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Lab 1 : Material lab

PROGRAM KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL


FAKULTI INDUSTRI KEJURUTERAAN

LAB SHEET

EXPERIMENT 5: EQUILIBRIUM OF FORCE

1.INTRODUCTION
The design of all type of structures is base on the effect of their own weight, the foeces
acting on them, and whether the structure is moving. Normally in structural design there is
no motion and the bodies are said to be in static equilibrium.
A system of forces in equilibrium satisfies two principles: the resultant of all the forces
must be zero: and the moment of all the forces about any point must be zero. The usual
mathematical way of writing this for a three dimensional system is with six conditions:-

P = P = P
X

M = M = M
X

=0

=0

If the forces act solely in one plane then the three conditions of equilibrium are :-

P = P
M
X

=0
=0
1

2.APPARATUS

The set of accessories is mounted in a reaction frame HST1 the force board, which
clamps on the back side of the frame, provides a reference point and work surface
to enable vector diagrams to be drawn for each experiment.

A1 size drawing paper is held by four board clips. To fit the removable centre peg
a hole should be made in the drawing paper.

Around the edges of the board are scale markings at 50 mm spacings to assist in
establishing horizontal and vertical lines.

Pulleys on brackets are used around the reaction frame, the double pulley brackets
being of use especially where upwards force is needed.

The lengths of the loading cords are adjustable, enabling the load hangers to be
located clear of the frame.

To transfer the position of a loading cord to the drawing paper a gauge is used in
which a V notch in the base is directly under a pointed crook protruding from the
handle.

For this experiment a ring is used for connecting several loading cords together at a
point, the ring being large enough to sit loosely over the centre peg.

For non-concurrent forces a pair of rings jointed by a short cord has been provided.
It may also be found convenient while setting up all the cords and load hangers to
stabilise the ring by placing it on the centre peg. The ring should be lifted off the
peg and allowed to find its own position for equilibrium.

3.OBJECTIVE

To study the equilibrium of a set of forces acting in a vertical plane.

To investigate and check by the graphical solutions of a triangle of forces (three


forces) or a closed polygon for more than three forces.

4.PROCEDURE
1. For this experiment each group of students must have two sheets of drawing paper
size A1 (841 x 594 mm) and three or four colours of pen or pencil.
2. To commence each of the experiment a clean sheet of the drawing paper is to be
fitted on the work surface of the force board using the four clips.

3. Either cut a hole in the middle of the paper to fit over the centre peg, or remove the
peg ti fit the paper and then make a hole in order to replace the peg.
Part 1, Concurrent Forces
i.

Take the cord ring and attach three load cord assemblies.

ii.

Place the cord ring temporarily on the centre peg and fix three pulley brackets so
that each one is on a different side of the frame.

iii.

Drape the load cords over the pulleys and add a load hanger to each free end.

iv.

Gently lift the cord ring off the centre peg and allow the ring to find its position of
equilibrium due to the weight of each load hanger.

v.

If necessary adjust the load hanger positions by shortening the load cords.

vi.

Add loads to the hangers, noting how the cord ring moves to a new equilibrium
position each time an extra load is added.

vii.

For any equilibrium state thought interesting, use the line marker gauge to transfer
onto the drawing paper two points on each of the three load cords radiating from
the ring.

viii.

Identify the set of six points with a coloured mark and against each pair write the
total load (hanger plus weights) in the cord.

ix.

Now start again with four or five load cords attached to the cord ring and with an
equal number of pulley brackets round the frame.

x.

When a suitable equilibrium position is attained mark the lines of action and forces
in the load cords with a new colour.

xi.

Finally repeat the procedure with all six load cords attached to the cord ring.

xii.

It may be convenient to let one load hang vertically down from the ring.

xiii.

Mark the six lines of action and forces in equilibrium with a third colour.

xiv.

Carefully remove the sheet of drawing paper from the force board for further work
as describe in RESULTS.

Part 2, Non-concurrent Forces


i.

With a clean sheet of drawing paper in place take the double cord ring and attach
five or six cords, three on one ring and the rest on the other.

ii.

Place one of the rings temporarily on the centre peg while attaching the pulley
brackets round the frame.

iii.

Drape the load cords over the pulleys and attach load hangers.

iv.

Add suitable weights to the hangers and carefully release the cord ring from the
centre peg.

v.

Adjust the weights as necessary and when a convenient state of equilibrium is


attained transfer the lines of action and known forces to the drawing paper and
mark the system with a colour.

vi.

Repeat the procedure for another system of forces in equilibrium, marking it with
another colour.

vii.

Recover rhe sheet of drawing paper from the force board for futher work.

5. APPENDIX
On the Part 1 sheet of drawing paper use a long straight edge to draw the line of action of
each set pf forces in equilibrium. The lines, lengthened as required, ought to intersect
where the centres of the cord ring were.For the first experiment using only three cords,
construct a triangle of forces, as described in the text book, by drawing lines parallel to the
experimental lines of action. Measure the lengths of all three sides a, b and c. compare
these lengths with the forces represented by these sides, that is
Fa :
a

Fb
b

:
:

Fc
c

an alternative construction should be made by first deciding a scale for the vector Fa (for
example 1 cm = 1 N) so that it can be set off along its line of action.
The triangle of forces is continued by setting off the vector Fb to scale in its line of action.
The third side can then be compared.
1)
2)

in direction with the experimental line of action,


in magnitude with the known forces

Alternatively the third vector Fc is drawn to scale in its line of action, and if it does not
complete the triangle then that is the effect of experimental error.Where there are more
than three forces in equilibrium this last method of drawing the vectors sequentially is the
best way of using the results to obtain a force polygon. One would expect the polygon to
nearly close as a simple experiment of this kind does not usually produce much error.
The Part 2 sheet of drawing paper is used to determine the direction and magnitude of sets
of non-concurrent forces in equilibrium. For each set of force polygon should close, and
this can be tested by drawing the vectors sequentially clear of their lines of action on the
drawing.

The next step is to construct a link polygon on the actual lines of action of the set of
forces. Place a polar point 0 anywhere on the force polygon and work backwards from the
force polygon onto the lines of action. This will provide a link polygon which should close
on the last line of force of the set, since this would be the so-called equilibrium (the
reverse of the resultant).
Repeat the graphical construction for each set of non-concurrent forces in equilibrium.
Also check that the use of a different polar point O (using another colour) still leads to a
closed (different) link polygon.
6.OBSERVATIONS
1. What Degree of accuracy was achieved in the experiment?
2. If one of the pulley wheels had been stuck so that it would not turn easily, how
could that effect the results?

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Industri Selangor


Revised AUG:2005