalities for all the equalities whose proof is discussed in Exercises 1-10 on page 23. .. W h a t equalities are obtained from the equalities in Exercises 2 (a). .. Prove the following identities of algebra of the sets: (a) ( . . ph where all prime numbers Pi. В and С are arbitrary here we can simply denote them as fi and С respectively. • • .. . Proceeding from this fact show that in this "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" all the laws of a Boolean algebra hold including the De Morgan rules. A + B ) { A + B) = A (b) AB-\-{A (c) ÀÏÏC ÂB AC = О + B){I-\-B) = A+ B (d*) A + AB = A + B 3. . . 2. 5*. We thus arrive at the inequality AB + AC + AO a A + В + С which is dual to the original inequality scribed above. 1 .

/ Л and m = pa2'. Exercise 6 on page 36). 10. 8. (d) the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors". 0 ^ ah Ah (cf. . Write down the inequalities obtained from the inequalities in Exercises 8 (a)-(c) using the duality principle. . Prove that if a Boolean inequality involves the "bar" operation then is also valid the inequality obtained from the original one by interchanging the Boolean addition and the Boolean multiplication and by interchanging simultaneously the element О and the element / while the "bar" pperation is retained at each place it occupies in the original ^ e q u a l i t y and the sign of the inequality is changed to the opposite. 53 . Prove the following inequalities of the set algebra: (a) A + B + C =>(A + B)(A + C) (b) (A + B)(A + C)(A + I)=> ABC (c) (A + B)(B + C)(C + A)=>ABC (d) A + Bz=> ÂB + AB 9. / Л where O ^ a ^ ^ j .of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" all the laws of a Boolean algebra hold including the De Morgan rules. (c) the "algebra of maxima and minima". (b) the algebra of four elements. . 6*. For which of the Boolean algebras known to you do the equalities A + I=I and AA = 0 hold and for which do they not hold? 7. Use this principle to form a new inequality from tne inequality in Exercise 8 (d). (c) Let N = p f ' pi' . Check that all the properties of the relation zэ hold for the following algebras: (a) the algebra of two elements (see Example 1 on page 25). What is the decomposition of the number m = N/m into prime factors? Use the formula obtained for this decomposition to prove the De Morgan rules in the general case of an arbitrary "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors". 0 < . . also prove these inequalities directly without resorting to the duality principle.

4" or the "set of the four operations of arithmetic: addition. t h a t is by enumerating all the elements of the set. the sets we have mentioned can be written as A = {Peter. Propositional Algebra Let us come back to the Boolean algebra of sets which plays the most important role in the present book. . this method of representing a set is highly inconvenient in case there are very many elements in the set. Mary} В = {1. Besides. However. multiplication and division". . 2. John. :} (in the last expression the signs of the operations symbolize the operations themselves) 1 ). Tom. Tom and Mary" or the "set of the numbers: 1. Sets and Propositions. it becomes completely inapplicable when the set in question is infinite (we cannot enumerate an infinite number of Llie elements of the set!). (b) AB. It is obvious t h a t the simplest method is to specify a given set by tabulation. (b) the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors". we can consider the "set of the pupils: Peter. 12*. 2. x 54 ) Also see Exercise 5 (a) on page 52. for instance. Let us discuss the methods for specifying the sets which are the elements of this algebra. X . even in those cases when a set can be defined by tabulation and the tabulation is quite simple it may nevertheless happen that the enumeration itself does not indicate why these elements are collected toj form the set. Simplify the following expressions: (a) A + B.. (c) A + B\ (d) AB 4. 4. John. subtraction. 3. In mathematics the elements of a set which is defined by tabulation are usually written in curly brackets. 3. For instance. Verify all the properties of the relation ZD for (a) the "algebra of maxima and minima". Let some sets A and В be such t h a t A zd В. 5} and C= {+.11.

or Tom. The descriptive method of representing sets connects the sets with propositions which are studied in m a t h e m a t i c a l logic. "he is a chess-player". i t would be more precise to use the term prepositional function or open sentence (or open statement) and to speak of the t r u t h set of the given propositional function but we shall s i m p l y speak of propositions throughout the present translation. as has been mentioned. "his name is George" and the like. — Tr. moreover. When a set is defined by description we indicate a property characterizing all the elements of the set. 24) 2 ). see Fig. if we are interested in the sets whose elements are some (or all) pupils in your class then such propositions can be "he is an excellent pupil". Namely. such a proposition m a y simply reduce to the enumeration of the elements of a given set. Thus. the essence of the method is t h a t we fix a collection of the objects we are interested in (for instance. the set of the pupils. The descriptive method for specifying sets is quite applicable for the definition of infinite sets such as the "set of all integers" or the "set of all triangles with area equal to 1".) which satisfy the condition mentioned as the characteristic property in a given proposition a is called the truth set of this proposition 1 ) (for instance. The set A of all those elements of the universal set I in question (for instance. for instance. there is a "two-way connection" between sets and propositions: every set is described by a proposition (in particular. we can consider the "set of all excellent pupils in your class" (it m a y turn out that the set A mentioned above coincides with this set of excellent pupils) or the "set of all integers x such t h a t 0 ^ x ^ 5" (this set exactly coincides with the set В mentioned above) or the "set of all animals in a zoo". infinite sets can be defined by description only. etc. the collection of the pupils in your class or the collection of the integral numbers) and then state a proposition which is true for all the elements of a set under consideration and only for these elements. the set of the numbers. or Mary") x ) According to the terminology of modern mathematical logic. 2 ) We shall denote propositions by small letters and the t r u t h sets corresponding to the propositions by the same capital letters. "the name of the pupil is Peter or John. For instance. For instance.Therefore another method which specifies the sets implicitly by description is more widely used. 55 .

t h a t such statements as "the person has two heads and sixteen arms" or " 2 x 3 = 6" are propositions (the second of these sentences is even completely independent of the choice of the universal set I ) while such sentences as the exclamation "Be careful!" or "Oh!" are not considered propositions. Another highly i m p o r t a n t condition is t h a t by a proposition we shall only mean a statement about which it makes sense to say that it is either true or false when it is applied to a definite element of the given universal set. for instance. it should also be borne in mind t h a t such sentences like "two hours is a long time" or "the e x a m i n a t i o n in m a t h e matics is a highly unpleasant procedure" are not considered propositions either because t h e y are quite subjective and t h e i r t r u t h or f a l s i t y depends on a number of circumstances and on the character of the person who states these sentences. W h e n two given propositions a and b (for instance. Finally.a-"the figure is quadrangular" b-"the figure is triangular" Fig. 24 and to every proposition there corresponds a definite set which is the t r u t h set of this proposition. It is also import a n t t h a t for any collection of propositions (even for propositions concerning objects of different kinds) it is always possible to indicate a certain universal set / corresponding to all the propositions in question and c o n t a i n i n g all the objects mentioned in these propositions. Therefore any two propositions a and b to which one and the same t r u t h set corresponds will be identified and will be considered equivalent ("equal"). This means. "he is an excellent pupil" and "he has only the highest marks" or "the number x is odd" and "the division of the number x by 2 gives 1 in the remainder") are equivalent we shall write a = b 56 . W h e n considering propositions we are only interested in the sets t h e y describe.

"the height of the pupil exceeds 4m" and "the number x is greater than 3 and less than 2". examples of necessarily false propositions are " 2 x 2 = 6". John. briefly. Let us agree to denote this new proposition by the symbol a .f b1). "the pupil can l ) In mathematical logic the sum of two propositions a and b usually called the disjunction of these propositions and is denoted by the symbol a V b (cf. Namely. Let us agree to denote all necessarily true propositions by the letter i. are also regarded as equivalent to one another. Examples of necessarily true propositions are " 2 x 3 = 6". Mary. 14 57 . that is the propositions which are always true irrespective of which element of the set I is considered. Tom. "the height of the pupil does not exceed 3m" and the like. Harry.All the necessarily true propositions. Helen} while the proposition b asserts that "the pupil can play draughts" and its truth set is В = {Peter. Ann. that is the propositions whose truth sets are empty. The connection between the sets and the propositions makes it possible to define some algebraic operations on propositions similar to those introduced earlier for the algebra of sets. will also be regarded as equivalent. Mary. For instance. Similarly. the sum a + b of two propositions a and b is simply the proposition "a or b" where the word "or" means that at least one of the propositions a and b (or both propositions) is true. the notation A U В for the sum of two sets A and B). by the sum of two propositions a and b we shall mean a proposition whose truth set coincides with the sum of the truth set A of the proposition a and the truth set В of the proposition b. Bob. Alice} then a -f b is the proposition "the pupil can play chess or 'iie pupil can play draughts" (or. all the necessarily false (that is contradictory) propositions which are never true. Tom. if the proposition a states "the pupil is a chess-player" and if among the pupils in your class the truth set corresponding to this proposition is A = {Peter. Since the sum of two sets is nothing but the union of all the elements contained in both sets. We shall denote such propositions by the letter o. "this pupil can fly like a bird". George. "this pupil is a boy or a girl".

if the propositions a and b concerning the pupils in your class are the same as above. George. "the pupil can play chess and draughts"). the n o t a t i o n A f| В for the p r o d u c t of t w o s e t s A and B). Bob. Similarly. by the product ab of two propositions a and b with truth sets A and В we shall mean a proposition whose truth set coincides with the product AB of the sets A and 5 1 ).b is A + В — {Peter. For instance. 25). Helen. John.с-"the figure is round" d-"the figure is shaded' C+D- c + d-"the figure is round OR shaded" cd-"the round AND figure is shaded" Pig. Mary. . Since the product of two sets A and В is nothing b u t their intersection (that is their common part) containing those and only those elements of the universal set I which are contained in both sets A and B. briefly. The truth set corresponding to this proposition а -f. 25 play chess or draughts"). 24 and if the propositions с and d assert t h a t "the figure is round" and "the figure is shaded" respectively then the proposition с + d asserts that "the figure is round or shaded" (see Fig. then the proposition ab asserts t h a t "the pupil can play chess and the pupil can play draughts" (or. Alice} If the universal set is the set of the geometrical figures shown in Fig. H a r r y . Ann. the product ab of the propositions a and b is the proposition "a and b" where the word "and" means t h a t both propositions a and b are true. the truth set corresponding to this I n m a t h e m a t i c a l logic the p r o d u c t of t w o p r o p o s i t i o n s a and b is more often c a l l e d the conjunction of these p r o p o s i t i o n s and is denoted b y the s y m b o l a/\b (cf. Tom.

ai = a and a + i = i. Mary} If two propositions с and d concerning the set of the geometrical figures shown in Fig.proposition is AB .{Peter. Tom.a a/\o = о 59 . 24 mean that "the figure is round" and "the figure is shaded" respectively. then the proposition cd asserts t h a t "the figure is round and shaded" (see Fig. if i is a necessarily true proposition and о is a necessarily false proposition then we always have (that is for any proposition a) the relations a о — a.c) t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e l a w s of a l g e b r a of p r o p o s i t i o n s a+ a= a and aa = a t h e i d e m p o t e n t l a w s of a l g e b r a of p r o p o s i t i o n s Besides. 25).a аД i . the proposition "the pupil has only the highest marks or the pupil has two heads" is equivalent to the proposition "the pupil has only highest marks" while the proposition "the pupil can swim and the pupil is not yet 200 years old" is equivalent to the proposition "the pupil can swim" 1 ). The connection between the sets and the propositions makes it possible to extend to the propositions all the rules of the algebra of sets: a b = b + a and ab = ba t h e c o m m u t a t i v e l a w s of a l g e b r a of p r o p o s i t i o n s (a + 6) + c = a + (& + e) and (ab)c-^a(bc) t h e a s s o c i a t i v e l a w s of a l g e b r a of p r o p o s i t i o n s (a-f b) с — ac-f be and ab-{-с = ( a c ) (b-{. in M W o s h a l l also w r i t e t h e r u l e s we h a v e e n u m e r a t e d i n t h e w h i c h t h e y are u s u a l l y g i v e n i n m a t h e m a t i c a l l o g i c : a\/b = (a\/h)\Jc = (a\/b)/\c a V" : a Vо ~ a\/i = b\J a a\/(b\/c) (aAc)V(b/\c) " a i form a/\b = b Д a (аДЬ)Дс = аД(6Дс) (аЛЬ)\/с = (aVc)/\(b\Jc) аДa .о For instance. ao ----.

* To demonstrate how the rules ol the algebra of propositions are derived from the rules of the algebra of sets let us consider. (Also see page 20 where we indicated that the propositions "the pupil can play chess and draughts or can swim" and "the pupil can play chess or can swim and also can play draughts or can swim" have one and the same sense. For instance. the derivation of the second distributive law. for instance. Namely. b and с respectively. that is the elements which are not contained in the truth set of the proposition a. "the pupil can play draughts" and "the pupil can swim" respectively. В and С are the truth sets of the propositions a. we have AB + С = (A + С) {В + C) Thus. In other words. which means that the propositions ab + с and (a + c) (b-\-c) are equivalent. the truth set of the proposition à contains those and only those elements of the universal set I which are not contained in the set A. Since the truth set of the sum of two propositions is the union of the truth sets of these propositions and since the truth set of the product of two propositions is the intersection of the truth sets of the given propositions. the truth set of the (compound) proposition (a + c) (b + c) is the set (A + С) {B + C). the "bar" operation of the algebra of sets can also be extended to the algebra of propositions.) * * Like the operations of addition and multiplication of sets. if the . by a should be meant the proposition whose truth set is the set A where A is the truth set of the proposition a. Similarly. that is ab + с — (a + c) (b + c) where the propositions a. it is evident that the truth set of the compound proposition ab + с which means "the proposition "a and b" or the proposition с is t r u e " is the set AB + С where А. b and с are "the pupil can play chess". By virtue of the second distributive law of the set algebra. the truth sets of the propositions ab + с and (a + с) X X (b + c) coincide.

simply. "the figure is not triangular". 26).b "IT IS FALSE THAT the figure is triangular" Fig. hence. " i t is false that 2 X 2 is equal to 5" or "it is false that the pupil has two heads") is always a necessarily true proposition while the negation of a necessarily true proposition (for instance. we have. If the universal set / consists of the geometrical figures shown in Fig. a-\-b = ab ' ) For instance. according t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the equivalence ( e q u a l i t y ) of p r o p o s i o n s . All the other laws can also be readily checked (let the reader check them). see Fig. 61 . the proposition à has the sense "not a". the "bar" operation of the propositional algebra is the operation of forming the negation (denial) à of the proposition a. since the t r u t h sets of the p r o p o s i t i o n s a + b and аь are А + В and А В where A a n d В are the t r u t h sets of the p r o positions a and b r e s p e c t i v e l y and since . Generally. 24 and the proposition b asserts that "the figure is triangular" then the proposition b means "it is false that the figure is triangular" (that is. Now let us enumerate the rules of the algebra of propositions r e h t e d to the operation of forming negation: a— a a-\-a — i o= i and and aa = o i — o and аЬ — а-\-Ъ Indeed. there is no need to verify them since they simply follow from the corresponding rules of the set algebra 1 ). The proposition a can be formed from a by prefixing "it is false that". 26 proposition a asserts that "the pupil has bad marks" then the proposition a means "the pupil has no bad marks".4 + H = A B . "it is false that the pupil is not yet 120 years old") is always necessarily false.b = ab. the e q u a l i t y ч -j. f'y the way. the negation of a necessarily false proposition (for instance.

(b) a + 6. Explain the meaning of the propositions (a) (a + b) с and ac -f. Let the proposition a assert t h a t : (a) " 2 X 2 = = 4". (c) ab. State the following propositions: (a) ab. Let a be the proposition "he is an excellent pupil". Let the proposition a mean "the pupil can play chess" and let the proposition b be "the pupil can play draughts". W h a t is the meaning of the proposition a in all these cases? Is the proposition à necessarily true? Is it necessarily false? 3. b "he is dark" and let с mean "he can swim". is an insect". (d) "he can fly". (f) ab. Give three examples of necessarily true propositions and two examples of necessarily false propositions. Let the propositions a and b mean "the given positive integer is even" and "the given positive integer is a prime number" respectively. (d) ab. Explain the meaning of the following propositions: (a) a + b. State the propositions (a) a + b and ab and (b) ab 62 and a+ b . (c) a + b. (c) "an elephant. 2. (b) "the pupil is a boy".be and (b) ab + с and (a + c) (b + c) 5. (h) ab 4. (g) ab. (b) ab. (e) a+Ъ. (d) a-\~T>. (e) a + b W h a t are the t r u t h sets of these propositions? 6. Let a and b be the propositions "this pupil is interested in mathematics" and "this pupil sings well" respectively.Exercises 1.

nobody doubts t h a t to say "he is a good runner and a good jumper" is just the saine as to say "he is a good jumper and a good runner". We can also explain why nowadays George Boole's approach to the m a t h e m a t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the laws of logic as certain "algebraic rules" has become an object of intense interest. People can -ч1 the rules of logic i n t u i t i v e l y but for a computer these les must be M a t e d in a c l e a r manner usina the only 03 . t h a t is all the people know (although they m a y not be aware of it) t h a t propositions ab and ba have the same meaning. economic p l a n n i n g and finding necessary data in scientific literature. which must be followed by the thinking" machines constructed by the man. Indeed. "Laws of Thought". Rules for Deduction Now we can explain why George Boole called his work (where the "unusual algebra" considered in the present book was constructed) "Laws of Thought". The m a t t e r is t h a t tlie algebra of propositions is closely related to the rules of the process of t h i n k i n g because the sum and the product of propositions defined in Sec. the "bar" operation has the sense of the negation and the laws of the propositional algebra describe the basic rules for the logical operations which all the people follow in the process of thinking. solving mathematical problems. as is known. t r a n s l a t i n g books from one language into another. In recent decades the situation lias changed and nowadays we want to make electronic computers perform the f u n c t i o n s which in the past could only be performed by people. such functions as production process control.5. Of course. which is the same. are equivalent. modern electronic computers can even play chess! It is obvious that in order ! o compile the necessary programs for the computers it necessary to state rigorously the "rules of the game". or. traffic schedulling. t h a t the "laws of thought". in everyday life few people t h i n k of these rules as m a t h e m a t i c a l laws of thought b u t even children freely use them. 4 reduce to nothing but the logical (propositional) connectives "or" and "and" respectively. for instance. As long as logical operations were performed only by people who used them in the process of thinking quite i n t u i t i v e l y there was no need to formulate the logical rules rigorously.

For instance. For instance. some of t h e m have special names in logic. The most interesting logical rules are connected with the logical operation of negation. this law asserts t h a t the propositions a and 'a."language" which a m a t h e m a t i c a l machine can"»nderstand". is always true. even w i t h o u t h a v i n g any information 011 the tallest pupil in your school we can definitely assert t h a t this pupil is "either an excellent pupil or not an excellent pupil" or t h a t this pupil "either can play chess or cannot play chess" etc. The rule expressed by the relation aa = o is called the law (principle) of contradiction. if a whole number n is even then the proposition "the number n is odd" is of course false for this number.) For instance. The rule expressed by the formula a= a is called the law of double negation (or the law of double denial). It asserts t h a t the double negation of a propoWe must warn the reader that the elementary algebra of propositions to w h i c h the present book is devoted does not provide sufficient means for constructing modern electronic computers and for posing complex m a t h e m a t i c a l problems in the f o r m i n w h i c h they can be "inserted"' i n t o computers. (The law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction are referred to as the laws of complement or the complementation laws. if a pupil has no bad marks then the proposition "the pupil has bad marks" is of course false when applied to this pupil. t h a t is "a or not a". can never be true simultaneously and therefore the product of these propositions is always false. the rule a+ a= i expresses the so-called law (principle) of excluded middle: it means t h a t either a is true (here a is an a r b i t r a r y proposition) or the proposition à is true and therefore the proposition a-f a. Now let us come back to the "laws of thought" themselves. For this purpose a more i n t r i c a t e mathem a t i c a l and logical apparatus must be developed which is not considered here. 64 . that is a and "not a". that is the language of mathematics 1 ).

let us agree t h a t the relation a n> b written for two propositions a and b should be understood n the sense that the proposition a follows from the propo<iion b or. which is the same. it asserts t h a t "the given integer is not odd" and hence it is equivalent to the original proposition asserting t h a t the integer is even. the verbal s t a t e m e n t of lliese rules is a little more complicated (in S h is connection see Exercise 1 below). the proposition a is a conse• ' nee of the proposition b: the meaning of what has been 'I is thai the truth set A of the proposition. as In the negation of 1he latter proposition. the negation of the proposition "the given integer is even" is the proposition "the given integer is odd".'impositions. a contains the 65 . The De Morgan rules a-\-b — ab ab-=a-\-b and for the propositions are also very i m p o r t a n t . Up till now we have not considered Ibis relation in connection with propositions nul only discussed it in connection with the algebra of sets. the "two-way connection" between sets and propositions allows us to extend easily the relation из of the Igebra of sets (the inclusion relation) to the algebra of . Namely. the negation of the proposition "the pupil has no bad marks" means thai "the pupil has bad^marks" and the double negation of the former proposition slates that "it is falsi' llial the pupil has bad marks" and is therefore equivalent to the original proposition asserting t h a t the pupil has no bad marks. that is logical rules which I he people follow when deducing new inferences from those which are already known to be true. a ab + с — (a + c) (b + c) laws a —a and aa — a ne definite "laws of thought". All the other rules of the proposilional algebra such as the d i s t r i b u t i v e laws (a + /)) с — ас -f be and or the idempotent. However.sition is equivalent to the original proposition itself. For instance. Л particularly i m p o r t a n t role is played by the r e l a t i o n s which can be extended from the algebra of sets to the mathematical logic (prepositional calculus). Similarly.

. . In everyday life and in science we often deal with deduction. 18. 27) follows a conclusion a of the theorem (for instance.} of the even whole numbers. 14. from the condition t h a t "the angle P of a triangle MNP is a right angle". 20. for instance. therefore the proposition "the number is even" (it is meant t h a t the universal set I we deal with consists of all the positive integers) follows from the proposition "the number is divisible by 6" 1 ). 4. In the deduction processes (for instance.truth set В of the proposition b. since the set В of excellent pupils in your class is obviously contained in the \ JJ set A of all pupils h a v i n g no bad marks. . the set \ Ae - {G. A2 = {2. . the conclusion t h a t " M P 2 -f N P 2 = = MN2". In o t h e r words. 18. 16.} of the whole numbers divisible by 6 is contained in the set. W h e n showing t h a t the relation a ZD b takes place we deduce the conclusion a from the condition b. 8. Similarly. in this case the relation а b is equivalent to the Pythagoras theorem). for a p u p i l to have no bad marks i t is of course sufficient that this p u p i l should have only the highest marks) while the proposition a is said to be a necessary condition for the proposition b (for instance. . . as a rule. 66 . The process of establishing the fact t h a t two propositions a and b are connected by the relation a I D b is called deduction. for a p u p i l to have only the highest marks i t is of course necessary that this p u p i l should have no bad marks). in the proof of a theorem) we always use the basic properties of the relation (sometimes without being aware of it). 10. the proposition a staling t h a t "the pupil has Fig. 27 no bad marks" is a consequence of the proposition b asserting t h a t "the pupil has only the highest marks". 12. the proof of a m a t h e m a t i c a l theorem reduces to deduction. 6. see Fig. These properties can be stated as the following rules for I f a zd b we also say that the proposition 6 is a sufficient condition for the proposition a (for instance. 12. the above relation a zd b means t h a t M \ А гэ В \ For instance. In a m a t h e m a t i c a l proof it is usually required to show t h a t from a condition b of the theorem (for instance.

that is to show that the proposition "not b" (that is the proposition b) follows from the proposition "not a" (that is from the proposition a). we have a zd b2) and czd a and therefore с ZD b In other words. Let us consider an example of a proof by contradiction. On the other hand. we know that "in a parallelogram the opposite angles are congruent" (the proposition с). that is when The second of these rules asserting that ". Let it be required to prove that if an integer n which is greater than 3 is a prime number (the proposition b) then n has the form 6/c ± 1 (where к is an integer). if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other then its opposite angles are congruent. that is a = b. we know that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other (the proposition b) the quadrilateral is a parallelogram (the proposition a). that is to prove that the proposition A follows from the proposition b. Let us dwell in more detail on the application of the rule asserting that if a ZD b then b ZD a. Thus. It often turns out that it is easier to prove the fact that if a is false then b cannot be true.deduction1): a zd a if a zd b and b zd a then a - if a zd b and and b zd С then a zd с i b zd a zd a and a zd о a ZD ah for any for any B a a and b if a zd h then 6 :r> a For instance. 67 . Let it be required to prove that the relation A ZD b holds.'/ a ZD b and b ZD a then a = b" is sometimes stated as "if b is a necessary and sufficient condition for a then the propositions a and b are equivalent" (from this ['oint of view we have assumed the propositions a and b are considered ']nal in this case). This rule serves as the basis for the so-called proofs by contradiction (Latin reductio ad absurdum proofs). -) In this case we even have a ZD b and b ZD a.

(c) the law of double negation. Thus. Give examples demonstrating the following rules: (a) the law of excluded middle. or to 2. Give one example to demonstrate each of the properties of the relationiD for propositions enumerated on page 67.n is divided by 6 the remainder is + 1 or —1 (the proposition a). then n is divisible by 3 and cannot be a prime number either. b ZD a) whence we conclude that a ZD b which is what we intended to prove 1 ). Give the verbal statement of the De Morgan rules of the algebra of propositions: a -f b — ab and ab --. Exercises 1. a and . To this end let us suppose that the proposition à is true. or to 5 (the last case is equivalent to the one when the remainder is equal to —1).b. b follows from a (or. therefore we shall try to resort to a proof by contradiction. Simplify the expressions of the sum a + b and of the product ab of the two propositions a and b. Let a ZD b. if the division of n by 6 gives 3 in the remainder. or 4. since by v i r t u e of the l a w of double negation we have a b . or to 4. t h a t is a ZD b\ now. it follows that the assumption that и is true means that when n is divided by 6 we obtain 0 in the remainder (that is n is divisible by 6) or 2. there must 08 be a ZD b. Give an example of a proof by contradiction and write it in the symbolic form. 5. 1 ) The f o l l o w i n g argument is more precise: from the relation b ZD a we have proved i t follows t h a t (a) ZD (ft). then this integer is even and therefore it cannot be a prime number. 3. 2. (b) the law of contradiction.a + b. An integer divisible by 6 cannot be a prime number. that is the number n (which is an integer greater than 3) cannot be represented in the form 6 f r ± l . if an integer n > 3 gives 2 or 4 in the remainder when it is divided by 6. or 3. 4. or to 3. Since the remainder obtained when an arbitrary integer n is divided by 6 can be equal to 0 (in this case n is divisible by 6) or to 1. symbolically. It is rather difficult to prove this fact directly without using the rule if a ZD b then b ZD a.

Finally. Further Examples of Application of Rules for Deduction. the negations of these propositions will be denoted by the same symbols supplied with the bar. M. a son {S) and two daughters (Z^ and D2) spends its vacation at the sea shore.t л here the letter t denotes a necessarily true proposition. + S) (MDZ i. "the mother went swimming on Sunday morning". 'the first daughter went swimming on Sunday morning" and "the second daughter went swimming on Sunday morning" by the same symbols F. The question is: who of the members of the family went swimming last Sunday morning? Let us denote the propositions "the father went swimming on Sunday morning". a mother (M). The second daughter J92 g ° e s swimming then and only then when her mother does and it is known that at least one of the parents goes swimming every morning. In the symbolic form the conditions of the problem are written thus: (1) FMS + F = i (2) SDt + S=i (3) MD2]MD2 (4) F + M = i i (5) DiDz + DtDz . They often swim early in the morning and it is known that when the father goes swimming then the mother and the son always go swimming together with him.6.Я 2 ) i 69 . it is known that last Sunday only one of the daughters went swimming.MD2) (F + M) (D. Dx and D 2 respectively. S. A family consisting of a father (F). Implication The rules of propositional algebra can be applied to the solution of logical problems whose conditions form a collection of propositions using which we must establish the truth or the falsity of some other propositions. Below is an example of this kind. "the son went swimming on Sunday morning". 'u multiplying all these equalities we obtain the relation *\rS+T) (SD. As usual.DZ f D. it is also known that if the son goes swimming his sister D t goes with him.

the idempotent laws and the law of contradiction AA . This procedure turns out to be useful in many other cases and therefore we shall dwell on it in more detail.О together with the relations A + + О — A and AO — 0. . .. + S)~- I FMDJ)2 FMSDiD2 Thus. . * The solution of the problem we have presented is based on the algebraic transformations by means of which we have simplified a rather complex expression {FMS + F) (SDi + S) (MD2 + MD2) (F + M) (ВД + 5 Д ) and have brought it to the form FMSDJ)2. pn) composed of propositions pu p2.which is equivalent to the system of equalities (l)-(5) because the product of propositions is true if and only if all the multiplicand propositions are true. . Let us open the parentheses in the expression on the lefthand side using the first distributive law and also the commutative. .i which means that only the mother M and the second daughter D 2 went swimming on Sunday morning. .. Suppose that we are given an arbitrary algebraic expression / = / (р1ч p2. we finally obtain FM'SD. pn with the aid of the basic operations + .D2 . I D{D2) . We shall prove that if the compound (composite) proposition f is not necessarily false (that is / is not equivalent to o) then it can be reduced to the form i 70 114' •• • n . • and the "bar" operation of the algebra of propositions. To simplify the transformation we change the order of the factors: (FM S + F) (F + M) = F MS -f FM {F M S + FM) (MDZ + MD2) = FMSD2 + FMDZ (FMSD2 (FMSDiD2 f FMD2) (ОД.FMSDtD2 4 ÏMDJJ2) (SI). the associative.

. If a term in this sum contains both factors p j and p j it can be simply dropped (because pp = о for any /?). / ) „ or their negations. ..inhere the symbol p] (/ = 1. .. pn) so that the sign of negation (the bar) stands only above some (or all) constituent (prime) propositions px. using the first distributive law we can open the parentheses in all those cases when they mean that to obtain the expression / it is necessary to multiply by one another sums of prime propositions p j and their negations p j or some more complex combinations of the propositions. for instance. In this way we can bring the sum / to the form in which all the summands contain as factors all the propositions p^ p2. . Form (*) of a composite proposition / is called its additive normal form1). n) in each term of the sum denotes either pj or pj and all the terms of the sum are pairwise different. if two composite propositions f j and /2 are equal (equivalent) they have the same forms of type (*) and if they are different (not equal to each other) their forms of type (*) are also different. . using the De Morgan formulas we can transform the composite proposition f (pu p2. . If all these operations result 1 ) In mathematical logic form (*) of a composite proposition is more often referred to as its disjunctive normal form. see page 22). On opening all the parentheses of this kind we reduce the compound proposition / to an "additive" form written as a sum of a number of terms each of which is a product of prime propositions p} and their negations. if a term in the sum contains one and the same proposition ph (or pk) several times as a factor then we can retain only one such factor and if the sum / contains several identical terms we can also retain only one of them (we remind the reader that the Boolean algebra is an "algebra without exponents and coefficients". Besides. if a term A of the sum we have obtained contains. Further. . .. neither the proposition p t nor its negation p x we can replace it by the equivalent expression A{Pi + Pt)=--Api + Api which is a sum of two terms each of which contains the factor pi or pi. The proof of the assertion we have stated is quite simple. . . . First of all. 71 . pn but not above their combinations (their sums or products). Further. p2. . 2. .

72 . It also turns out that the additive (disjunctive) normal form of a compound proposition is very useful in many other cases. On the other hand. we can always assume that any two given composite propositions fa and / 2 contain the same prime propositions p. because if. It is required that during a week the pupils should have ihree lessons in mathematics. two lessons in physics. and let there be not more than three lessons every educational day. n . for instance. We have thus proved that to every proposition / there corresponds its uniquely determined additive normal form. a proposition p is contained in the expression of fa but is not contained in the expression of / 2 we can write / 2 in the form Î2(P + P) which involves the prime proposition p. r.4 and form (*) of a proposition fa involves the summand PiPlPsPi while form (*) of a proposition / 2 does not involve such term the proposition Д is true if the propositions p. it is evident that if two compound propositions /1 and / 2 reduce to one and the same form (*) they must be equal. the given composite proposition / is reduced to its additive (disjunctive) normal form (*). The last property can be used for verifying whether two composite propositions fa and / 2 are equivalent or different. q. p3 and /?4 are true while the proposition p 2 is false. Wednesday and Friday. Obviously. for instance. Finally. etc. It is also required that the time-table should satisfy the following conditions. Let us consider a simplified curriculum in which there are only three educational days a week. one lesson in history and one lesson in English. For if. Below is one more problem whose mathematical content is close to that of the "swimming problem" solved above. it cannot be true in the latter case. if forms (*) of two propositions are different these propositions cannot be equal (equivalent). namely. as to the proposition / 2 . Monday..in the disappearance of all the terms in the sum / we shall have / о If otherwise. one lesson in chemistry. One example of this kind was considered above.

(7) In this curriculum there are only 3 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 4 . history. = л / з л л й ы л м г * . physics. on Wednesday his lesson must not he the first while. that the /th lesson is devoted to mathematics. i M f 7 + (2) / 2 . besides. How can the time-table satisfying all these conditions he worked out? Let us index the 9 possible lessons in succession by the numbers from 1 to 9.! .Ej andLy(where / = 1. chemistry. (6) It is naturally required that every educational day Ihe pupils should have not more than one lesson in every subject. The conditions of the problem can now be written 4 the following system of relations: (1) /.Hj. on the contrary. . he cannot teach on Friday. besides.(1) The mathematics teacher insists that his lessons should never he the last and that at least twice a week they should he the first.( Я 4 + F f z + H 5 ) ( / / j //. he does not want his lesson to precede the English lesson. at least once a week he wants his lesson to he the first. (3) The history teacher can only teach on Monday and un Wednesday. then to solve the problem we must stablish the truth or the falsity of the 54 propositions 11 j.Ph9 (Pht Ь Phj + Ph-7) PhriPhHl>h(i ^ i (3) и . Chj. (5) The English teacher insists that his lesson should be the last and. (2) The physics teacher does riot want his lessons to he the last either./•: // . . 9) meaning.. English or is the time of cisure. respectively./: 73 . he wants to have the first or the second lesson on Monday or the second lesson on Wednesday. besides.Ph?Phe. he wants to have the first lesson on Friday. The last requirement to be satisfied is hat the pupils should have time of leisure either instead of the last lesson on Friday or instead of the first lesson on Monday. . (4) The chemistry teacher insists that his lessons should not be on Friday and that the day he has his lesson the pupils should have no lesson in physics. 2.. Phj.1 = 8 lessons a week while the total number of possible •essons is 3 X 3 = 9 and hence once a week the pupils have only two lessons.

Wednesday: mathematics. mathematics.Ch3 + Ph2Chi + Ph2Ch3+ + • • • 4. Likewise. . history. Ch7ChHCh9 (Ph.PKCh-.(4) /4 . or (2) Monday: mathematics. + Ph7MHL9 .. . .. where the dots symbolize 54 — 9 = 45 multiplicands entering into each of the two terms of the sum / with the sign of negation (the bar). (1) Monday. Pn) can also be brought to its multiplicative normal form1) / = 11 (р[+р'г+ .Ph9Chs) = i (5) /5 E3 + E6 + E9 + E2L3 + E5Le + ESL9) (6) fe = (MtM2 + MiM3+M2M3+MiMs+ X (PhiPhi -f PhtPh3 + .Ph^E^M .. it should be noted that every compound proposition / = f (Pi. Wednesday: mathematics.+MaM9) X Ph8Ph9) = i of relations is equivalent to one equality / = /1/2/3/4/5/6/7 - * The additive normal form of the proposition / is f - M\H2Ch9M^РкъЕePh7M8L9 + M-. physics. . • • -. time of leisure". 74 proposition . this form is also uniquely determined for a given proposition and characterizes completely the whole class of the propositions equal (equivalent) to that proposition. .+ (7) f 7 = L t + LB = i This system Ë7ËsË9 = i . The proof of this assertion is quite analogous to the argument which we used in proving that every compound proposition f 1 ) In mathematical logic form (**) of a composite is usually referred to as its conjunctive normal form.. 4.+Pn) (**) where the symbols p] have the same sense as in formula (*) and all the terms in the product are pairwise different. Pi. English-. Friday: physics.Ch2-\-Ph. Friday: physics. there are only two ways of working out a time-table satisfying all the requirements stated'. mathematics. mathematics. English-. . chemistry.. chemistry. history. physics. time of leisure. Hence..

since only one of the daughters went swimming that morning the father could not go swimming" and so on. consequently. Such a pupil would replace equalities (l)-(5) and their formal transformations presented above by a "non-formalized" argument (that is an argument which is based on "common sense" instead of the laws of logic stated in a rigorous way) such as the following: "if the father went swimming on Sunday morning then the mother and the son would go with him. For instance. Dx ZD S. * * Let us come back to the "swimming problem". Thus. we have M ZD F and S zd F Besides. the "formalization" of ordinary inferences which was demonstrated in the solution of the problem we presented above reduces simply to the exact enumeration of all the conditions used 75 . Since only one of these propositions is true we conclude that the proposition F is true" and so on. for instance. d2=>F while from Dt ZD S and S zd F it follows that £>! => F Thus. but the first daughter would follow the son and the second daughter would go together with her mother. Let us discuss the instructive comparison of the solution of the problem presented above with a solution which can be given by a pupil who is not familiar with elements of mathematical logic. the above argument can be stated thus: "by the conditions of the problem. the difference between the proofs is very slight.can be brought to form (*). however. instead of the first distributive law we must use the second one. It is however quite evident that an argument of this kind is in fact also based on the rigorous laws of propositional algebra and that the so-called "common sense" exactly follows these laws. from proposition F follow propositions Dx and D2. Z>2 M and M ZD D2 Therefore M = D2 and.

. then ." or with the word "implies". A traffic controller deals with a similar problem when introducing a rational dispatching system and the like. . lessons.. "q implies For instance. * The relation p ZD q between two propositions p and q plays an important role and that is why it is advisable to consider one more binary operation of algebra of propositions which is connected with this relation. laboratory work. the proposition q => p reads: "if q. in particular. the problem mentioned on pages 72-75). the problem of working out a real time-table for an educational institution has a similar character because it is necessary to take into account many interrelated conditions such as the wishes and the possibilities of teachers and pupils or students. the necessary alternation of subjects of different character and different difficulty. which is the same. then p" or. if the propositions q and p are "Peter is an excellent pupiF and "an elephant is an insect". At present many problems of this type are often solved on electronic computers. the programming of the work of a computer is based on the laws of mathematical logic and. The proposition q =>. . thus. (cf. 5 and 6 of the present book are devoted. Problems of this kind are rather often encountered in practice. . The solution of the "swimming problem" can easily be obtained by using an electronic computer because the rules of propositional algebra on which the solution given in this book is based can easily be inserted in the "memory" of the computer and the further course of the solution becomes automatical. For instance.p is formed of the propositions q and p by connecting them with the expression "if . lectures. respectively. then an elephant is an insect" or. "from the fact that Peter is an excellent pupil it follows that an elephant is an i usee Г or "the fact that Peter is an excellent 76 . which is the same. on "propositional calculus" to which Sees. etc. This binary operation forms a new proposition called the implication of propositions p and q\ we shall write this operation as q p.in the argument and to the introduction of mathematical symbols making it possible to write in a concise form both the given conditions and the course of the solution. then "the proposition q => p means: "if Peter is an excellent pupil.

p is true for any proposition p (because a false proposition q implies any proposition p).p. thus. it connects only some pairs of propositions. we shall consider an implication q =Ф. then all its sides are equal"). then p" (for instance. then its diagonals are mutually perpendicular") and the converse theorem "if p. By definition. the proposition p =>.q differs from the proposition q =>.q called the contrapositive of the implication q => p is equivalent to the latter for the relation p zd q holds when and only when the relation q zd p holds I'he relationship between the proposition q p (which 77 . in case the proposition q is false the proposition q =Ф. As to the relation p zd q. the proposition q => p may turn out to be true or false. generally. that is. "if all the sides of a quadrilateral are equal. At the same time. the composite proposition q => p is equivalent to the proposition "the relation p zd q takes place".pupil implies that an elephant is an insect". the fact that the relation p zd q holds is not a proposition but is a fact concerning these two propositions p and q. if a pupil whose name is Peter has bad marks we shall consider the above proposition q =>. then q" ("if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are mutually perpendicular. The relationship between the implication q p and its converse p =>. We should stress a peculiarity of the implication q p of two given propositions q and p: in contradistinction to the operations of forming the sum ("disjunction") p + q and the product ("conjunction") pq of propositions.q is quite similar to the relationship between the direct theorem "if q. in the general case. as any other proposition. As is well-known. the statements of a direct theorem and the corresponding converse theorem are not necessarily equivalent: one of them may turn out to be true while the other can be false.q is called the converse of the implication q=>p. The implication p =>. For instance. the implication p =>. the operation q p is non-commutative.p which means "if Peter is an excellent pupil then an elephant is an insect" to be true. Therefore.p to be true when and only when p zd q. The composite proposition q => p can be formed of any constituent (prime) propositions p and q. It should be stressed that there is a great difference between the operation of forming an implication q p (this is one of the operations of propositional algebra) and the relation p zd q.

q =>.p is the theorem which reads: "if it is false that all the sides of a quadrilateral are equal. in mathematical logic is sometimes considered the so-called biconditional proposition formed of two propositions q and p. then its diagonals are mutually perpendicular") and the converse of the theorem which is the inverse of the original theorem. As to the implication q p expressing the inverse of the theorem (implication) q =>. then it is false that all its sides are equal"). and the converse of the latter is the implication p => q (to the example of the direct theorem we have given there corresponds the converse of the inverse asserting that "if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are not mutually perpendicular. the theorem p => q is equal to the direct theorem q p. Together with the implication q p. then all its sides are not equal". "if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are not mutually perpendicular.p (in the case of the above example. "if all the sides of a quadrilateral are equal. it is not equivalent to the direct theorem (q => p) but is equivalent to the converse theorem (implication) p => q which means "if p. In other words. then its diagonals are not mutually perpendicular"). For instance. The biconditional proposition q <=> p reads: "p.p. we shall denote it by the symbol q <=> p. for the propositions p and q given as examples on page 76 the proposition q <=> p reads: "Peter is an excellent pupil if and only if an elephant is an insectThe last statement is a new proposition (although rather funny!): the operation of forming the biconditional proposition from two given propositions q and p is also a binary operation of propositional algebra which assigns to every pair q and p *) Instead of "if and only if" in English mathematical literature is often used the expression "iff" which is the abbreviation for the former. then b ZD a" which is one of the basic properties of the r e l a t i o n s implies that the relations q ZD p and p ZD q hold or do not hold simultaneously). if and only if q"x). 78 . then q" (because the property "if а ZD b. By the inverse of a theorem (implication) q p is meant the implication q =>. — Tr. then p") and its contrapositive p q (that is the proposition "if p is false then q is also false') is quite similar to the relationship between a direct theorem (for instance.means "if q.

We shall denote the truth set of the proposition q =>.of propositions a new proposition which we denote q <=> p. It is obvious that the implication q => p is true if and only if either the proposition q is false (a false hypothesis implies any conclusion) or the propositions q and p are simultaneously true (a true hypothesis implies any other true statement). that is we always have (p <=> q) = (q p) The notion of the "truth set" of a proposition (see page 55) makes it possible to extend the new operations q => p and q <=> p of algebra of propositions to algebra of sets. Similarly. In contrast to the implication q =$* p of two propositions q and p. For instance. the biconditional proposition is commutative: the propositions q <=s> p and p <=> q are equivalent for any two propositions q and p.p formed of two propositions q and p can be defined in terms of the basic operations of propositional algebra. . a biconditional proposition q <=> p is t r u e l a n d o n l y if e i t h e r b o t h p r o p o s i t i o n s q a n d p a r e t r u e o r 7!) . Let q and p be two arbitrary propositions and let Q and P be their truth sets respectively. 28. the implication q =>. that is in terms of the operations of addition of propositions. It follows that Q^P = Q + QP and consequently Thus. according to the last relation. the above proposition "if Peter is an excellent pupil. multiplication of propositions and the operation of forming the negation. This means that the set Q =>• P is the union of the complement of the set Q and the intersection of the sets Q and P (see Fig.p as Q =>• P and the truth set of the proposition q p as Q <=> P. then an elephant is an insect" is equivalent to the proposition "Peter is not an excellent pupil or Peter is an excellent pupil and an elephant is an insect".a). It is quite clear that the relationship between the biconditional proposition q <=> p and the equivalence relation p — q is similar to the relationship between an implication p and the relation q гэ p: the proposition q p is true when and only when the equivalence p q takes place.

Hence.h): Q <=> P . namely: q p-^qp + qp T h e f o r m u l a s we h a v e w r i t t e n r e a d i l y s h o w t h a t th« oper a t i o n < = > of forming a b i c o n d i t i o n a l p r o p o s i t i o n is a 80 . 28.P=>Q Ce) Fig. 28 both propositions q and p are false. the set Q <=> P is the union of the intersection of the sets Q and P and the intersection of the sets Q and P (see Fig.QP + QP It follows that the biconditional proposition q p formed of two propositions q and p can also lie expressed in terms of the operations of propositional algebra studied earlier.

However.q = p + pq = p (q + q) + pq = = P?-!-p? + p? = p<? + (p f-p)q = pq + q ^ q + qp = q ^ p (here we have used the commutative.and • in terms of the other and the "bar" • peration.and <=> in terms of the basic operations of addition and multiplication and the "bar" operation of the Boolean algebra. P => Q of the converse p =>. for instance. the proposition q =>.q of the implication can also be proved without resorting to the Venn diagram: p =>. .q of the implication q=> p is equivalent to the latter: p=>q--= (P) + P(1 = P + P<7 = Я + P7 = 9 P because from Fig. the associative and the distributive laws and also the identities pi = p and p + p = i). That is why. 28. • and — are not independent: using the De Morgan formulas we can express each of the two operations -(. the operation of forming an implication is highly important we do not include it into the list of the basic operations which form the foundation of the definition of a Boolean algebra. although. the contrapositive p =>.commutative operation of algebra of proposition? while an implication q => p is non-commutative: 4 P = 4P -.</p = p <=> <z but (see Fig. On the other hand. Similarly.a it is seen that the sets Q => P = Q + QP and P Q = P + PQ coincide. The equivalence between the implication q p of propositions q and p and the contrapositive p =>. 28c. For instance. where the truth set. it also turns out that the three original operations + .p is equivalent to the converse p => q of the implication q => p: q ^ p = q + qp = p + pq = p=^q * The formulas q =>• p = q' -f qp and q <=> p = qp + qp express the operations =4.q of the implication q is shown). the "Boolean multiplication" of 81 .

One of the well-known operations of this kind is the socalled (Sheffer1)) stroke operation a | p (here a and p are elements of an arbitrary Boolean algebra) which is expressed in terms of the "Boolean multiplication" and the "bar" operation as a I p = ap In the case when the Boolean algebra in question is an algebra of sets whose elements А. 29 propositions can be defined thus: pq = p + q Moreover. .Fig.a). C. . it turns out that there is an operation defined in Boolean algebra in terms of which all the three operations + . 1 and 2. • and — can be expressed. В.B. 29. . the Sheffer operation A | В reduces to forming the intersection of the complements of the sets A and В (see Fig. that is « IP = P I« 3 ) IT. Sheffer. an American logician of the beginning of the 20th 82 century. . the operation of multiplication AB and the operation of forming the complement A of any set A are defined as was done in Secs. M. are some sets for which the operation of addition A -f. This makes it possible to reduce all the variety of operations used in Boolean algebras to a single operation and its various combinations. The Sheffer operation is obviously commutative.

) For an algebra of sets the element {ABC) = Л В -f. а р and a can also be defined in terms of the operation a j p. Further.xercise 6 on page 23). у of a Boolean algebra (cf. а р and a as (a J P) | (a | P).a + p Ь(Р)1-оф and (ce (а) = а а — а Thus. p defined as а|Р = а+Р (for algebra of sets the operation A j В reduces to forming the union of the complements It. The definition of a Boolean algebra is sometimes stated using only one "ternary" operation {a. if we take the Sheffer operation a | p as the basic one if is possible to define а + P.(a + p) (P + 7) (V + a) This operation assigns a new element ô — {а. p. 7} to every triple of elements а . The role analogous to that of the Sheffer operation can also be played by another binary operation a j. (The operations + and-which assign new elements to any pair of elements of a Boolean algebra are binary operations. the "bar" operation assigns a new element a to one element a and is an example of a "unary" operation. 2 9 6 ) .ВС С A is the set coinciding with the union the painrise intersections of the sets Л . from the basic properties of the operations of a Boolean algebra il follows that (a I p) I (a I P) = (Tp) (âfj . F. that ( а | а ) И Р 1 Р ) = Г м Г ^ ) + (Р + Р) . MO) . P. can readily be seen of the sets A and B\ s e e F i g . В and С (see F i g . (a I a) I (P I P) and а | a respectively.[(a) + (F)I I W (a I a) I (PIP) Н^Ш(1) f (1)1 . p.а (а Ш J (a IP) = (« + Р) I (â f P) гР = а + Р â'P i а P - ap and ( а | а ) = а-(-а = а Therefore the operations а + p.for any a and (3. 7 } defined as {a$y} = ap + p7 + ya .

7. . . forming a set for which the ternary operation {офу} is defined and put i = о then it is also possible to define the basic (binary) operations of the Boolean algebra in terms of the ternary operation {аРу}: <x + P = {aPi} and ар = {сфо} (В) By virtue of (A) and the idempotent law. whicli is the same. p.a a 1 — {au}-= i and ао = {аоо}^-=о S4 . The ternary operation { } is obviously commutative with respect to the interchange of any two of the elements entering into it: {офу} = {Pva} Fig.*|i ! {yap} !PaVf (#%! Further. we shall also have a + 0 = (ctoi) =• {an} = a.and ai = (aio) — {an} .or.a The operation a can be de-fined with the help of the ternary operation {aPy} by means of the following condition similar to the idempotent law we have written: {aâp} = p (A) Since this condition is symmetric with respect to the elements a and a it obviously implies that a = a Further. if we fix a "special element" i among the elements a. this operation possesses a certain kind of distributivity: {aP{Yfie}}^{{aPY}Ô{aPe}} It also possesses a (weakened) associativity: {ap{apô}} = {{apv}pô} Finally. with the intersection of the pairwise unions of these sets. for this operation there holds a law analogous to the idempotent laws for addition and multiplication: {aap} =. . 30 J T.

'IP 85 . This obviously follows from the expression of the implication in terms of the other operations of a Boolean algebra: we have q =>.[(p ! P) I (q I 7)1 [((p I p) I (p I P)) I ((7 I 7) I (7 I 7))] With the aid of the ternary operation {pqr} the sum ("disjunction") and the product ("conjunction") of two propositions p and q are expressed thus: P + q = { № } and * * pq = {^70} We have already discussed the relationship between the operations q=> p and the relation q zd p. we have P + 7 = (P I 7) I (P I 7) pq = (p I p) I (<7 I q) and P = and. In prepositional algebra the Sheffer operation p | q and the ternary operation {pgr} have the following meaning: p I q reads: "neither p nor q is true" (that is why in logic the Sheffer operation is sometimes referred to as the joint negation) and the proposition {pqr} reads: "at least two of the three propositions p.p ~ q + qp and consequently (7 P) 7 (7 + qp) 7 .P) 7 In other words. Further. q and r are true".4P . if the implication q=> p is true and the proposition q is true then the proposition p is also true. Using algebraic symbols we can express this relationship as P => (7 =>. 7 P .« -I.Definitions (A) and (B) make it possible to state all the properties of the operations of the Boolean algebra so that the corresponding expressions involve the ternary operation {сфу} solely. P\P consequently.q + 4P and 1(7 I 4) I {{P I P) I (7 I ?))] I 1(7 I 7) I ((p \ p) I (7 | ï))] p = pq + pq = r\r where Г -.

Indeed. Paul is not a mathematician (q)". The last relation also readily follows from the formula for the implication: we have (q p) p = (q + pq)p = чp + (pp) q = qp + o = qp and therefore q ZD {q => p) p = qp.p) q The relation p zd (g =>. for instance. it means that if the implication q =s. this can be written as an implication q =>• p). Similarly.p) q expresses the form of a logical statement known as the classical syllogism. q ZD q pr -= (q => p) (p <=> r) r 86 °-i-o^--qpr . Peter is mortal (p)". Consequently. Consequently.('! =>. we have (ч=>р) (p — qp(rr) r ) r = С 7 + pq) (pr + pr) r - + qpr + pq(rr) + (pp)'ir- ° + я?r4 and.whence it follows that P => IP . by Virtue of the formulas expressing the implication and the biconditional proposition. The logical statement expressed by the relation q=>(q=> p) p is also true. p is equivalent to r and r is false then q is also false. Paul reasons illogically (p). this can be regarded as an implication q => p). a typical syllogism is: "All men are mortal (that is if N is a man then N is mortal. Here is an example demonstrating the application of the logical rule q ZD (q p) p: "All mathematicians reason logically (that is if N is a mathematician then he reasons logically. Peter is a man (q). we have q ZD (q => p) (p <=> r) r which means that if q implies a proposition p. consequently.p is true and the proposition p is false then the proposition q is also false.

p is true. the following two relations may turn out to be false: ? =5 (q=> p) p and p=>(q=>p)q Indeed. The diagonals of the given quadrilateral A BCD do not bisect each other (r). Ibis proposition is an implication q => p). consequently N does not speak well"). "lawyers speak well\ \ is not a lawyer. of course. more precisely. A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if and only if its diagonals bisect each other (p <=> r)". That is why the following two statements (which. follow from the rules of propositional algebra and may not take place. a rhombus. unfortunately. are rather frequently used. Therefore it is false that all the sides of the quadrilateral A BCD are equal (q)". Ы . consequently A BCD is a parallelogram").i nd u q implies p\ the proposition q is false\ therefore the pro•sition p is also false" (for instance.q =>p) p^ (q + qp) p = qp -f qp = (q + q) p = ip = p and (q p) q = (q + qp) q = q + (qq) p = q -f op = q and the relation qZD p and the (equivalent) relation pzDq do not. by non-mathematicians) do not follow from the rules for deduction and are therefore incorrect (it should be noted that an electronic computer which was "taught" the theory of Boolean algebras can never make ^uch a mistake!): "q implies p. therefore the proposition q is also 'rue" (for instance. In contrast to the above. (or. we have (. "opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal\ the opposite sides AB and CD of the given quadrilateral AHCD are equal. particularly. .Here is an example of an argument following this rule: "If the sides of a quadrilateral are equal then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Exercises 1. 3. (b) 88 . (c) (p =>p) <=s> p. Rewrite the following proposition in the form involving only the addition (disjunction) and the "bar" operation (negation): (a) q=>(p + q). Reduce the composite propositions (a) pq + p 4. 4. Find which of the following propositions are true and which are false: (a) p + q^ p. and to (2) form (**) (see page 74). (b) pq q. q and r themselves but not over their combinations: (a) p q\ (P + q) r(C) (p + q) (d) /><=>(/> + q). (c) (p + q) (q + 0 (r + p) to (1) form (*) (see page 70). (b) pqr + p + q + r. Write the negations of the following propositions in the form which only involves the sign of negation (the bar) over the propositions p. (e) pq <=> qp. 2.The examples we have considered (their number can easily be increased) demonstrate the role which mathematical rules of propositional algebra play even in everyday life. (d) (p => p) <=i> p. (b) (c) (d) (p + q) [(/> + r) =*(</ + r)h pq <=> rs. pq=>q.q.

31 -AB A+B (b) (a) Fig. Since a section of an electric circuit is only meant for conducting an electric current. 7. Propositions and Switching Circuits Here we shall discuss one more example of a Boolean algebra which m a y seem rather unexpected. As the elements of this algebra we shall consider various switching circuits. it is these sections t h a t are elements of the peculiar algebra under consideration (earlier we used capital letters for denoting sets). t h a t is electric circuits with a number of switches each of which can be open or closed. In other words. Separate sections of such a circuit (for instance. 32 8У . any two sections containing the same switches and simultaneously permitting or not perm i t t i n g passage of current for the same states of all the switches (every switch can be in one of the two states: "open" or "closed") will be considered "equal" to each other. see a section shown in Fig. {}. Fig. Express the implication proposition (<=>) in terms of (a) (b) the operation the operation (=>) and the biconditional \ (see page 83). 31) will be denoted by capital letters. we shall consider any two sections which are similar in t h i s sense to be identical ("equal").5.

35 Further.-/IВ С Л+В+С (b) (aj Fig. It is clear that the addition and the multiplication of the sections of an electric circuit are commutative: A + В = В + A These operations are also (A + В) + С - and A B = BA associative: Л + (В + С) - /1 + В + Г and .a and b where each of the sections A and В of the circuit contains only one switch. see Fig. 32. 34 AB+C (A+C)(B+C) С (V С (b) Fig..1 ВС . 33 (A+B)C AC+BC (a) Fig. For instance. let us agree that by the sum A + В of two sections A and В will be meant a circuit with these two given sections A and В in parallel connection and t h a t by the product A B will be meant a circuit section with the sections A and В in series connection.1В (С) = А (ВС) Du .

35. 34 and 35.a is "equal to" the circuit in Fig. let us agree that I denotes an always-closed switch (Fig. 33a and 6 where the "triple sum" /1 + /? -f 6' of three switches and their "triple product" ABC are shown). 36 AI=A A+0=/l (a) (b) Fig. more complicated. However. 36. It is evident that A + О = A and AI = A and AO = О (see Fig. 34. Finally. 36. i hose laws also hold here (it can readily be checked that (he switching circuit shown in Fig.6). 34.6 while the circuit in Fig.a) and Jet О denote an always-open switch (Fig. 37 91 . The verification of the distributive laws [A i. 37) and t h a t A + f = I I -o -o—o(a) 0 o- (b) Fig.I-co Fig. as can be seen from Figs. 35.В) С = AB + BC and AB + C = = (A + С) (В + C) in this "algebra of switching circuits" is a little. i'he idempotent laws A + A = A and AA = A : so hold for these operations because when two switches which are in one and the same state (that is when they are .a is equal to that in Fig.ipen or closed simultaneously) are in series connection or il parallel connection the resultant circuit section gives ilie same result as a single switch in that state.6).

a and b). such a pair of switches can easily be constructed' (see Fig. Thus. 38). 39 (*) (ь) F i g . 41. the roles of the "special" elements / and О of this Boolean algebra are played by the circuit sections equal to an always-closed and an always-open switches respectively. 38 • .-o— A F i g .a and h where the sections A -f. 40 (see Fig.V A+1=1 I (a) A0=0 (b) F i g . T^O and and 6=1 also A+ A= I and AA = 0 (see Fig.Â В and ÂB = A + П are proved in a more intricate manner but they also hold in this algebra (for instance. 40. The De Morgan rules Â+B . It is evident that X=A. Let us also agree to denote as A and A a pair of switches such that when the switch A is closed the switch A is necessarily open and vice versa. see Fig.В and A + В of the circuit satisfy the condi- . 39).

41 в с r fi v c и ABC+ABC= =A(BC+BC) Fig.A8=A+B А+В=АВ а П Г\ -А+В вГ -АВ W —•О. 42 lion that when the section A В permits passage of current !he section A + В does not and vice versa). b and с are some "prime" propositions and the addition. В tnd С with the given propositions a. "and" and the negation of a proposition respectively. then the composite proposition d can be represented by the circuit in iig. b and c. 42 which corresponds to the combination D = ABC + ABC 93 . let us consider the composite proposition d = abc + abc where a.- V л • - -О— в (b) Fig. For instance. Let us associate some switches А. the multiplication of propositions and the "bar" operations are understood in the ordinary sense as the ''igical connectives "or". this similarity makes it possible to model composite propositions by means of electric circuits. The similarity between the "algebra of switching circuits" and the "algebra of propositions" is extremely valuable. In the first place.

The problem reduces to designing a combination С of the switches A and В (and perhaps A and B) such that the change of the state of any of the two switches changes the state of the whole circuit С to the opposite. To verify whether the proposition d is true when. If the circuit D with the switches А. that is transforms 94 .A - '• с С Л V_ - B F i g . 13 of the switches А. It is required to design an electric circuit for a bedroom with one electric lamp and with two switches one of which is by the door and the other by the bed-side. Let us denote as A and В the switches in the circuit. Here we shall give two examples to demonstrate what has been said. In the second place. In other words. Solution. the propositions a and b are true while the proposition с is false it suffices to close the switches A and В in the circuit D and to open the switch С (see Fig. the similarity between the algebra of switching circuits and the algebra of propositions allows us to use the rules of logic for constructing switching circuits satisfying some given conditions (which can be rather complex). The condition which must be satisfied is that when each of the switches is operated on the circuit must become open if it is closed before the operation and must become closed if it is open before the operation irrespective of the state of the other switch. В and C. in this case the proposition d is true. for instance. 43). В and С in these states permits the electric current to flow then D corresponds to the true proposition i (that is to the circuit I conducting electric current). In case the circuit D does not permit passage of current (that is it is "equal" to the circuit 0) for the given states of the switches then the proposition d is equivalent to the false proposition о when a and b are true while с is false. * Example 1.

The condition stated is satisfied by a proposition с which is true when both propositions a and b are simultaneously true or simultaneously false and which is false in all the other cases (that is when one of the two propositions a and b is true while the other is false). 37 95 . we have 1o find a combination с of two propositions a and b such that the replacement of the true proposition a by the false proposition à or vice versa changes to the opposite the sense (the "truth" or the "falsity") of the whole proposition c. 8 V "л /48 M B в Fig.the circuit permitting the passage of current into the one not permitting it and vice versa.ab It can readily be seen that this proposition с satisfies all the requirements stated above. Now. passing back from the propositions to the switching circuits we see that the electric circuit С we are interested in can be expressed by the formula С = АВ + Л В The construction of such a circuit clearly involves no difficulties (Fig. This description of the circuit involves the connective "or". we finally obtain с = ab -). and the same requirement refers to the proposition b. Further. since the descriptions of the summands of the sought-for sum involve the connective "and" we conclude that these summands are ab and ab Thus. In other words. which hints that it is possible to represent the proposition с as a sum of two propositions one of which is true when a and b are true while the other is true when a and b are true (that is when a and b are false). 44).

96 . Bd and Bc—the switches connected with the descent button in the car and with the call button by the lift shaft door on the first floor respectively. This circuit must involve two switches (push-buttons) one of which is in the car (the descent button) and the other is placed by the lift shaft door on the first floor (the call button). Solution. a switch connected with the door of the car (the inner door) which is closed when the inner door is closed and a switch connected with the floor of the car which is closed when a person is in the car and the weight of the person exerts pressure on the floor. (2) both outer doors (of the lift shaft) are closed while the door of the car is closed or open. we shall assume thai there are only two floors'. The circuit also involves the following additional switches: a switch which is closed only when the car is on the second floor. D—an analogous switch connected with the door of the car. Let us denote the switches in the circuit as follows: S—the switch which is closed only when the car is on the second floor. The electric circuit controlling the downward motion of the lift must be closed only when the car is on the second floor and. there is no person in the car. two switches connected with the outer (lift shaft) doors on the first and on the second floors which are closed when the doors are closed. we shall also confine ourselves to the circuit controlling the downward motion of the lift1). F—the switch connected with the floor of the car. D{ and D2—the switches which are closed when the outer doors on the first and on the second floors respectively are closed.Example 2. For the sake of simplicity. besides. a person is in the car and pushes the descent button. It is required to design an electric circuit for controlling a lift. According to the conditions of the problem the sought-for circuit Cd controlling the descent of the lift must be closed (must conduct electric current) only if: (1) the switch S is closed and the switch Di is closed and the switch Dz is closed and the switch D is closed and the 1 ) The circuit controlling the upward motion of the lift can he designed in just the same way (see Exercise 6 on page 100). a person on the first floor presses the call button. when one of the two following conditions is fulfilled: (1) the outer doors on the first and on the second floors and the inner door (in the car) are closed.

F >y Î c^o Bc Fig. For instance. to this end we can agree that to -420 97 . 45 switch F is closed and the switch Bd is closed or (2) the switch S is closed and the switch D{ is closed and the switch D2 is closed and the switch D is closed or open and the switch Bc is closed and the switch F is open. * We also note that the possibility of expressing all the operations of a Boolean algebra in terms of only one Sheffer operation (see Sec. Such an element can easily be constructed (see rig. 4B). 45). Taking into account that the logical operation "and" corresponds to the product of propositions (of switches) and the logical operation "or" corresponds to their sum we readily find Cd = SD^DFBa + SDtDz (D + D) BCF Using the equality D+ D= I and the property of the switch I {AI = A for any switch A) and also the commutative law for multiplication and the distributive law we can simplify the expression we have derived: Cd = SDtD2 (FDBd -f J'BC) Such a circuit can easily be constructed (see Fig. 6) is equivalent to the possibility of designing any electric switching circuit using only one special component (we denote it 2 ) with two inputs and one output such that the output electric current can flow if and only if neither of the inputs is supplied with electric urrent.

49 every section of the circuit there correspond two conductors through one of which the current flows permanently. 46 НУ A+B vn> m - AB A U В НУ a () (b) (c) Fig. An analogous role can also be played by a component M with three inputs and one output such that the output current can flow only when at least two of the three inputs of the element M are supplied with electric current (see (he scheme in 98 .a-c the sum A -f. pages 82-85). 47 к (b) (e) (I) (c) (d) (g) (h) F i g . 48 (a) (b) Fig. In Fig.иззъ (а) (b) (d) (с) Fig.В and the product AB of two circuits A and В are shown and also the scheme of the circuit A corresponding to the circuit A constructed with the aid of the "Sheffer component" S (cf. 47.

> lamp making it possible to switch on and to switch off the light by means of 99 . 48.abc (d) {a + b) (à +b) + ab + ah 2. Design an electric circuit with . cf.abc -f. It is required that the lamp should give light only in the case when the majority votes for the proposal or when the numbers of the votes for the proposal and against it are equal and the chairman voles for the proposal. С and D (and also perhaps the switches А. С and D) such that (a) the circuit E is closed only when all the switches A. 5*. С and D are closed. Design an electric circuit E containing switches A. В.Fig. the element M corresponds to the operation {ABC} — AB + ВС + С A = (A + В) (В + С) (C + A) of the Boolean algebra. (b) the circuit E is closed only in the case when some but not all of the switches А. In Fig. 4. Exercises 1. В. pagej 83). Draw switching circuits corresponding to the following composite propositions: (a) ( a + b ) J c + J ) (b) abc + ab + a (o) abc -f. Sketch switching circuits corresponding to the propositions (a + с) (b + с) {a + d) (b + d) and ab + cd and check the "equality" of these circuits. В. Design an electric circuit showing the results of voting: every member of the committee presses a button when he agrees with the proposal under discussion. 3*. С and D are closed or none of the switches is closed. 49a and b we see how the "addition" and the "multiplication" of two circuits A and В can be realized by means of the element M. В. the bulb in the circuit must only be switched when the majority votes for the proposal. (b) Design an analogous circuit for a committee consisting of a chairman and five members. (a) A committee consists of three members.

For the conditions of Example 2 on page 96 design an electric circuit controlling the upward motion of the lift. 1-6 of this small book does not exhaust the extensive theory of Boolean algebras. etc.(a) three independent switches (cf. and (2) if ctp = o. however. Example 1 on page 94): (h) n independent switches. . In this section we shall discuss one notion which is directly related to the notion of a Boolean algebra and has very many applications 1 ).) 100 . p. A Boolea n algebra consisting of elements oc.0 must not necessarily be included into the list of conditions defining a norm. (Similarly. the equality | i | — 1 specifying the "unit norm" is not very important either. then |a+p|=|a|-f|p|. I1 I= 1 One of the most important applications lies in the of the so-called probability theory on which. conseq u e n t l y . 1°. Normed Boolean Algebras The material of Sees. | i | = 1. dwell in the present small book. у. The notion of a Boolean algebra can be generalized in various ways. . unfortunately. These numbers can be taken as the norms of the corresponding elements: I 0 I == 0. the conditions | a | ^ 0 and | i | > 0 arc essential. Examples. and containing a "zero" element о and a "unit" element i is called a normed Boolean algebra if to every element a is assigned its "norm" ("absolute value") | a | which is a nonnegative number satisfying the following two conditions 2 ): (1) 0 < I a | < 1. . 2 ) From the fact that a o = о and a + о = a for any of the Boolean algebra and from condition (2) it follows | a | = |a + o| = | a | + whence foundation we cannot element a that |o| Iо1 = 0 Thus. The "algebra of two elements" (see page 25) consists of two "numbers" 0 and 1. the equality [ о | =. 6. * * 8. I о I = 0. using property (2) we can prove that | о | = 0 and.

Now we shall consider an example which elucidates the essence of the notion of a normed Boolean algebra itself. 3°.) Hence. we shall also assume that the universal set (we denote it J here) is finite. for instance. Further. this Boolean algebra of four elements with the absolute values (norms) of the elements we have defined becomes a normed Boolean algebra. 1. for the condition \ J \ Л to be fulfilled the proportionality factor must obviously be 1/Ar so that | A | is the ratio if the number of elements contained in A to the number of 101 .Then condition (1) oî the definition of the norm of an element is obviously fulfilled. For the "algebra of four elements" considered in Example 2 on page 27 we have pq ^ 0 and p + q = 1. we must put I 0 I = 0. Let the Boolean algebra under consideration be the algebra of sets which we considered in Sec. let J contain N elements. Let us define the norm of any subset A of the universal set J as a number proportional to the numbers к of elements contained in A. (Generally. I1 I . therefore. Condition (2) will also he fulfilled because the only pair of nonzero elements of this Boolean algebra whose product is equal to zero is the pair of the elements p and q. 2°. since 0-0 = 0 and | 0 + 0 | = 0 . in order to satisfy conditions (1) and (2). for any Boolean algebra in which condition (1) holds condition (2) also always holds if at least one of the elements a and |3 coincides with о because in this case ao = о and | a -j.1 and I p I+ Iq I = I1 I = 1 Let the "numbers" (elements) p and q entering into the definition of this Boolean algebra be two arbitrary positive numbers whose sum is equal to unity and let I1 | = I 0 I — 0. and we have |р + д | = | 1 | = 1 = р + д = | р | + 1 < 7 | Thus. Ip \ ~ p and \q\ = q Then condition (1) will be fulfilled.| 0 | + | 0 | 0-1=0 and I 0 + 1 I= 1 = I 0 I+ I1I condition (2) also holds. with this definition of the norm of an element the Boolean algebra of two elements 0 and 1 becomes a normed Boolean algebra.о | = | a \ — -= I a I + 0 = I a I + I о |.

elements in the universal set / : Then condition (1) is fulfilled.+ ±f=\A\ + \B\{AB = 0) Thus.. . . . say. . aN of the set J be equal to some nonnegative numbers tu t2. Suppose that difîerent elements au a2. i2. iN are some of the numbers 1.. .to -• . . When we try to "teach" an electronic computer to play chess we usually assume that a bishop or a knight "costs" approximately 3 times as much as a pawn. . • • -. . + tN = 1 \A | = |{a. . . .. then the algebra of the subsets of the set J becomes a normed Boolean algebra. it is also convenient to choose "unit price" so that Now let us put h + h + . the "price" of the queen is 8 or 9 times that of a pawn while the king "costs" much more than a pawn. in a r c course pairwise different). the rook "costs" 4 or 5 times as much as a pawn. Condition (2) is also fulfilled and its meaning is quite clear: if two sets A and В do not intersect (that is AB = 0) then the number of elements contained in their sum can simply be obtained by adding together the number к of elements in the set A and the number I of elements in the set В whence it follows that \A + B\ = k+L = ±. 2. . (If we put l t i . . — t N =. .-дР 102 . For instance.+ • • • + tin where ilt i2. ait. The above definition of the norm | A | of a subset A of the universal set J admits of further generalization. tN respectively. . . its "price" is 1000 times that of a pawn. if J is the set of all chessmen it often turns out that it is natural to consider different chessmen as having different "prices". dij I = tu -Mi. ... aN of the set J are assumed to have different "weights" (different "prices"). Let the "weights" ("prices") of different elements au a2. the Boolean algebra in question with the norm of the elements we have defined is a normed Boolean algebra.. . . .. N chosen quite arbitrarily (h... .

It is quite clear that. Similarly. this weight is computed by means of the integral \A | = J / (M) da = j j f(x. In the latter case the norm of a figure A should be defined as its area divided by the number S.) 4°. A A y)dxdy 103 . by the volume of the whole solid / ) . if we take as / a three-dimensional solid then it is natural to define the norm of its subset A as the volume of A (divided. y) (that is the weight per unit area) be determined by a (nonnegative!) function / ( M ) = / (x. * This example also admits of an important generalization. By the norm (absolute value) of a set A we shall mean the area of the figure A. under this definition. condition (1) of the general definition of the norm will be satisfied. almost nothing changes if the role of the universal set J is played not by a unit square but by some other geometrical figure with area S. Of.then the new generalized deiinition of the norm | A | of a subset A reduces to the definition in the example above. Let the specific weight of the material at a point M ---= (x. that is as the "relative input" of the figure A into the whole area of J. As before. Condition (2) will also hold: in this case it simply means that if a figure С is split into non-intersecting parts A and В (that is AB — 0) then its area is equal to the sum of the areas of the figures A and J5. The algebra of subsets of the square J supplied with the norm thus defined becomes a normed Boolean algebra. Suppose that the solid / is a thin plate of uniform thickness made of an arbitrary nonhomogeneous material. let us assume that the Boolean algebra under consideration is the algebra of subsets of a set J.course. for instance. when necessary. as the universal set / a unit square so that the various subsets A of the set J are some geometrical figures lying within the square J. But now we choose. The next example is in many respects analogous to the previous one. y). As the norm | A | of a subset A let us take the weight of the part A of the plate J.We see that the conditions imposed on the norm have simple meaning in this case and they are similar to the conditions which define the notion of the area of a geometrical figure.

In this case we can define the norm | a | of a number a as the logarithm. Indeed. the change of the base of l o g a r i t h m s from b to с s i m p l y reduces to the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of a l l the l o g a r i t h m s by the constant factor log c b (by the modulus of the former system of l o g a r i t h m s to base b w i t h respect to the l a t t e r system of l o g a r i t h m s to base c): log c m = log c b -log. The "unit weight" should be chosen so that the weight of the whole plate J is equal to unity. that is j f(M)da= j [{/(*. it is obvious that condition (1) is fulfilled in this case. b) — 1 is fulfilled for some numbers a and b (the role of the element о of the Boolean algebra in question is played by the number 1!) means that the two given numbers a and b are mutually prime. Let us consider the Boolean algebra whose elements are the various divisors of a positive integer N for which the "sum" and the "product" of numbers are defined. more precisely.where do is the (infinitesimal) element of area of the plate adjoining (or containing) the point M. "J y) dxdy = 1 It is easy to understand that the introduction of the norm defined in this way (with the aid of an arbitrary nonnegative function / (x. m Instead of the e q u a l i t y | a | = log a/log N wo can also w r i t e | a | = logjy a (because log j V a = l o g n a / l o g n N for any n). b] = ab *) The choice of the base of l o g a r i t h m s is not i m p o r t a n t here because the r a t i o log a/log N is independent of the base. in this case we have а ф b = [a. if the condition a 0 b — (a. 5°. 104 . Further. respectively. Indeed. as the ratio log a!log N because it is required that the norm of the number N (which plays the role of the element i of the Boolean algebra) should be equal to unity 1 ). as their least common multiple and their greatest common divisor (see Example 4 on page 31).. of that number or. y) satisfying only one "normalization condition" written abpve) transforms the Boolean algebra of figures A into a normed Boolean algebra. In the same manner we can also construct a normed Boolean algebra whose elements are arbitrary domains contained in a given three-dimensional solid J assuming that the solid is made of a non-homogeneous material and that the norm of a domain lying within J is equal to its weight.

о = 0. consequently. Another interesting example of a normed Boolean algebra can be obtained if we introduce a norm into the algebra of electric switching circuits (see Sec. By definition. for instance. * * 6°. As can readily be seen. Further.and. we have a normed Boolean algebra in this example. let the norm | A | of a circuit section A be equal to 1 when this section permits passage of current for the given states of all switches it contains and let | A | = 0 when the current does not flow through the section A. if. 6] and à — 1 — a (besides. 7). b = 0 then obviously а ф b — a and | а ф b | = | a \ — = I а I + 0 = I а I + I ft I7°. it follows from the fact that here we have a ® b = 0 only when one of the elements a and b of the Boolean algebra coincides with 0. Then. i = 1 and let a =э b when a ^ b. As to condition (2). log (а ф b) — log (ab) = log a + log b that is | a © f t | = | a | + | f t | We have thus proved that condition (2) entering into the definition of a normed Boolean algebra is also fulfilled liere. a ® b = min [a. see Example 3 on page 28). does not permit passage of current. the equality AB О means that at least one of the sections A and /?. Hence. I his Boolean algebra also becomes a normed algebra if we put I a I = a. Then condition (1) of the definition of the norm of an element of a Boolean algebra is obviously fulfilled. say A. condition (1) of the definition of a normed Boolean algebra is fulfilled because all the possible values of the norm are equal to 0 or 1. let the operalions be defined as a © b — max [a. therefore when AB = О the circuit A + В permits passage of current when the other circuit (B) conflicts current and does not conduct current if otherwise. Let us assume that the elements of the Boolean algebra are all real numbers x such that 0 ^ x 1. the norm of the section О which plays the role of the element о is equal to 0 (this circuit section never permits passage of current) and the norm of the section I which plays the role of the element i is equal I о 1. 105 . b]. naturally.

All the operations of propositional algebra can be characterized by the indication of the truth values of the composite propositions obtained from the constituent (prime) propositions by means of these operations depending on the truth values of the constituent propositions. Hence. Here we also have 0 < | p | ^ 1 (or. that is at least one of the two propositions p and q. I i I = 1. 8°. in case pq = О the proposition p + q (that is the proposition "p or q") is true if and only if the other proposition (q) is true. Let us consider an example which is very similar to the example of the normed Boolean algebra considered above.p I = 0 or I p I = 1) and I о I = 0. Let us introduce the norm | p | of a proposition p in the algebra of propositions by putting | p | = 1 when the proposition p is true and | p | = 0 when p is false. Further. Whence it readily follows that in this case | + <7 | = | jo | + | <7 ]• The most important normed Boolean algebras we have considered are of course those in Examples 7° and 8°. The sum (disjunction) p -f. The normalization condition for the elements of the algebra of propositions assigns to every proposition one of the two numbers 0 and 1 which is the truth value of the proposition. Exercises 1-2 below). the truth table corresponding to the ope106 . the relation pq = 0 means that the proposition "p and g" is false.whence it follows that for such circuits A and В we have \A+B I = \A I + \ B |. Therefore. the operations p + 4 and pq can be described by means of the following "truth tables": IpI l l 111 1 0 0 1 0 0 lp+«l \P4\ 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Tn just Ihe same way we can compile the truth table corresponding to any other composite proposition (cf.q of two propositions p and q is characterized by the condition that p + q is true if and only if at least one of the propositions p and q is true while the product (conjunction) pq of these same propositions is true if and only if both propositions p and q are true. \. say p. is false. more precisely.

in other words.f a | = | i | = l Consequently. It follows that M . if o d P . Let us consider some other examples of the application of normed Boolean algebras to elementary mathematical problems.= I P + Ê| = IPt + I Ê l > I P I or. From properties (1) and (2) of the norm (the absolute value) of an element of a Boolean algebra we can derive some further properties of the norm. then I a I > I p I The existence of the "difference" of two elements a and p for which a zd p also implies that for any two elements 107 . Here we shall not dwell in more detail on the truth tables for propositions and the values characterizing the conductivity of switching circuits (for these questions see bibliography at the end of the book). for any two elements a and p of a Boolean algebra for which the relation a zd p holds there exists an element £ (the "difference" between the elements a and P) such that a = p+ | and p|=o (see Exercise 3 below). we see that I а I = 1 — I a I for all a Further.ration of forming negation is particularly simple: l/'l 1 0 • \~p\ 0 1 It is evident that such truth tables completely characterize the propositions to which they correspond. Analogously. the norm of an electric circuit (see Example 7°) characterizes the conductivity of the circuit which is its only important characteristic: this measure of conductivity is equal to 1 or 0 depending on whether the current flows or doesnot flow through this circuit. First of all it follows that if а а ~ о and a + a = i then | a | + Ja| — j a .

besides. by virtue of condition (2). we obtain Ia + p I- Ia I+ Ip - ap I and I P I = I «Р I + I P . Let there he a group of 22 students among whom 10 students are chess-players. we obtain the relation Ia + p I= I a I+ Ip I- I ap | (A) For instance. chess and draughts. How many students can play neither chess nor draughts? 108 . 50) and therefore \ A + В \ ~ \ A \ + \ В \ .I В I involves twice the area of the intersection AB (see Fig.( P — aP) = о and. P . then the sum I A I -f.a p + ( p .aP) where a p . let | A | and | В | be the areas of two geometrical figures A and В (see Example 4 above). 8 students can play draughts and 3 can play both. 50 a and p of a Boolean algebra we have a + p = a + (P - ap) where the element p — a p (the "difference" between p and aP) possesses the property that a .Fig.( p — aP) — о whence.a p I On subtracting the second of the last equalities from the first one (these are number equalities) and transposing the term I p I to the right.\ AB \ Example.

by virtue of formula (A). |+1 a 2 1 + | a 3 1 — | a 2 a 3 1 — (| a .I a . I + I сц I + I a 3 1 — I a j a 2 1 — | a. there are 7 students in the group who cannot play either chess or draughts. * We also note that equality (A) admits of a further generalization. It is clear that equality (A) is a generalization of property (2) of the norm.a 2 a 3 1) == ---1 a . we liave i ai + a 2 + a 3 1 = | a t + (а 2 +«з) | = | | +1 «2+a 3 1— I ^ ( « г + а з ) ! •= Ч a i I + (I a 21 + I a 31 — I I) — I «1«2 + ai<x31 = . Let us consider three arbitrary elements a I ( a 2 and a 3 of a normed Boolean algebra. I Cfe • Dr I = I ChTDr] = 1 -1 С h + Dr | = 1 . For оф = о it goes into property (2).a 2 a 3 1 109 . a 2 | +1 a t a 3 1 — | a. page 102) and \Ch.Let us denote the set of the students who can play chess hv the symbol Ch and the set of the students who can play draughts by the symbol Dr.Dr\=--^ + l . We have (cf. We have to determine the number of students in the set Ch-~Dr=Ch + Dr (see the corresponding De Morgan formula). Let us also define the norm in the algebra of the sets of the students in the group as it was done for a finite universal set in the Example 3°.a 3 1 — | a 2 a : ) | + | a. By virtue of (A).g = 1 Thus.Dr]=^ whence. From (A) it also follows that for any two elements a and |3 of a normed Boolean algebra we have Ia + M < Ia I+ I M (В) This property of the absolute values (norms) of the elements of a normed Boolean algebra is analogous to the wellknown property of the absolute values of numbers.^ = £2 Consequently. we obtain \Ch + Dr\ = \Ch\ + \Dr\-\Ch.

.(I a 2 1 + I a 3 1 + I a 4 1 — I a 2 a 3 1 — | a 2 a 4 1—| a 3 a 4 1 + + I a 2 a 3 a 4 1) — | сцс^ -f a ^ + a t a 4 1 = ™ I «11 4-1 «21 + I аз i +1 a41 — I a2a31 — | a2a4 j — | a3a41 + + I a 2 a 3 a 4 1— (| a t a 2 1 + | a .. . • • + proved by induction. • • -. I -f I a 2 I + I a 3 1 + I a41 — I a t a 2 1 — | aja 3 1 — | a t a 4 1 — — I a 2 a 3 1 — I a 2 a 4 1 — | a 3 a 4 1 + | а { а 2 а г | -f | a . . obviously ( a 1 a 2 ) . . . ik each of which can be equal to 1. 2..1 + i + S (ii. + a „ | = S I «i I— 2 К. In the same manner.a 3 4.-ai2 . n and the sum contains only one term (because ( i i . . in the case under consideration we have к = 1. (a 2 -f. S in-1) + |a. | + | a2 | + .a 4 ) | = I a j I -I.. | ccn | (B') . ai(| J + + (-l)"-1|a1a2a3 ..b e t the reader prove formula (A') by induction. i2. a 2 a 3 a 4 1 Generally. . ih) under the summation sign indicates t h a t the summation extends over all the possible combinations of the pairwise different indices iu i2. . + an | < which 110 can readily be | a. ij.because. . Iа. ij) I aitai2ai. if • •• in) of which the last term in the expression on the right-hand side does not involve the summation sign 2j). и.. + (-1Г2 (ii. a 2 a 4 ] -f+ 1 a t a 3 a k | + 1 oc2a3a. | — | a . a 3 1 -f1 a t a 4 1 — | a t a 2 a 3 1 — — I a4a2a4 ( — | a1a3a41 -f | aia2oi:jcci |) = = I a. .( a 1 a 3 ) = a ^ a g . 2. . + а 2 + а п + . We can similarly express the norm of a sum of four elements: I «1 + «2 + «3 + a 4 I = I «1 + («2 + «3 + «4) I == = I I + I a 2 -f a 3 + a 4 1 — | a . ... ... we can derive from formula (B) the relation I a! + a2 + . 3.. . . а >. an| (A') where the symbol (ij. . ii I — .

There are 25 pupils in a class among whom 17 pupils are cyclists. 1 % of the people speak all the three languages.Below are some examples demonstrating various applications of formula (A'). It is known that in a group of people 60% of the people speak English.l' a Boolean algebra there holds the relation a.\ e g \ - I fg I + \efg I . 30% of the people speak French-. 2 ).0. a 2 . we use the fact that efg = e + / + g.0. au o. . we have \e + f + g \ = \ e \ + \ f \ + \ g \ . 2%) of the people speak French and German. In particular. 1963. Oxford. a 2 .0.89 and consequently the percentage of the people who speak none of the three languages is equal to 1 ) I <7/У I I e + f + g | = l .2 this relation goes into the De Morgan formula a j a 2 = a. Then. 11% of the people speak none of the three languages. Steinhaus..3 + 0. Example 1. speaking French and speaking German as e.89 = 0 . .f g | = l . for instance. What is the percentage of the people who can speak none of the three languages? Solution.6 + 0. f and g respectively.0. Let us denote the sets of the people speaking English. Pergamon Press. None of the pupils is good at all the three kinds 1 ) In this solution we use the following fact which can easily be proved by induction: for any number к of elements a x .0.11% Thus. Let us consider the algebra of the sets of the people in the group as a normed Boolean algebra in which the norm is introduced as in the first Example 3°. 15% of the people speak English and French. . 13 pupils are swimmers and 8 pupils are skiers.|e + / .. • . 20% of the people speak German.02 + 0.i-a2 .05 .01 .15 . + a ft l o r к —. 5% of the people speak English and German-.0. •OLh = a l {-a 2 + . By virtue of formula (A'). til .2 ... One Hundred Problems in Elementary Mathe•itirs. -) The idea and the solution of this problem are adopted from the •"">k: H.\ e f \ . Example 2. 1 1 . ef is the set of the people speaking both English and French.

The cyclists. the swimmers and the skiers have satisfactory marks in mathematics (let us agree that the progress of the pupils is appraised with the three marks "good". I S Sk\ = \Sk\ and and it is required to determine the values of norms | G | and I Sw Sk |. I + I S 2 I IGl + ISol + ISil + l ^ l . finally. swimmers and skiers by the symbols Cy. let В be the set of the pupils having bad marks in mathematics. Further. How many pupils in the class have good marks in mathematics and how many swimmers can skil Solution. "satisfactory" and "baa!") and it is known that 6 pupils in the class have bad marks in mathematics. Sw and Sk respectively. Let us denote the sets of the cyclists. let G denote the set of the pupils who have only good marks in mathematics. swim and ski.g 112 (a) . consequently. Let us denote by S0. Then we can write Consequently I 5 I = I S n I + I S.of sport. Si and S2 the following sets of the pupils having satisfactory marks in mathematics: the set of the pupils who cannot cycle. Then the conditions of the problem can be written in the form (1) | C „ | = g . I S 5 ю | = | 5 ю | . the set of the pupils who are good at one of these kinds of sport and the set of the pupils who are good at two of the kinds of sport (remember that none of the pupils is good at all the three kinds of sport!). S denote the set of the pupils having satisfactory marks and. = I = | (2) I Cy Sw Sk | = 0 (3) IS Cy\ — \Cy\. It is obvious that and.

' 2I (here we have again used the fact that none of the pupils is good at all the three kinds of sport). -420 U 3 . | = ]C!/ Sw + Sw Sk\ = \Cy Su. 38 ' ~ 25 . It follows t h a t ]Si| + 2 | S a | = . I-f | 5 j | = | 5 Cy + S Sw + S Sk | = = \S Cj/| + | S + —15 Cy Sw\- — I 5 Cy Sk\ — \S Sw Sk | = = |Cty| + |Sï/'| + |Sfc| — С S Су 5Jfc| —15 = y Sw I — Sw Sk | = 17 . the number of the pupils having good marks in mathematics is equal to zero and the number of swimmers who can <ki is equal to 2.But we have jS.§ - (b) Now lot us duplicate equality (a) and subtract equality (b) from the result. 13 . note t h a t the condition | S x | = 0 means t h a t each of the pupils who is good at least at one of the kinds of sport is also good at one more kind of sport. „ .| + | S w Sk I A = I S к I = I Cy Sk + Sw Sk\ = \Cy S к | + | Sw Sk | from which we find \Cy \Cy Sk\=^ and \Sw Sk\--^ Thus. ' c 2 . I S0 I = 0 and I Si I = 0 Further. This yields 2 1 6 1 + 2150 1 + 1 5 x 1 = 0 Since the sum of three nonnegative numbers can only be equal to zero when each of the numbers is equal to zero we thus obtain I G I = 0. 8 25 25 25 . Taking this into account we arrive at the following system of equations: g = = Sw + Cy Sk\ = \Cy Sw\ + \Cy Sk I i § = | S u .

I) I 4fti I + I 4 з 4 5 I 14*1 + i. \ Al3 etc. W e know that | At I ^ y where i 1. 2.j. In just the same way we can write analogous inequalities for | A2 |. 3. Shklyarsky. According to formula (A')'we can write 1= |/|>|Л1 + Л 2 4 A3 + Ak + A b \ = = i 2= t 1 4 .l) \Aijhl\~5\Al23l& 1 ) This example admits of an extensive generalization (see problems 59 and 60 in the book by D. Geometrical Estimates and Problems in Com binatorial Geometry. 5 (see Example 4° on page 103). I. Let us denote the patches (which are regarded as subsets of this coat J having unit area) as Au A2.}) 1 . h. 0 . "Nauka".2 | 4 Л i=2 (г.2 j) 1 4 1 + S (i. Prove that there are at least two patches which overlap so that their common part has an area not less than 1/5. i) \Aijhl\-\Ami5\^0 (1) From the inequality we have obtained we now eliminate the term 2 М ш I the following terms. ). + j) S (i.3 2 14. Yaglom and N. 114 . N. j. O n adding together all the inequalities thus obtained we get \h\At\>2 i=l 2 1 4 a.h) + 4 + 2 (i. Moscow. h. h Ь) + 2 (г.2 l 4 + i s (г. — whence i . h) 14*I- 2 (i. To this end we use the same formula (A') to obtain | 4 > | 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 l = = 2 | 4 | .Example 3 A coat of area 1 has 5 patches the area of each of which is not less than 1/2. j. | Ая |.(i.h. j.1 (i. 3. 1974. Chentsov. M. A-j. к run over the values 2. | Â4 | and | A5 |. h) 14мЫ4з4 Я | where the summation indices i. 5.j. their pairwise intersections will be denoted A 12 . 4. 4. S) 1 4 1 - S ('. in Russian). At and A s . it is necessary to estimate the quantities | Ai} |. Solution.

inequality . i. И 1 2 3 5 |. 0 Consequently. J) i Now. ft. j) 0. j. we conclude that at ' least one of these terms is not less than 2 : 10 = 1 5 which is what we intended to prove. M) + 5\АШ16\^0 (2) Let us multiply inequality (2) by 1/3 and add the result to inequality (1). ft. The inequality obtained in this way does not contain the term with ^ \Aijh\- 1-12ИН+! 2 l^l-s 2 i (i.2 2 Ий-1 + 3 S \Aijh I (i.4 S \ЛШ1\ (i.h) :=1 . j) whence we derive the 2 |Л г . }) (i. ) V Z 10.whence ^ M i 1 . И13451 and И 23451 not less than \A 123451 and therefore \Aim\>b\Aiwa\ 2 (i. И 12451.i. since the number of the terms entering in the sum V^ | A t j I is (ij) equal to ( . inequality (3) can also be rewritten as 4 г (г.|>22МН-3>2(54)-3 = 2 (i. 115 .ft.I) and 2 \AUM I — | " l ^1234 5 |>Ml2345|>0 (».J. I) + + ~\Al2345|>0 (3) It is clear that each of the five quantities Hi234|. 1.

Compile the truth tables for the following compound propositions: (a) pq + p -f q. p2. . a 3 = 30. . с] + min [a. d] + -f min [a. (c) pq + r 3*. c] — . b. . Prove that max [a. Let a. c. с and d be 4 arbitrary numbers. . (d) the operation { } (see page 83). c. pn are the prime factors of the integer..d — min [a. Let N --. аг. .. аг =• 10. d] — min [a. ah] of the numbers аг. d] = a + b + с -f. d-] + min [a./V) of the positive integral argument N is called Euler's function. . ^ (b) (P + j ) (p +1). ah. c.Exercises \ . . It is required to find the least common multiple [ a ^ . the operation \ (see page 83).) 5*. c. . that is an element of the Boolean algebra such that p + I = a and P£ = o. b. How can we determine the number ф (N) of the positive integers which are less than N and relatively prime to N? (The function ф (. . b] — — min [a. Apply the formula you obtain to the case к = 4. b. Let the numbers themselves and the greatest common divisors of any combinations of these numbers be known. Compile the truth tables for the following operations: (a) the implication (b) the biconditional proposition (c) the Sheffer operation |. 6. Prove that if a and p are elements of a Boolean algebra such that A ID p then there exists the "difference" E of the elements a and p. 4*. — min [c. . b. ah be arbitrary positive integers. Let a 2 . . a 4 = 45. a 2 = 12. b. d] -f + min [Ь. 2.p\'p%' • • • Pnn be a positive integer where Pi. d\ . .

« ï + Pï (4a) оф + Т = ( а + у) (P + у) the distributive laws Rules concerning the elements о and i (5) a f o (5a) aaoi == oa (6) a . • • -.Appendix Definition of a Boolean Algebra A Boolean algebra is an arbitrary set of elements a. In a Boolean algebra a unary operation (the "bar" operation) is also defined which associates a new •lement a with one element a of the Boolean algebra. page 25. ) As was mentioned. addition (multiplication) is a binary operation. It is also required that two "special" elements о and i should exist and that the following rules should hold: Rules for addition Rules for multiplication (1) ct + p = p + ct (la) оф = ра the commutative laws (2) ( а + р ) + 7 = а + . (5. it associates a new element a + (a(5) with every two elements a and P of the Boolean algebra.ф + 7 ) (2a) (оф) Y = a ((Jy) the associative laws (3) a -f а = а (3a) a a = а the idempotent laws Rules connecting addition and multiplication (4) (a + P ) Y .f i == ia (6a) Rules concerning the "bar" operation (7) а = а (8) ô = i (8a) î = o 1 ) Cf. 2 117 . for which two operations called addition and multiplication are defined which associate with any two elements a and {5 their sum a + and their product aji1) and for which the "bar" operation is defined which associates with any element a a new element a2). у.

if only the operations of addition and multiplication exist (but the "bar" operation is not defined) they do 'not specify a Boolean algebra. it is even unnecessary to require in the definition of a Boolean algebra that one of the two operations of addition and multiplication should exist. Moreover. namely: a zd a if a :r> p and p id a then a = p if a zd p and p ID y then a ID y i ID a a + ^D a if a zd p and and a ID о a zd оф then p zd a (let the reader derive them). most of the books and scientific papers 118 . For instance. in contradistinction to the definition of a Boolean algebra we use in this book. we can define the multiplication using the corresponding De Morgan rule: ap = cc + p However. if the operation of addition and the "bar" operation exist.Rules connecting the "bar" operation with addition and multiplication (9) a + p = a p (9а) « р . We also note that.а + р t h e De M o r g a n f o r m u l a s It is unnecessary to include into the definition of a Boolean algebra the requirement that the inclusion relation ID should exist for some pairs of elements a and P. the matter is that the inclusion relation a ID p can be defined by means of any of the two conditions a + (3 — a and aft p from each of which all the properties of the relation ID can be derived. The above definition of a Boolean algebra is highly "noneconomical" in the sense that many of the properties we have enumerated can be derived from some other properties and it is therefore unnecessary to require that the former should be fulfilled. for instance. On this question see. that is it suffices to require that only one of these operations and also the "bar" operation should exist. books 11]. [2] and [5] (see the bibliography).

. 2 can naturally be regarded as examples of "incomplete" (or "generalized") Boolean algebras because properties (10) and (10a) in which they differ from the "complete" Boolean algebras (for which these conditions hold) are not so very important.add two more conditions connecting the "bar" operation with addition and multiplication. If we include these conditions in the definition then the "algebra of maxima and minima" (see Example 3 on page 28) is a Boolean algebra in the single case when the set of numbers in question contains only two elements: 1 and 0. for this approach to the notion of a "Boolean algebra" Examples 3 and 4 in Sec. then this algebra coincides with the "algebra of two numbers" (page 25). namely (10) a + cc = i and (10a) a a = o (cf. page 53). With these two additional conditions included the "algebra of least common multiples and greatest common divisors" (Example 4 on page 31) is a Boolean algebra when the number N decomposes only into pairwise different prime factors. However.

(A + B) (A + C) (B + D) (C + D) = {(B + A) x (С + Л)М(5 + D) (С + Я)] = (ВС + А) {ВС + D) = X = (A + ВС) (D + ВС) = AD + ВС second distributive law). [{A + В + С) (В + С + D)} (С + D + А) = = [AD + (В + С)} (С + D + А) = l(AD + В) + С] х X [(А + D) + С] = (AD + В) (А + D) + С = AD + + AD + АВ + BD + С = АВ + AD + BD + С Section 2 3 . (a) + 0 1 0 1 0 1 I I О I and 0 0 0 1 О I (b) + О P Q I О P Q I and 0 P Q 1 6.A CD + ВС + BD = AC + ВС + BD 10. (А + В) (В + С) (С + А) = ABC + АВ + АС + + ВС = ABC + ABI + АС + ВС = АВ (С + / ) + + АС + ВС = ABI + АС + ВС = АВ + ВС + С A (see the identity proved on page 23). Л (Л + / ) (Я + 0) = Л ./ . n) = } 120 P P 1 I Q I Q I I I I I 0 P Q 1 0 О О О 0 P О P 0 0 О P QQ Q I max [a h . [(A + В) (В + C)} (C + D) = (AC + B)(C + D) = = AC -f. A (A + В) = AA + AB = A + AB --= 4 / + = = Л (I + B) = AI = 5.Answers and Hints Section 1 1. [m.5 = AB. (here w e use the 2. b k ] • Pk min [aft. bft] • • Ph . 6. О P Q I n]=p (m. 7.

Section 3

1. AB -f AC -f BD + CD = (A + D) (B + C)

(see

Exercise 1, Sec. 1); A + AB =- Л (see Exercise 2, Sec. 1);

AB + ВО + AI = A (see Exercise 9, Sec. 1); ABC +

+ BCD -f CD A = (A + B) (A + D) (B + D) С (see

Exercise 10, Sec. 1).

2. (a) {A + B) (A + B) = A A + AB_ + В A + BB = A+ AB + BA + 0 = A+BA+BA=A

+

+ {В + В) A = A + IA_ = A + A = A.

(b) AB + (A + В) (A + B)_= AB_+ AA + AB +

+ BA + BB = AB + О + AB + В A + О = AB + _

+ AB +_BA = (AB + AB) 4- (AB + AB) = A(B+B)

+

+ (A +2) В = AI 4- IB

+ B._

(c) ABC AB AC = (Â + B + C)(Â + B)ÂC =

= 1(4 +

(A + В) AC = A (A + B) AC +_

4- В (A -f В) AC + (Л_4- В) A (CC) = (ЛЛ) ( 4 + B J C +

4- [B (AA) С + (BB) AC] + (A + В)А0 = 0(А +В) С +

+ [BOC + OAC} + 0 = 0.

(d) A 4- В = A + IB = A +_(A + А) В = A +_

4- AB 4- AB = (AI + AB) + AB = A(I + B) + AB =

= AI 4- AB = A 4- AB.

3. Apply the "bar" operation to both members of the equality in question and use the fact that A = A.

4 .AB 4- А В = A (see Exercise 2 (a)}; (A + B) (AB 4+ AB) = AB (see Exercise 2 (b)); A (A

B) — AB (see

Exercise 2 (d)).

6. (a) To every divisor m of the number N there corresponds subset of the set I = {рг, p2, . . ., pu} of the prime

factors of the number N consisting of those prime factors

of N which are simultaneously prime factors of m. If A

and В are the subsets of the set I corresponding to two numbers m and n then to the numbers m ф n = [m, n],

m (g> n == (m, n) and m = N/m there correspond the sets

A 4- B, A B and A respectively.

(b) If m, = pa and n — ph then m ф n = [m, n] =

= рта* f». ь1, m ® n = (m, n) — pminfa, b] a n ( j m = дг/ ш ^

=

pA~a.

121

(с) m - Nlm

. . .

7. These equalities do not hold for the "algebra of maxima

and minima" (except for the case when the algebra consists

of only two numbers) and for the "algebra of least common

multiples and greatest common divisors" (except for the

case when the number N decomposes into pairwise different prime factors; cf. Exercise 6 (a)).

8. (a) (A + B) (A + C)

A + AC + AB + ВС

=

- AI

- AI

+

+

{A

AC + AB + ВС = A (I + С + В) + ВС

=

B C ^ A + BCczA+BŒLA

+ B + C.

+ В) (A + С) (A + / ) = (A + В) (A + С) I

(b)

= (A + B) (A -f С) = A + ВС id A zd ABC

cise (a)).

(c)

{A +

В) (В +

С) (С +

A)

=

AB

+

ВС +

(cf.

CA

=

Exer=>

**zd AB zd ABC (see Exercise 6, Sec. 1).
**

(d) Since A zd AB and В zd AB we have A + В zd

zd

a b

+

a b .

**9. ABC с- AB + AC (see Exercise 8(a); AB + AC +
**

AO cz A + В + С (see

Exercise 8(b)); AB + ВС +

+ CAœ:A+B

+ C (see Exercise 8(c)).

10. AB a{Â+

B) (A + B).

12. (a) A; (b) В; (с) I; (d) 0 .

Section 4

5. (a) "the number is even and prime"; the truth set is

{2}; (b) "the number is odd or prime"; the truth set is

{1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, . . .}; it differs from the

set of all odd numbers in the fact that it includes the number 2; (c) "the number is odd and prime"; the truth set is

{3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, . . .} and it differs from the set

of all prime numbers in the fact that it excludes the number 2; (d) "the number is even and not prime"; the t r u t h

set is {4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, . . .} and it differs from

the set of all even numbers in the fact that it excludes the

number 2; (e) "the number is odd or not prime"; the truth

set is {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, . . .} and coincides

with the set of all positive integers with the exception of

the number 2.

Section 5

5. a + b — a; ab — b.

122

Section 6

**1. (a) pq + pq_+ pq_+ pq^ (b) pqr + pqr + pqr + pqr.
**

2. (d) pqrs -f pr + ps -f qr + qs.

3. Propositions (b), (d) and (e) are true (for all p and q).

Section 7

1. (a) See Fig. 51; (b) see Fig. 52.

3. (a) See Fig. 53a, (b) see Fig. 53,6.

4. (a) D = AB + AC + ВС (А, В and С are the push

buttons which the members of the committee press).

(b) G = А (ВС + BD + BE + BF + CD + CE +

4- CF + DE + DF + EF) + BCDE + BCDF +

+ BCEF + BDEF + CDEF (A is the push button which

the chairman presses and B, C, D, E and F are the push

buttons for the members of the committee).

5. (a) D = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC.

- г г ^ г

L^V-I

В

L_aSr>_](/l+B)(C+D)

0

Fig. 51

A

Д y

в

SV

с

A(BC+B)+A

F i g . 52

0^

0„

E=(A + B + C + DJ( A + B+C+D)

E=ABCD+ABCD

(bj

Fig.

123

Section 8 3. . £ = ар. .. 5 . Apply formula (A') to the Boolean algebra in Example 5°. . n). 2. This formula can be obtained by applying (/!') to Example 3° in which the roles of the elements of a Boolean algebra are played by the sets of natural numbers not exceeding N and divisible by pt (where i — 1. .

G. J.. however much attention is paid to problems concerning computers. The first part of this book is a reference book meant for engineers and students studying mathematics. 1957. Invitation a la recherches opêrationelle. . Paris. 4. E .J.. What is Mathematics?. This book is meant for m a t h e m a t i c s teachers. 7. A. Kemeny. Dunod.Bibliography 1. F. L. Princeton (N.. 2.. Newson. H . F a u r e . L. С. T. . t h i s part is devoted to Boolean algebras. G. All the questions treated in the present book are discussed in detail. Macmillan. Englewood Cliffs (N. S t a l l . H . In this book meant for senior p u p i l s some questions related to Boolean algebras are also considered. Courant. Hohn. C. V.J. C u l b e r t s o n . 8. 1948. Denis-Papin. 1963. R ... Faure. M. Dunod. B e r k e l e y . New York. Mathématiques nouvelles. . Eves. Thompson. .)-Toron to-New York-London. A .. Logic and Axiomatic Theories. all the questions considered in the present book are discussed and there are many problems for self-training. E.. New York. This book is in many respects similar to [3] but Boolean algebras are considered in it in less detail. Reinhart and and Winston. T. K a u f m a n n .. 1957. . 1960. Applied Boolean Algebras. R . 5. J . Freeman. . Prentice-Hall. 1961. J. R . Van Nostrand. This book does not require any prerequisites except the knowledge of elementary mathematics but the reader of the book is supposed to have some experience in studying mathematical literature. 3. An Introduction the Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics. New York. I. 1962.). Paris. R . San 1974. 9.. to the Foundations Halt. Symbolic Logic and Intelligent Machines. This is an extensive text-book for junior students (non-mathematicians). New York. Robbins. . Oxford University Press. Snell. Mathematics and Logic for Digital Devices. Introduction to Finite Mathematics. K a u f m a n n . 6. 125 . Francisco. 1961. R . The book starts with a detailed discussion of the questions considered in the present book and contains many problems. Rein- hold. Sets. One of the chapters of this book requiring no special prerequisites is devoted to Boolean algebras.

Name Index Berkeley. E. L. I. L. E. G. L. 13. 114 Courant. F. 125 Niven. 125 Sheffer. 5 Chentsov. С. I l l Thompson. 8 Pythagoras 66 De Morgan. 33 Kenieny. H. H. J. 125 Steinhaus. T. C. D. R. 125 Faure. H. D. M. 41 Robbins. G. H. N. S. R. F. 5 Hohn. 82 Shklyarsky. V. 116 Eves. 125 Venn. 125 Boole. J. J. 125 Newson. 125 Stall. J. 1. N. 125 Kizner. M. G. G. 125 Kaufmann. R. Л. R. 125 Gindikin. 125 Euler. 1. 125 Culbertson. 114 . 114 Snell. A. 13 Yaglojn.

84 complementation 40. 64 of contradiction 68 distributive 10. 9 irrational 7.Subject Index Addition of complex numbers 9 Additive (disjunctive) normal form of a proposition 71 Additive inverse of a number 10 Algebra of propositions 54#. 60 Algebra of sets 12 Boolean algebra 33 definition of 117 ff normed 100 Condition necessary 66 necessary and sufficient 67 sufficient 66 Conjunction 58 Conjunctive (multiplicative) normal form of a proposition 74 Deduction 66 De Morgan rules 40 f Denial (negation) of a proposition 61 Disjunction 57 Disjunctive (additive) normal form of a proposition 71 Dual formulas (relations) 38 Euler's circles 13 diagram 13 function 116 Greatest common divisor 31 Iff ("if and only if") 78 Implication 76 converse 77 contrapositive of 77 inverse of 78 Inclusion relation 47. 19 Least common multiple 31 Multiplication of complex n u m bers 9 Multiplicative (conjunctive) normal form of a proposition 74 Multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of a number 11 Necessary condition 66 Necessary and sufficient condition 67 Negation (denial) 61 double 64 joint 85 Norm (absolute value) 100 Number complex 7. 13. 19. 15. 15. 84 of double negation 64 of dualization (De Morgan theorem) 40 / of excluded middle 68 idempotent 21. 84 c o m m u t a t i v e 9f. 91 intersection 17. 65 Law (s) associative 10. 9 pure imaginary 7 rational 9 real 7 signed 9 Operation binary 83 (Sheffer) stroke 82 t e r n a r y 83 u n a r y 83 Principle of duality 38 P r o b a b i l i t y theory 100 Proof by contradiction {redactin ad absurdum proof) 67 127 . 13.

67 necessarily false 57 necessarily true 57 product (conjunction) of 58 sum (disjunction) of 57 Pythagorean theorem 66 product (intersection) sum (union) of 12 universal 19 Sufficient condition 66 Switch always-closed 91 always-open 91 Switching circuit(s) 89fi product of 90 sum of 90 Syllogism 86 Reciprocal of (multiplicative inverse) a number 10 / Self-dual 38 Set(s) 12 complement of 40 element of 12 empty (or void or null) Truth set 55 Truth table 106 Truth value 106 16 TO THE Venn diagram 13 READER Mir Publishers would be grateful for your comments on the content. translation and design of this book. We would also be pleased to receive any other suggestions you may wish to make. GSP Pervy Rizhsky Pereulok. 129820. Our address is: USSR. 2 Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .Proposition (s) 55 biconditional 78 equivalence of 56. Moscow 1-110.

.

The solution of the problems in the exercises facilitates the understanding of the material of the book.This book is devoted to fundamentals of the theory of Boolean algebras which play an important role in mathematical logic and in the development of electronic computers and cybernetics. The book includes the definition of the notion of a Boolean algebra and many examples of such algebras. Some applications of this algebra to the automation of mathematical proofs are discussed. The book is intended for senior pupils and can also be of use for adult readers interested in mathematics. Mir Publishers Moscow . it deals with algebra of propositions. There are also many exercises with answers and hints to some of them placed at the end of the book. in particular.

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