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Effects of Metakaolin on Durability of

Reinforced Mortars used to strengthen


Masonry Walls
J. M. F. Mota
Federal University of Pernambuco
mota.joaomanoel@gmail.com

R. A. Oliveira
Catholic University of Pernambuco
romildealmeira@gmail.com

A. M. P. Carneiro
Federal University of Pernambuco
ampc@ufpe.br

ABSTRACT
The goal of this study was to discuss the contribution of pozzolan to the durability of
reinforced mortars with addition of metakaolin used to strengthen non-load bearing walls. It is
known that, from the 1960s, around 6,000 buildings have been erected with masonry sealing
having structural function in the metropolitan region of Recife. They have high rates of
pathologies and even fatal accidents. This way, we sought to establish criteria for
strengthening with reinforced mortar within the matrix that meets three essential conditions:
(i) support capacity; (ii) ductility; and (iii) durability. In this work, we draw conclusions on
durability, in which the experimental arrangement encompassed the specification of two
proportions [(1:1:6:1.5 and 1:0.5:4.5:1.5) - cement, lime, sand, and water/cement ratio], with
two contents of addition (8 and 15%) and two ways of addition (replacing part of the cement
and with no cement replacement). Tests of compressive strength, elasticity modulus, velocity
of ultrasonic wave propagation, absorption of water by immersion, and accelerated aging
methods were conducted to assess the performance regarding carbonation and chlorides in
mortar specimens. The results showed that metakaolin strongly reduces the effects of
deleterious agents.

KEYWORDS:

structural masonry; non-load bearing walls; reinforced mortar;

metakaolin.

INTRODUCTION
Several "box-type buildings" built in the metropolitan region of Recife have masonry sealing
as structure. These buildingsabout six thousand cataloguedhave walls built with sealing blocks,
mostly ceramic with horizontal holes. In a few cases, concrete blocks with average thickness of
9.0 cm and compressive strength of 2.5 MPa were used. Knowing that slenderness for standard
ceiling height of 2.60 m is close to 30, it implies an additional reduction of the support capacity of
the walls, considering it to be well above than acceptable in structural masonry, i.e., 20 (MOTA;
ARAJO; OLIVEIRA, 2006).
Assessing the ratio between the number of accidents and the number of existing buildings, the
probability of failure is estimated at approximately 1:500, i.e., well above the ratio socially
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acceptable when it involves the safety of human lives, which, at the most, is 1:10,000. However,
in spite of total lack of control in the production of materials, it is worth noting that most
buildings with these characteristics are still used and some are aged over 40 years.
In a doctoral research, as strengthening model was developed with reinforced mortar and
addition of metakaolin (MK) to meet the need of load bearing, ductility, and durability of walls
similar to those of box-type buildings. However, the goal of this work was to assess the influence
of MK on the durability of reinforced mortars used for strengthening. It can be affirmed that the
durability of this strengthening derives from the packing condition of mortars, since the
reinforcing bars placed inside carry out fundamental action in support and ductility, thus requiring
greater protection from deleterious agents.
Various scientific studies were developed in support of structural repairs concerning support
ability; however, it should be noted that it is also important to assess the durability of the
strengthening used. It is also worth noting the contribution of MK to durability of mortars used
for strengthening, mainly in the metropolitan region of Recife, where most of these buildings are
located. Only about 25% of the households are connected to sewage systems; therefore, there is
contamination of the water table, action of chlorides in marine environments, and microclimate of
urban areas (sulfates, chlorides, CO2, and others).
The NBR 12653 (regulation of the Brazilian National Standards Organization) defines
pozzolans as siliceous alumina-like materials that have little binding activity, but, when finely
divided and in the presence of water, react with calcium hydroxide at room temperature to form
compounds with binding properties. When pozzolans originate from high-purity kaolin, after the
calcination and grinding process of the particles, high-reactivity MK(HRM)is created NBR 13279
(ABNT, 2005).
In the chemical formation of MK, when kaolinitic clays and kaolin are subjected to heat
treatment, they have their atomic arrangement destroyed due to the removal of hydroxyl ions
(Al2O3.2SiO2). This chemical process can be represented as follows:

[Al2Si2O5(OH)4]

600 to 850 C

[Al2O3.2SiO2] + [2H2O]

MK consists of continuous plain plates stacked in the perpendicular direction, and the
thicknesses of the units are approximately 7.2 . These units are held together by hydrogen bonds
between the layers, so that the mineral is not dispersed in water. Their particles are very small,
with maximum lateral dimensions ranging between 0.3 and 4.0 m and thickness between 0.05
and 2 m (MURAT, 1983). In turn, Nita; John (2007) stated that the size of MK particles ranges
between 0.2 and 15 m, and the values of their specific area are greater than 12,000 m/kg. HRM
has specific area with values up to 60,000 m/kg and its particles have a lamellar structure.
Figures 1 (a) and 1 (b) show the morphological aspects of MK particles.

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Figure 1: Micrograph: (a) metakaolin particle with 1,521 nm; (b) stacked metakaolin
particles (NINA; JOHN, 2007).
Therefore, lamellar structures of MK have strong binding along the layers; however, the
bindings between layers are soft, thus facilitating slippage between the layers.
The judicious use of MK and HRM increases the mechanical property of concrete sand other
products that use Portland cement as a binder. The ideal dosage of these pozzolans, aiming at
maximum mechanical property, are between 6 and 15%with respect to the amount of cement
mass; however, it can reach up to 50% in special cases, depending on the application and other
materials used in the mixture (MALHORTA; MEHTA, 1996).
The service life of mortars and concretes depends on the structure of the pores, where
moisture, oxygen, CO2, sulfates, and chlorides (deleterious agents) penetrate. When the matrix is
exposed to these deleterious agents, its durability depends mainly on the permeability (MEHTA;
MONTEIRO, 1994).
The adherence strength of mixed inorganic mortar with addition of pozzolan (silica)
increased by as much as 45%after 180 days, which is the ideal content to replace cement by 20%
silica fume for the mixture used, i.e., 1:1:6 (cement, lime, and sand) (TAHA; SHRIVE, 2001).
It was possible to observe high performance of mortars with addition of MK and replacement
of part of the cement. The content of 15%had better results in protection against chloride ions and
carbonation, and greater compressive strength, elasticity modulus, and diametric tensile strength,
always surpassing micro-silica. Regarding water absorption by immersion, no significant
differences were found with respect to the samples without addition of MK (GALVO, 2004).
However, addition of 5% Active Silica and Metakaolin in the level of 10% represented the
additions whose concretes showed the best results (ALMEIDA et al., 2015).
Mota et al., (2011) assessed mortars with MK in place of cement (4 samples) with
proportions of 0 (reference), 5, 10, and 15%, and all samples with a mixture of 1:1:6:1.5 (cement,
lime, sand and water/cement ratio). Their goal was to establish the best replacement content that
increased the properties of the mortar. The authors concluded that the ideal content to replace
cement by MK was 15%, since they observed the best mechanical results (compressive strength,
diametric tensile strength, and adherence strength) and durability (total absorption and
capillarity)using this proportion.
Research with four different types of metakaolin and microsilica, in substitution of 15% of
the cement mass in high performance mortar, showed the influence of fineness on compressive

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strength. It appears that at initial ages, mortars containing metakaolin with higher specific surface,
exhibit resistance values higher than those obtained for the reference mortar with microsilica.
However, at advanced ages the samples with microsilica and metakaolin, present similar
resistance values (CURCIO; DE ANGELIS; PAGLIOLICO, 2003).
Concretes and mortars with addition of MK have their elasticity modulus increased by as
much as15% due to the fact that pozzolanic reactions reduce the porosity, making the matrix
denser (LACERDA; HELENE, 2005). Therefore, the difficulty of mass transport in cementitious
materials (leaching, carbonation, corrosion) is the key to durability and, consequently, the service
life. The size, volume, and pore continuity imply greater or lesser means of transport of materials
in the microstructure of cementitious materials, from which the performance derives.
Addition of pozzolans in materials whose matrices are cimentitious causes greater density of
the mixtures, creating natural porosity reduction from the interface (due to wall effect) to the
surface Neville (1997), Mehta; Monteiro (1994), reported that pozzolanic additionsreplacing
part of the cement mass or addition with no cement replacementincrease the service life of
mortars and concretes, because the calcium hydroxide of the cement react with the silica added
forming products such as hydrated calcium silicates that fill the empty capillaries. These products
refine the structure of the pores, and reduce the permeability of the system to agents like sulfates,
chlorides, and alkali-aggregate reaction, thus leading to high mechanical strength and durability.
Souza (2003) studied mortars with addition of HRM (5, 10, 15, and 20%) and found that the
amount of water influences the strength regardless of the content. The best results were close to
0.25 water/cement and replacement of 20% of part of the cement, with compressive strength
around 80 MPa. Therefore, greater water/cement ratio requires greater contents of addition in
order to obtain more significant strength.
Vu; Stroeven; Bui (2001) assessed MK from a quarry in northern Vietnam replacing 10 to
30% of part of the cement in mortars and 10 to 20% in concretes. The results showed that mortars
with contents between 20 and 25% had greater strength results. It was also found that greater
water/binders ratio requires greater content of MK in order to obtain more strength.
Neville (1997) reported that the benefits of MK for concretes are important due to the
significant reduction of the diffusion coefficient and penetration of chloride ions. Gruber et al.,
(2001) studied concretes with 0.3 and 0.4 water/cement ratio, and 0, 8, and 12% HRM mass
replaced by cement, in order to assess diffusion of chlorides. They concluded that 8 and
12%HRM decreased the diffusion coefficient in 50 and 60%, respectively.
A study conducted by Courard et al., (2003) showed that mortars with addition of MK and
replacement of 10 and 15% of part of the cement exhibited better results regarding the diffusion
of chlorides and sulfate degradation. However, the authors assessed water absorption by
immersion and did not find satisfactory results in samples with addition of MK, observing lesser
absorption in the mortar with no MK addition; however, the values were very similar to those of
mortars with MK additions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Materials

The materials used were cement code CP II Z 32; hydrated lime (type I); HP ULTRA
Metakaolin, and medium sand. These binders are widely used in the region due to the proven

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performance. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the cement used and Table 2 shows the
characteristics of the lime used.
Table 1: Characteristics of the cement used (Source: the manufacturer)
Determination (CP II Z 32)

Chemical characterization (%)

Physical characterization

Blaine specific surface (cm /g)


Specific mass (g/cm3)
Apparent density (g/cm3)
Waste in the sieve #200 (%)
Fineness
Waste in the sieve #325 (%)
Beginning (min)
Setting time
End (min)
3 days (MPa)
7 days (MPa)
Compressive strength
28 days (MPa)
C3S
Potential composition of C2S
clinker
C3A
C4AF
Loss on ignition
Insoluble waste
Al2O3
SiO2
Fe2O3
CaO
Na2O/K2O
Free CaO

Results
3,640
3.04
1.20
2.20
15.60
150
220
26.40
32.10
39.5
67.00
7.80
7.80
10.50
4.39
6.89
5.20
20.60
3.50
65.00
2.66/3.26
0.3/0.8
1.44

Chemical
characterization (%)

Physical
characteri
zation

Table 2: Characteristics of the lime used (Source: the manufacturer)


Test
Hydrated lime (calcitic - type 1)
#30 (0.600 mm)
Fineness
(% etained)
# 200 (0.075 mm)
Apparent density (g/cm3)
Moisture (%)
Carbonic anhydride CO2
Sulfuric anhydride SO3
Loss on ignition
Silica and insoluble waste
Non-hydrated oxide
CaO
Non-hydrated MgO
Non-volatile total oxides

.3
1.8
.56
1.26
2.21
.05
24.15
.84
7.3
73.72
.71
98.1

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Tables 3 (a) and 3 (b) show the characteristics of metakaolin.

Table 3 (a): Chemical characteristics of HP Metakaolin (%)


SiO2

51.57

Al2O3

40.5

Fe2O3

2.8

CaO

MgO

SO3

Na2O

.08

K2O

.18

Moisture

.6

Loss on ignition

2.62

Alkaline equivalent

.20

SiO2 + Al2O3 +Fe2O3

94.87

Odor/pH

Odorless/5.0 to 6.5

Source: (HELENE; MEDEIROS, 2004)

Table 3 (b): Physical characteristics HP Metakaolin


Average diameter of the particles

12.4 m

Specific mass density

2,650 kg/m3

Unitary mass

600 kg/m3

Specific surface area BET method

327,000 cm2/g

Result de pozzolanic activity at


o
905
C
Physical
state/Form

771.2 mg CaO/g sample

Storage

Filter with efficient containment of


ti l
t 002

Solid / dry powder

Source: (HELENE; MEDEIROS, 2004)

The fine aggregate was natural quartz sand. Table 4 illustrates some characteristics.

Table 4: Characteristics of natural sand


Maximum characteristic diameter (mm)

2.4

Fineness modulus

2.52
3

Unitary mass (g/cm )

1.48

Specific mass (g/cm)

2.62

Swelling

1.23

Content of powdery material (%)

2.13

Moisture (%)

3.4

Organic matter

Light

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Methods
Table 5 shows the mortars used in this study. The proportions were established according to
ASTM C 270 (1982) ["N": (1:1:6) and "S": (1:0.5:4.5). The contents of metakaolin were 8 and
15%, with addition and replacement of part of the cement and addition with no cement
replacement.

Table 5: Samples assessed in the durability tests


Medium mixture 1:1:6:1.5

Strong mixture 1:0.5:4.5:1.5

0% Metakaolin

0% metakaolin

Replacement of 8% of part of the


cement
Replacement of 15% of part of
cement

Replacement of 8% of part of the


cement
Replacement of 15% of part of
the cement

Addition of 8%

Addition of 8%

Addition of 15%

Addition of 15%

The water/cement ratio was set through several attempts with the purpose of establishing the
best workability. A matrix of 20020 mm consistency was created as ideal to be applied to the
mortar coatings studied. There was no need of surfactant additive in any sample.
Cylindrical mortar specimens of 5 x 10 cm NBR 13749 (ABNT, 2013) were molded in order
to test: (a) compressive strength NBR 13279 (ABNT, 2005); (b) dynamic elastic modulus NBR
15630 (ABNT, 2008); (c) rate of water absorption by immersion NBR 9778 (ABNT, 2009); (d)
velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation NBR 8802 (ABNT, 2013) and accelerated aging methods
for performance assessment; (e) carbonation (RILEM, 1998); and (f) soluble chlorides (ASTM C
1152, 2012).
The tests of compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and water absorption were
conducted after 90 days and the other tests after 300 days, using 12 replicas by samples for
compressive strength, six for total absorption and dynamic elastic modulus, three for carbonation,
and three for chlorides.
Based on NBR 15630 (ABNT, 2008) and NBR 8802 (ABNT, 2013), it was possible to
calculate the dynamic elastic modulus through ultrasound test with the following equation:
=

(1 + )(1 2) 2

where Ed = dynamic elastic modulus; v = velocity of wave propagation (mm/s); = density of


apparent mass (kg/m); and = Poisson coefficient (this value was considered constant for the
different types of mortars and equal to 0.20).
The wave velocity points to internal voids, cracks, and failures of thickening, since the
velocity for well-packed concrete is greater than 2,500 m/s. However, the velocity of wave
propagation due to steel in reinforced concrete is 6,000 m/s (HELENE; REPETTE, 1989).

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The specimens of mortar had the following conditions of exposure to carbonation: (a) time
maturation (10 months); (b) previous condition, plus 24-hour exposure in carbonation chamber;
and (c) previous condition, plus 72-hour exposure in the chamber. The readings were conducted
shortly after sprinkling with phenolphthalein.
The specimens of mortars were subjected to attack by CO2 in the carbonation chamber with
moisture, temperature, and the following concentrations: CO2 (665) %;(253) C, and (102) %,
respectively. The procedure Rilem (1998) was carried out to determine the carbonation front.
Carbonation depths were measured visually using a caliper, after spraying the phenolphthalein
solution on the freshly cut surface with a disc and a suitable machine.
Figures 2 (a) and 2 (b) show, respectively, the cut in the specimens and the specimens after
the withdrawal from the carbonation chamber and sprinkling with phenolphthalein solution. The
specimens positioned at the top refer to the mixture 1:1:6, and at the bottom to the mixture
1:0.5:4.5. Figures 3 (a) and 3 (b) show the carbonation chamber and one of the readings,
respectively.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2 (a): Cutting of the specimens; (b) - Specimens after withdrawal from the
carbonation chamber and sprinkling with phenolphthalein solution [condition (c)].

(a)

(b)

Figure 3 (a): Carbonation chamber; (b) - Reading of the specimens of strong mixture
with replacement of 8% of part of the cement [condition (b)].

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The chlorides are present in three forms in concretes and mortars: (i) chlorides chemically
linked to tricalcium aluminate (Friedel's salt); (ii) adsorbed in the surface of the pores; and (iii)
free chlorides. The latter are indeed deleterious, because they depassivate the reinforcing bars
(CASCUDO 2008).
Mineral additions play a fundamental role in protection against action of chlorides inside the
pores. Therefore, it can be affirmed that the determination of the contents of chlorides is
fundamental, because they indicate the actual condition of their transport inside the mortar
(NEVILLE, 1997).
The mortar samples were submitted to the chloride chamber for 192 hours. We used sodium
chloride (pure for analysis) and distilled water in the chamber. This period was estimated based
on the time specified for other materials (metals) by the manufacturer and to the high
cement/water ratio and porosity of mortars compared to concretes. Moisture, temperature, and
concentration of chlorides (content with respect to distilled water) were around (954) %; (555)
C, and 5%, respectively. Pressure injection (1 bar) of compressed air was used to create the salt
fog in the chamber.
After the withdrawal of the specimens, silver nitrate was used to verify the presence of free
chlorides. A darkened color indicative of chlorides was found. Subsequently, 50 g of powder with
approximate depth between 1 and 2 cm were collected in each sample, since the reinforcing bars
for the structural strengthening of the walls are placed in this region. Figures 4 (a) and (b) show
specimens with silver nitrate and in the chloride chamber, respectively.

(a)

(b)

Figure 4 (a): Specimens in the test after the chloride chamber with silver nitrate (mixture
1:1:6); (b) - Chloride chamber working with the specimens.
Figure 4 (b) shows the opening of the chamber made just for the photograph during the test.
The salt fog stands out in the environment shortly after opening the chamber. Finally, the content
of soluble chlorides was determined in a specific laboratory by potentiometric titration using a
selective electrode for chlorides, according to the ASTM C 1152 method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 6 shows the average values and standard deviation of compressive strength of
specimens of mortar used for strengthening.

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Table 6: Compressive strength of mortar used for strengthening


Compressive strength [average/SD - (MPa)]
Medium mixture 1:1:6:1.5
0 % metakaolin
7.53/.24
Replacement of 8%
7.31/.31
of part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
8.70/.26
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
8.97/.29
Addition of 15%
10.43/.34
SD = Standard deviation

Strong mixture 1:.5:4.5:1.5


0 % Metakaolin
12.80/.43
Replacement of 8%
13.1/.42
of part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
13.87/.45
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
16.6/.50
Addition of 15%
17.57/.44

It can be observed that the sample with strong mixture and addition of 15% of metakaolin
with no cement replacement exhibited greater strength. On the other hand, the sample of medium
mixture with replacement of 8% of part of the cement by MK exhibited the lowest performance.
Possibly, pozzolanic reactions are more susceptible and increase with cement content. Another
important aspect is the supremacy of the sample with addition and no cement replacement with
respect to the sample with cement replacement in the two mixtures assessed. Table 7 shows the
averages and standard deviation of the elasticity modulus of the mortars used for strengthening.

Table 7:- Dynamic elasticity modulus of mortars used for strengthening


Dynamic elasticity modulus [average/SD - (GPa)]
Medium mixture 1:1:6:1.5
Strong mixture 1:.5:4.5:1.5
0 % metakaolin
10.22/.44
0% Metakaolin
13.03/.48
Replacement of 8%
Replacement of 8%
10.27/.30
12.75/.49
of part of the cement
of part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
Replacement of 15%
9.91/.39
11.99/.47
of part of the cement
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
11.89/.41
Addition of 8%
14.52/.58
Addition of 15%
12.58/.39
Addition of 15%
15.09/.43
SD = Standard deviation
Samples with addition and no cement replacement exhibited better results compared to the
samples without addition and with addition and replacement of part of the cement. The sample
with strong mixture and addition of 15% with no cement replacement exhibited the best result
among the mortars assessed. This way, it can be concluded that the refinement of the pores was
relevant in view of the greater packing of the mixture provided by MK.
Figure 5 shows the velocity of the linear ultrasonic wave propagation, in which its growth
points to the compact condition of the material. This way, it is possible to observe the growth
related to the enrichment of the mixture and the addition of 15% with no cement replacement.

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Linear propagation velocity (m/s

Ultrasonic wave velocity


2840

4000
2545

2000

2817

2551

2747
2481

2941
2711

3086
2841

0
0%

8% RC

15% RC

8% NCR

15% NCR

Samples: 0% (metakaolin); 8% (replacement of part of the cement by


metakaolin); 15% (replacement of part of the cement by metakaolin); 8%
(addition); 15% (addition)
Medium mixture

Strong mixture

Figure 5: Velocity of ultrasonic wave in mortars for strengthening. RC = replacement of


part of the cement; NCR = no cement replacement.
It is concluded that the mortar with strong mixture and addition of 15% of MK with no
cement replacement can be classified as "good" by being within the range of 3,000 to 3,500 m/s
Whitehurst (1996) and the sample with the best result. The other samples were classified as "fair"
by being within the range of 2,000 to 3,000 m/s. Cylindrical specimens were submitted to water
absorption test. The average results and standard deviation are shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Absorption of water by immersion of samples used for strengthening


Absorption (%) average/SD
Medium mixture 1:1:6:1.5
0% metakaolin
1046/.18
Replacement of 8%
11.36/.23
of part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
12.42/.19
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
10.01/.14
Addition of 15%
10.06/.13

Strong mixture 1:.5:4.5:1.5


0% Metakaolin
9.86/.13
Replacement of 8%
10.86/.16
of part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
11.07/.14
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
9.67.13
Addition of 15%
9.58/.13

The results of absorption of water by immersion showed that there was no significant effect
of samples with additions compared to the samples without addition. However, the samples with
addition of MK and no replacement of part of the cement exhibited the best performance with
respect to the samples with replacement of part of the cement by MK. Tables 9 (a) and 9 (b) show
the results of carbonation of the mortars for strengthening with medium and strong mixtures,
respectively, in the three maturation conditions.

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Table 9 (a): Carbonation of the mortars (medium mixture) in the three maturation
conditions

Samples medium
mixture (1:1:6:1.5)

Condition
Condition Condition (c):
(a):
(b): Prior + Prior + 72Natural 1024-hour hour exposure
month
exposure in
in the
exposure the chamber chamber
Carbonated thickness (mm)/SD

Dry transverse
section

15 mm, 30 mm, 45 mm
from top
Replacement of 8% 15 mm, 30 mm, 45 mm
of part of the cement
from top
Replacement of 15% 15 mm, 30 mm, 45 mm
of part of the cement
from top
15 mm, 30 mm, 45 mm
Addition of 8%
from top
15 mm, 30 mm, 45 mm
Addition of 15%
from top
0% metakaolin

5.48

7.00

14.00/1.08

6.41

7.12

14.30/1.10

8.45

9.53

14.20/1.10

1.83

4.04

10.53/.80

1.6

3.89

9.82/.75

It can be observed that the samples with addition and no replacement of part of the cement stood
out in the cases of mortars with medium mixture.

Table 9 (b): Carbonation of the mortars (strong mixture) in the three maturation
conditions
Samples - strong
mixture
(1:.5:4.5:1.5)

Dry transverse
section

Condition (c):
Condition (a):
Condition (b): Prior
Prior + 72-hour
Natural 10-month + 24-hour exposure
exposure in the
exposure
in the chamber
chamber
Carbonated thickness (mm)/SD

0% metakaolin

15 mm, 30 mm, 45
mm from top

Replacement of 8%
15 mm, 30 mm, 45
of part of the
mm from top
cement
Replacement of
15 mm, 30 mm, 45
15% of part of the
mm from top
cement
15 mm, 30 mm, 45
Addition of 8%
mm from top
15 mm, 30 mm, 45
Addition of 15%
mm from top

2.7

4.08

9.49/.74

4.85

5.54

9.64/.74

7.56

8.17

13.40/ 1.0

4.45

4.94

9.08/.70

1.26

3.04

7.55/.50

The sample with strong mixture and addition of 15%of MK exhibited better results in the
three maturations conditions. However, samples with replacement of part of the cement and

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samples with addition of 8% and no cement replacement exhibited results of carbonation front
thickness similar to those of the samples without addition, showing that, for certain contents,
mineral additions do not reduce carbonation.
The great importance (performance) of cement should not be disregarded. Replacing part of the
cement by pozzolan as may increase mechanical properties, but not necessarily those relating to
durability, even knowing that there is a close relationship between them.
In turn, the samples with addition of metakaolin and no cement replacement of both mixtures
exhibited the best performance with respect to carbonation. This fact results from the chemical
and mineralogical aspects of the addition, the pozzolanic activity, and fineness, i.e., the potential
to change the cement paste physically and chemically.
Regarding the proposed contents of addition with no cement replacement, the consumption
condition of alkaline "reserve" by the silica of the pozzolan did not stand out with respect to the
benefits of these additions to the cementitious matrix. However, carbonation increases when
pozzolan replaces part of the cement due to alkalinity reduction.
Therefore, the samples with the highest degree of maturation(c) were classified as having
"medium" carbonation condition. On the other hand, regarding the intermediate maturity
condition (b), all samples were classified as having low carbonation condition. With respect to
carbonation depth, Medeiros (2002) suggests the following limits: low<5 mm; medium 5 to 15
mm; high>15 mm. Samples with replacement of part of the cement had no significant
performance in combating carbonation.
Table 10 shows the test results of soluble chlorides (ASTM C 270, 1982).

Table 10: Results of chloride contents Cl- / SD


Medium mixture 1:1:6:1.5
0 % metakaolin
0,5178 / 0,039
Replacement of 8% of
0,4763 / 0,047
part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
0,6064 / 0,0366
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
0,2971 / 0,0121
Addition of 15%
0,2520 / 0,0225

Strong mixture 1:.5:4.5:1.5


0 % Metakaolin
0,3950 / 0,0311
Replacement of 8% of
0,5202 / 0,0466
part of the cement
Replacement of 15%
0,5956 / 0,0410
of part of the cement
Addition of 8%
0,2616 / 0,0116
Addition of 15%
0,2171 / 0,0201

It can be observed that samples of strong mixture with addition of 15%of metakaolin and no
cement replacement exhibited the best performance. In contrast, the samples with replacement of
part of the cement exhibited the worst results (higher concentration of free chlorides).
Finally, in all cases assessed concerning durability (carbonation, chlorides, and velocity of
ultrasonic wave propagation), it was found that the mortar with strong mixture and addition of
15%with no cement replacement exhibited the best condition to reduce the effects of deleterious
agents. That conclusion is in line with the mechanical results.

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2434

CONCLUSIONS
All tests related to durability (carbonation, chlorides, velocity of ultrasonic wave propagation,
and absorption of water) demonstrated that the mortars with addition of metakaolin exhibited the
best condition to reduce the effects of deleterious agents.
The results are in line with those found by various authors due to the verification of the
benefits promoted by the addition of pozzolan in mortars and concretes, in view of the increase in
mechanical strength, mainly due to the refinement of pores. The chemical attacks (sulfated
waters, alkali-aggregate expansion, acid waters, and waters with organic or inorganic
contamination) are mitigated and the addition also promotes good performance with respect to the
action of chlorides and attack of carbon dioxide.
It was found that the sample with "strong" mixture and addition of 15% of MK with no
cement replacement stood out with respect to the other samples in all tests. This fact allows the
following assumptions:
(a) greater compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, indicative of lower porosity;
(b) greater velocity of ultrasonic wave, classified as "good" according to the reading and
indicative of satisfactory sample compactness;
(c) less carbonated thickness, classified as "medium" according to the reading, which is an
interesting condition of protection in urban centers;
(d) lower content of soluble chlorides in the thickness of 1 to 2 cm of the surface of the
specimens, which is important in regions close to marine areas.
The test for absorption of water by immersion did not show significant difference between
the reference samples and those with addition with no cement replacement. The samples with
addition and replacement of part of the cement exhibited more unfavorable results.
It should be noted that, concerning durability, the samples with replacement of part of the
cement by MK always showed lower results compared to samples with addition and no cement
replacement and, in most cases, with lower performance than the samples without addition, thus
characterizing the importance of cement.

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