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A MANUAL
OF

COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY
AB APPLIED TO THE ILLDBTBATION OF

GREEK AND LATIN INFLECTIONS

T;'LrPAPILLON, M.A.
FeUoto and Lecturer of

New

College,

Oi^ord

formerly Scholar of Balliol, and Fellow of Merlon

SECOND EDITION, BEVISED AND CORRECTED

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


M DOOO Lxxvn
(="

[AU

rights reserved']

PEEFACE.
This book contains the substance of
Oxford in 1874 and 1875 to candidates

lectures delivered at

for

Honours

in Classics

upon the prescribed subject

at the First Public Examination,

of 'the Elements of Comparative Philology as applied to the


illustration of

Greek and Latin

Inflections,'

and therefore does

not profess to deal with more than a very limited portion of


the wide field covered by the Science of Language.

course of

my

lectures I

was often met by the

In the

difficulty of

recommending to pupils any English text-book that would give

them

in a compact

and

the subject for themselves


felt

form the means of preparing

accessible
^;

and I had hoped that the want thus

might have been supplied

for

our students by the Oxford

Professor of Comparative Philology.

So long

prospect of help from that quarter,

it

sumptuous in me

to

come forward.

as there

was any

would have been pre-

But

Professor

Max

Miiller

was unable to spare time from more important labours; and


the preparation of this Manual

was perforce entrusted

to very

inferior hands.

As

to the educational value of the limited area of philolo-

gical study

which

is

here surveyed, I

am

aware that opinions

' Since this wag written, Mr. Peile's


Primer of Philology' (Maemillan)
has provided beginners with an admirable little introduction to the study
of Comparative Philology.
'

vi

Preface.

example, that a study of the forms of

It is said, for

differ.

Greek and Latin words

is

mere

effort

of memory, testing

neither the reflective powers nor the application of deductive

method, and therefore not worth

introducing

a separate

as

subject into the curriculum of study for Classical Examinations


It might, I think,

at Oxford.

and Latin

Inflections as read in the light of

lology is essential to an
those languages,

might
I

be asserted with equal truth

inasmuch as some acquaintance with the history of Greek

that,

am

fairly

some

Comparative Phi-

grammar

iutelligent study of the

of

knowledge of the elements of that science

be exacted from

all

candidates for classical honours.

not however concerned with a defence of the study of

Comparative Philology.

Its bearings

upon some

of the

most

interesting

problems of ethnology, of history, and of religion

are too well

known

to require assertion

and

if

a mere know-

ledge of the forms of two or more languages seems to carry

ihe student but a


scienpe, it

way towards

little

these higher regions of the

must be remembered that such elementary knowand gradually and carefully extended,

ledge, small at first

is

the only sure foundation for more advanced research, with-

out which

all

enquiry into higher problems

may

lose itself in

I believe that a minute study

a wilderness of conjecture.

and comparison of the forms of two such languages

as classical

Greek and Latin, or of two or more among the languages of

modem
phonetic

Europe, with a due comprehension of the laws of


change

divergences from

that

have

common

operated

forms,

is

produce

to

the

existing

best possible

pre-

paration for an adequate grasp of any of the higher problems


into which the science of language enters.

too

in

itself;

the

interest of tracing in

It has

an interest

different languages

the divergence, under regular processes of phonetic


of words and forms

common

to

them

all;

the

change,

interest

of

much

detecting meaning and force in


sight

and unmeaning

arbitrary

watching the

vii

Preface.

of a language and

life

that appears

above

its

at first

the interest of

all,

perpetual growth and

change in the mouths of those who speak or have spoken

No

apology, I think,

needed for any

is

it.

attempt, to lay in the

minds of boys or young men the foundation, however

limited,

of such a study.

The arrangement which

have adopted

is

that

outlines
'

is

it

which has
In

been found most convenient for teaching purposes.

main

the same as that adopted by Schleicher in his

Compendium der Vergleichende Grammatik,' and by


Germany,

in the schools of

summary

its

entitled

'

if I

may judge from

teachers

a useful

little

Sprachwissenschaftliche Einleitung in das

Griechische und Lateinisohe, fur obere Gymnasialclassen,'


Professor

Baur

names referred

of

England has by

Max
much

Mtiller)

Maulbronn^

to below
this

It will

time established a claim to Professor

almost exclusively German

often,

the

German

works

and

it -is

not too

Comparative Philology cannot

be thoroughly studied without at

philological

be observed that the

as of leading, authority are (unless

to say that at present

ance with

by

language.

least a

moderate acquaint-

But the

(to say nothing of their size

best

German

and

cost) are

from the very exhaustiveness of their treatment, only

confusing to beginners,

more simply and

who

require a smaller array of facts

clearly arranged.

And

valuable as are the

translations into English of such works as Bopp's

'

Comparative

Grammar,' Curtius' 'Principles of Etymology,' or Schleicher's


'Compendium,' to the advanced student or teacher, they are
requirements of the
both in quantity and quality above the
schoolboy or the undergraduate during the

first

Now accessible to English readers in a translation

Paul and E. D. Stone (H.

S.

King and

Co., 1876).

period of his

by Messrs. C. Kegan

viii

Preface.

University

not

life

whom

to serve

less useful aim, of the

is

the less amhitious, but I trust

present work.

This (second) edition exhibits several modifications or altera-

which are due

of views expressed in the first edition,

tions

my own

partly to

further study, partly to the suggestions of

The account

others.

of the Greek alphabet, for example, has

been re-written, and I trust improved

the remarks

upon the

physical conditions of the production of sounds (pp. 29, 30) have

been made clearer

hope) than they were

(I

and some

altera-

have been made in the discussion of the 'three stages'

tions

of language in chap.

In chap.

ii.

given of the so-called

'

the explanation formerly

viii.

connecting vowel '

(o in \iyofiiv, i

in

ferimus) has been abandoned, and the term 'thematic vowel'


adopted, as

expressing more nearly the result of the most


.

recent investigations

account

is

and some

fuller,

and in some respects

given of the terminations -a6a (3 sing.),


details of verb-inflection are

Of

differently treated.

a study of the

these latter changes

now completed work

my

to

refer

edition

first
it

because

may have appeared


it

'

-a6ov, etc.

are due to

Das Verbum

reference to

all

not always

strange.

which

I did not

was then unfinished (the second and

larger volume not having appeared),

and I was unwilling to

seem too eager to assume the attitude


of English scholarship, viz. catching at
latest

if

many

of Curtius,

der Griechisohen Sprache,' the omission of


in

-a-Be,

more fuUy

diflPerent,

so often characteristic

and reproducing the

views of the latest German writer.

The

completion,

however, of Curtius' really great work makes such omission

now

inexcusable

I have

still

and

I gladly

to admit,

acknowledge obligations to

and to claim indulgence

knowledge of the Sanskrit forms necessary


of corresponding forms in
has,

what the

first

had

it.

an imperfect

for the illustration

Greek and Latin.

not, the

for,

But

this edition

advantage of revision (so far as

Preface.

vs.

the Sanskrit forms are concerned) by Professor

wtose great authority


wise was beyond

my

from

transliteration

command a

will

To

reach.

Sanskrit

Max

secure a uniform system of

Eoman

to

equivalents as employed in this book.

Of

modes of representing the

'

in Professor
that

Max

palatal

own

Muller's

'

and

table, I

with their

the two alternative

cerebral

mutes given

'

have at his advice adopted

which represents them by the 'guttural' and 'dental'

characters respectively in a different type,


h, Jch (palatal)

which method
spirant

employ

t,

th

(dental),

e. g.

th (cerebral)

pointed out on p. 33, note

is

(initial),

in Greek or Latin (Greek

y, enclosing

an

words are in question,


fairly

t,

answering to English y

or semivowel

be

have

character,

given below a Table of the Devan4garl letters

'

Miiller,

confidence that other-

orj

e.

argued that

k, kh. (guttural),

the advantage of

For the

r.

palatal

and to consonantal
Latin

now

or j) I

where Greek or Latin

on pp. 200, Z05.

g.

j,

in brackets

i,

It

may no doubt

now employed by many philologists

to denote V, is scientifically preferable to y, for the aid

which

it

gives to the immediate perception of etymological connections

but I doubt
for

whom

if

there

is

this

book

is

as yet sufficient familiarity,

among

those

intended, with the correct pronunciation

of Latin / (i semivowel) to justify

me

in abandoning the familiar

y as an expression of the y sound.' At any rate I hope that


by never using j to denote T (i. e. the sound of j in judge),
'

I have avoided one source of confusion, and


in English words only

words

I retain

for that of

is

made

it

to have its English value.

for the consonantal (semivowel)

clear that

In Latin

sound of

and though purists in Latin orthography

i,

will

perhaps object to any employment of the non-classical characters _;, V, the practical convenience of using distinct characters
for distinct

sounds

may

be pleaded in excuse.

In column

V of

the table on p. 42 will be found stated the probable pronunciation

Preface.

of the letters of the E/Omau alphabet


fers

from the English pronunciation of the same

the vowels a,

semivowels
is

j,

presumed

e,

i,

U, the consonants

the

v),

c,

words

With

cited.

edition I have
Oriel,

to

e,

and the

may be

this

caution, I
letters

into

which

avoided.

and hints towards the preparation of

this

thank Mr. D. B. Monro, Vice-Provost of

and Mr. Henry Nettleship, Fellow and Tutor of Corpus

Christi College, Oxford.

onymous reviews

27, 1876, signed


chester.

have also profited by several an-

of the first

courteous and suggestive

edition,

criticism

in

and particularly by a
the

Academy

of

To one or two

for valuable suggestions.

Press I need only repeat

private

correspondents (notably to

To

my

am

indebted

the Delegates of the Clarendon

thanks for care taken and courtesy

in all arrangements for publication.


T. L. P.

New

May

by Professor Wilkins of Owens College, Man-

Mr. Q. R. Merry of the Edinburgh Academy) I

shown

between the

by them,

question and the sounds represented

corrections

letters (as in

g before

as to the relation

English usage might lead us,

For

this dif-

Eoman, not the English, pronunciation

in all Latin

hope that any confusion


in

and where

,*

College, Oxfobd, 1877.

ct.

tl

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

REFERRED TO IN THE

PRESENT WORK.

BoPP's

Max

'

Comparative Grammar,' translated by Eastwick.

MtJLLER,
'

Chips

'

Lectures on the Science of Language.'

&om

a German Workshop.'

SOHLEIOHEB, 'Compendium der Vergleiohende Grammatik.'


1871.

(One volume

of

3rd edition.

a translation into English has appeared.)

CoESSEN, XJeber Aussprache, Vokalismus und Betonung der Lateinisohen


Sprache.'
2nd edition, 1868. {The authority for Latin philo'

logy, and the storehouse from which Peile, Eoby, Wordsworth,


and others mentioned below, have drawn much of their infor-

mation.)
Kritisohe Beitrage,' and 'Kritiache Nachtrage zur Lateinischen

Formenlehre.'

Cdetius, 'Grundzflge der Griechischen Etymologie.'

2ud

edition, 1866..

(Translated into English by Prof. Wilkins and Mr. England,


of

Owens

College,

Manchesten)

'Tempera und Modi,' an admirable treatise on the formation of


Tenses and Moods in Greek and Latin. Berlin, 1846. (Now
out of print.)
'

'

Das Verbum der Griechischen Sprache.' Vol. i. 1873 vol. ii. 1876.
(The latest result of Curtius' studies, superseding much of
'Tempora und Modi.')
Greek Grammar.' (Published in English as The Student's Greek
:

'

Grammar.')

'Greek Grammar Explained,' or 'Elucidations;' a translation by


Mr. E. Abbott of ' Erlauterungen zu meiner Griechischen
Schulgrammatik,' published by Prof. CurtiiiB in 1863, as

companion to hia 'Greek Grammar.'

-a,

xiv

of AuiAorities.

Iiist

Leo Metek, 'Vergleichende Grammatik


ischen Sprache."

der Griechischen und Latein-

(EBpeoially valuable for

its

exhaustive col-

&oni which the student can form his own

lection of examples,

induction as to particular formations.)

Pbile,

'Introduction

to

Greek and Latin Etymology,' 3rd

edition.

(Maoimllan, 1875.)

A Primer of Philology.
KoBT, Latin Grammar (Vol.

(Macmillan, 1877.)
I)

on Sounds, Inflections and Word-Forma-

(Macmillan, 1871.)

tion.'

Satoe (Eev. A. H., Fellow of Queen's


Comparative Philology.'

WoBDSWOETH
'

(Trubner and

Co., 1874.)

(Eev. John, Brasenose College, Oxford), 'Fragments and

Specimens of Early Latin.'

Feeeab,

College, Oxford), 'Principles of

ist edition.

(Clarendon Press, 1874.)

Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin,' Vol. I.


(The author's death unfortunately left the work half-finished
before he had treated of Verb-Inflections.)

Faeeae

(Eev. Dr., Canon of Westminster),


'

Whitney

'

Chapters on Language,' and

Families of Speech.'
of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in Yale
U. S. A.), Life and Growth of Language.' (Pubin England by H. S. King and Co., 1875.

(Professor
College,
lished

'

CONTENTS.
CHAPTEE

I.

PAOE

Intkoductoby

1-3

CHAPTER

II.

LANGUAGES

CliASSrFIOATION OP

Table of
Table of correspondence between

'Morphological' and 'Genealogical' classifications


the Indo-European family

Komanio' or Romance' languages their


Table of correspondence between them Features of

members

its

origin

'

'

change from synthetic to analytic languages exhibited by

them

4-27

CHAPTEE

III.

CLASSimCATION OF SOUNDS
General principle of phonetic change to secure ease of articulation

Comparative strength or

difficulty of

sounds according

Consonants
Vowels and Diphthongs. Re-

to the physical conditions of their production


their threefold classification
lation of sounds to letters

Appendix

On

Sanskrit alphabet

28-39

to Chaptbb III

the Greek and

Roman Alphabets

40-48

CHAPTER

IV.

Dynamic' change Reduplication, Voweland Nasalisation 'Phonetic' change: Sub-

Changes and Modifioations op Sounds


General principles
Intensification,

'

stitution, Loss, Assimilation,

and Dissimilation of Vowels and

Changes due to indistinct utteranceNational


peculiarities of utterance Grimm's Law
Consonants

....

49-91

xvi

Contents.

CHAPTEE
Formation of

V.
Fi.6E

Words

Eoots,
Processes of Word-Formation

Badical and Formative Elements


tions

Appendix to Chapteb

Stems, and Inflec-

92-101

B.

A. List of Nominal
and Latin

Suffixes

Derivative Verbs in Greek

102-104

CHAPTEE

VI.

NOUN-lNPLECTION

Number

of Cases

Declension

Gender and modes of Generic Distinction

Suffixes of Case-Lnflections in detailCompari-

son of Adjectives

Paradigms

105-141

CHAPTER
Inflection op Pkonouns

VII.

Pronouns witbout Gender First and Second Personal, and


Keflexive Paradigms Pronouns witb Gender: Paradigm
Peculiarities of Latin Pronominal Declension
of stem ta
142-157
:

CHAPTEE

VIII.

Verb-Inpleotion
Connecting Vowel

Augment, Thematic or
formation

Noun and Verb

Distinction between

Classification of VerbsPerson-Endings

Mood-Signs Tense-Stems and

their

Infinitives

and Participles

158-236

APPENDIX

I.

Specimens of Early Latin Inscriptions

237

APPENDIX

II.

Formation of Adverbs in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit


Prepositions

Table

of
,

243

General Index

251

Index of Sounds and Forms Explained

255

'

CHAPTER

I.

Inteoductoet.

The main
is

object of the present work, as indicated

by

its title, Objectfof

the philological explanation of the Inflections in Greek and

For the purposes, however, of such explanation

Latin.

^^"^

'

it is

necessary to presume a certain acquaintance with the main results of the Science of Language or Comparative Philology, and
with the terms commonly in use among philologists ; and we

must begin with a


fication of

clear understanding, (i) of the general classi- Preliininary

Languages, and the place in the history of human

speech of those languages with which


concerned, viz. Greek and Latin

Sounds and the

we

are

immediately

(2) of the classification of

by which they are

represented,

and of

the processes of change which sounds have undergone in

human

speech

(3)

letters

of the

'roots' or simplest
Inflections.

elements of language

i.

e.

elements, including

Into questions of the origin of language, and the

connection between
ideas

constituent

forms, and formative

its

simplest discoverable forms

expressed by them,

we need

not

enter.

and the

The balance

between the two extreme views of language as a conventional

The view

that language

ia 'conventional,' in the sense that people


to deliberate on the meaning and changes of
The term, however, may also be
words, is of course easily ridiculed.
applied to language in opposition to the idea that there is any necessary
connection between words or 'roots' and the ideas signified by them, or
'

meet or ever met together

that there are organic forces of growth in speech itself which, by some
mysterious natural process, without human agency, produce new material

'

[chap.

a view based upon


and language

Discussion

production

the apparent meanlessness of

oftheNatureand

formal elements

as an organic being, producing

Origin of

Language
unnecessary.

its

by virtue of a mysterious principle of


nature, has been clearly drawn by Proin those Lectures on the Science of Lan-

those formal elements

growth inherent in

Max

fessor

guage^

'

Miiller

its

to whose world-wide popularity

Comparative Philology owes

it

(it

has been well said)

present position and

its

present

charm :' and for this question, with others that relate to the
aim and methods of Comparative Philology, we cannot do better
than refer to a book which for every English student of that
science should be the avenue

we may examine

by which he approaches

But

it.

the relation of Latin and Greek words to each

other or to Sanskrit, or trace the history of varying forms in

any one language, without touching such questions as that of


the Onomatopoeic or Interjectional origin of
'

Bow- Wow' and Pooh-Pooh'


'

human

theories of Professor

speech (the

Max

Miiller),

or deciding whether language arose from imitations of cries and

sounds (as

it

often does in the nursery) or from exclamations

expressive of pleasure or pain or other emotions of

The

body.

furthest

mind or

into the history of language

researches

and the utmost possible analysis of written or spoken languages


bring us to certain primitive and elementary combinations of
These ideas exercise a kind of fascination over some
but it is reasonably maintained that spoken lan;
guage (as distinct from fhe facuMy of language implanted in man) is an
external medium of communication, learnt in childhood by mere imitation,
and not inherited as a race-characteristic, or independently produced by
each individual with his mental and bodily growth. The acquisition by
each individual of his own language in childhood is the gradual accumulation, by imitation of those around him, of a stock of signs, which are so far
arbitrary and 'conventional,' in that each is bound to the idea signified
only by a tie of mental association, and not by any natural and necessary
connection.
'Language* is not a faculty or capacity, but a developed
result and the assumption that man is gifted at his birth not only with
the capacity, but also with its elaborated results, is n, theory, not of a
Divine, but of a miraculous origin of speech.
The question of the Nature and Origin of Language is treated in a
popular form by Prof, Whitney in his Life and Growth of Language (see

and

alter old.

students of language

'

'

'

'

He

assigns a more important place to the ' imitative


or ' onomatopoeic principle than some philologists allow ; but on a question of this nature much latitude of opinion is possible, and his remarks are
very suggestive and instructive.
especially ch. xiv).
'

'

See Lectures, Series

I.

Leot. v. on

'

Comparative Grammar.'

I.]

Ini/fodMctory.

sounds which

we

call 'roots;'

but we cannot arrive with any

certainty even at the ultimate ybrm of these roots.

Th^

earliest

traceable condition of that 'Indo-European' speech, of which


(as

we

shall see) Sanskrit, Greek,

and Latin, with the other

languages comprised under that term, are dialectical varieties,

first

arose

as

is

clear,

among

is

when language

evidently far removed from the primeval time

other reasons, from

its

highly

developed vowel-system, and the employment of vowel change


rather than the earlier and simpler method of reduplication ' to
express modifications of ideas

the connection between

them can be
Professor

and therefore speculations as to

Miiller points out) collects facts

language owes

its

possible.

It

is

at

which

(as

and accounts for


probable that

least

origin to a combination of imitational and

interjectional sounds

to this as

elements and the ideas expressed by

of little use for the purposes of a science

Max

these facts as far as

to speech,

its

for it is difficult to assign

any other origin

and the phenomena of dawning speech in


one natural origin for conscious sound

ing' materials of language,

infants point

but the exist-

with which alone Philology has to do,

upon which to base any calculations as to the


which such growth of speech began. Passing by,

give us no data

exact

mode

in

therefore, such questions,

we may

proceed to the consideration

of the points already mentioned as introductory to the explanation of

Greek and Latin

Inflections; viz. the classification of

languages, the classification of sounds, the changes and modifications of sounds,

and the elements of word-formation.

These will

occupy the next four chapters, and the discussion of Inflections


properly so called will follow in chap.

vi.

'
On this point consult Peile'a ' Introduction to Greek and Latin
Etymology,' pp. 1 73 sqq. (3rd edition) ; and see below, ch. iv.

CHAPTEE

II.

ClvASSiriCATION OF LANGUAGES.

Greek and

Twofold

Latin are 'inflectional' languages of the 'Indo-

classifica-

tion of lan-

European' family.

These terms refer to a double

guages.

viz. (a) morpJiological,

according to the

cations of ideas

expressed

elements;

are

mode

in

classification,

which medifi-

by combination of primitive

according to similarity of gram-

(6) genealogical,

matical forms.
a.

Morpho-

The

{a)

'morphological'

classification

three

idistinguishes

logical,
'

stages' of
1.

growth in language^

'Kadical' or 'Isolating,' in which the simplest elements of

speech or 'roots'^ are employed as words, without modification


of their

own sounds

or combination with each other

mere

juxtaposition of isolated roots expressing modification of ideas.

Chinese and
2.

its

kindred dialects are examples of this stage.

'Agglutinative' or 'Terminational;'

joined together to form words.


loses its independent form,

meaning tacked on
'

For

Max

details

and appears

prefix

(as

in which roots are

In such compounds one root


as

a sound expressive of

or suffix) to the other, which

which are beyond the provinee of the present work, see

Miiller's Lectures, Series I. Leot. viii (on

'Morphological

Classifi-

cation ').
' It is necessary here to anticipate the distinction (explained below in
oh. v) between the ' radical elements in words or ' roots,' i. e. the simplest
part of each word which expresses its general idea or meam'ng, and the
formative elements by which this general idea, common to many words, is
defined and modified. For purposes of instruction, oh. v. may, if it seems
convenient, be taken before ch. ii.
'

Classification of Languages:

remains as the primitive element or

'

5
The

root' of the word.

Finnish and Tataric languages, and the dialects of the aborigines


of the Pacific Islands (grouped by Professor

name Turanian') appear

others under the


'

3.

Inflectional

and the
the

'

in which both roots

'

suffix) are

Max

Muller and

to be in this stage.

(i. e.

the

'

root' proper

modified according to regular processes for

The Semitic and Indo-European

expression of meaning.

families of speech fall under this head.

may

This classification

be illustrated

by constructing an illustration

imaginary history, passing through these three stages, of some

stages of

Greek or Latin word, e. g. e'/w {iho). The ultimate forms- or cai growth!
roots' to which philological analysis has reduced the two
syllables of which this word is composed, are i (idea of going')
and ma (ist personal pronoun). We should have these roots
'

'

combined in the Eadical stage by simple juxtaposition

by

in the Agglutinative,

suffixing olie to the other,

fying the root thus suffixed [i-ma, i-mi\


modification of both roots [ai-mi,

The student must bear

in the Inflectional,

that this

is

when w speak
.

garian as

.,

by

and

Hun- T^e tiu-ee


'stages not
Inflectional,' we always mu-

of Chinese as 'Isolating,'
.

Agglutinative, Greek and Latin as

'

classification,

act of languages, but of varieties of linguistic development


that though,

ma]

ci/ii].

mind

in

\i

and modi-

'

'

tuallyexclu.

give a correct idea of the general characteristics of those lan-sive;

guages, and their structural contrast to each other,

imply that there

is

the structural characteristics of the others.


tinative' dialects (e.g.
tional,

from the

suffixes,

Thus

tinative language.

beside

to the

inflec-

Indo-European

no

less

its

many forms
own form and

completely than in an agglu-

to take the

Greek word just employed

we have

in which the root proper remains unmodified.

Again,

el/il

(sum),

beside

el/u,

we have

the dialectical variety

ia-jA

(Aeol.), in

which the root as of the Sanskrit asmi remains in a much


form ^the being only a phonetic variety of a

jnodified

are
dis-

a typical inflectional form,

as an illustration
i-fiev, i'-Tf,

'

while in inflectional languages

found in which the 'root' maintains


tinction

-not

The higher agglu-

Finnish and Hungarian) are almost

and in some respects analogous

languages

we do

in any one of these languages no trace of

less

(see

6
p. 36)

and

a transition

which in
stage,

Agglutination to

[chap,

of Languages.

Classification

And

Inflection.

far

as

upon the
in

and

cp. e. g.

house

'

floor'

and

'

'godly,' so it is often in languages of

from

road,

English

the

between mere juxtaposition and word composition


hard to draw,

marks

this respect of root modification

and that not very

housetop,'

is

line

often

godlike'

'

low development a

matter of doubt where isolation ends and agglutination begins

and even Chinese, the purest example of the first, is by some


regarded as being in its colloquial forms and in some of its

compounded words,

dialects a language of
nor always
historical for
each Ian-

On

the other hand,

of development

as

misleading to speak of these

it is
,

markmg a

'

stages

definite histoncal progress

of

individual languages from a lower to a higher state of civili-

Philology offers no proof that

sation.

have

through

previously passed

all inflectional

languages

an agglutinative

stage

of

development, or that isolating languages must pass on with


increasing

civilisation

The

inflectional stage.

that

'

an

to

an agglutinative and

facts indeed of

isolating or agglutinative stage does not

tion or the reverse,

an

finally to

language tend to show

and that no amount of

imply

culture,

civilisa-

no amount

of years, and no amount of foreign intercourse, has been able to

change the radical character of a language


become, remains

what

it

is,

"What has once

'.'

Chinese, which at a very early stage became

a language of the

'

isolating'

type, remained

in

that condition, and, like Chinese civilisation, stopped once and


for all in its growth.

child

It remained, so to speak, a precocious

while of inflectional languages

it

may

be said that they

grew to manhood before they stopped the agglutinative stage


representing an intermediate period of advance from childhood
towards manhood. As languages, sufficiently developed for the
purposes of national speech, those of each type remain, and will
remain, what they have once become

isolating like Chinese,

agglutinative like Tataric, or inflectional like Latin.

This

fact,

however, need not preclude the supposition that in the earliest

growth of language

'

Sayce,

'

growth which

Principles of

lies

Comp. PMlology,'

oh.

far

beyond the

v. p.

137.

II.]

of Languages.

Classification

remotest period to which the evidence

or inference from,

of,

the

the facts of written or spoken languages carries us back

ments out of which

it

we

stages of which

speak.

'

Agglutination,' for instance, pre-

supposes two things Vhich could be


it

presupposes an earlier stage of

'

is, it

'

glued' together
'

isolation.'

supposes something which was not


of being so ; that

'

that

is,

Inflection' pre-

but was capable

inflected,'

presupposes a state of either isolation or

agglutination, or of both in succession.


(as has

ele-

grew must have exhibited the progressive

These stages' then are


been already pointed out) varieties of linguistic develop'

ment, the developed results of which, in written or spoken


languages, exhibit as a rule the characteristics of one or other

two or of

variety, not of

With
this

all

this limitation it

in succession.

seems perfectly reasonable to reconcile

theory of three stages of development with the facts of

language, which ofier no evidence of actual progress by individual languages from one stage to another.
or varieties of development;

They are types

not historical stages of growth.

Accoijdingly, though spoken Chinese and

some of the higher


more or less to

agglutinative dialects are said to approach


'

inflection, their general characteristic

has been.

And

remains what

it

always

in Indo-European languages, though analysis

of the verb-inflections (above, p. 5) seems to point to an earlier

agglutinative stage and a


roots,

we cannot

two parts

e. g.

as

of

still

earlier period of simple isolated

a matter of

fact point to a period

pendent words in the Greek language

and though we may trace

formative suffixes back to roots with general meanings


in ipater, mater,

and the terminations in

etc.,

of agency, to the root

= to

'

cross' or

which appears in trans and

what

always have

inflectional

nouns

get through' (with a thing)

we do not thereby prove

fact,

of an isolating or ag-

languages.

Comparison and

Indo-European languages enable us to form

some conception of the

who spoke

are,

[e. g. -ta/r

-rap, -tor of

and so far as our evidence goes

glutinative stage in

been,

'

t'hrovigK\,

the previous existence, as historical

analysis of the

when the

were ever of full and equal power as inde-

ei/ie

state of civilisation

attained

by

tj^ose

the primitive mother tongue upon the table 'lands

Classification

of Central Asia

[chap.

of Languages.

much below

a civilisation probably

the con-

China ; yet the language of China remained in the isolating stage, while that of our Indo-European

temporary

ancestors
stages

must

which

(if

we regard development through

necessary) have

as

isolation

in

civilisation of

all

through that of agglutination to the inflectional

stage,,

presented to us by the earliest ascertainable data

it is

These data show us the case and person endings,

of Philology.

for example, in the condition of grammatical forms

or modifying

three

stage of

already passed from the

suflSxes

goes, of their having ever

inflections

trace, as far as

meaning

been separate or agglutinated

particles.

and there

no

is

While Chinese has remained in the most primitive stage, fossilised, so to speak, like the whole Chinese civilisation, the
Indo-European languages, so far as we can trace them, have
always been in the most advanced stage
the causes of this difference, which

is

characteristics of the different races of

language

offer

no foundation

(as has already

and

but for enquiry into

an enquiry into the mental

it

mankind, the

is

facts of

of these facts alone

been said) that Comparative Philology takes

cognisance.

Genealogical Classification

fc.Genealo;

(6)

fioation.

This classification gives us three main 'families' or groups of

languages, according to similarity (a) in vocabulary, (6) in gram-

matical forms
1.

Semitic,

viz.

including

Hebrew, Arabic, and

their

kindred

dialects.
2.
'

Indo-Ev/rojpean

(otherwise

called

'

Indo-Germanic'

or

Aryan'), including the following subordinate classes or groups

Indie,

Iranic, Hellenic,

Italic,

Keltic,

Slavonic,

and Teu-

tonic.

The languages comprised under both

these heads are

'

inflec-

tional.'
3.

2'MTOmflM' (otherwise called 'Ural-Altaic,' 'Mongolian,'

' The name ' Turaman! familiar from its use by Prof. Max MtUler, is
retained as a designation of the * class of languages, for which some prefer
'

II.]

Classification

of Languages.

nomadic
Europe (Laplanders, Hungarians, Samoyeds,
Turks, Mongols, Tartars, etc.), and the dialects of Siam, Malay,
and the Polynesian Islands. These languages are all agglu'

Tataric,' or

'

Scythian'), including the languages of the

races of Asia and

'

and though it is impossible to trace in them anything


the same family likeness of vocabulary or grammatical

tinative,'

like

forms, as in the Indo-European or Semitic groups

the absence

of such family likeness being one distinguishing feature of the

nomad

dialects of a

political, social,

which could give


language

we

population,

among whom no nucleus

of a

or literary character has ever been formed,

may

fixity to

and

create

definite

standards for

accept, as sufficient warrant for the appli-

them of the term class or group,' the statement


that some of the Turanian numerals and pronouns, and many
cation to

'

'

'

'

Turanian

roots, point

to a single original

common words and common

roots

source

and the

which have been discovered

in the most distant branches of the Turanian stock, warrant the

admission of a

real,

though very

relationship of all

distant,

Turanian speech^.'
It
are

is,

however, with the

now

concerned.

The

familiar truth established

'

Indo-European

fact

'

name

by Comparative Philology,

comparison of the languages of

all

we Indo-Euronow a guages,

languages that

implied by this

is

viz. that

'

a the term,

the civilised races of Europe,

and two at least of those of Asia (Indian and Persian), proves


beyond doubt that these languages are branches of a common
stock,

and with reasonable probability that there was once a

time when the ancestors of Germans and Slaves, of Greeks,


Italians,

and Kelts, of Persians and Hindiis, were settled in a


civilisation upon the plains of Central

rudimentary stage of

and spoke the same language, subject to such dialectical


must always arise in a primitive state of society, with
imperfect communication between the scattered members of a
Asia,

variety as

single nation or even of a single tribe.

pre-historic

This time

is,

however,

and though, upon the evidence of language, phUo-

one or other of the names here quoted. See Sayce,


'Life and Growth of Language,' pp. 231, 232.
1 Max MuUer's Lectures, 1. viii.

p. 21, note;

Whitney,

'
;

lo
legists sketch

[chap.

of Languages.

Classification

out for us the state of civilisation and manners of


and even claim to restore the 'Ur-sprache

this primitive people,

or primitive language

anterior to any dialectical variation,

cannot regard these as historical

facts,

we

the onlj fetch before us

being the phenomena exhibited by different kindi-ed languages,

by
'

Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, etc.,

which we group under the term

Indo-European.'
This term seems to be that of widest meaning, and most

obviously inclusive of

all

the languages in question.

many German

Indo-Germanic, employed by

The name

gtholars, is

hardly

comprehensive enough of the European branch of the family


while the names Sanskriiic, Japhetic, and Mediterranecm (suggested by Ewald), are each open to the objection of counte-

nancing misleading notions

There remains the term Aryan,

^.

popularised in this country by Professor

Max

Miiller's Lectures,

and employed by many philologists as a designation of the IndoEuropean family; but by some in the more restricted sense of
Indo-Iranian,

i.

e.

to denote the Asiatic

Indo-European family.
create confusion with its
signification of

Wherever

sub-division

This latter usage, however,

much more

is

of the

likely to

frequent use in the wider

Indo-European *.

in the following pages reference is

made

to the primitive

Indo - European ' form or ' type of words in kindred languages, such
type must not be conceived of as necessarily having, or having had, real
existence, hut as an imaginary form showing in combination the elements
which have been diflferently retained in different languages.
" Sanskritic might suggest the idea that all Indo-European languages
are derived &om Sanskrit Japhetic, from the Hebrew point of view of the
three ancestors of the human race, would include tribes in Northern Europe
and Asia who speak Turanian languages while Mediterranean refers only
to one phase in the history of Indo-European nations, and the central
position once occupied by, but now no longer belonging to, the people who
spoke these languages.
' The term Aryan ha9 the advantage over Indo-JEfuropean of being short
and (as a word of foreign origin) of lending itself more easily to any
and as a mere ticket or
technical definition that may be assigned to it
label of classification, there is no doubt much to be said for its use.
I should not therefore presume to discard it altogether but I still think
that the fact implied on the face of the term Indo-European (a term
sanctioned by the high authority of Bopp) is a good reason for on the
whole preferring this latter term. The existence too of another and more
limited use of the term Aryan (as = Asiatic or Indo-Iranian) is somewhat
against its acceptance as the technical term for the whole family of Ian'

'

II.]

Classification

of Languages.

ii

The languages comprising the Indo-European (or


may be arranged thus m three mam divisions

lamily

Aryan')

Subdivisions

European

family.

A. Asiatic Division

I. Indie.
a. Sanskrit,

the ancient literary language of the Vedas,

or sacred hooks of the Hindus


Pali, the sacred

Prakrit (including

language of the Buddhists in Ceylon)

being the provincial dialects of the mass of the com-

munity

Modem

6.

'.

Indian

dialects,

Hindi, Bengali, Mahratti,

etc.

II. Iranic.

Zend

a.

(or

Old Bactrian), the language of the Zend-

Avesta or sacred books of the religion of Zoroaster.

c.

Old Persian, of the cuneiform


Modern Persian.

d.

Armenian.

b.

'

B. South-West European Division

'

inscriptions.

III. Hellenic.
a.

Ancient Greek.

h.

Modern Greek.

guages, however great the preponderance of authority for the wider use.
In deference, however, to this authority, it should be retained as a collateral
For the origin and uses of the term arya
term with Indo-European.
I need only refer to Prof. Max MUUer's Lectures, I. vi. pp. 224-236,
1st edition.
[I am glad to find, what at the time this note was first
written I did not know, that I have the support of Mr. Peile in preferring
'
Indo-European ' (' Introduction,' p. 34, 3rd edition).]
'

The word

nleans what

'

Sanskrit

rendered

'

(Samskrita,

^^TT =

confectm,

comtrmtus)

or 'perfect,' i.e. for sacred purposes; hence


'purified,' 'sacred,' 'Prakrit' (Prftkrita, BT^if ='derived' or 'secondary') is
the term applied to the spoken dialects which gradually rose out of Sanskrit
as from a source or type (prakriti), by the natural process of change and
corruption which the pure Sanskrit underwent in its adaptation to the
exigencies of a spoken dialect. The various modifications of Prakrit are
the links which connect Sanskrit with the modem dialects of Hindustan,
It should be noted that there is a large body of Prakrit (or non-Vedic)
literature included under the general term Sanskrit; the older Sanskrit
literature being generally specified as ' Vedic'
is

'fit'


13

of languages.

Classification

IV.

Italic.
a.

Latin, Oscan, Umbrian, the three dialects of ancient

6.

The modern 'Romance'

Italy.

(or

'Romanic') languages;

Portuguese, Proven9al, French,

viz. Italian, Spanish,

Wallachian, Romansch.

V. Kdtic.
a.

Cymric or Armorican, including Cornish, "Welsh, and

h.

Gadhelic, including Gaelic, Erse, and

the dialect of Brittany.

C.

North-West European Division

Manx.

VI. Slavonic.
a. Lettic
h.

Old Prussian and Modern Lithuanian.

Slavonic Proper

Bulgarian,

Russian, Polish, Bohe-

mian.

VII. Teutonic.
a.

High German (spoken


Rhine, Main,

in the upper countries of the

Neckar), including Old High

and

German, Middle High German, and Modern German.


6.

Low German

(in the

Lowlands of North Germany,

Holland, and Belgium), including (i) Gothic, Anglo-

Saxon, and English

Dutch.
c.

Scandinavian

Old

(2)

Old Saxon and Frisian, and

Norse and Modern Icelandic,

Swedish and Danish.


Comparative

and order

of

frompritni-

Of

these sub-divisions the Asiatic (A) contains most that

is

ancient in sounds and fabric of language, and fewest strongly-

developed individual forms. The South- West European (B) stands

next in this respect

while the North-West European group (C),

shows most individuality of development, and fewest remains of


a common stock. The diffusion of this common stock under all
these different forms over the Continent of Europe

is

generally

recognised as the result of successive migrations westward from


the original

home

of the Indo-European or

Aryan nations

in

oi

fca

^Hi-9

J3

14

Classification

Central Asia '

and

this being bo, the

us to infer that the

[chap.

of Languages.

phenomena

just noted lead

separate and lose connection with

first to

the parent stock were the ancestors of the nations comprised

under group (C)

that these were followed by the ancestors of

those under group (B)

the

'

Aryan proper comprised under


'

group (A) alone remaining East of the Ural Mountains.


inference from the

phenomena

of language

is

This

borne out by the

geographical position of the different branches of the race.

If

more
eastward the position of an Indo-European people, the more
traces of what is old and common to other languages of the same

we

take a map,

we

shall find that, as

family are retained in

its

a general

rule, the

language ; while the further north-west

and west they have gone, the

less of

what

formations does their language retain.

is

old and the

Nor

more new

does the western-

most position of certain languages in the group which stands


second in order of separation (e. g. the French, Spanish, and
Keltic), interfere with the truth of this general statement

position being due to special historical causes,

the

Roman Empire

to the Atlantic Ocean,

e. g.

and

such

the spread of

(in the case of

Keltic) the gradual pressure of the Teutonic nations, driving the

Kelts further and further westward.

These Kelts,

whom we

Bme

under Brennus

(b.c. 390),

meet with as the conquerors of


and 100 years

and of

whom

later as the invaders of

Macedonia and Greece,

Herodotus speaks as dwelling in the extreme

west of Europe

'*,

apparently in Spain, must have spread into

It mnat, however, be remembered that the evidence of successive


order of separation, furnished by the closer relationship of particular
dialects, is at the best vague, and the conclusions drawn from them
indefinite and uncertain, so far as anything like the establishment of a
historical order of separation is concerned.
If it can be shown that Latin
is most closely connected with Greek, it can, on the other hand, be
shown that in many respects Greek is most closely connected with Sanskrit
and probably all that it is really safe to aflSrm is that the various
dialects of the Indo-European family after a long continued community
separated gradually, until under different circumstances they established
thbir respective national independence.
' Hdt. ii.
33, iv. 49. He speaks of them as Ifm tSiv 'HpaitXrjtaiv oi'qXlwv,
and (after a tribe called KiJi/ijtoi) ^ffxaroi vphs ^Xfov ivaiiiaiv rSiv iv rg
His language is that of a man living on the shore of the MediEipiiwin,
terranean, to whom all knowledge of these western countries came from
people who bad saUed through the Straits of Gibraltar, outHde the so-called
:

'

Classification

II.]

of Languages.

15

Switzerland and Tyrol; and, after occupying Gaul, Belgium, arid


Britain,

were driven by pressure of the Teutons to the extreme

north and west of Gaul and the British Islands, where their

language has survived to our own day, though gradually

dis-

appearing (like Cornish) under the influences of increased com-

munication with the mass of the English-speaking population.

Some

philologists, indeed, take a different view^

that, looking to the present distance

and maintain

from the original home of

the respective Indo-European nations, the Kelts must have been


the

f/rst,

and the Slavonians the

move westward

last to

and

that the Slavonians, finding the rest of Europe occupied, were


forced to

make

regions.

This

their

may

new home

be so

guage (which has been called


guide

in its northern

and eastern

but in the absence of history, lan'fossilised history') is

our best

and language seems to postulate a longer separation

from the primitive stock in the case of the Teutonic and


Slavonic groups than for any of the others.

The following diagram (adapted from


pendium')

cations of the Indo-European family

indicated

by

lines

striking

separation or proximity

uppermost Une^.
right

Schleicher's

will illustrate the successive migration

The

and

'Combifur-

the separations being

downwards, and the degree of

by greater or
vertical

less deflection

order of the

from the

column to the

hand corresponds to the horizontal order of the previous

Table.

For other examples of Herodotus' relative use of


iiom a Mediterranean point of view,' compare i. 6, ivrbs "AXvos
troT&iiov
1.
74 (of the Halys), pfoiv avai, and an instructive note to the
latter passage in Woods' edition (' Catena Classicorum series).
' Schleicher's diagram is possibly open to modification, in respect of the
position assigned by him to Keltic. He believes in a Graeco-Italo-Keltic
period, marked by the division of the a sound into a, e, o, and (after the
separation of the Greeks) in an Italo-Keltic ' period marked by loss of
aspirates, retention of spirants, and loss of the old middle voice; while
finally, after separating from the Italians, the Kelts lost the ablative and
reduplicated perfect. Other philologists, however, connect Keltic with the
North European languages, tracing a general analogy (e.g. in the number of
diphthongal sounds, being four in Keltic and Teutonic, but six in Hellenic
and Italia dialects) between Slavonic, Teutonic, and Keltic. The arguments on both sides are briefly but clearly stated by Mr. Peile ('Introd.'
pp. 27, 28, 3rd edition), who inclines upon the whole to Schleicher's view.
'

Pillars of Hercules.'

terms

'

'

'

'

i6

^^

Classification

looking

SSp of San|^"*'<^ek. three first

down

[chap.

of LaTignages,

the right-hand column,

we

find that the

languages of which any considerable literature re-

'a.

o
1^
o

<!

i
Q
^
d
O
tsi

Hi
bd

f>

Q
W
OS

mains are Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin,


embodied in their respective

all

literatures,

'dead' languages,

not subject to the

of Languages.

XJlasdfication

11.

constant changes of spoken languages, and therefore retaining

a more complete inflectional system than any other languages

known

th^m the

to us, though even in

already in a state of decay.

system

inflectional

is

These three languages thus form

the basis of philological enquiry for the Indo-European branch

of

human

speech

and for the

illustration of the inflectional

system of any one of them, the three together furnish


nearly

the available data.

all

clearly their relation'ship,

all

or

It is important to understand

as parallel branches

common

of a

same generation of the genealogical tree. They


are sisters, or at furthest cousins
and are not in any sense
derived from each other. Latin is not derived from Gfreek,
stock, in the

',

neither
in

Greek or Latin derived from Sanskrit,

is

which

the. liiodem

descended

from,

Komance languages

classical

Latin.

in the sense

are 'derived,' i.e.

may be

This relationship

proved by internal evidence from any of the languages given

Thus Greek aor^p, Latin Stella ( = ster-vda),


star, must be fuller and therefore older
forms than Sanskrit tkick, in which the initial s has been lost ',
in

our Table.

German

Or

stern,

English

again, if we take the grammatical forms, e.g. of

we

asmi, Latin svmi],

shall

find that in

ei/t"

[Sanskrit

Latin sum,

sing.

Greek /i4 has


more perfect than Sanskrit

retains the s of the root as ifs) which Attic


lost

asi

in 2 sing. Aeolic Greek


in

plur.

Greek

eV-o-l is

ccf-iuu retains

the full root

to-

{as) as

.compared with Sanskrit smas, while the Latin termination -mus


(Sanskrit -mas)

is

lects preserving

-/xf s

older than Attic Greek -pew, the older dia:

in 2nd plur. Latin estis is the most complete

fofm, Greek eVre the next, Sanskrit stha the most mutilated,
having lost both initial and final letter

in 3 plur. Latin sunt


;
(Sanskrit santi) is fuller than the oldest dialectical form in

.Greek [eWi Doric and Aeolic], from which the root


.disappeared

much more so than the

still

es

has entirely

more weakened form

eiVi.
The Teutonic languages retain a correspondingly stronger
form than Greek, in German sind. French scmt, Italian sono,

Spanish son, are modifications of suni,

'

In the Veda, is found a

similar comparison

fuller form, star, or stri.


i8

[chap.

Claswfication of Languages.

of grammatical forms
(Lectures, Series
Italian,

which

I.

Miiller

and Spanish are derived from, the Proyen9al language,

is,

according to that theory, the only true

French som/mes, Ues,

Latin.

Max

employed* by Professor

is

Lect. V), to refute the theory that French,

daughter

'

of

'

Provenfal sem,

sont, besides

etz,

son, are justly pointed to as fatal to such a theory.


Evidences
of relationship be-

tween

If may be

subjoin

well to

a few specimens of that cor-

respondence between the Indo-European languages which

at

is

lan-

Buages.

once the evidence of their relationship and the basis of their


classification

into

The

families.

evidence

is

twofold, (a) in

vocabulary, (6) in grammatical structure.


(a)

In vocabulary,

it

related

is

by proving each one

succession

Latin

special

all

But

them

of words as

words identical in

for

branches of the family,

classes

all

we

or

all

are restricted to such

numercds and pronouns.

These

by multiplication and
synonymous terms than any other class of words

appear to have been


tution of

words, and to prove

related with each of the rest in

with Greek, Greek with Sanskrit, Slavonic

with German, and bo on.


nearly

easy to find in any two of these

common

languages numbers of

substi-

less varied

except, perhaps, the terms indicating degrees of near relationship, father, mother, daughter, brother, etc. ;

and hence

all

the

Indo-European nations, however widely separated, and however


different in

manners and

civilisation,

count with the same words

and use the same pronouns in individual address


of course, being

made

allowance,

for the changes brought about

by the

phonetic laws of individual languages.


(6)

Stronger

still is

the evidence of correspondence in gram-

matical structure, as shown in a

common system

formation, declension, and conjugation.

guage

is

of word-

This portion of lan-

that which, in the case of intermixture of languages,

by the adoption into one lauguage of terms belonging to another,


most resists any trace of intermixture. A foreign word admitted
to citizenship in another language is declined or conjugated on
the system of the language which has adopted

it

',

and the study

of language offers no trace of a mixed grammatical apparatus in

the same language.

This being

so,

uniformity of grammatical


;'

It.}

Ctassijication

structure in a

number

of Zanguages.

of distinct languages

19

must be one of the

strongest proofs of their substantial unity.

The

on

table

in vocabulary

The most

20 exhibits specimens of the correspondence,

p.

and

inflection, of the

Indo-European languages

familiar illustration of a

'

class

'

of languages,

and

on the whole the most instructive attainable example of dialectic


is to be found in the modern Eomance or ' Eomanic

growth,

'

languages, so called as being

Bomana,' spoken

in

the

all

'

descended from the 'Lingua

different

provinces of the

Eoman

In these we have not only a body of highly cultivated languages, each with its subsidiary dialects, and evidently
sprung from a common stock but we have also, what we have
Empire.

not in the case of the great Indo-European group, the mother


language, the

'

Ur-sprache,' from which they have

and we can trace


cesses of

They

historically,

aU sprung

with tolerable accuracy, the pro-

change and divarication which have produced them.


about the same period of the Middle Ages, out

all rose

of the condition of local jpatois, the result of illiterate provincial

corruptions

of the

which even in

Latin of ordinary popular pronunciation,

had

classical times

many

differed in

respects

from the literary dialect of Rome, and had degenerated still


farther and faster when the decline of literature took away
the only check upon arbitrary pronunciation and erroneous
grammar.

In the provinces upon which the Homan con-

querors imposed the use of the

Eoman

guage was subject in

all

by ignorance,

its

use to

language', that lan-

the innovations produced

caprice, or the purely physical causes

which

dis-

pose the vocal organs of different nations to different sounds.

When

therefore the various

nationalities

of modern Europe

In Britain, though a Roman province for 400 years, the Eoman


was too partial (being confined to the towns) to leave its
impress in the use of the Koman language, which in Graul and Spain
survived the conquest of those countries by Teutonic invaders. 'What
strikes us at once in the new England," says Mr. Green, is that it was the
one purely German nation that rose upon the wreck of Borne. In other
lands, in Spain, or Gaul, or Italy, though they were equally conquered by
German peoples, religion, social life, administrative order, still remained
Roman. In Britain alone Rome died into a vague tradition of the past.'
'

civilisation

'

('History of the English People,' ch.

i.

ca

sect, ii.)

aeS

Ills

-I

11 j f I

11.!

-.:.Sa

See
t3

S S
j:

QD

0.^

SS
v.t^'O

>

p>'

N M n

nil

n.*3

be

arj
a B

>!.

ffi

MIS >:S

Gc oa

n P

SS

ee.i

E9

Jll?
as 35

-s

i-3'i|s--^ll^
oa4a-a(C<a

GO

ll-t=:i

A N

O
.

ag III
o n

^
a
o >
a

aa

i_j

ion's i'S a I

'S

03 ^
43
^

oQ cn CO

QJ 03

fl)

95-5

I.

^'rtgts.

Ill

11

t-H.S

43

ill |-|s till 1= 11 I I I

o
a

-s.a.8

S*S

Q."5 *-.(/

-3-t

C.|:<g.|

ill

o,

a
.a..

i
=1=
!

9..S

?a

g-5

II aSl4

S S 3 .S

rHiNOS'^ioeOt^OOOiO

..

ua
uS

^
C "U
e as,

^
_s

S3

O.

of Languages.

Classification

31

began to take shape andcoliesibn out of the chaos of the Middle


Ages, the dialects of the Latin-speaking peoples, in what had

Roman provinces, had sufficiently diverged from each other


form the starting-point of so many distinct languages, each

been
to

with

own

its

traces of their

national peculiarities, but with strongly

common

origin

in grammatical structure

in vocabulary, in

running

summary given by

following brief

and Growth of Language,' pp. 183,


group with
oldest,

sufficient precision

'

The
all.
Whitney ('Life
enumerates the Eomanie
through them

Professor

4),

Pragments of French are the

coming from the tenth century;

or two centuries later

its

literature begins one

the earliest Italian, Spanish, Portuguese,

are from the twelfth, or hardly earlier.

These four are the

But

there

was

in the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries, a rich

lite-'

conspicuous modern members of the group.


also,

marked
and

inflection,

rature of the chief dialect of Southern France, the Proven9al,

which, except for a recent sporadic effort or two, has ever since

There

been unused as a cultivated tongue.

the

exists, too, in

northern provinces of Turkey, in Wallachia and Moldavia, a

broad region of

less cultivated

Romanic

the spread of

Roman supremacy

of a literature.

Moreover certain

S. E.) Switzerland, are

speech, witnessing to

eastward

it

is

destitute,

and

dialects of southern (S.

enough unlike Italian to be ordinarily

ranked as an independent tongue, under the name of Rhaeto,'Romanic or Rumansh.' This last is the dialect spoken in the
Grisons, and

met with by English

Full materials for the

travellers in the

philological

languages are available in the

'

Engadin.

study of the Romanic

Grammatik der JRomanischen

Sprachen of Professor Diez ', than which (says Professor


'

Miiller)

the

'

Max

nothing can be a better preparation for the study of

comparative grammar of the -ancient Aryan languages.'

is a table (compiled from this work) of comparative


forms in the six languages examined by Diez (viz. those above-

Subjoined

mentioned with the exception of Rumansch)

these languages

French translation of Diez' Grammar is better arranged than the


and contains additional matter supplied by Prof. Diez himself and
incorporated by the translators.
'

original,

22

[chap.

of Languages.

Classification

being placed in the order of (upon the whole) nearest resemblance to the

The evidence of relationship


it must be borne in mind

Latin original.

needs no further comment

and

that the relationship to each other of the various branches of

the Indo-European family

Homanic languages
in the two cases is

precisely analogous to that of these

is

to each other

and that the evidence

different not in kind,

for it

but only in degree, in

proportion as the divarication of dialects has in the one case been

wider and longer, and historical observation of their phenomena


less attainable.

The transmutation of Latin into its derivative languages,


by the table on pp. 24, 25, exhibits certain features

illustrated

of change from

'

analytic

'

to

'

synthetic

which can be traced even in


occasion, in treating

'

languages, the

of changes

(chap, iv), to notice the course of

We

germ of

have
and modifications of sounds
changes in the form of words,

classical Latin.

shall

which are constantly at work in every spoken language, and the


laws of phonetic change following the universally observed tendency to secure ease in articulation at the expense often of
clearness.

flections

The formative

^were the parts

distinct elements

suffixes

of nouns and verbs

which were

In-

Originally

first affected.

with a meaning of their own, and a clear etymo-

logical connection

with important elements of the language,

become in the language of


worn away as to appear in many cases

especially the pronouns, they have

Cicero and Virgil

so far

mere unmeaning terminations


all

probability

still less

in the written language,

and in

recognisable in popular pronunciation of

life.
This rubbing away of the distinctive suffixes by
which grammatical relations were expressed, naturally led to

everyday

difficulties

and

tense,

in retaining the right discrimination,

e.

g. of case

and to substitution of other expedients for expressing

such distinctions.
In my former edition I adopted the new-fasHoned spelling ' Vergil :'
and it,may appear a retrograde step to return to 'Virgil,' I am disposed,
however, to agree with Dr. Kennedy (Commentary on Virgil, Introd.
p. xxxviii), that while 'Virgilius' in Latin is indefensible, and Vergilius'
'

'

unnecessary in oar Anglicised version of the poet's


to abandon the fikmiliar Virgil.'

alone correct,

name

it is

'

II.]

Classification

gradually at work in

which

way

Case inflections gave

(i.)

is

is

all

of Languages.

23
This process

to prepositions.

languages, from the earliest stage,

As

the richest in inflections.

the anah/tical tendency

of language (getting rid otinflections and substituting separate

words

for each part of

a conception) advances, prepositions are

more and more developed to give precision to the obliterated


forms and extended meanings of case-endings. In Greek and
Latin (as the form of many of them indicates) they were originally adverbs, serving to define more clearly the meaning which
belongs to the case-ending by itself and as the requirements of
language become more complicated, they become more and more
necessary to distinctness and accuracy in language. Hence they
are often used in prose where they would be omitted in poetry^;
and it is always the case which determines the meaning of the
:

preposition, not vice versa.

In modern Greek, and in the derivatives of Latin, prepositions

have almost superseded cases; and the growing ten-

New Testament, where they


more numerous than in classical Greek''; and in e. g. the
practice of the Emperor Augustus ', who made use of them in
"We are told that he preorder to speak as clearly as possible.
in
aliquam
rem,'
'includere in carmine'
impendere
to
say
ferred
The tendency is foimd often
(instead of alicui rei,' carmine ').
dency to use them appears in the
are far

'

'

enough in

'

earlier times,

(ii.)

Prom

'

e. g.

gorem reverentur ah auro

'

ad carnificem dare

'

(Ter.),

'

Ful-

(Virg.).

the difficulty of retaining distinctions

of tense

comes the use of active auxiliary verbs. In the passive voice


sum was always so employed and traces of a similar use e. g.
;

'

e.g. ab, ad,

with ablat. or accus. of motion; or ah with 'ablativus

agentis.'
'

e.g. iaSiovaiv

would employ the

xpixioiv, ' eat of the crumbs,' where classical Greek


See Farrar's Greek Syntax,
'partitive genitive' alone.

anb tuv

pp. 86, 87.


'
Praecipuam curam duxit sensum animi quam apertissime exprimere
quod quo faoilius exprimeret, aut nee ubi leotorem vel auditorem turbaret
et moraretur, neo prepositiones verbis addere, neque conjunctiones iterare
dubitavit, quae detractae afferunt aUquid obscuritatis etsi gratiam augent.'
'

Vita Octaviani,' Ixxxvi.


last words of this quotation recognise the fact that analytic
languages gain in accuracy what they lose in conciseness.
Suetonius,

'

N.B. The

24

Classification

of Languages,

[CIIAP.

TABLE OF CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN


Words and
Forms
Compared,

n.]

Classification

of Languages.

^s

THE 'EOMANIC LANGUAGES DESCENDED FROM LATIN.

III. Portuguese.

26

Classification

of Languages.

[chap.

of dare are found in phrases like inventwm daho, Ter. And.


I.

59, vasta daho=vastabo, Virg. Aen.

and

i.

63;

iv.

Habere

323.

must have been


Empire ; we have

tenere {avoir, avere ; Spanish tengo, tenere)

so used in the provincial speech of the later

perhaps an anticipation of this in the

twm

ix.

classical exjpertum, cogni-

The passive auxiliary construction with sum,

Tiabeo.

etc. is

obtained by an easy resolution of any tense in that voice


the propriety of the active habeo or ieneo

is

but

not so obvious.

It

may, however, have been extended by analogy from cases in

which such analysis was correct to others in which

it

could

not be so employed with strict accuracy.


(iii.)

Next

to these changes, foimded

on pronunciation and on
noun and

the substitution of prepositions and auxiliary verbs for

verb inflections, the usage of the definite and indefinite article

seems the most considerable step in the transmutation of Latin

The development of the

into its derivative languages.


ticle

from a demonstrative pronoun, which

forms

il, lo,

etc.,

derived from Latin

ille,

is

Romanic

took place in Greek at

an early period, but within historical observation ^


it

definite ar-

seen in the

for

we

see

beginning in the Homeric poems in the use, beside the demon-

strative OS, of a parallel

form

6 also demonstrative,

but in certain

collocations suggesting the later use as definite article,

e. g.

8'

The Greek language thus gained


an important element of precision, and facility for the combination and grammatical handling of abstract ideas, e. g. by the
and though little or
article with infinitive or neuter adjective
no attempt seems to have been made in the literary dialect of
Home to create a corresponding means of precision by an
analogous employment of the Latin demonstrative pronoun,
there are not wanting signs that the necessity for it was felt
and partly acted upon in popular language, by the employment
of ille and unus with the force of a definite and indefinite article

op a/iei^cTo UaiWas

'hBrjinj, etc.

respectively".

"Were this not the case, the evidence of the

On

the history and usages of the Greek article see Curtius' Greek
Clyde's Greek Syntax, | 3-9. The latter book
;
a very valuable aid to the student of Greek grammar.
' The theory of grammarians in this matter seems to have gone contrary
*

Grammar, 365-391
is

II.]

Classification

Homauic languages would be


in the provincial

become more or
definite article

sufficient

27

proof that, at

all

events

idioms of the later Empire, this usage had


less

established.

The same development

of

from demonstrative seems to have taken place

in the Teutonic languages;

demonstrative,

of Languages.

relative,

and

for in

German

definite

article

dm- (like
;

6y,

6) is

and in English

and which are often interchangeable.


For further suggestions upon the relation of the Komanic

that

languages to Latin, the reader


tures, Series I.

part

Lecture

v.

may

consult

Max

Mailer's Lec-

and Hallam's Middle Ages, chap. IX.

I.

who spoke and used the language. Quintilian


'Noster sermo articulos non desiderat;' and Scaliger
otiosum loquacissimae gentis instrumentum,' articulus

to the practice of those


(I.

0.

i.

4. 19) says,

called the article


nobis est nullus et Graecia superfluus,'
'

'

CHAPTEK

III.

Classification op Sounds.

Principles
of phonetic

change.

The division of

sounds and of the letters representing them in


.

the alphabets of different languages, according to the organs of

human voice by which the sounds are produced, is the basis


upon which enquiries into the mutual connection of languages,
and all etymology, must ultimately rest. In tracing the original
the

form or the common element of words or their

inflections in

one or more languages, we are retracing the course of phonetic


'

change;' the changes

i.e.

in the sounds

and the

senting them, by which, while languages are

media of

oral

communication, variety or degeneration from

simple and primitive forms have been produced.


of this phonetic change

throat, lungs,

man

The

'

All articulate sounds are

by expenditure of muscular energy

efibrt,

and mouth.

This

effort, like

we may

it is in fact either

call it laziness, or

it

relief

call it

from,

economy

the one or the other, according to the circum-

stances of each particular case.

more than

we may

in the

every other that

makes, he has an instinctive disposition to seek

to avoid

principle

the endeavour, conscious or uncon-

is

scious, to secure ease of a/rtieulation.

produced by

letters repre-

in daily use as

gains

it is

It is laziness

economy when

it

when

gains

it

gives

more than

up
it

abandons.'

Ease of articulation

is

secured in the majority of cases by

substituting a sound easier to pronounce for one which

a weaker

difficult

for a stronger

sound

is

found

and (with some few

of Sounds.

.Classification

2<)

exceptions)

it is a safe rule in etymology that harder sounds are


pot derived from easier, nor a word which has retained a strong

sound from one which exhibits a correspondingly weak sound


nor, therefore,

a language in which iadividual forms retain

strong sounds from a language whose corresponding forms retain weaker sounds.

forms as

siZi/a,

to prove

far

Thus

sus, video,

take a simple instance) such

(to

vinum

beside

vXr],

()s,

JSfic,

go

olvos,

what has already been demonstrated upon the

evidence of inflections (above, p. 17), that Latin cannot have


been derived from Greek, having retained in these words the

sounds s and v

an

{F),

which Greek has

lost,

or represents only by

aspirate.

But what are hard or

how

is

strong,

and easy or weak sounds 1 and

the relative strength of sounds determined

by the physical conditions

Obviously

Sard sounds

of their utterance.

are

those which require greater physical effort on the part of the

organs of speech, easier sounds those which require

The table given on

p. 31 exhibits the

less effort.

sounds arranged according

to the physical conditions of their production

and without a

ininute investigation of those physical conditions (for which the

student

is

referred to

Max

MUUer's Lectures, Series II. Lect.

on The Physiological Alphabet'), a


'

brief statement of

them

iii.

is

joecessary for the explanation of the terms employed.

The

material of speech

is

breath,

i.

e.

a continuous stream of Physical

from the lungs, modified by the

?iir

different

positions,

or the human

interrupted and compressed by various actions of the uvula,

tongue, palate, teeth, and


If the

voice*.

glottis,

lips,

which thus become organs of

or aperture through which the breath

fuller description of the instrument? of the human voice, see


Miiller's Lectures, Series II. Lect. iii. (pp. 109-1 14, 2nd ed.), and
'
we are speak(Farrar's Chapters on Language,' oh..vii. pp. 84, 85
ing we are in reality playing on a musical instrument, and a more perfect
'

For a

Max

'

When

The larynx, with its cartiinstrument than ever was invented by man.'
lages and muscles, forms, in point of fact, a combination of musical instruments it is at once a trumpet, an organ, a hautboy, a flageolet, and an
Aeolian harp. The air passing upwards and downwards through the
the
larynx and trachea forms its analogy with the wind-instruments
See
'vibration of the chordae vocdles, its resemblance to the stringed.'
Physiology,'
Whitney,
'Animal
and
'Life
and
p. 538 ;
;also Dr. Carpenter's
Growth of Language,' ch. iv. p. 59.
'

3b

[chap.

of Sounds.

Classification

passes from the trachea gr windpipe, be fully open,


into the

mouth

is

what passes

mere breath, made afterwards into sound by


If however

the organs of the mouth.

two ligaments

the

at

sides of the glottis, called chordae voeales, approximate to each

other so as to narrow the glottis, and vibrate as the breath


passes through, this vibration changes the breath into voice

And

makes

it

vocal sound.

sound,

is

emitted from the windpipe, the same position of the

accordiug as mere breath, or vocal

organs of the mouth gives a different result.

by

breath that is checked or modified

mation, the sound produced will be what


tenuis, 'hard' or 'surd:'

if,

If

it

be only

their contact or approxiis

variously called

on the other hand, voice or vocal

sound be checked by contact or approximation of the organs,


the sound produced will be media,

'

soft'

Sounds are divided generally into

The

or

'

sonant.'

Votoels

physiological difference in their formation

and Consonants.
is

as follows

Modification of the stream of vocal sound, without interruption

or compression by the organs of the mouth, produces

Vowels {voeales,

(jxavfievra),

so called because they have a

sound

of their own, being various modifications of the vocal sound

produced by the 'chordae

voeales.'

All vowels, therefore, are

or

by complete

'soft' sounds.

of breath

Interruption

voice

contact,

or

compression by approximation of the organs, produces Consonants {con-sonantes,

(rviKJxova),

so

called

because they have

no sound of their own, but must be accompanied with a vowel


sound'.

(Thus, in the Sanskrit character the vowel a

is

never

written after a consonant, because a, the primitive vowel sound,


is

supposed to be inherent in every consonant.)

either

'

soft' or

'

The subjoined

Consonants are

hard,' tenues or mediae.

table illustrates the classification of

applicable to Greek and Latin

Sounds as

(The Greek and Latin characters are given).

The Arabic grammarians

call

a vowel motion, and a consonant u,


whereas

harrier, because in forming vowels the voice is not interrupted,


in forming consonants it is stopped at certain iixed positions.

m.]

Classification

of Sounds.

TABLE IN ILLUSTRATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION


OF SOUNDS.

31


33

of Sounds.

Consonants are classified' (see the Table,

SoTofCon-

L Mutesand
vowik

Classification

[chap.

p. 31)

-^7 the Completeness or incompleteness of contact of the

'vocal organs.'
a.

Mutes

(acjiava,

mufae), where there

passage of the breath

tion of the

a complete interrup-

is

These

or vocal sound.

and

are 'Consonants' proper, having no sound of their own,

depending for articulation upon the vowel sound which follows

when
the

the stream of breath or vocal sound


'

check'

or

interruption.

They

is

released

sometimes

are

from
called

'Momentary' or 'Explosive' sounds [kg, td,pbj.


b.

Semivowels^

vocal soimd

is

{fiiil<jiava,

semi-vocales),

where the stream of

not interrupted by complete contact, but only

compressed by approximation of the 'vocal organs,' so that a


continuous sound

is

heard from the friction of the breath or

vocal sound against the partially

organs.

closed

sometimes called 'Continuous' or 'Fricative' sounds

They are
[s, ,

I,

r,

f, V, etc. J.
^^'

^dMe^ae

^^

*'^

accompaniment or absence of vocal soimd.

(See

above, pp. 29, 30).


a.
'

Tenues^ (^CKa, 'voiceless:'

surd'),

when

also

called

'sharp,'

'hard,'

the contact or approximation of the organs takes

place with the voeal chords (see above, p. 29) wide apart, so

that only a whisper takes place [k,


b.

when

Mediae*

{jitaa, 'voiced,' also

t,

p, s,/].

called

'flat,'

'soft,'

'sonant'),

the contact or approximation of the organs takes place

with the vocal chords close together and vibrating so as to cause

sound^ during the approximation or contact

\_g,

d, b, z, v, etc.].

The teacher

will find the comprehension and recollection of these


and the terms employed much facilitated by oral illustration,
pronouncing himself, and asking his pupils to pronounce, each sound as it

claBsifications

mentioned.
For the more limited use of this term, see below, p. 35, note 2.
' K, T, IT were called (tiAd ypiniuiTa ('bald,' slight, or thin letters) by
the Greek grammarians in distinction from the. aspirates x, S. <t>^ which had
a rough or shaggy sound. Hence ^|/lKSjs ypdtpuv ^to write with a tenuis
instead of an aspirate (fiiirvs for ^ixpva), Ath. 369 B.
* The mediae {iiiaa)
7, 5, J3 were so called because they were pronounced
by the Greek grammarians with more aspiration than the tenues and with
less than the aspirates.
On the general causes of the distinction between iermes and mediae.
is


in.]

Classification

'

of Sounds.

33

in. By

the part of the mouth at which, and the vocal ni. Guttu
between which the contact or approximation takes

organs'

'

place.
a.

Guttural,

the tongue
b.

(i.e.

by the back or

soft palate (uvula)

and root of

\k, g\.

Palatal'';

by the middle or hard palate and the tongue

the guttural 'check' or contact pushed a

little

further

forward).
c.

Dental, by the upper teeth and front part of tongue

d. Lakial,
[/, v\.

The

by the

lips [p, 6], or

latter are

under

lip

[t,

d].

and uppers teeth

sometimes classed separately as Labio-

dental.

Somewhat outside of I. and III. come Nasals and Liquids.


Nasals are a variety of Explosive Mediae: i.e. when the Nasals.
organs are in position for pronouncing
of breath passes into the nose, ng, n,

duced.

g, d, h,

if we try to pronounce n or m either


when it is stopped by a cold so that the

Accordingly,,

holding the nose, or

breath cannot pass that way, the result


of

d or

but the stream

are respectively pro-

b,

e.g. Tnoon

is

the original sound

becomes hood^.

Max

see Prof. Helmholtz, as quoted by


Miiller, Lectures, II. iii. p. 131,
2nd ed. Prof. Whitney insists upon the use of the terms 'surd,' 'sonant;'
see 'Life and Growth of Language,' p. 63.
'Hard' and 'soft' are more
familiar in English writers on language.
* The various consonantal sounds which in Sanskrit and other languages
are called palatal are formed by placing the tongue in a position intermediate between the guttural and dental contact, and are modifications,
sometimes of gutturals, sometimes of dentals. In Sanskrit they approach
nearer the former, and are often represented, the tenuis by English ck (in
oJiurch, or Italian cielo), the media by j (i.e. as in our pronunciation of
GermoM, Oeorge). Many Sanskrit scholars, howerer, prefer to denote the
palatal series by the guttural signs, k, hh, g, gh, modified either by
\h', k'h) or by difference of type (k, fc; g, g), because this helps them to show
(vftft) the stem of
the easy transition between e. g. nom. ^T^ (vak) and

^^

the oblique cases.


^ The following stanza from a jeu ct esprit, entitled ' The Lay of the
Influenzed,' may serve as an illustration of this
'Dever bore bedeath the bood
Shall byrtle boughs edtwide
Dover bore thy bellow voice
Bake belody with bide.'
person who
This is incorrectly termed 'speaking through the nose.'
has a cold ought to speak through his nose, but cannot do so, in proor M
and therefore he sounds nearly h ov d in. attempting
nouncing
to pronounce the nasals m, a.
:

34
Liquids.

Classification

Liquids ('lingual' sounds or

[chap.

of Sounds^

'trills')

are caused by the breath

and over the


[f\,
They may be classed with Semivowel
[Fricative] sounds, to which they have most affinity.
Aspirates are variously classed with 'explosive' and 'frica-

passing over the sides of the back of the tongue


tip of the

Aspirates.

tongue

[r].

The sound denoted by Ji {spiritus asper''-) is a


mere expulsion of breath^, unchecked by the vocal chords, which
tive' sounds.

remain wide apart without vibrating so as to produce vocal


This 'breathing' (to adopt the term familiar in Greek

sound.

grammar), when

it

follows an explosive consonant, gives siich

sounds as Greek x Qa + Kj, 6 {t+K), (p {p + K). In pronouncing


the tenues k, t, p, the vocal chords are apart and in a natural
position for aspiration:
close together,

but with the mediae

and not in position

ig+h), dh (d + h), hh

(b

+ h)

are

g, d, h

more

they are

Hence gh

for aspiration.

sounds, which

difficult

perhaps existed in the earliest forms of Indo-European speech,

but have only found expression in the Sanskrit and

(to

a certain

extent) in the Keltic languages.

The shght sound or 'breathing' heard before any vowel, and


when two vowels come together (e.g. go over), is

best caught

rarely expressed
lenis or

'

by any

sign, except in

Greek by the spiritus

soft breathing.'

If the breath emitted for spiritus asper or lenis be modified

by

certain narrowings of the

mouth forming

barriers

which hem

Eight such

it in,

various distinct soimds are produced.

riers,'

with corresponding modifications of the spiritus asper and

lenis, are

enumerated by Professor

Max

Miiller

'

bar-

of which only

those for which signs are given in our table of sounds are here
given, viz.

The

distinction between ^iritus asper and lenis is regarded by Prof,


Miiller as that which is denoted in consonants by the terms tenuis and
media, the glottis being in one case open, in the other closed.
^ Others, however, regard A as a genuine consonant, produced very near
the glottis, so that it combines very readily with a following vowel, and
seems to be produced in the same act of enunciation. Mr. Peile, holding
this view, thinks 'that there may be a soft h which dififers from the
ordinary A almost as much as any soft consonant from the corresponding
hard ; and that this soft h differed infinitesimally (if at all) from the breath
heard after the momentary sound in the original aspirates {gh,, dh, bh).'
'Introduction,' pp. 69-73.
'

Max

; ;

III.]

of Sounds.

Classification

The

1.

barrier produced

^^

by advancing the tongue

teeth modifies spiritus asper into

s,

to\^fards the

spvritus lenis into

z.

If the lower lip be brought against the upper teeth, the

2.

barrier produced
into

V,

modifies spiritus asper into /, spiritus lenis

as heard in English

live,

halve.

Hencey, v are sometimes

called 'Labio-dental' sounds.

be slightly contracted and rounded, spiritus

If the lips

3.

wh

asper becomes

w, which

is

in wheel,

which;

spiritus lenis the English

apparently represented by Greek F and Latin

These sounds,

s,

This

z,f, v, etc., are called spirants.

the physical fact which


modifications of the

'

it

denotes (that the sounds so called are

breathings'), will

once

at

suggest the

explanation of such phonetic varieties as sedes, e8os


suh, viro;

or the correspondence' of Latin

sounds in Greek,
ferd) ; and to

6rjp,

e.g. tO'
',

v.

name and Spirants.

(j),

{x^^Vi f^^'i

y to

sus, is

various aspirate

to 6

{6rjKvs,

femina,

originally F, in ptyea, frigus.

Vowels and Diphthongs ^


The three primitive vowel-sounds are A, 1,11, (pronounced Vowels
Of these a is formed nearest to the guttural
in Italian).

I.

as

point of contact (with the lips opened wide);

palatal;

nearest the labial

contact, the

nearest to the

lips

approaching

each other.
i

and u pass into the cognate consonantal

sounds of y and v (w).


a can pass into no cognate consonantal sound

par

excellence,

occurring in

Sanskrit',

(or semivowel")

it is

the

vowel

and probably in the

'
For a more elaborate analysis of vowel-sounds than appears necessary
also BeJl, 'Principles
to give here, see Peile, Introd. pp. 90-100 (3rd ed^
of Speech,' and ' English Visible Speech for the Million.'
^ 'Semi-vowel' is here used in the limited sense, which often attaches
The reader will take note that it
to it, of the consonantal sounds of i, u.
has been applied above (p. 32) in a wider sense to the whole class of
'Fricative' consonants, as distinguished from Mutes or Consonants proper.
To avoid confusion it would be better either to describe the y and w sounds
as i and consonantal, or to give up the wider application of the term to
Fricative consonants, but the inconsistency of usage is too confirmed.
' In Sanskrit o following a consonant is never written, because it is
supposed to be inherent in every consonant (e.g. patara is written ptr)
and the Sanskrit alphabet, which has two separate characters for each
vowel-sound according as it is initial or in the middle of a word, has no
:

character for

S,

medial.

A,

;'

36
earliest
i

[chap.

of Sounds.

Classification

form of Indo-European language, much oftener than

or u.
2.

E, O.

and

are phonetic variations of the

sound.

If

we

compare kindred words in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, we find


that Sanskrit a

is

represented by

Latin, e.g. Sanskrit navas,


pitS.(r),

Ttarfip

(=:7raTf(j-s),

a, e,

Greek
pater j

Greek, by

o i^

bharS.nai,

In some oases the variety secured by

/ero.

a,

5^ in

e,

ve(F)os, Lat. novus=:i(n,ovos)


(jjepa

this

^e/ja>-/ii),

weakening of a

has been turned to account, to indicate differences of meaning


thus Sanskrit padas, which
of pad, a

foot''',

is

gen. sing., nom.

becomes in Greek

Greek thus gaining in

what

distinctness

and

it

plur.

ace.

iroSas

?ro8ej,

iroSos,

the

strength

loses in

of sound.
Diphthongs.

When

two vowels follow one another so rapidly as to melt


Of the primary vowels a
alone can thus form the basis of a diphthong ; for i and u, if a
3.

into one

sound we get a diphthong.

vowel-sound follows, pass into the 'semivowel' sounds of y and


V.
diphthongal
e and 0, being varieties of a, can also serve as
'

We

bases.'
fv,

thus get as diphthongal sounds, in Greek

ov; in Latin ai, au,

o,

which

ei,

eu, oi,

ou: though,

ai, av, ei,

for reasons

will appear afterwards, the Latin diphthongs, with the

partial exception of

au and eu

to the simple sounds

cb (e), o, t,

in a few words,
u,

ce (e),

U,

became weakened

and we must go back

to the archaic remains of the language for such forms as aidilis,


deieere, foidus, joudex.
Original

voweJ

a.

Another vowel-sound

finite or

neutral sound

is

sometimes added,

original vowel,'

('

'

viz.

Ur-laut,'

'

the inde-

Ur-vocal

'),

' The vowela are originally short in


quantity (as e.g. in most roots),
lengthening being generally the result of 'vowel intensification,' as in duco
(root due-), or contraction, as amas^ama-is.
Vowela which are naturally
long must be distinguished from vowels which are naturally short, but
long by position, e.g. drma {&), nox (8). In speaking of vowel-sounds
generally we mean (unless otherwise specified) a, e, i, S, u.
' The accent would vary in Sanskrit
but the point here la to note the
uniformity of the vowel in the three forms. Accentuation in Sanskrit
but it is sometimes desirable to mark it in
is only marked in the Yedas
transliteration, for the light which it throws upon apparent anomalies of
Greek accentuation. See, for iiistance, Max MiUler, Chips from a German
Workshop,' vol. iv. p. 34, on intvai, Uvai
and below, chap, vi, on the
Vocative Singular.
:

'

in.]

variously defined as
in

words as

the natural vowel of the reed/

dust ; and

hut,

37

it

This

etc.

is

'

the voice

the sound heard in such

has been said that in such words as

spurt, assert, bird, fatal, dove, oven, double, blood, but one

and the same

may

'

modified form,'

its least

e. g.

of Sounds.

Classification

vowel-sound

indefinite

is

However

heard.

this

be, there is

no doubt an indefinite sound to which unaccented vowels in most modern European languages have a
tendency to return, e. g. in the last syllable of beggar, nation,
jPaddington, Geima,n lieben; or the
Physically,

most natural
vocal breath

position, opening the


;

and

it

It should be borne in

tenir.

of possible articulate sounds


'

is

its

and emitting

all
I,

the vowels.

that produces

li (ri, li).

mind that sounds are

the signs used to represent them,

and the

easily

combined with r and

the Sanskrit vowel-sounds ri and

mouth

approaches the. sound of

It is this indistinct vowel,

employs

French

first syllable of

appears to result from leaving the tongue in

it

i.

e.

the

from

distinct

letters.

greater than any nation ever

alphabet ' of some languages will express

sounds whicli that of others does not.

Again, the use of letters

upon sounds. They do not always fit each other


exactly to start with
and while pronunciation is always
changing, spelling in a literary language becomes more or less
fixed.
Thus in time letters become symbols of other sounds
than those proper to or originally denoted by them, and carry
For
their new sounds into other words or other languages.
example, in the Eoman alphabet, which is common to most
in time reacts

nations of
classical

modem

Europe,

c, g,

representing to a

Eoman

of the

period the hard sound of k or Greek y^ before all

vowels, in the pronunciation of the later

Empire and in the

languages of modern Europe came to signify difierent sounds


before the vowels

i,

and these new sounds are

carried back

by

each nation into their pronunciation of classical Latin, leading


to such anomalies as the identical pronunciation of sectis

caecus, or the difierent pronunciations of locus,

loci, loco,

and

parts

The evidence for this statement as to the pronunciation of c, g will be


found summarised in Boby's Latin Grammar,' vol. i. Preface, pp xliii-lii,
or Wordsworth's 'Fragments and Specimens,' Introd. ch. iii. 5 22-28.
'

Relation of

The number letters.

38
of the same word.

[chap.

of Sounds.

Classification

Again, j and v in Latin, the modem reprei and u, have acquired, and carry back

sentatives of consonantal

with them into the modern pronunciation of consonantal


in Latin words, quite different sounds from those of our

which are

in reality

modern

much

and u

y and w,

nearer representatives of the sounds

Whatever, therefore,

in question.

nations, in reading or

may

be the practical value to

pronouncing a dead language,

of attempts to reproduce the ancient pronunciation,

it is

of the

utmost importance, for philological and etymological enquiry, to


realise as accurately as

those

who spoke

we can what

their written character

by

and

this not only for the philology

of those languages, but for that of

which, as

sounds, in the mouths of

the Greek and Latin languages, are represented

we have

the

all

The only people who have ever attempted

sskrit

written character almost every


the Hindus, those

modern languages

seen, are connected with them.

known

who employed

to express in their

gradation of sound, are

The

the Sanskrit language.

Sanskrit alphabet has fourteen vowels, each (except a) with two


symbols, one

the other medial

initial,

thirty-three simple con-

and upwards of 400 or 500 compound consonants, of


which 133 are given in Professor Monier Williams' Sanskrit

sonants

Grammar
Prof.

Max

as

'

the more

common of
Grammar
'

Muller (Sanskrit

such consonants

while

for Beginners) specifies

257 compound consonants. Sanskrit, in fact, in its whole strucan elaborate process of combining letters according to

ture, is

fixed rules.

'

Its entire grammatical system, the regular forma-

tion of its nouns

and verbs from simple

clension and conjugation,

roots, its theory of de-

and the arrangement of

its sentences,

turn on the reciprocal relationship and interchangeableness

all

of letters, and the laws which regulate their internal combination^'

These laws, too, are the key to the influence which

Sanskrit has exercised upon the study of Comparative Philology.

That influence

is

due, not to its being (as

is

sometimes said) an

though approaching on the whole nearer the


primitive type whose
from a comparison
we
the various branches of the Indo-European family but
the
older language

to

existence

infer

to

'

Monier Williams' Sanskrit Grammar,' Preface


'

to

2nd

ed. p. xv.

of

III.]

Classification

fact that its elaborate

of Sounds.

39

system of phonetic combination of sounds

supplies illustrations for the different phonetic rules -yvhich de-

termine the variation, in different languages, of the elements

common

to

and

Owing

all.

the nicety of

its

to the transparency of its construction,

laws and

especially that of its

its

more adapted than any other language

to be

many

great antiquity in

respects,

vowel system, Sanskrit was soon found


to

open men's eyes

to the nature of the connection of all the sister languages


in the

of the students of language over

first rejoicings

covery, its importance

and

its dis-

was for a time overrated.


The preposmust have preserved in every case the
oldest form
is now however generally discarded ;
and those
philologists whose labours rest upon the most thorough know'

terous idea that Sanskrit


'

ledge of Sanskrit, are the

first to

allow that even in

there are weaknesses and corruptions peculiar to

vent

it

its

sounds

which pre-

serving in all cases as the starting-point for comand even send us to other languages to recover the
primitive form.
Thus (to quote the remark of Curtius '), now
it fii'om

parison,

'

that this language has for a long time served exclusively to

throw

light

on

back from the

others, the light begins to shine

other languages upon Sanskrit.'

With

this limitation,

however,

the pre-eminence of Sanskrit as the central point in the study


of Comparative Philology

may remain

again from Professor Curtius),


literature

the antiquity of

veda; the perfection of

and diligence of

its

its

its

'

accepted

for (to quote

the exuberance of the old Indian

most revered monument the Rig-

alphabet

the remarkable acuteness

who have prepared

native grammarians,

most valuable assistance for the study of Etymology,


their discovery of the conception of roots

of roots

all these

and

the

only by

their careful index

are claims on the part of Sanskrit, which

only during the last half-century has become the


fresh

if

and important

field

of such

investigations, to retain permanently the

prominent position of importance for the study of the whole


Indo-Germanic (Indo-European) stock of languages'*.'
'

'Principles of

lation).
2

Ibid. p. 30.

Greek Etymology,' Introd.

5 (p. 37, English trans-

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER

III.

The Geeek and Koman Alphabets.


Greek

A. Cfreeh Alphabet.

__

It

admitted

universally

is

that

the

Greeks learnt the art of writing from the Phoenicians, with

whom,

Mediterranean, they were

chief traders of the

as the

brought into contact at an early epoch of their national

his-

In adopting the Phoenician alphabet they seem to have


retained both the forms and the names of its letters, slightly

tory.

modified, in

the

order in which they originally stood;

Semitic terms, Aleph, Beth, Gimel,

being

etc.,

the

transformed

names more euphonious to Greek ears, but of course


unmeaning except as signs. These names, through the influinto

ence of Greek

civilisation,

have become identified with the

and countries

practice of writing in all ages

'Alphabet' (from the


lasting

first

two Greek

letters.

and the word

Alpha, Beta),

memorial of the obligations of modern

science to primitive Oriental ingenuity.

that the

name

sented, Aleph

{Jl)

(cp. Beth-el ='

is

and

old explanation,

was the name of some familiar


sound of which was the element to be repre-

of each letter

object, the first

The

literature

being Phoenician for 'ox,' Beth (S) for 'house'

House of God,' Beth-horon,

from the Bible), Gimel {G)

and the Phoenician alphabet

for
is

'

familiar to us

now

discredited

no longer regarded as the ultimate

source of the world's alphabets, but

Egyptian source, being in

etc.,

camel,' etc., is

its origin

is itself

traced back to an

hieroglyphic

*.

See Max MiUler, Chipa,' vol. iv. p. 486 ; and eapeciaJly Lenormaut,
Introduction & une m^moire sur la propagation de 1' alphabet Phenicien
dans I'Ancien Monde' (published 1866).
'

'

'

The Greeh and Roman Alphabets.

The names

of the letters were but

little

41

changed either in

Greece or the East, though their forms must have undergone

some

alteration.

classical

The

original

community of form between the

Greek characters and the

Phoenician

later

may

be

The

traced in the older inscriptions of the two languages.

whole Phoenician alphabet of twenty-two

letters was adopted


power and order, as
appears from the subjoined table', in which column I gives
the Phoenician alphabet, as a representative of sounds, and

by the Greeks with

as a

numeral system

the Greeks)

by the Greeks

column

certain variations of

(this latter

II, the

usage being also adopted by

whole number of

used

letters ever

in their earliest forms (twenty-one Phoenician,

in their original order, and five of native Hellenic invention)

column

III, the classical

Greek alphabet

responding numeral system;

pure vowel-sounds

(like

column TV, the

column V, the

with the probable pronunciation of

The old Phoenician alphabet

Roman

cor-

alphabet,

its different letters.

consisted only of consonants

a medial in Sanskrit,

the Phoenician

being

p. 35, note 3),

considered as subordinate aids to pronunciation, and included in

the power of each consonant.

In Greek etymology, however,

the vowels were of almost equal importance with the consonants

and required to be as exactly distinguished as these, in a language which depended so much upon poetry and music for its
But for this purpose they had not to invent
full formation.
altogether

new

characters

nician alphabet, though

for several of the letters of the

Phoe-

technically classed as consonants,

were

more properly semivowel in character, and were appropriated


by the Greeks to denote the vowel-sounds to which they had
These letters were Aleph, He, Jod, Gin,

respectively affinity.

which were adopted as the simple vowel-sounds A, E, I, 0;


while Vau, which, on analogy of the others, should have been
converted into U, retained

its original

power, as the expression

For the general plan of this Table, and some of the information about
the Phoenician alphabet, I am indebted to Col. Mure's History of the
Language and Literature of Ancient Greece,' Book L oh. iv. 8. The
information about the Greek alphabet is derived irom Kirohhoffs exhaustive little treatise, Studien zur Gesohichte des Griechisohen Alphabete' (Berlin, 1867) ; that on the Eoman alphabet mainly from Corssen.
'

'

'

42

The Greeh and

Roman

AlpJiabets.

[chap.

Table showing the Coeeespondencb between the Phoenician,


Gbbek, and Eoman Alphabets.
Phoenician

Alphabet and
Numerical Value.

The Greek and Roman Alphabets.

III.]

U;

of the consonantal sound of

...,,

originally lor both vowel

or

though

"

it

may have
'

and consonant sound.

Greek alphabet, however,


twenty-three

without this

is

The

letters.

sign, or

invention, therefore,

served Greek
alphabet,

new

expressing the vowel-sound of U, took

at the end of the twenty-two Phoenician letters.

43

its

sign
place

No known
has less than

and adoption of

was probably contemporaneous with the adoption of the


and we may regard the original Greek

Phoenician alphabet

alphabet as consisting of twenty-three

with that

letters, identical

which appears on the oldest inscriptions of Thera and Melos


(circ. 620 A.c).
The Vau (better known under its later name of
hiyanfia,

from

being only

form F) did not long remain in use, its form


to us from early inscriptions.
It reappears,

its

known

however, in the Latin F, occupying in the


place of

Vau

These

five vowel-characters at first

short vowel-sounds,

diphthongs

Koman

alphabet the

in the Phoenician, but denoting a different sound.

(i,

and

which were not

ov,

denoted both the long and

having besides the functions of the


until comparatively late times

Much

expressed by combinations of simple vowel-characters.


earlier, before

about 620 A.c, the attempt was made to dis-

tinguish long and short

E remaining

for e

and

fication of the Phoenician


its

open shape

by the adoption of a sign 8 fo*" 5,


8 was apparently a modi-

This sign

ei.

H was

Hebrew

(Heth,

occurs on inscriptions^ or, and

two so that

a vowel,

it

asper,

the spiritus lenis

-{

cut in

H02

stands for iKarov: and this

usage of course survives in Latin H.

was

'Cheth'), which in

used to denote the spiritus asper.

(-

"When

H was

taken as

represented the spiritus

whence came the signs

"

'

for the

breathings.

Somewhat

later (according to Kirchhoff, about

the distinction
character
after

between

and

d,

550 A.c.) arose


by the introduction of a new

Q \ which took its place at the end of the alphabet,


new characters expressive of double consonantal
The names O fii/cpoc=o, and Q /xeya=oo or 5, were

three

sounds.

n and H were introduced into the Athenian alphabet in 403 B.C.


(arohonship of Eucleides) but their iuventiou must be placed much further
back.
;

The Greek and

44

^^H

alphabet.

Moman

[chap.

Aljohabets.

given after this to distinguish


what had hitherto been combined

one form. The character a (i.e. oo), introduced about


.

made

Hadrian's time,
o (cp.

our

or

'

form, like

its

double

its

sound, a lengthened

m').

The Phoenician Teih=:t sound, and Tkau=ih, were retained


places by the Greeks, but their respective powers were

'in their

names

interchanged, and the

slightly altered

to correspond;

Teth becoming Thsta and representing the aspirated

becoming Tau

and Thau

t,

for the unaspirated tenuis.

The Phoenician alphabet was remarkable

for its

number

of

sibilantsviz. Nos. 7.( I )> "5 (


i8 (M), 21 ( J )'
(I in
)'
its later form, 2 ) w^as adopted at first to denote the double

consonant sound of ts or
this

original

its

sibilant the

from.

At

8s,

peculiar to Greek,

and retained

To express

throughout.

force

simple

the

Greeks had the three remaining characters to choose


first it

was denoted by

(in the alphabets of

Thera,

Melos, Crete, Corinth, Corcyra, &c., Olymp. 40-80); then by

%,

or (written in a shorter form) 5, whence the Latin form S.

The superfluous character

M then disappeared from the alphabet;

but the later form oi f^ (Phoen. alph. 13) exactly resembled it


in shape
hence the apparent anomaly of the same form de:

noting at different periods such unconnected sounds as

The remaining character

and m.

escaped extinction, because the

Ionic alphabet, which finally prevailed in Greece, had employed


it (as
still

compound sound ks (|'). A later form


was C whence in late authors the orchestra is
Sfarpov a-lyfia, and sigma^a. semicircular couch

to denote the

of 2 (sigma)

called TO ToO

>

(Martial, x. 48, etc).

[The Latin form

to write 5 in a single stroke.

In the

interchanged places with S.]

We

The numberg

S arises from

the attempt

classical alphabet it

also hear of

a-av^,

has

a Doric

refer to the Table on p. 42.


Herodotus (i. 139), speaking of the Persian names, says they all end
in the same letter, rd AaipUes jikv SAv icaKiovffi, ''iuves dk Xiyfjta. (Tafi(p6pas
(Ar. Eq. 603, Nub. 122, 1298) is a horse marked with the old letter a&v;
Col. Mure assumes adv to have been derived
cp. KOTtnarlas Itnros, Nub. 23.
from the Phoenician Zain, and places it in col. II. of his table between
Vau and Heta, supposing that the Dorian usage of aAv = a alluded to by
Herodotus was a mere provincial anomaly. Liddell and Scott regard it as
2 Samech.
a 2nd sibilant, which Phoen. Shin
'
'

III.

form of
,,

Alphabets.

45

which only remained as a numeral =900, under Greek

ori'yfia,

name

tne

Roman

The Greeh and

j_i

alphabet.

-k

i-

lorm

in the

tsa^mi,

?j,

Koppa, Q, disappeared from the classical Greek alphabet, its


sound being so like that of K, that one sign sufficed for both.
remained however as a numeral =90, and is found in old
and it survives in Q, which the

It

Doric and Aeolic inscriptions

Romans adopted from

the Dorian alphabet of the Greeks of

Cumae.
Xi was originally written X2 (chs). The original Greek alphabet
had no sign for the guttural and labial aspirates (M, ph),

nor for those combinations of a mute with a following sibilant


{ks,

as

ts, ips)

single

which seem to have been regarded by the Greek ear

expressed by

in its later form

mute

KS, ITS,

( (g)

requiring a corresponding

The dental

pression in writing.

dental

sounds,

indivisible

was from the

seen,

adopted as the sign of

other combinations, nh,

are expressed on the oldest inscriptions

of the signs for their

component parts

(4-),

( Y ),

which took

but the range of

their place after

kJi,

by juxtaposition

the alphabet was afterwards increased by three

exfirst

and the Phoenician character J

we have
(ts).
The

was, as

sibilant

aspirate

new

signs, cp

V- Their introduc-

no alphabet but those of Thera


The order, however, and significance of the new signs varied in the two main groups of Greek
Thus (i) in the Eastern group (including Argos
alphabets.
and Corinth in Greece proper) the order was cfj X ^) signify-

must have been early


and Melos is without them.

tion

for

ing as in classical Greek wh, kA,


KS

being denoted by

(Samech).

gave

it

(2)

The

the value of

old expression

tts

or

( |-f| ),

jts

respectively

Western alphabets put


ks,

the sound of

a variety of the Phoenician

denoting kA by

V,

before 4)

and using for

n-j

ffl

and
the

(f>s.

This latter usage (of "Western Greek alphabets) represents,


according to Kirchhofi; the original order of these signs, superseded by the ultimate prevalence of the Ionian alphabet, as

The Eoman
exhibited on inscriptions of the Aegean islands.
alphabet, derived from a Dorian source (see below), has preserved the force of X ='s (^)i ^^^ (as a numeral sign only) that

4^

The Greek

V=kA:

of

Roman

and,

but in the

inscriptions of all periods

the idea of

as=cA (x)

Greek alphabet

classical

On

these values has disappeared.

we

still

find

[chap.

Alphabets,

trace of

all

Roman

the other hand, in

XS

for

which looks as

',

some extent

influenced to

if

written

its

Its place in the Roman alphabet was of course determined by that of Greek X (x).
'B. Roman Alphabet.
The history of the Roman alphabet will

value.

Sphabet.

be found fully treated in such books as Wordsworth's 'Frag-

ments and Specimens of Early Latin' (Introd. chap.

II),

and

Roby's Latin Grammar, and need only be briefly noticed here ^.


It

was derived from the Dorian alphabet

of the Chalcidian.

shown by the form of ;S=?, and the use


of p (Koppa) ; and in its oldest form seems to have consisted
of twenty-one letters, viz. A, B, 0, B, E, F, Z, H, I, K, L, M,

colony of Cumae, as

N,

is

0, P, Q, R, S, T, V,

the Dorian character

X.

The

three aspirates

but the characters were retained as numeral


written

_[_,

initial of

centum

D = 5oo

1000.

C=ioo, and was


:

and

is

the half of

an ancient form of 6

L=5o; Q,

and abbreviated into

complete, became

went out
Carmen

and

q)

V=5

is

'

the

only evidence for

Saliare,'

the time of Cicero

Greek f.
went out of

and

ffl,

X=io

was

(x)

in-

its circle

finally

M=

perhaps from ,

is

the half of X.

it

and on a single
its

coin,

being

having been used at

was reintroduced

all

in
;

fact

but in

for the transcription of

use, pi-obably before the

a few old abbreviations (Kal.=Calendae,

XII

Tables, except in

K=Kaeso,

and

etc.),

used to denote both the guttural tenuis and media, until

a modified form,

was taken
upon which

Gf,

earliest inscription

'

signs.

with

of use at a very early period, its occurrence in

the

C was

ch (in

then identified with the

became cio or

cp

th, jph,

were never used by the Romans,

<p, .4^)

Mr. Eoby quotes as instances

to represent the media.

is

found

eiestrad (S, C.

is

The

the epitaph of

de Baooh., see Appendix

I), taxsat, lexs, proxsumius, exsigito, deixierU.

The most complete account (from which the others referred to are
mainly derived) is to be found in pp. 1-29 of Corssen's ' Ueber Ausspraohe,'
etc., vol. i.
For illustrations and examples reference must be made to
^

Corssen.

The Greek and Roman AVphdbets,

III.]

Scipio Barbatus,
old

G was

i.e.

47

not later than 240 B.C. (Appendix

TheKoman

I).

alphabet.

retained in G, Ci\''= Gains, Grnaeus.

In the time of Cicero,

and

were introduced for repre-

senting V and f in Greek words and the combinations


ch, were written for the first time (see below, chap. iv).

ph,

ih,

The Emperor Claudius tried to introduce three new letters,


an inverted digamma d, for the consonantal sound of v; a
reversed Greek sigma D, for hs or fs ; and the sign of the
Greek spiritus asper \- (see above, p. 43), for the middle sound
viz.

between

letters are

in use

and m, i.e. Greek v. The first and third of these


found on monuments of the period, but did not remain

while for the

'

anti-sigma,' as

it

was

no

called, there is

evidence even of contemporary monuments.

Double consonants ^ were not written till the time of Ennius,


is said to have introduced the practice in imitation of

who

The

Greek.
(see

upon

earliest instance

Appendix

inscriptions is about

from which time

I),

to

that

(about 120 B.C.) usage fluctuates: after 120


sonants are general.

B.C.

186

B.C.

Gracchi

of the

doubled con-

Another method of denoting

stress

a consonant was by the 'sicilicus' (so called from

its

upon

shape,

sica), e.g. ser'a, as'eres=:serra, asseres.

The example

Greek

of

and a led Roman

17

literati to try

various methods for expressing long vowel sound.


(a)

Doubling the vowel

said to have been used

by the poet

Accius, and found on inscriptions of his time between 130 and

75

B.C.,

earlier

always with the vowels A, E, F(vootum


inscription).

is

found on an

double / was used after Cicero and

Caesar to express the semivowel J {Aiiax, Maiia, etc.).


(6) The length of I was in earlier Latin expressed by writing
it

ei;

but

after Sulla's time

other letters (vicus, lIbbei,


the semivowel or

_;'

by making the

etc.).

This

tall i

i taller

was

than the

also used for

sound, especially at the beginning of words

'
The date of the introduction of doubled consonants is of some importance for the scansion of Plautus. Plautus died fifteen years before
Ennius ; and but few instances of double consonants in his plays can be
Supelectile, simUiimae, saielites, sagUa, etc. are generally
really genuine.
See Wagner, Introcorrect ; and ille, esse must often be scanaed ile, ese.
duction to AvZularfa, pp. xli-xliv.

The Greek and Roman Alphabets.

48

(Its, Ivbbto, etc.)

fusedly for both I and


(c)

By

and in

0,

V (for

used con-

i.

an accent or 'apex'

In Republican inscriptions
it is

later inscriptions it is

[chap.

(')

this

examples, see Corssen,

from about 63 B.C. onwards.


is found over A, E, EI,

apex
I. p.

22); in the Augustan age

almost universal.

The Romans devised a simple nomenclature

for the letters,

which has superseded the Graeco-Phoenician names of the Greek

The vowels were denoted by their own sound ; the


by a vowel after them the
The vowel
fricative and nasal sounds by a vowel before them.
employed for this purpose was e, except that k, h were called
ha, ha, q was called qu, and a;, ix.
alphabet.

explosive (mute) consonants and A

CHAPTEE

IV.

Changes and Modifications of Sounds'.


These must be

noticed here so far as they affect Latin and

Greek, and further illustrations

operation will appear

of' their

hereafter in the explanation of inflections.

remember, are interchanged and modified

we must

Sounds,

between two or

(a)

more languages [Smpv, lacrima ; duo, two, zwei ; Tr/j/re, quinque]; (6) in the same language [e.g. tego, toga; rpetpa, BpeiJAai].
These changes and modifications proceed according to regular
rules,

varying sometimes in different languages

investigation of these rules

Two
(a)

is

the basis of

all

general principles affect etymology

a correspondingly weak one.

letter

and the correct

Harder sounds are not derived from

which have retained a stronger

true etymology.

easier ;

(In our Table of sounds Gutturals

are stronger than Palatals, and so

downwards

Tenues stronger

than Mediae; Explosive stronger than Fricative.)

must be older than


than

ttoXoi

or words Harder

from those which exhibit derived from

iquus than

ittttos

(Ikkos,

Thus

koIos

asvas), svs

vs.

Apparent exceptions

are

phonetic law that change


e.g. frag-or, frac-tus.

It

often

arises
is

examples of the

general

from weakness of articulation

easier

to

pronounce tenuis and

tenuis together, media and media, aspirate and aspiratfe

so in

'
In this chapter I have gone over somewhat the same ground as that
covered by Peile's Introduction to Greek and Latin Etymology,' adopting
in the main his arrangement of the phenomena of phonetic change,
with many of Iiis illustrations.
'

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

50
Greek,

from Xtyu, ru^^els from

XfXTor

riir-ra,

[chap.

from

jrXex^els

TrXeKck),

So

hiem-j>-s appears stronger than hiem-s ; but

phonetic, inserted

because

it

Again, the reduplicated form

which

TtStjiu,

than
Sounds usuchangeable
only at the

is

Bldijut

easier to pronounce,

merely

is

to sound s after

difficult

is

m.

changed by Greeks to

is

though t by

stronger

itself is

6.

Generally, only letters pronounced at the

(p)

mouth

are etvmologically interchangeable

sounds of
labials

labials,

r^
.

sometimes give way altogether to dentals or

and Gothic, are found

in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin,

less frequently

same part of the

dentals with dentals,

however, the strongest

[Gutturals,

etc.
.

all,

and

with

samepart of labials
the mouth.

than

tjiese latter.]

Apparent exceptions may often be explained by the existence


of both

letters

Sanskrit dvis.

In

and

form

6 represents the

Lat. equus, Sanskrit asvas,

tTTTTor,

uvv and

in the original

Here the Latin

cum

are the same

va/p-or are reconciled

The

latest

tt

his

e. g.

and

Si's

cp.

(w) sound.

represents the sound.

word; but from |w=kot5v:

by Lithuanian

so

leaTr-ror

Tceap-as.

and most comprehensive explanation of such


is that which refers them to the influence of

changes, however,

weah

articulation.

One

or

two examples of

its

effects

are

subjoined.
I-

'Lahiaiism.'

Labialism, or

change from k to

w,

is

p,

supposed by

Curtius to be due to a parasitical v (w), unconsciously produced

by lazy

articulation of

following

k,

could change

('labial
it

akva, Sanskrit asva, equos,

has become in Greek

sound').

after

to p, appears

That v

must=4Kfor).

inrros (vdiich

Here kv

tttt.

That the v in these cases was merely phonetic, not a

suffix,

appears from instances where Latin has kv (qu), as well as k


e.g. sequ-or, sec-undus ;

show that V must be

coqu-o, coc-us

Greek

'

eiroftat,

(c).

iriirav

and reby Greek (Peile,

parasitic in Graeco-Italian time,

tained by Latin in some words while dropped

286, 7').

{w),

from Indo-European

So with the change from g

to

j9,

h ;

Latin gu gives

Corssen ('Ueber Ausspraohe,' etc., i. pp. 71-75^ shpws that qu was a


of denoting the labial ' after sound,' or modification of the guttural

mode

Changes and, Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

the middle step.

but

it

In

urgtiere, urgere, tinguo, reyyo),

g than

less often so after

is

after

51
is

parasitic

g being an

Tc,

easier

sound.
2.

BentaMsm : h changed

sound

or

(t

_/),

as

in

to

probably from influence of

t,

from -no to

transition

-tio,

where

Dentaiism."

is

Here it is part of a suffix; but this proves the


power of y sound to change a guttural to a dental, and hence
philologists assume a parasitic y where they find the change
semivowel.

without any apparent reason.


certain examples
TiTTapes

There

quis, Sanskrit kis

t/s,

are,
;

however, but few

Indo-European hatvar,

= TeTFap(s), quattuor.

These two instances of change from one

class of

sounds to

another are given to show that some reason can generally be


'

found for the apparent non-observance of our rule

(6).

We

may now

pass to the consideration of the two main heads under

which

changes of sounds seem to

all

Dynamic

(a)

change, which

express change of meaning;

is

fall

viz.,

voluntary, and

intended to

the formative principle in lan-

guage.
Phonetic^ change, which

(6)

lax articulation

is

involuntary, and due mainly to

the destructive principle in language.

"We need only here enumerate, with a few examples under


aifect Latin and

each head, the principal changes of sounds that

Greek

referring the student for a fuller illustration

books as Schleicher's
to

'

Compendium,' and

Peile's

'

to such

Introduction

Greek and Latin Etymology.'


A. Dynamic change.
I.

Reduplication.
-^

This appears
to be the earliest and most 'Dynamic'
^
^

cnange.

natural device of language to strengthen the expression of anHedupiicaidea',

observed most frequently in the language of savages and

and so a transition from guttural h to labial p. In English, a


similar labial modification of the dentals is expressed in letween, dwarf,
and palatal modification is heard in the pronunciation of nature, verdure
Tha labial modification of d (dw) is expressed in Old Latin
(ty, dy).
duellwm, but passed into the simple labial in classical Latin, tellum. Cp.
bis with Sanskrit dvis, quoted above; and duon:oro(m)=honorwm on old
tenuig,

inscriptions.
1 'Phonetic' is sometimes applied in m wider sense to any change of
sound, voluntary or involuntary: I have restricted myself to its more

limited application.


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

52
Eedupii-

children,

cation.

and commoner in the

earlier

[chap.

than in the later

'

stagfe

In

of highly developed languages such as Greek and Latin.


these

it

gradually superseded by more refined and subtle

is

modes of expressing the required change of meaning; and traces


of its application remain only in occasional and (for the most
part) exceptional phenomena:
In imitative words,

(a)

g. ululo,

e.

animals expressive of their sound,

e. g.

dXaXafm

or names of

euculus, furtur ;

eiroyjr,

(&) In Alliteration \ a favourite device of early Latin and


Greek poetry (and also among other nations), to strengthen the

expression of an idea

and
of

use;

its

by mere

repetition of the

as

also

does

Plautus,

it

with considerable

effect

(for

does not disdain this

among

examples, cp. Munro's

other poetical

ed.),

and Virgil

artifices, e. g.

Aen.

834

'Neu

patriae validas in viscera vertite vires.'

Alliteration, of course, does not

prove the use of reduplication

a formative principle in language; but

as

it

Lucretius also em-

'Introduction to Notes,' II. pp. io6, 107, ist

vi,

letters

whom however

with

becomes more of a trick of composition.


ploys

sound of

Ennius and Naevius exhibit constant examples

syllables.

it

illustrates the

natural tendency to intensify an idea by the repetition of sound,

As a

(c)

formative principle,

Reduplication

commonly

is

employed in Indo-European languages to produce 'frequentative

'

and

'

desiderative

'

verbs.

regularly formed from every root,

In Sanskrit such verbs are

by reduplicating the

initial

consonant and vowel of the root, and sufiixing in one case ya, in

Thus from the root budh (=' toTinow')


bobudhye" (frequentative or intensive), bobudi-

the other ish or sh.


are formed

sMmi

(desiderative);

vid-ere),

from vid (='to know,' Greek

Similar formations in Greek and Latin are


'
'

On

fideiv,

Latin

vividye (frequentative), vividiah^mi (desiderative).


fuipfjudpeiv

(root mar',

the use and effects of alliteration in Latin poetry, see Munro-'s

Lucretius,' Introduction to Notes, II. (vol.

= /ii-fii-yo-iiai is

ii.

p. 106, Ist ed.).

perhaps analogous to ho-bhxid-ya.


The various ramifications of this root mar are exhaustively traced in
'
Max MiiUer's Lectures,' II. vii.
'

Greek

lu-ixiofuu

'

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

iv.J

originally =' to grind down,' 'rub,'


irajKpatvfiv (root <l>av,

as in

and

e-(l>dv-rjv),

53

so 'polish'), 'to flash;'

nomvia,

heihia-a-ofiai

^if/)/ii)-

XmKa^ (root Xaft as


The same force
dfiaifuiKeTos.

cp. Lat. me-mor-ia, eta.; or in nouns,

pi^eiv,

in e-Xa^-ov), SaiSaXfos, TramdKSeLs,

appears in the reduplicated 2 aorist.


(d) Eeduplication is also

'present stems'

employed in the formation of some

(denoting,

apparently,

guished from momentary action),


{=:

irmra

yi-yev-Ofiai),

root

(jn-ner-io,

protracted

g.

SiSaiu,

ttet,

as in

e.

monly

Greek almost

(in

still

stems,'

XiXonra

e. g.

(root

universally),

XtjT,

as

in

yiyiioiim

rWrfiu,

c-irecr-oj')

form

to

perfect

'

pepuli

c-Xot-oi/),

Lat.

More com-

gigno, sera {=se-so, root sa, as in sa-tunC).

sisto,

distin-

as

such

forms, indeed, are too familiar to require illustration for the


present.

Vowel Intensification ('strengthening' or 'raising'),

2.

e. g.

to strengthen the idea of a root for the formation of

Noun

or Verb stems

It ap-

Xot-, Xeot-w

fid-, fid-o, foidus {foedus).

pears that Indo-European speech expressed these and similar


modifications of ideas, by strengthening or raising the vocal

sounds, in a regularly ascending scale

primitive vowels, a,

i,

This

u.

'

of each

raising

'

or

'

of the three

strengthening

was produced by allowing a stronger current of air to pass


from the lungs before souiiding the radical vowel of a word
thus, in effect, producing the sound of a before such vowel.

We

thus have three


a

I.

I.

I.

-H

a=

'

2.

(e)

2.

(o)

2.

+ i = ai
a + u = au

scales

'

-I-

a (no distinction between ist

+ ai = ai.
a + au=au.

and 2nd),

The vowel sounds thus gained were used by different branches


of Indo-European peoples, according to different phonetic laws,

with more or

'

of

less regularity.

Sanskrit exhibits

it

most

clearly';

The two stages of vowel increase in Sanskrit are known by the names
Guna (JtJS, 'quality') and Vriddhi (^^, 'increase'). Thus from

-V^vid,

'

know,'

suffix -ilea)

often

is

by Vjiddhi (with addition of a


;
to the Vedas.'
Hence ' Vaidic' is now
English writers as more correct than 'Vedic' In con-,

formed by Guna, "Veda

Vaidika=' belonging

employed by

Dynamic
'

Vowei-in-

tion.'

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

54

except that a
first

raising of

is
i,

sometimes weakened to
u,

is e,

and

u,

[chap.

and that the

o; the scales are employed as

we have

given them (see Peile, chap. VI., and Schleicher for illustration),
in the formation from roots of

noun and verb

stems.

Indications of a similar employment of vowel scales are ex-

by Gothic and Lithuanian (Peile, pp. 19 1-2), and also


by Greek and Latin ; by Greek most fully, the vowel system in
that language being far stronger and less liable to corruption
hibited

than in Latin.
Vowelscales


iv.J

Vowel

Changes and Modifieations of Sounds.


scales in

Latin

55

Changes and Modifications of Sotmds.

56

B. Phonetic Change

Phonetic
change:

,The

which

'

phonetic

so

strictly

'

involuntary,

is

the principle of

called,

in vowels

This brings us

particularly characteristic of that language.

to the second head of change, viz. that which

or

Latin points

difficulty of tracing vowel-intensification in

to the opposite process of weakening or decay,


is

[chap.

'

Phonetic

Decay,' which plays so large a part in the history of language.

As has

already been pointed out (chap,

change

is

iii.)

or unconscious

the conscious

the cause of such

effort

after ease

of

articulation.
Its effects.

may be

Its effects

certain sounds

traced

sound;

for a stronger
;

(iii)

in

(ii)
'

(i)

in the substitution of a

assimilation

'

to a neighbouring sound,

where the concurrence of two dissimilar sounds causes


of pronunciation

(iv) in

'

dissimilation,^

Vowelchange :
Substitution,

I.

difficulty

where the concurrence

of two similar sounds causes a like difficulty.


these effects

weaker

in the loss of letters representing

We

may

look at

in vowels, II. in consonants.

(i)
Substitution of weaker for stronger sound.
I. Yowels
The Latin language, we saw, retained fewer traces than Greek
of the system of Vowel Intensification.
On the contrary, it is
especially distinguished by weakness and decay of vowel sounds.
Thus of six diphthongs (ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou), once in use as
Latin sounds, and traceable on inscriptions, five had dwindled
down to simple sounds by the time of Plautus, au being the
only one generally preserved (with the exception of at in a few
words, neu, ceu, neuter, heus, etc.) ; while here we have a
weakening to o, and forms with this weaker sound side by
side with those retaining au ; e. g. lautus, lotus ; Claudius,
Clodiua ; plaudo, explodo. The other diphthongal sounds were
entirely superseded by the weaker forms
e.g. quaistor by
:

quaestor ; coirare by coerare, then curare (cp. foidus, foedui)


deivus by divus, omneis by omnes

joudex hy judex.

In vowel

sounds again, Latin shows a constantly progressive degradation


of sounds from stronger to weaker, as represented in the fol-

lowing scale

IV.}

Changes and Modifications of Sovmds.

O
O

to

...

U ... B ... I
U...E...I
TJ to E
I
E to I,

to

57

Substitutionof Vowels:

U.

I to E.

comparison of Greek and Latin with Sanskrit shows that


the original vowel a (largely predominant in Sanskrit) has been

changed

by breaking up into the three sounds of a, e,


nohas, all
Sanskrit padas), and then by
further weakening of each of these three sounds.
While, how(e. g.

first

jToSti?,

TTo'Ser,

Greek the process of vowel change was (speaking genebreaking up of original a into a, c, 0, {l
remaining unaltered,) and a vowel of one scale but seldom passever, in

rally) confined to the

ing into another (a to

or d'): in Latin such further changes are

i,

so frequent as to assume the character of special phonetic laws

of the Latin language.

few examples under the heads of

formative elements, composition, and reduplication, will

make

this clear,
{a).

Formative elements:

comes Greek

<l)epo-fiev

i.

Verbs.

Sanskrit bhara-mas be-InPorma-

(Doric), the thematic

sound and there remaining.

and generally weakens

it

''

Latin weakens

still

further to

i,

a passing to the
to

e. g.

ments.

in vol-u-mus,

Jer-i-mus.

The

apparently unsubstantial character of the second a in tohara,-

mas, as a mere link between stem and termination, has perhaps


helped

its

decline

has not sunk so

and we

far.

(Sanskrit anti, Greek


of a in Latin, though

-ovTt (Doric),

the retention of

-mus

it

after

Latin -unt), the weakening

goes one step further than Greek, stops

it

u ; while such forms

at

see that in the termination

In the termination again of 3rd pers. plur.

as dederont,

found on inscriptions, and

in quom, loquontur,

sound was not entirely superseded.

etc.,

show that the

In ferentem, and ferendmn,

however, the a before nt sinks down to e; old legal forms like


jure dictmdo, res repetimdae, also morihundus, oriundus, secundus
Schleicher (comp. 32) gives a few examples of a of primitive Indoroots weakened to i or u in Greek, e. g. dad&mi, Si5a)fit; /iv\os,
from root mat (mar) ; vvict-, Lat. Twct-, Skt. naktar. See also Peile, eh. vii.
'

European

3r<i ed.).
(P- 275.
^ The 'thematic' or, as
explained in oh. viii.

it is

sometimes

called,

'connecting vowel' is

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

58

SaMi\tvAvxa.(=.seque/ndus), etc.,

remaining as evidence of an earlier stage in

the process of decline.


in

[chap.

The Greek

participle stops short at

o,

<l>epovTOi.

In

the vowel usually sinks to

final syllables

e, e.

mowueront,

g.

-unt ; then {nt being lost by the lax pronunciation of the final

which was

syllable,

nally

The reason

I.

for

i,

motmere;

of Latin)

characteristic

ufere/ ipsus, ipse; cp. ablative in

uteris,

of 3rd declension, origi-

the weakest of the vowel sounds, thus

passing to e in termination,

suggested by Corssen to be, that

is

in pronouncing e the organs of speech vary least from their


position

when

Latin

a step further to u.

ganaa, Greek

yevos,

yive{a-)os,

gener-is ;

sound,

g.

e.

duonoro{m)
(cp.

and -us

-os

(in early

represent Sanskrit -as, the a sinking in Greek to

-os)

in Latin

at rest.

The masculine terminations

Nouns.

2.

Greek

So neuter terminations

Latin genus

in oblique cases sinking to

0,

Sanskrit
-es,

but in some words retaining the stronger

corpor-is = corpos-is, from corpus.


In gen. plur.
= bonorum,, shows that -wm is a weakening of -om

representing an original -am, the older vowel

-av),

sound being apparently retained in provincial Latin, and transmitted to modern Italian

^^"

Composition

(^)

tfou

e. g.

a, 0, u, in

lore := illorum.

Latin frequently weakened to

the lightest vowel, from efibrt after lightness of sound


causidicus [causa), armiger {armo-), comiger {cornu).
is this

i,

g.

Especially

the case in composition with prepositions, where such

weakening
with

e.

is

the rule with but few exceptions, cp. e.g. capio

compounds, and with auceps, cestus with incestus, etc.


In Greek compound verbs, on the contrary, the original form
its

remained generally intact

cp. aya, (rvvaya, napdya, Kardya,

Where

ago, redigo, suhigo, etc.

this prevailing

not obtain in Latin words, the exception

accounted for by the particular meaning,


faeere, etc.
facere,

The idea of

may have

sometimes be

in tepefacere, cale-

causation, obviously represented

by

prevented the sinking of the vowel which takes

place in eonfioere,
is

may

e. g.

with

tendency did

perfice/re, etc.

Other exceptions, for which

it

not easy to see a reason, are postJiabere, cp. with prohibere,

p&rfaciles with difficiles,

compounds oipendo,

expando (perhaps to distinguish

e.g. expendo), etc.

it

from

IT.]

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

59

(c) EedupUcation.
Here Greek and Latin both weaken the in
vowel in the reduplicated syllable in most cases to e, as in

Eedupii-

Terv0a

(root tvtt), tetuli.


Latin in some words retains a
stronger vowel, e.g. poposci, cucurri ; but side by side with
these are found such forms as peposci, showing the tendency to

uniformity, regarding these syllables as mere grammatical forms.

And

Latin goes further than Greek in weakening the vowel of


the radical syllable also, e.g. pepigi {root pag, seen in pac-tum),
cecidi (root cad).
(ii) Loss of Vowel Sounds.
Uncommon in Greek, except in a Voweifew verbs which form a present stem by reduplication, and dropLss.^*'

the

root vowel, m-n{)T-at,

sometimes in formative

yi-y(e)v-onai,

fu-/x(e)i/-(a,

etc.

before an inflection, e.g.

suffixes

and
ira-

T(e)por, /iTjT^efpos.

In Latin

a drops in virgo {^virago), elarus and clamor

(root cat), palrna

(Greek

n-dKafo)),

cupressos (jamdpia-a-os)

vict{o)rix, nep{o)tis, doci{o)rina, etc.

and vowel having an

before

(this

o in

consonant

each other, as being produced

affinity for

near each other in the mouth), in vinc{u)lum, peric{v)lum,


saec{u)lum,

etc!

and in words formed with the

preceding consonant (especially


to

and producing the terminations

ocellus

(=

ocululus), libellus

(=

suffix -ulo-, the

or r) then assimilating itself


-ello, -olio, -Ulo, -ullo, e.

liberulus),

asellus

g.

(asinulus),

homullus (liomonulus), corolla (coronuld), bacillus (bacululus),


pupillus (jiupilulus),

Stella (ster-ula)

before r

nate consonant), especially in the suffixes


inf{e)ra,

lit(e)ri,

ag(e)ri,

laieb{e)ra,

(its

most cog-

-ero, -bero, -tero, etc.

sac{e)ro,

soc(e)rus,

etc.

Far more frequent is the loss of i, the thinnest of the vowel


sounds, and the most frequent substitute for the stronger vowels.
It seems capable of dropping out from almost any position, as
e.g. in

such familiar words as quaes{i)tor, audac(i)ter, val{i)de,

gaudeo

(cp. gavisus), fer{i)t ; dixti {dic-si-sti),

tractions

the longer form porrigo),

That

this decay of

Till.
dymg

gradually

and similar con-

teg{i)men, repos(i)tus ; eo{i)go, sv/r(i)go, porgo (beside


etc.

vowel sounds was caused by the vowel Effect

TiiiT-ithe

out 01 unaccented syllables,

and most probable explanation.

This

is

is

of the
accent upon

most recent vowel-loss.

not the place for a

6o

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

upon the Latin

discussion

summarised in

briefly

may

accent, such as

length in Oorssen's great work,


Peile's

'

[chap.

be found at

Ueber Aussprache,'

'Introduction.'

We

and

etc.,

need only

notice (i) that the decay first in quantity^ and then in form of

jSwaZ syllables, which marks the history of Latin speech, seems

most

fully

known law

connected with the

tuation^, never to accent the final syllable

of Latin
(2) that

accen-

many

of

the apparent metrical irregularities in the lines of Plautus and

Terence

(lines

subject

to

which, as intended to be spoken, are naturally

the practice of ordinary pronunciation), are

best

explained by the neglect in rapid pronunciation of sounds in


syllables

upon which no

stress

was

We

laid'.

have only to

pronounce the words ourselves to understand the Plautine


prosody of voluptdtem, ferentdrius, seneetuti ; and in these and
numberless other cases of comic prosody, the vowel sound

a kind of intermediate stage between


total extinction

full

written, but scarcely heard,

pronounced more or

and

liable to

sound
traced

is

is

final

a gain or 'intensification of sound.'

an intermediate step to extinction of a

and the gradual decay of sounds can often'be


through distinct stages of decline

final

historically

a syllable with a

vowel naturally long becoming short in ordinary usages


am&t, monet, cp.
losing its

final

be

weakening of vowel sound, just as raising or

lengthening a short vowel

Loss of quantity

in

according to chance.

less distinctly

N.B. The change of quantity from long to short in


syllables is a loss or

is

pronunciation and

amdre, monere

honSr,

cp. honoris),

(as

then

consonant, and finally, perhaps, disappearing

altogether.

'

As

the lengthening a short vowel

is

a,

process of raising or increasing

intensifying,' see p. 53) the vowel sound, so the shortening a long


vowel is a decreasing or diminishing, and the result a decay in quantity.
' The rules of Latin accentuation (little familiar to us as rules from the

(or

'

fact that they coincide so nearly with our English accentuation of Latin
words) are given by Quintilian, I. O. i. 5. 22-31. See Koby's 'Latin
Grammar,' vol. i. 296 sqq. and Wordsworth, 'Fragments and Speci;

mens,' Introd. oh. iv.


' On this question of Plautine and Terentian prosody I

may be permitted to refer to Introd., Part IV. of my (new) edition of Terence,


Andria (Kivingtons, 1875). Eeference is there made to other and fuller
sources of information.

Changes and Modijicatioiis of Sounds.

IV.]

(iii)

Assimilation of Vowels:

6i
througli Vowei-

by Consonants,

(i)

their phonetic relationship to particular vowels (see above).


a,

to

the fullest and most independent vowel sound,

Assimiia-

subject

is

no such influence. It passes into o by weakening of articuand so down the scale of descent to w, e, i. None of

lation,

these however rise to a, nor do u,


in strength between a

and

The

difierence

clearly felt, as also

between o

rise to

e, i

was

o.

and u ; but between u, e, i there was no such strongly marked


difference, and in their case the order of descent is sometimes
stopped or varied by the influence of neighbouring sounds.

Thus

by

u,

its affinity to

the labial nasal m, was retained at an

early stage of the language in sumus, volumus, the vowel which

in Sanskrit

is

a (bharamas), and in Greek

sinking

o {<l>epofiev),

To the same influence (of


forms Hecuba (older Hecoha, Greek

generally in Latin to i (ferimus).

perhaps are due the

labial 6)
'EKa/S;;,

and triumpus (Greek

which, especially

dplan^os).

Thus

greatest tendency to produce .

from

pello, sepultus

stolidus, sulcus,

crajmla, KpanrdXrj.

from

r,

the

had an

{=igenos-is).

to

Sometimes

and

e,

e.g.

of the

au^eps, but aucupis

surviving

pessulus,

had the

in

pulsus
stultus,

irda-craXos

so in oblique

Sanskrit -as), where the s

e,

from influence of

commonest vowel

r,

^.g. judex,

(a;);

e.g.

in Latin before

but

remaining sometimes where one

two has been dropped,

divitis.

funus, funeris; genus, generis

rises to

e is the

the sound

mulgeo, dfniKym

trKon-fXos

-or,

is

'consonant,

e rises to

two consonants or a double consonant


jiuMcis

however

especial afiinity to r'

(= Greek

u sinks

pulvis, pulveris ;

sepelio, cp.

scopulus,

oKkos,

cases of neuters in -us

becomes

when followed by another

e.g. mile(i)s, milit-is, dive{t)s,

Cp. also the participial forms, -en{t)s and -endus, the


in

euntis, etc.,

and in old

legal

forms, e.g. jure

dicundo.
i,

as the thinnest of

vowel sounds, and the point to which

all

vowel sounds naturally tended to sink, can hardly be said to be


the result of assimilation, so

much

as of the absence of

any

assi-

milating tendency which would retain the vowel at an earlier

Eoby,

'

Latin Grammar,' vol.

i.

39.

62
Assimilation
of Vowels.

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.


It seems however to have

stage of decline.

(cp. lirixdmj, ^oKduiiov,

dominus,

etc. (cp.

certain affinity

and before the

Tpvrdvr^,

in maehvna, oal{i)nea, trutina

with Greek mBavhs, havbs,

suffix

in

-no

in a large

etc.);

genitives in -inis, from stems originally in -on, e.g.

class of

turbinis, imaginis, Tiominis (old

form Apolones)
iSyere,

a.

T'7/.v

for dental sounds; e.g. before

[chap.

dyirto),

before

d, in

t,

gemitus

(gemere),

or in formations

(dehere);

form

Apollims (old

Jiemones),

verbal conjugation, agite, agito

domitus

debitus

(doma-re),

like candidus, frigidus {frige-re),

morbidus (morbo-).
(2) Assimilation of

vowels by other vowels

is

seen in the

tendency of two vowels coming into contact to approach each


other.

Thus a root vowel i,

in cpntact with a,

e in qiieam, gueunt, eo, earn, eundi, etc.,

in forms where there

The oblique

ibo.

is

0,

and

u,

becomes

but remains unmodified

no such contact, nequit, nequihat, imus,

cases of is

show the same change.

Again,

where two vowels are separated by a consonant, the


This

(especially i) tends to assimilate the former^.

many

in derivatives, such as consiliv/m {consul),

fadlis {facultas), inqvMinus {incola).

e assimilates o in bene

(originally bono, then bone), i in illecebrae (root

Vowelpissimiiap

latter

seen in

proper names, Duilius for DueUius, Lucilius (Lucullus),

Popilius {populus)

is

is

assimilated

by

in soboles {svholes), e

by

of allieio)

lie,

in

tugurium

(3) Dissimilation is of less frequent operation, occurring

some cases where, from whatever

in

cause, the

{teg.).

only

same vowel

tion.
_

sound occurred twice, and acting then as a bar to further


change.
Sometimes the two vowel sounds coalesced into one
:

become quum, by substitution of u

thus,

when quom tended

for

the two vowels often coalesced, with the result

0,

to

being written without u)

cum

retained the old spelling even in the Augustan age, and

quom

cum, equos or

or

differently^.

The same

'

'

ecus, linquont

and

we have

lincunt, etc., in-

principle operated in retaining the older

forms evntis rather than


illiis

{q not

but the principle of dissimilation

iUius rather than ipsiis,

eentis, ipsius,

(the genitive ending -us,

Greek

-os,

Eoby, Latin Grammar,' vol. i. 41.


See Munro's 'Lucretius,' Introd. to Notes,

regularly sinking to

'

I. (vol.

ii.

p. 27, ist ed.).


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

and in avoiding

-is),

eeis (dat. plur. of is),

63

by the foTm

or

eis

ieis.

II. Changes of Consonants : The respective characteristics of Consonant


Latin and Greek are here reversed. We have seen that the General ten-

Latin vowel-system

weaker and has been subject to greater

is

degeneration by phonetic change than the Greek

but the

Latin consonants are stronger, and (as will be seen) are comparatively free from assimilation, which

form of many Greek words'.

obscures the radical

Bearing in mind what has been

already said of the relative strength of sounds, and of the general


principle which governs all phonetic change

the

desire to secure

ease of articulation, the following general rules of consonantal

change will be
1.

tracted
c (s),

intelligible

'Explosive'
(or

'

'

(or

'Momentary') sounds change

Fricative

sounds, not vice versa,

')

centum to French cent

lacruma,

French avoir ;
fero, x^hi fcl,

to

f
6rjp

Ulysses;

'OSva-a-^vs,

v, sajpere,

(Aeol.

to

tu, tv, (tv

s,

to

savoir

<t>rip),

fera

habere,

v,

fh, ch,

ch to

'Pro-

to

e. g.

c (^) to

to

I,

to /', ^ipa,

th,

h,

Su/cpu,

avere,

Italian

humi,

x"/""')

XavSdvm, jpre-lmndo.
2.

Gutturals change to dentals and

3.

Tenues change to mediae in their respective

vice versa (except

labials,

not vice versa.


classes,

where influenced by other sounds),

e. g.

not

frag-,

frac-tus (see above, p. 49).

Eules (2) and

4.

(3)

apply most obviously and uniformly to

Explosive Sounds or Consonants proper.

Among

'protracted'

momentary sounds it is not so easy to trace definite rules of


The contact of the vocal organs being less complete,
change.
or

in fact,

nite

an approximation only, the sounds are much

and

their strength depends

more or

time during which they are sounded.

less

The

less defi-

upon the length


spirants y,

s,

of

v do

not seem to interchange much, but neither s nor v pass into y,


which, according to order of pronunciation, would naturally be
the strongest sound.

Of

the liquids, r seems to be older than

Greek and Latin often giving

I,

where Sanskrit has r; and

as compared with Lat. farc-io, see below, p. 75.


see Roby, ' Latin Grammar,' i. 99, and Corssen.

'

E. g in

'

For other examples

(ppdrrffw,

[chap.

Changes and, Modifications of Sounds.

64
Consonant

hence some philologists consider that

General ten-

weakening of original
that

many

easier

loc-utus,

with Sclavonic reh-a,

cp.

with Old Indian

be other roots in which


in the

and substitute the

from root ruh (appearing in Sanskrit as

XaK-ety,

re-lic-tus, Xar-iiv,

And

r,

Schleicher, e.g. ('Compendium,' 147, 156),

it.

refers to Xcukos, luc-eo,

rty .)

pointing in illustration to the fact

r,

children are unable to sound

for

always from a

arises

ri'A',

etc.

'

but there seem to

invariably found (see Peile, p. 85).

I is

Romance languages

and r interchange both ways

peregrinus becomes jpelkgrino, and Tibu/r, Tivoli ; but

e. g.

;'

speak

ciniolus becomes rossignuolo,

and apostolus, apdtre.

hi,s-

s in Latin

always passes to r between vowels, except in some cases ^ where


s is

not original but a substitution

compounds

esuries, etc.), or in

and in Greek
sal;

eSos,

of

(e. g.

for ss in causa, for

words with

frequently passes into the sjpiritus asper

it

sedes ;

'

in

(aks,

This h sound in Greek

silva, etc.).

vXrj,

initial s (desilio)

is

always a remnant of one of the spirants, and weaker than any


of them

in Latin it represents

an original gh, and seems to have

been more strongly sounded.

We may instance

the effects of phonetic change upon conso-

nants, under the same heads as those of vowel-cliange


Consonant
Subsfitu-

(i) Substitution of Weaker for Stronger sound,

g for

tenuis,

guberno

pac-iscor,

k,

curculio

seldom passes into

Trriy-mijn,

(Plautus),

pag-us, pango

gurguUo ;

In Greek

d.

(a)
;

negotium

media

for

Kn/Sepi/am,

(nee-),

(Aristoph. Vespae 676)

Soirtr

tottiji ; venoSes. (Hom. Od. iv. 404), perhaps = nepotes.


In Latin the confusion between t and d in the MS. spelling of
words like haud, apud, sed, is to be referred to the general

perhaps

weakness and uncertainty of Latin


a few Greek words

6 in

more Latin (e.


and

\a<j)i<Taa)

ve^os
ber,

g.

v^pis

carbasus, KapTraa-os

final sounds,

from
;

imcp),

and the

passes to

and

in rather

la/mbo, lab-ium, Xairrew,

b in Latin frequently represents

orbus, 6p^av6s

g'.

suffix -ber

Greek ^, nuhes,

= -<p6pos

(cl>epm),

salu-

ctmdela-hrvm.

(J)

e.g.

(e.

Any
t,

further substitution of the mute or explosive sounds,,

d, p,

b,

belongs rather to the head of Assimilation.


*

Eoby,

'

Latin Grammar,'

i.

193.


^]

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

There

some

e.g. olere

from root ad,

=8dicpv (cp. Gothic tagr, our' tear


cp. Sanskrit devar.

dingua,

cp.

Gothic

tttggd,

d passing

into Consonant
change:

peculiarity in the Latin pronun- Substitu-

ciation of d, bringing it very near the point at

were sounded),

SaFrip,

Ao

however, in Latin a few instances of

are,

7j/T-i_ii
and r (probably due to
I

65

and r

lacrima

levir (see I'orcelIini),=

')j

Similarly lingua

German

which

cp. odor, oSaSa

may have been

munge, English tongue; and.

Festus states that Livius Andronicus actually wrote dacrima^.

The change

of

c?

to r is chiefly found in the preposition ad, in

composition before
arfines, etc.

change

is

v,

f, arvocatos, a/rfuerunt,

arvorsum, arvena,
This

cp. also arbiter {ad-beto), arcessa (ad-cesso).

sometimes reckoned as an

effect of assimilation

more probably arose from a weak pronunciation of


point at which r

And

produced.

is

words with the d in

classical

d,

but

near the

the appearance of these

Latin seems to show that this

had only just begun to produce an


upon orthography, when it was checked by the literary
epoch of the language; and the inference is, that it was an
accidental and isolated phenomenon in the Latin pronunciation
carelessness of pronunciation
effect

of that particular sound.


(c)

Changes of Spiramts

affected Greek,

and

{y,

in a great

s,

These have especially Changes of

v).

measure produced the distinctive

feature of accumulation of vowels without


Siji'oio

a consonant,

e. g.

[once 8a<r-y6-tryoj.

Y. This symbol

is

unknown

in

Greek from the

no doubt because the sound denoted by


become changed. It appears in Greek
the BufiSx yo(io); thus

e,

earliest times,

had disappeared or

(i) as

t,

especially in

avSpi-to^s, eicrejSeta (^cwo-c)3e(r-ya), yevereipa

(^^yeverep-ya), Tervcjivia (^:=Terv(fioT-ya^,

=8^o-tryo); (2) as

it

hfijioio

(Homeric genitive

in Ktveos [Epic form of Kev-y6, 'empty'], and

in the contracted future forms, <^ev^ovpai=:<peuy-(Tio-pjii,-:=ipvyayo, the

'

remaining in the Doric form

Bergk suggests that

'Nemo me
Eaxit.

in Ennius'

Ttpa^iop.es^'n-pay-o-io-iies;

well-known lines (Epigr.

i.

4)

lacrumis deooret neque funera fletu


Cur ? volito vivos per ora virum
'

the poet may have writtea daorumis, which would obviously increase the
force of the alliteration.

t.

66
Changes of
T.

and Modifications of Sounds.

CJianges

(3) as the
va-iilvr],

[chap.

spiritus asper,' ^irap, jecur; Syios, Sanskrit

'

from root yvdh

{v6

becoming

before

ia-

Or

/i).

yagyas
(4) it is

altogether lost, as e.g. in Attic genitive mnov='hrrroo, cp. with

Epic "mnoio
ya-),
s.

and

S in

TrXeoxsrirXtioi/,

^ua>=:an older

(Sanskrit bliu-

(pvto)

aXa5ea=dXa5a.

)(d\Kcos (Doric) :=;(dXKtoy,

Greek usually passes into the

spiritus asper at the begin-

ning of a word, as we see from many familiar examples where


the analogy of other languages shows that the word once began

with

{cSos,

a-.

e. g. e'uTTTiKeiv

due to a

is

= e-iariiKeLv =

plicated to sa-sta, o-c-ora);

At

SxTfies.

in

suffixes, being, in fact,

euphony tolerated
times found,

In Latin

(the root sta being, reducp. the

form

&fifies=

final

at the beginning of

sounds which Greek

words also

it

is

some-

but only regularly when a hard

<T\rpn] ;

it

from the usual change to

',

almost always changed to

r,

trroa, (rx'T"") ^tc.

between two vowels

is

= lases

(Carmen Arvale), feriae =fesiae (cp. festus) ;


hesternus, x^^l 6ram, ero, from stem es of esum; gero,

lares

ges-tum ; oneris, generis

voice =s.

The only

are (a) where s

sounds,

e. g.

{avd-eo)

= ones-is,

is

exceptions to this general law of change

in esuries (ed-o),

compounds of words where

po-siiura, prae-sentia, bi-sesctus, etc.

words,

viz. asinus,

(c)

was

ausim

initial,

de-

in certain other

hasium, caesaries, casa, caseus, cisium, fusus,

laser, miser, nasus, pusillus, quasillum,


;

from stem onus,

sam, and r of passive

not original, but a substitution for other

for ss in causa, for

(6) in

genes-is,

suffix -r'Mm:= an original

genus ; gen. plur.

vasa)

initial,

Greek, and so in formative and case

myaa,

e. g.

as in aropcvwfu,

silio,

which was not

d(TiJ^K,

one of the few

consonant follows, and protects

heri,

o-,

the end of roots and words an original s generally

retained its place

e. g.

lost

t -cf oriyKctv
rififis

Some-

os^irFos^suus).

eiroimt=::^sequor ;

sTTTa,

times a spiritvs asper

quaeso (also quaero, rosa,

and in some proper names, Caesar, Kaeso, Lausus, Pisa,

Sisenna, Sosiae.

In Greek, on the other hand,


e.g. yiveo'-os, yeveos, yivovs,

o-

between two vowels drops out,

TVTrrri-iTai,

Tvrmm, Tmrg

almost universal, except in cases where the loss of


created confusion, and an artificial efibrt

o-

and

this is

would have

was therefore made to

IV.]

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

retain

it, e. g.

rams would become

torm, in -ns, and

tendency to drop

was

o-

this Chanses of
Spirants:

some

resisted

Tidrja-i,

la-Taaat,

the

the intellectual or instinctive

desire of retaining the part of a word,

of

In derivatives of

tcus.

,.
n
inflections like

67

which was

characteristic

meaning, in these cases triumphing over the physical


tendency to reduce the effort of articulation. Similarly in Latin,
its

the tendency to drop final

-s, seen in the constant change of


forms like amabaris, amaberis, to amahare, amahere, is to a great
extent resisted in the form amaris, because amare would lead

confusion with the pres. infin. active ; and ab is much


seldomer changed in composition than sub, because of the
danger of confusion with ad.

to

In Latin

fi,nal -s

(like final

-m) seems to have been faintly

Bounded in pronunciation^, and thus was often omitted in


In the scansion of early Latin poetry

writing also.

it

was

ignored before an initial consonant (a fact noticed by Cicero,


Orat. 48. 161), e.g. turn lateralis dolor certissimus nuntius

mortis j Ennius 601 (Vahlen), and so often in Lucretius (e.g.


i.

1S9, 186) and once in Catullus (116.

Wagner

443, incerfus

usus

sit

878

sum

all

450, expertus

endings of iambic

in imitating Ennius's

8. Ellis).

Hecyra auctus

instances in the

funduntque

sum

sit

nwribus

A. D.,

and remains in

illustrated

efflant.

puer,

sum

lines.
elatis

Virgil (Aen.

xii.

115)

naribus lucem, transfinal s)

lucemque

The tendency recurred in the fourth century


Italian, Spanish, etc.

by such forms

illus, ipsus),

Terence

489, nuUus sum 653,

poses thus (to suit a stricter pronunciation of


elatis

From

334, defessus

famul

as nauta (cp.

It

is also,

vairrfs),

ille,

of course,
ipse (for

{puerus, famulus), pote, m/zge {potis,

magis), ammbare {amabaris).

V=F. This spirant (pronounced^ something like English w)


was known to the Greeks at an early period by a distinct
symbol, the Digamma (F), found chiefly upon old Doric and
Aeolic inscriptions', and traceable in
'

Boby, 'Latin Grammar,'

its effect

upon the scansion

193.

the pronunciation of u consonantal (v) see Wordsworth, ' Fragments,' etc., Introd. iii. 10-15; ^^y> 'Latin Grammar,' Preface,
'

On

pp. xxxii-xlii.
' e. g. those of Boeotia, Phocis, Ldoris, Laconia, Argos, Corinth, Cor-

vorf.

Changes and Modifications of Sounds,

68
Chansesof
Vot'f.

Homer; but

of

[chap.

evidently passing out of use at the earliest


It appears

period to which such inscriptions carry us back.


in ordinary classical Greek as

German

tvai,

Greek has

it

x'""''j

lost

it,

In these

'""^Fia.

irvtia-^x'^^'''

as also at the beginning of

and the
Attic

latter

many

words,

from the analogy of kindred forms in other languages,

must once have

vinwm;

existed {ohos,

German Werk, English

epyov,

dvau, Gothic

zwei), vmis (cp. nav-is, Sanskrit nav-as),

Aeolic forms

in which,

bvo (Sanskrit

v, e.g.

ol&a,

ISetv,

vid-eo

It also appears as spiritus

worJc).

asper (on the evidence, again, of analogy with other languages),


e.

Vesper/

eanepos,

g.

cvuviu

= ecr-Wfu,

from f i8- 6the verb forms having

UT-Tap

ves-tis ;

in time coming to have the spiritus lenis).

= 18-T0p-,

and

la-Tiup

In a few

cases

lost it altogether,

V (f ) seems to have been hardened or strengthened to

Laconian forms, ^ctos^^tos

the

^epyov:=Fepyov

and

/3oij\o/iai,

Latin

(cp.

with

its

German

vol-o,

Sclavonic

e. g.

veter-nus),

vetits,

various forms, ^oXXo/iot

(Aeolic), ^aXoiiai (Doric), the original consonant of

have been v (f ), cp.

/3,

vol-i-ti (inf.),

which must

Gothic vU-jan,

willen, English will ; for here the evidence of so

many

languages for the v sound prevents us from regarding Latin v


as a

weakening of

/3.

The

occasional confusion between b

V in Latin, and the representation

(chiefly in Plutarch,

and

a Boeotian

Greek, and an indifferent Latin scholar) of Latin v by Greek

/3,

has been pressed as an argument against the pronunciation of

Latin v like w, and in favour of the labial sound of English

Even
as

in Plutarch, however (ist cent. A.D.), ov

common

as

for Latin

{OvdKrjpios, etc.)

Halicarnassus (Augustan age)

/S

is

while in Polybius (2nd cent. B.C.) ov


for V.

is

v.

almost twice

in Dionysius of

only occasionally found


is

the regular equivalent

It seems therefore highly probable that the translitera-

tion of V by

and

j3

is

connected with a dialectical tendency to con-

which appears in rare cases like ferveo,


and afterwards more commonly on inscriptions of the
2nd century A. D. and onwards. The v in all such cases was

fuse V

b in Latin,

ferbui,

cyra, etc. (KirohhofF.)


The Romans, taking a Doric alphabet (see p. 46),
found this character, but changed its value, thinking the w sound si^ficiently represented

by V,

IV.]

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

69

possibly the 'labial v^,' passing irregularly but not permanently Consonant
into h : and the safest conclusion from the evidence of trans-

be that Latin 'i; generally =w, but sometimes dialectically a labial v^.
The substitution of /* and y for

literation appears to

assumed in a few

also

is

cases, of

very uncertain etymology;

e. g. iJ.6(rxos, Sa-xos, d/ufiriv, avxr/v, fiiXSofiat, eKSo/uu, etc.

In Latin, just as
represented by
in

s{v)ibi,

sign

(e.

(roots sva-,

e.g.

i (consonantal),

= esio),

and
v

is

and sometimes disappears

as

min{i)or, ero

g. in

(consonantal),

t(v)ibi

represented hj/,

represented by

is

j/

sometimes disappears

It is

tva-).

frango, Fprjyvvfu

also occasionally

frigus, Fpiyim

so

and the

of course the old digamma, adopted by the Latins, but

is

to denote a different sound.

Changes of the Aspirates, especially the aspirated mediae Changes of

(d!)

General rules

bh, dh, gJi in Latin.

These

vrhen they occur in the middle


represented by the
initial

they can

sound

is

not

all

itself

^"'^

aspirates {gh, dh, bh),

of a word,

are

generally

corresponding unaspirated letters

;,

be represented by the single sound /.

an aspirate, and has

e.g.

when
This

no power of assimi-

lating a preceding nasal like the other mutes in Latin {in-ficio,

but im-petus), so that


(j)

ph

two, that

is

/a

may be

different in

pronounced Jlxis and

explained by some to
tary,

it

sound from Greek

Priscian's account of the difference

(c/i^mVm).

mean

that

ph

ij

fricative or protracted, sound.

non

between the

fixis lahris,

is

an explosive or momenIf this be true,

/ must

be considered as only a spirant or breathing, pronounced with

a strong breath, and taking the place of h strongly sounded


after

the distinction between these letters being obscured.

h, d, g,

* Labial (as distinguished from labiodental or English) v is formed by


bringing the outer edges of the lips together, while the voice escapes
laterally.
This sound is said to be heard in Central Germany (e.g. in weg),
and in Spanish h, and modern Greek (Peile, ch. iv. p. 80. 3rd ed.).
' For an admirably full discussion of the pronunciation of Latin v, see
Eoby's 'Latin Grammar,' vol. i., Preface, pp. xxxii-xlii; and cp. Peile,
Corssen (Aussprache, i. p. 310 sqq.) maintains that
ch. viii. pp. 355-357.
V had not a ' weak vowel sound like English w, but a consonantal tone like
German w' meaning the labiodental sound of English v. He much
exaggerates, however, the extent to which /3 represented Latin v (see

Eoby,

I.

c).


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

70
Changes of

;
';

and only one part

.of

[chap.'

the respective combinations h+Ji,

d + h,

g + h being

retained.

of each

away, leaving only the latter under the form of/ (or

h)

fell

At the beginning

of a

word the

first

part

in the middle of a word, Latin generally retained the first

part and the latter or aspirate

cfidvai;

of future and imperfect

f = dh

f=gh

root

fu

= Greek ^u

in firmua, root dha/r; fores,

German

name

in i-x^-Srjv

Greek
6rj\vs,

of a water&ll)

6cp-ii6s

fera,

dfjp,

Thiir,

^a-rk (Sanskrit ga-hft-mi); /oms,

'va.fa-mes,

and forms of

= originally

\(Fei,

ghu, cp. Gothic giutan =.German giessen (whence


the

hh

-bam

fui, root bhu, whence -bo,

root dhva/r, whence Sanskrit dva;ra, Greek 6ipa,

English door:

have/=

"We thus

away.

fell

in fa/ri, root hhd, whence

forrmis,

'

'

Giessbach

warm '= Sanskrit ghar-maa,

fel =: Greek

Greek 6 in femina,
x"^- / also
and in other words, in some of which however

it and the 6 may represent an original bh or dh, as in fores.


In
some cases, side by side with the form in which the aspirate has
sunk to /, is found another with h, used in the classical dialect

thus haedus, Sabine foedus [originally gh, the g remaining in


' goat ']
Jiariolus, Sabine fariohts (Greek xop-^v)So hircus,
;
fircus ; hostis, fostis (root ghas, in Gothic gas-t-s, English guest):

and fordewm, foedos, attributed by Quiatilian


old Romans.

F occurs most frequently as


it

has the labial element in

which

it

(i.

4.

14) to the

representative of bh, with which

common;

less often of dh,

with

common ;

least

has only the use of the upper teeth in

often of gh, with which its only connection appears to be, as

already mentioned, the strong breath with which

it

and the h

of gh were each pronounced.

oSg?'
Loss.

(^) '^^^ ^ Consonantal

Sounds

to loss

and v (f ) are most frequently subject


in both Greek and Latin, especially before the nasals m,

n and

liquids

(a) Initial sounds,

I,

remember;' m6s,
(the

r.

cp.

Thus

ijUpifwa, cp.

appearing in stream, strom,

eppeva-a,

fppirjv,

etc.

Sanskrit smar-a,-mi, 'I

Old High German snwr;


etc.,

p^a, root

and in the

by assimilation from

e-a-pev-a-a,

pv=<Tpv

first

p of

i-a-pi-rjv)

show a loss of initial o- in Greek. In Latin, again, no native


word begins with sm, sn, or sr, and even borrowed words some-

Changes and Modifications of Sounds,

iv.]

times lose tte


fides (a string),

s,

e. g.

o-^i'Si;,

myrrha =

a-iiipva

cp.

v (F)

folio, ^(fiaWa, etc.^

71

fwnda,
is lost

<r(j)ev86vri,

before p in

Consonant
Loss.

(German Wurzel, English wort), and prjywfu, Latin frango


(where the f was a weakening of an earlier hh, traceable in

pifa

Gothic hrihan, English break)

where

it

vinum,

and before vowels in

all cases

ohos,

has not passed into the spiritus asper


vicus, epyov, work,

oIkos,

IS-etv,

vid-ere, etc., etc.

Loss of other consonantal sounds, when


'

sporadic,'

i.

confined to stray instances,

e.

sufficient evidence

(6)

is

generally

which do not

offer

e.g. the

preserved in ali-cubi, ali-cunde ^

Medial sounds are rarely

lost in Greek, except in avoiding

or impossible combinations of sounds, such as would be

Terv<p-a-6,

(ardKvTai (Ionic eWaXarai).

the oblique cases of certain nouns,

e. g.

the 3 sing, of verbs (Ti7rTei=:Ti7rr-Ti)


is

initial,

of any general phonetic tendency

loss of c in uhi, unde,

difficult

e.g.

out regularly in

falls

Kepa(T)-os,

but

and perhaps in

another explanation

more probable here^ In Latin, medial sounds are more


Corssen and Schleicher give a number of examples

often lost.

of such loss, chiefly before spirants and nasals,


milits,

cesor

cosol

= censor

re{s)mus=retmus, Greek
no

(cp. pos-ui).

ipcriiov;

e. g.

e.

miles

pe{r)-iero ;

ma{g)-ior,

exa{g)-men, de{c)-nus, po{s)-

Before momentary sounds such loss

except before dentals


dex, i{s)dem.

consul ;

is

rare

g. tor{e)tus (torq-ueo), id{o)-tus, ju{s)-

Schleicher considers that in

all

or most of these

and similar examples the lost letter has first been assimilated,
and then omitted, from the practice in old Latin of not writing
the same consonant twice * e. g. res-mus, rem-mus, remus : an
:

ingenious attempt to bring under a uniform rule a number of


scattered examples, which may or may not be true, but is hardly
capable of proof.
1 Corssen ('Kritisohe Beitrage,' p. 428) suggests that Boma = Srouma
;'
a term applicable to the old 'Roma quad(root sru), the ' stream-town
banks.
rata ' on the Palatine Hill, before the Tiber was kept within its
the
This of course is but one among a number of competing etymologies for

,_.,,...
Peile, ch. viu. pp.

name.
2 Other examples are given by

370-1

('Kritisohe Beitrage," pp. 2, 57-H> H^)* See below, ch. viii.


* On double consonants in Latin, see above, p. 47. note.

,
and Corssen

Qhanges and Modificmtiom of Sounds.

"]%

Consonant
Loss.

'

(c)

Loss of Final Sounds,

of the consonant or consonants

i. e.

The tendency of

of the final syllable.

back the accent from the

[chap.

weaker pronunciation, and made

languages to throw

all

gave this syllable a

final syllable,

liable to phonetic corrup-

it

extent of sucti corruption varying in different lan-

tion, the

guages with the inability to accent the

final

Thus

syllable.

in Latin, which never accents the final syllable, there is

more

extensive loss of final consonantal sounds than in Sanskrit or

Greek

sounds

as

just

we have

peculiarly

are

that its final vowel

already seen

either

corruption,

to

liable

shortening of sounds originally long, or by total


operation of this

common tendency

to

by the
The

loss.

weaken or drop

difiicult

sounds in final unaccented syllables varies with the phonetic


laws of individual languages by which certain final sounds are

The Greek

accepted or rejected.

for example,

ear,

no consonantal sound to end a word but

v,

and

allowed

frequently

less

p; the only exceptions being ovk and (^ or ^ of course


include a)
and when any other consonant appears etymolo:

gically at the

stem

end of a word

Latin erant, and


-ovT, as

all participles

in

sound (amant, erant,

e. g. feXt

(crii/iaT-or),

^<rav,

the stem of which

-a>v,

In Latin

in oblique cases Tmrrovr-os.

sible final
is

usually rejected

it is

as seen in fniKvr-os, cmfta =i (tS/xot-

jXiKiT,

-nt is

though in participles

etc.),

is

an admis-

changed to s in the nominative sing, {mnans, amantes)

and

the different treatment in the two languages of this participial

stem termination -nt

a good illustration of the direction

is

given to general tendencies of phonetic change by the phonetic

The paucity of admissible

laws of individual languages.

Bounds in Greek leads also to corruption of the

even when accented,

e.g. riBfls

shown, the tendency

is

sound of

but there

e,

termination

s,

m,

t,

= ndevrs.

In Latin, as has been

for the final vowel to sink to


is

r,

final

final syllable

a uniform

considerable variety of consonantal


c,

being

all

found, besides

many

combinations impossible to Greek (which avoids the accumulation of consonants at the


volt, fert,

end of a word),

scrohs, ars, puis, hiemps.

in fact, that could be pronounced

e. g.

in ferunt, Jmnc,

Almost any combination,

was allowed, with the excep-

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

tion of

doubk consonants

but nominative os ;

(e. g. oss-is,

or two explosive mutes,

fel)

73
fellis, Consonant

lact-is, lac ; cord-is, cor.

e. g.

far then as the language of the classical

Eoman

As Loss.

writers is con-

cerned, there is less deterioration of final consonantal sounds

than in Greek

but there

is

good reason for supposing that in

the pronunciation of ordinary

in the spoken language of

life,

which the plays of Plautus and Terence are the


representatives, 'neglect of final sounds^'

than the exception ; so much

so,

are often actually omitted.

This

common

s,

the most

final letters

upon old

that

inscriptions they

most often the case with

is

m,

chief written

was more the rule

The

t.

case of final s has

already been noticed

Final m, as
poetry,

is

(p. 67) under the changes of spirants.


evident from its regular disregard in Latin Pinal m in

must have heen weakly pronounced

and

this is con-

firmed by the statements of grammarians, and the evidence

on which we find such forms

of early inscriptions,

(unvm), viro {virum),

dedit^donum

Appendix

etc. (cp.

dedit.

The omission

I.

Insor.

i.

2),

however rare

is

oino

as

and dono
in legal

where greater accuracy was desirable, and in others


after 130 B.C., when literature began to insist on precision
of grammar afid form; but is found in the vulgar wall ininscriptions,

and towards the end of the third century


The Italian forms meco, died
{mecum, decern) and the Uke, show how completely it must have
and
become ignored in pronunciation in the later Empire
the history above sketched of its appearance on inscriptions

scriptions at Pompeii,

becomes frequent again.

A. D.

how

shows

the natural tendency of

pronunciation towards

phonetic decay was checked for a while during the predomin-

ance of a

classical literary dialect, only to

completely in the end.

(^

Consonantal Change

assert itself

more

Consonant

^Assimilation.

Sounds which require very difierent positions of the vocal Assimiiaorgans, or which are respectively tenues and mediae (see above,
ch.

iii.

p.

together;
'

IV.

32) are

obviously

difficult

to

pronounce close

and when two such incompatible sounds would

See Wagner, Introd. to AuLiA., pp. xxix-xxxv, and


to Terence, Amdria.

my

Introduction,

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

74
Consonant

[chap.

otherwise come together, the principle of euphony operates to

ohttnge
Assimiiiition.

produce such a change in one or the other of the two sounds as

wUl make them easy

These

pronounce in close contact.

to

changes are included under the general head of ' Assimilation,'

by which

implied the change of one of two neighbouring

is

sounds to a sound either the same as or


other to be

compatible

'

'

with

nunciation in close contact.

It

sufficiently like

the

and therefore easy of pro-

it,

may

recurrence of the same sound twice

indeed happen that the


unpleasant to the ear,

is

euphony requires 'Dissimilation,' or change to


a sound different from, but compatible with, the sound whose
in which case

repetition offends

but as there are naturally but few cases in

which such repetition of the same sound

unpleasant. Dis-

is

similation plays but a limited part in phonetic change.

Assimilation

either (a) of the first sound

is

{regressive, assimilation)

{progressive assimilation)

third (doubled) sound

to the

or the two

sounds pass into

or {d) into a single letter.

latter

or (6) of the second sound to the

first

(c)

It is also (i)

complete, where the assimilated letter becomes the same as the

other ; (2) partial or incomplete, where

it

passes into a similar

sound.
Complete

Complete Assimilation:

(i)

Assimilation.

Of the

(a)

first

to the second sound.

e.g. evvvij.i=: Fecr-wiM {ves-tis),

Aeol.)

ypd(f>-iia,

and

iv

a-(7/ie J

^/iis;

In Greek

(Aeol.)=(r-/ii,

o-

to k or

p.,

(Dor. and

a/i/iej

labials to nasals, S/ifia^Sn-iia, ypd^/Ka:=

TcTviJ.iiai,:^TeTV(j)-iuu

in

f/i/ii

composition)

nasals

liquids (especially a-vv

to

(ruWa/ji^dva),

wppico,

So

etc.

woaa-i

In Latin ^ siimmus=^sup-mus, flamma=flagand so with


(Jiagrare), puella^=jpuer{^la, esse=ed-se {edo)

(Epic)=7roS-(ri.

ma

prepositions in composition:
occurro,

officio, etc.,

dis in diffiigio,
(6)

etc.,

fvcficra.

In Attic

appello, agger 0, etc., 06 in

sub in summoveo,

com

Of the second

Aeolic forms)

ad in

etc., ec-{eK)

to the first sound.

Kxivva

in

effero, etc.,

in corruo, etc.

= Krivyai,

In

eareKKa

Greek

(chiefly

= tortX-o-a,

ivefifia

in'

imTos:=t7rFos, cp. 'Ikkos^IkFos (Sanskrit a^vas).

Other examples are given by Boby, 'Latia Grammar,'

34.

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

In Latin issirrms^is-tumus^
timus, facil-tumus

75

so cehrrimus, facinimus^=celer-^^^''"^^

'

change:

Assimila-

ferrem, vellem=fer-sem, vel-sem.

(c)' The two sounds pass into a (double letter) third sound.
In Greek the sound o-o- (or tt) ^ seems in many cases to have
arisen from the combination of the
y {j) sound with dental and

guttural
dentals
(X1V-7;),

mutes

(i.e.

we have

from

ry,

Ky,

6y,

Kpeatrmv^zKper-yav

yy,

{icpaT-os),

xu)-

In these and similar

Kopia-cro)=Kopvd-ya).

Thus with

\i<T(Toiw.i=KiT-yofmi,

y pro-

cases the

bably, through influence of the preceding dental, passed into

the dental sibilant

o-

(our

or s in 'rise'), which then

either assimilated by, or assimilated, the preceding dental

became

\LT-yo-p.ai

became

(a)

Xia-a-oimi,

gutturals, the

y sound changed

Thus

described.
e\d)(^-ia-TOs),

-o-o-o),

by progressive

or

g.

which, by regressive assimilation,


(6)

With

XiTTOfiai.

the guttural to a dental (Denta-

above, p. 50), which then produced the result just

lism, see

rrcK, coq.),

\iT-a-o-imt,

was
e.

^tra-aiv,

c\dcT(raip^rJK-ya>v,

ava<T(Ta^=avaKya, oa-(ra=:oKyaj

cXapf-imv (cp. iJK-iaros,

VOX;

7reiT(ra>=:iTeKya>

(root

and so with many verbs whose present tense ends in

but the stem in a guttural

((j>paK-, Jj3,tin

(Kr]p-vK-os),

far c-io),

Tacro-co

e. g. npda-a-a,

(npay-), ^paa-a-a

nTvira-ai (tttvx-'j), dXXdo-cro) (dXXay-ij), Kqpiairai

(ray-oy),

\eia(Ta> (XeuK-os),

nTija-dto (orraK-oi'),

Tapd<T<Ta> (rapax-rj).

In Latin the

of the suffixes -tus (participial)

the final letter of the root (especially


e.g. fissusfid-tus,

cassus

and

-tor

ss,

divissum (Cic.)=:

the exact process

to

change, there are two different views

with

a dental) passes into

(Cic.) =.cad-tus,

As

divid-twm, fossor=fod-tor.

if

of the

(i) Corssen, Schleicher,

Curtius, and other leading philologists, assume that

it

is

the

result of progressive assimilation, the dental of the root being

weakened to s (because the Roman ear did not tolerate


two dental mutes coming together), and the following t asfirst

similated to this s ; the change of


la/p-sum, etc.,

On
On

where there

is

<

to s in cases like Tner-svm,,

no dental at the end of the stem,

ttis and a rival explanation see below, ch. vi.


fuller, but
the origin of aa (tt) see Peile, oh. viii. pp. 387-390.
(the book being out of print) less accessible discussion of the point is given
by Curtius, ' Tempora und Modi,' pp. 99-no (on the formation of verbs in
*
^

-aaa,

-ttoi).

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

7^
consonant

being due to false analogy.

AssimUar

^7 Mr. Roby
is

that

being due

unstable

'

The other view (expounded


Grammar, pp. Ivii-lxi)
and then ss or s; this second

(2)

in the Preface to ,his Latin

dt became

tt,

change

[chap.

first ts, ds,

the fact

to

that

ds were

ts,

Latin

in

combinations likely to be soon changed, whereas

'

st

(the assumed result of the first stage in the process of change of


tt,

on the other view)

dt

to pronounce

a perfectly

is

and very common in Latin,

stable

'

for

sound, easy

'

any further change

of which there would be no phonetic reason.

for example,

If,

tond-tvm, had (as on the other view) become tons-tii/m, this latter

need have undergone no farther change (except perhaps to


tum, which in fact did result from tors-twm, the supine of

stem

position of

ending in
etc.,

Other arguments urged against the

fors-)'.

are (a) that

false

'

rg,

analogy ') for the supine in -sum


rr^

II,

cmmmi

view,

whose perfect active

progressive assimilation which

very rare in Latin

(c)

fii'om

stems

(curr-d), 'mul-su'm-=mMlg-twm,

and from a few other verbs

Jiaereo, etc.)

first

does not account (except on the arbitrary sup-

it

Ig,

tos-

torreo,

{labor, jubeo,

is

it

found with

premo, maneo,

-si

(5)

that the

supposes, though possible, is

that stems originally ending in s do not

follow the prescribed change from

st

to ss

e.

g.

ges-tum does

not become gessvm,.


(d)

Two

sounds coalesce into one letter in Greek, when

dental and guttural mediae

(S, y) are followed by y : e'. g. c^o/iat


=e8-yo-fuu (root sed- as in Latin), S^a (root 08-), a-xif'"='''X''^-2/<

(cp.

Latin scid- in scindo), Zeis:=Ayeiis, Sanskrit Dyfi,us.

thus a compound letter


sibilant (),

this C'

thus o-oKm^a^a-aKmy-ya,

(see above, p. 75) so

e<T(j)dy-rjv), Trefos is

producing 88

tion.

TreS-iii,

In the Boeotian

e. g.

^paS-Sa,

the

yy became

pi^a is Fplhfa,

dialect

y was

or 8

is

8y,

and

(stem as in

<f)pa^a>

is

<^pa&-ya

assimilated to

8,

initial, Aeis, Zeis.

"Where the two sounds only approximate to each other,

change not being so fully carried out.


'

being the weak

(r(j)aCa=ar<f)dy-ya)

traXn-i88o)

(2)' Incomplete Assimilation


(a)

Ss,

and hence in prosody lengthens a preceding short

As with xy

2 aor.

Incomplete

and then

vowel.

(TTe-cjipaS-ov).

As8imiJa>

= Sy

Mr. Peile (Introduction,

p.

This includes

396) prefers this view to Corasen's.


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

(a)

of

those

all

'

a root or

letter of a

euphonic

stem

changes by which the final letter Consonant

'

made

is

77

correspond with

to

the

first Assimiiet-

termination either as tenuis, media, or aspirate

being easier to sound two tenues, two mediae, or two as-

it

pirates together.

or aspirates

Thus

(r,

8,

Greek before dental tenues, mediae,

in

only tenues, mediae,

6)

spectively of other organs can stand;

combinations are

from

ffXeKcB,

kt, wr, ySy 08, x^>

not

irkex^rivat

Xey-Tos, \ex^^^"-i not ^eydrjvai

from

ypa(j}a,

ypaTr-ros

from

Consequently we have

</>^-

nktuBrivai.

from

8ex<'/>

from

lego,

lectus

not

cases, actual pronunciation of the

not
:

So in

ypoKpSriv.

from

traho, tractus

In most of these

leg-tus.

words

XfKTOs

Xeyffl,

Sf"""* not Sexros

not ypa^TOS, ypi^&rjv not

Latin from ago we have actus not ag-tus


not trah-tus

or aspirates re-

and the only allowable

make

will

the phonetic

reason for the change clear.

Before the tenuis


jt:

becomes

a-,

then written

is

ko-

y and x become

and

|,

cp. traxi^=trah-si

with the futures of Tpl^a and

and

ypd(j>o,

and

Thus from

from rego

from traho:

p.

So we

not ^i^pexp^ai

^wa-jj/u

not ^WT-pai.

A labial before

becomes

not

y,

iS-fiev

(vfiS of

assimilation (see above,

Nasals again are affected by a following consonant


v before gutturals

for (fw-KoXem)
e/xi/fuxos)

and the

(p.

74).

or nasal became

On

before labials

[epireipos,

labial nasal

So in
(impello,

p,

we have
Latin n

seen,

it

before

is

completely

a labial mute

imhuo, immotus), though this


affect

the orthography

'.

this point see

p. 26, 1st ed.).

thus in
(troyKoXcai

tendency of pronunciation did not at once


of classical Latin

becomes the guttural nasal y

before liquids, as

assimilated

o'So),

(jreid-O)).

In Latin soi-Ms:=s()p-nMS, *S'aniMiMi=:<Sa6(i)mwi.

p. 74).

Greek

Thus in

a dental to become

not irhruB-pai

TTemurpat.

by complete

/x

so too

find 8ay/i6s not SmK-pos (Skok-oj),

(/Spe'^o)), 1(r-fiev

(di/ijTi),

Sex'>f""'

and

or perfect of scribo.

a guttural tends to become

(the dental spirant).

fic^peypai

become

(j)

aya, Sy-a-a

Nasals often influence the preceding sound.

Greek before
o-

k,

i/r.

oKo-a {a^a), cp. recsi [rexi)=reg-si

SiK-croimi (Sc|ofiai),

(6)

iro-,

Munro'a

'

Lucretius,' Introd. to Notes, I. (vol.

ii,

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

78
ChanRe

of

(c)

The change of t

Doric

to

abstract substantives in

when

dians ipans;

o-

before

singular -n,

in 3

[e. g.

= n-s,

-a-i-s

but

dialects

^oti,- cp.

in

ia-rt;

Homer and

(fida-is,

trage-

in forms like etKoal,

and 3 plural

mginti,

perhaps a case of assimila-

<})tpovin^4'^pova-i=<l>epovn (Doric)] is

where

tion, occurring first in cases

and

Latin

Sanskrit Vinsati,

FiKOTi,

Greek

all

Doric

suffix ya{Ja), to follows t, e. g. iTKov(r-ios fifom

jrXoCr-or, hiiaitrios, yepova-ia^yepovr-ia

Doric

in

cjirjo-l,

[chap.

with a vowel following

represented the semi-vowel y{j) sound (e.g. jrKoiKnos^TrXovT-yo-s)


and exercised an assibilating influence upon t, and then

extended to
the

softer

all cases

sound

of t followed by

o-.

the Laconian and Boeotian dialects

phanes (Lysistrata 86
in late Latin,

following

t,

c,

in a preference

i,

similar change of 5 to

vai

rm

a-im,

before

o-

in

evidenced by Aristo-

is

cp. also

Ach. 906).

Similarly

and in the modern languages derived from


d,

for
i

it,

assibilated the preceding consonant, so that

by the seventh century

a. d.

-tio, -cio

were both pronounced -sho

(whence our pronunciation of words like nation, musician).

The

Italians, again,

pronounce

ci like

English

ch, gi as j,

and

have Marzo from Martins, palazzo from palatiwm, mezzo from


while the French have

medius ;
vowels
ci,

ti

also,

e. g.

assibilated

chamhre from camera.

before

spelling of such

words

as eondieio

and
;

other
of

assibilation

sometimes assumed to have taken place ia

is

times, from the confusion between -cio

MS.

This

-tio

classical

found in the

this confusion being

further applied as an argument for the soft pronunciation of

Latin c before

i^.

But

this variety of spelling

due partly to doubts as to etymology, partly to the


of' ci, ti

in popular pronunciation at the time

MSS. were

written.

Inscriptions (by far the

in

MSS.

when the extant

most trustworthy

guide in orthography) show no such variety of spelling


comparatively late times, the change of
.

and

ci

ti

and then

was
'

not appearing

much

till

and interchange of

before the seventh century A.D.,

chiefly in Gallic inscriptions.

earlier

ci

is

assibilation

The change

of

ti (to si)

and more general in the vulgar Latin and other

Eoby, 'Latin Grammar,' Preface, pp.

ments,' Introd.

iii.

23-26.

xlviii-1;

Wordsworth, 'Frag-

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

Italian dialects

but (according to Corssen, who has gone most Consonant

elaborately into the evidence

speech of educated

much

traceable

79

Romans

was not established in the Assimiia-

it

')

the fourth century a.d., though

till

earlier in isolated forms, e. g. Acherunsius for

Acheruniios, Hortensius (in' old Latin Hortentius), and

many

names of towns in -Msio, -edo, cp. with others in -entio, -untio


compare also viciens from vicesiens=vicensiens for vicentiens.
There is no variety, in the most trustworthy inscriptions of
words as dido, condicio,

earlier periods, in the spelling of such

solacium, patricius, tribunicius, contio, nvmtius, indutiae, otium,

negotium,

setius.

(4) Dissimilation.

two simZor Consonant

Dissimilation, or the euphonic change of one of

sounds whose concurrence displeases the


said, of

One

comparatively rare occurrence.

both Greek and Latin

becoming or;

(avvTo)

Latin

rd, S6,

i(rTa>p= f'lBTOip

66 becoming

regular

in

case

the change of a dental mute before

is

another dental mute at the beginning of a


6t

has been Dissimiia-

ear, is, as

mmos,

sufe

Thus

o-fl.

tt,

7rciiT6fivm=7ri6T6s, 'irfid-6rivm

in

est^ed-ti

equester =: equit-ter,

claustrum=^claud-trwm,,

and

8t,

a.m<TTos^= awT-ros

In Greek, again, one of two aspirate sounds close


Tt-6rjiJ.t,
6l-di)ixi becomes
e. g.
together is 6ften dissimilated
(edo).

c-6v-6rjv

becomes

irvdrjv,

and

from the preceding aspirate in


cated

of verbs

syllable

consonant sound

is

of imperative Kkv6t becomes

-61

tu<^5?/ti, iTa>6r]Ti.

beginning with two consonants, the

lost (e. g.

for

ektoi/o

k^-ktovo,

tyvioKa

yiyvaKo) probably from the tendency to Dissimilation.


in
I

Latin the termination


precedes

volgaris ;

e. g.

and

In the redupli-

-alis

for

Lastly,

changed to -oris when an

is

but puellaris, popularis,

mortalis, lateralis,

Pa/rilia a variety of Palilia {Pahs).

Besides the changes which result in


-.

,,

the substitution of a changes due


..

toindistinct

weaker for a stronger sound, there are others which seem to utterance.
be due to indistinctness of utterance, in the pronunciation of'
sufficient clearness

words without
letter

its

other recognised letter


'

'

and sharpness

'In this

proper sound.
is

at

first

Feber Ausspraohe,'

case,'

heard;

etc.,

i.

to give each

says Mr. Peile, 'no

but an indefinite

pp, 49-67.

8o

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

amount

of indistinct sound

is

[chaf.

produced after the letter thus

relaxed pronunciation become


common, often takes the form of the nearest sound in the
existing alphabet^
Thus two letters grow out of one; and
a word is often actually increased.' As examples of this

which in time,

slurred;

if this

introduction of additional sound through indistinct pronuncia-

we have

tion,

(following Peile's enumeration), (i) 'LabiaUsm,'

the change from k to p, (2)


Parasitica

[for

Dentalism/ the change from kio

'

both these phenomena see above, pp.

sertion of a parasitic

a before y or

we have

ay,

i.

(^)

.so, f,i\.

The

in-

already seen

becomes f by partial assimilation of y to the weak


dental spirant z : and when we find in Greek ^vy-hv, but in
(p.

all

76),

the cognate languages y of root yug or

its

regular substitute,

seems warranted that somehow or other a d

the conclusion

sound, not radical, became heard before the


this combination

dy was avoided by passing

to

y,

and that thus

f,

as in the cases

Curtius ('Griechische Etymologic,' p. 551 sq.

already noticed.

second edition) gives examples of various forms arising, as he

from the combination of y with a parasitic d arising

thinks,

from indistinct articulation


yam), in

which

is

and

fa/iAr

8 radical.

Cvfo)

(a) C in fuyoi', in CvH'^" (root

e. g.

(Sanskrit ytisha, Latin ius), in none of

The double verb forms

plained by Curtius on the same principle

from aya with the


it

may

loss of y, it is

-Sw-s,

assumed that before y feU out


a very ingenious and

have given rise to a parasitic 8

not impossible explanation.

8(,

(6)

-afa, -cuo are also ex-

-aa being a variation

in the adjectival termination

which Curtius regards as arising from the common

or -yo-;

termination

this

vowel, after which the sounds

would be

and the etymology

original -ryo-:

The same
where 8

difficult to

is

pronounce

weakened from

at best very doubtful.)

is

applies to a few terminations in -Seor,

e.

dSekcjji-Seos,

not radical, but an original ryo might also be

assumed,

(c)

remains,

e. g.

Upabya

10

(Others, however, consider that -810- is

clearly.

-to-

being always preceded by a

-810-

dy doses the

(lepdfo)),

in

the

original y, so that parasitic

Boeotian SuyAK

or Upaya (lepam).

for

bvyiai is

the theory of the rise of f in ivyiv.

but

C^yov,

d only

iepdSSm

for

strong evidence for

we can hardly

feel

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]
;

8i

enough, certainty either as to orisfinal form or meaning to Parasitic <


beforej^ori.
1
,.
^
,
pronounce a verdict upon other
cases to wnich Curtius applies
.,

his theory

e.g.

the particles

Si;,

8riv

and

suffixes -8e

modifications of (p)ye from the pronominal root ya

in

-Sov, -driv, -8a,

-j8-,

patronymics in

-8a,

and nominal stems in

as arising from the adjectival suffix ya

The

rarity

and

(lo)

-fe as

or adverbs

-a8- or

with a parasitic

however of d and great frequency of

i/{j) as

8.

an

element in stem-formations of Indo-European languages make


it difficult to find any other way of harmonising these Greek
forms with those of kindred languages and it is fairly urged by
Curtius and his supporters that a process which every one allows
:

in

some

cases (e.g. ^vyov

and

8vy6v, cp.

with iug-um)

at least

is

possible in others'^(4)
^ '

The

aspiration
of unaspirated
*
'

words where Aspiration of

letters (in
^

unaspirated'

none of the cognate languages exhibit an aspirate or its sub- letters.


stitutes) is found to some extent both in Sanskrit and Greek ;
a parasitic h being produced, most commonly by influence of

an adjoining nasal or liquid or preceding


K\ei6poi>

(the

cr,

suffix -Tpov), Tecj>-pa (Latin

as in 4)pm8os

tep-eo), 'Xix-vos

luc-eo), e^atipvrjs (i^amvrjs), (rxiC'" {scid in sci(n)do),


a6k-va> (if

beyond mere

laziness operatkig irregularly,

some words permanently,


sap-io).

(Xuk-,

and perhaps

a strengthened form of sta which in Sanskrit becomes

In other cases no cause for the change

stha).

{ttpo),

e.g. ^\ecf>apov,

and

<ro<^or,

is

apparent

affecting only
a-aip^s

(sap- of

In Latin the aspirates had early disappeared

but

word seems to have


Latin
and
Greek.
Both
peoples left out the
both
in
known
been
aspirate where it ought to begin a word, and in both there was
a tendency to replace it where it had no right to be ; just as in
irregular aspiration at the beginning of a

vulgar English the h

is

often regularly dropped,

as regularly inserted before a vowel where it

is

and almost

not required.

There seems to have been a tendency in Greek to aspirate an


initial v, e.g. v8<op, imo, va-npos, a tendency which is intelligible
if

we

suppose the sound of v to have been something like

' Examples of a similar phenomenon in other languages are


Italian
diacere, diacinto, maggiore (from Latin jacere, hyacinthus, major) ; Modern
Greek Sidm ^(oidxioy); Gothic daddja (0. H. 6. tajH ; Skt. dhayami).

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

Sa

German
right

which

m,

rj/iets

fas in Attic

The Aeolic

it.

Greek (other
with

ifxapreiv (Attic); cp.

dialects

to account for the aspirate,

which

where

'Ikkos,

'

repre-

equus, etc;

having smooth breathing);

(Epic)

rjii^poTov

i/ieis,

with

cases, e.g. mrros, cp.

probably

(17^"*) is

Sfi/ies

resting on a false analogy from

In other

sents y.

pronounce without a breath

to

difficult

is

out before

slipping

[chap.

there seems nothing

perhaps due to mere mistake.

is

In Latin the insertion of h was of later date, never being


-r.
i t
according to Corssen, upon Republican inscriptions.

lAspiration
in Latin.

found,

After

jp, e, t,

occurs chiefly in Greek words, but not before

it

About

and not generally before 50 B.C.


there appears to have begun a tendency to
100

tion,

B.C.

and also in writing, a superfluous h

this period

insert in pronuncia:

thus Cicero (Orat.

Eomans

48, 160) says that at one time he spoke as the old

triumpos, but afterwards conformed to

did, pulcros, Cetegos,

the ordinary practice and said Pyrrhus, Phryges (not as Ennius


wrote, Burrus, Bruges)
etc.

ridiculing

sepulcra, coronas, lacrimas,

still

pronunciation

the

and according
in

but

Catullus wrote a well-known epigram (Ixxxiv. ed. Ellis)

his time

to QuintUian

O.

i.

e. g.

hinsidias, etc.

20) some inscriptions

hoc

In

cehtury a.d. and onwards) the

irregularity is seen,;^ being omitted

random,

5,

had choronae, chenturiones, praechones.


(fourth

inscriptions

chommoda,

of

(I.

(ac),

late

utmost

and inserted almost

at

hornat, Jiextricata, haditus, hauctoritas,

from which we infer great confusion

omini, abitat, inospita ;

and uncertainty in the use of the aspirate in the ordinary pronunciation of those
Italian the

is

who

cut the inscriptions.

not sounded at

In MSS. of the best


of grammarians

there

modem

authors and in the writings

classical
is

Pinally in

all.

a good

deal of uncertainty in

spelling of particular words, the errors

the

being more often in

omission of h (from reaction, probably, against the tendency


noticed by Cicero and Catullus).

example, of the following words

hordeum, haruspex,

is

Tiedera, erus,

The

preferable spelling, for

harundo, harena,
uments, umor

heres, holus,

but

all

these

ate constantly spelt otherwise in the best MSS.^


' See Munro's 'Lucretius,' Introd. to Notes, I;
Kennedy's
Appendix E, pp. 607-609 (ist ed.).

'Virgil,*

Changes and Modijieatioiis of Sounds,

IV.]

(5) Auxiliary
M-

A
An

is

83

Vowels (prefixed or inserted^


/

-i

Auxiliary
vowels.

auxiliary (inorganic) vowel, purely pnon-etic in its origin,

found most frequently before

an explosive sound

t,

it,

^.

protracted or

sound has something of a vowel character

fricative

about

p. 32)

and rarely before

X, p, n, v,

never before

and

it,

(see above,

therefore easy for a vowel to slip out

it is

momentary

before such a sound; whereas before a

(explosive^

sound the vowel must be deliberately and consciously sounded.


This additional ('prosthetic') vowel

sometimes found at the

is

beginning, sometimes in the middle, of a word

or

e,

less

often as o or

(a) initial;

star,

o-naipa)

Stern, our

i-'Xaxos

i-pM, cp.

with

seldom as

Latin

d-arfip (cp.

German

i,

poi

/xc,

(stem ma)

easier

form of

o-vopa

i-iie,

Homeric
(Sanskrit namau, Latin

dBe'Xa,

^eXw ;

Sp.ipa\os=:o-vd(j>a\os (navel); o-Boiis

In these and

dens, Sanskrit dantah).

number

Vedic Sanskrit

(an

a-o-jralpa

oftenest as a

(Sanskrit laghu-s, Latin levis=legu-is);

iftpyeiv, iFfiKocri, iFeporj, etc,

nomen);

stella>-=^ster-ula,

sta/r)

Examples in Greek

v.

the

(stem

oSovt-,

Latin

similar cases (a limited

in all) the vowel seems to be merely phonetic, the result

of careless articulation.

Here the case

Medial.

(6)

the fuller form

is

not always so clear, because

may sometimes be

the older and have lost

Thus 6peya> quoted by Schleicher (Comp.

vowel.

to a root arg with

inserted, is as likely to be

(Latin reg-o) with an initial prefix


e\6-), aK-i-^a> (oXk!],

the conjugation of

o.

from a root rag

aK{e)yeivas, ^\-v-6ov (root

Latin are-eo), are more probable cases.

many

verbs

we

find

its

46), as referable

In

a secondary stem formed

by the phonetic addition of e alternating with the original stem.


Sometimes the enlarged stem forms the present, the shorter
stem the other

o'X-j

tenses, as yrjO-, yr]6i-a>, yeyq6-a; 8ok-, SoKe-a, 8e-

sometimes vice versa, as pax-, pdx-o-pai, i-pax^-a-aprjv,


(Curtius' Greek Grammar, 325, 6).
o'Lxo-pai, olxri-a-opai.

Soy-p/u

In Latin there
prefix

enim

(cp.

is

but

little

evidence of a vowel as a phonetic

nam) and e-quidem {quidem) being almost the

only instances.
(6) Insertion of Auxiliary Consonants.

In Greek between

vp,

pp,

p\; ap-S-pbs=dvpos (stem dvep-);

G 2

Auxiliary

Changes cmd Modifications of 8ov/nds>

84

fieoTifi^pla

iiearjiipia

{fmepa)

aii^p&ros^anpoTOs

Latin mor-);

/iEjuj3Xti)(ca=/iic/iXti)Ka

fi^poT6s=:p.poT6s

the

(stem po\-).

for it^Xirra^p^XiT-ya

/3X/tt(b

[chap.
(stem

^poros

ppo-,

for

is

in both cases

is parasitic.

ms

In Latin p between

hiemps, swmpsi.

In modern languages French gendre

Hamal

(gener), nonibre

{nwne-

humble {hwmUis), Ambleside {=Hamal-seat ;

English

rus);

being a Norse name), are examples of similar phonetic

insertion of

h,

d.

In the foregoing pages an attempt has been made to refer


most of the changes of sound that have been noticed to one
uniform principle,
National
peouUaritKS
of utterance,

the tendency to

viz.

weak

and

articulation

But in tracing

must be remembered that

the desire to secure the easiest ^pronunciation.


the operation of such tendencies

it

the diflSculty of uttering a particular sound varies with different


tribes

and nations.

want of

practice

deliberately

permanent
lish)

or

shapes

different

sometimes from

varieties of pronunciation, unless

successfully fought

Hence

(to"

against,

'

'

certain sounds or classes of sounds are pre-

are

and in

more or

this way,

less

frequently or

on the separation of

from a common stock, the same words take

among

become

take examples from Eng^

who cannot pronounce r, who lisp' the


who pronounce i; as w and vice versa. And

avoided'',
:

defect,

people

s as th,

pronounced
tribes

or

peculiarities '.

so with nations
ferred

we know, with

as

varies,

and such

corrected

we have

sound of

It

sometimes from organic

individuals

seldom
different

difierent

ambiguous or intermediate

different tribes, the

sounds being differently fixed or differently developed.


Professor

Max

171-183,

etc.,

Miiller's

will

Lectures,

Series

II.

Lecture

In

iv.

pp.

be found a number of illustrations (a) of

the absence or presence of certain

sounds in the speech of

particular nations, (b) of the different shapes which the

root exhibits in different languages

from which a few

same

selections

are here made.


(a)

The dentals seem


'

'

to be the easiest sounds

they are the

See Max Muller's ' Lectures,' II. Leot. iv.


Whitney, 'Life and Growth of Laoaguage,' p. 72.


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

ly.]

85

most universally employed and are the first uttered by children.


But it is said that the dental media d does not occur in Chinese
nor in three American dialects. Again, some of the Polynesian
(Turanian) languages have no gutturals, and some North
American dialects no labials
while in the language of the
Sandwich Islands the gutturals and dentals are indistinguishable.
The tenues and mediae are not distinguished in the
'

Polynesian dialects, and

who

are often confused

say Tavit for David, pet for led.

by the Welsh,

many

Sanskrit shows

weakened forms of consonants, due perhaps in some measure


the effects of the eneirating climate of India:

to

palatal sibilant

tion of

^ (s' or s) which

arises

the

e.g.

from careless pronuncia-

without bringing the root of the tongue firmly against

the back of the palate;

or the 'palatal' sounds ^,

*I

(Jc,

g)

which are weakenings of k and g respectively. Sanskrit has


the aspirated mediae gh, dh, bh, which were difficult sounds
to most other Indo-European nations (see above, p. 34).
retains the aspirated tenues Xt

^j 'P-

Greek

Latin has neither.

The

comparative peculiarities of Latin and Greek with respect to

sounds have already been noticed

final

The

(p. 7 2).

same root in different languages


may be illustrated by 'Grimm's Law' of regular interchange
between (i) Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin taken as one group,
(5)

(2)
(3)

variation of the

Gothic and

Low German

High German and

its

dialects

(including

stock (including

English),

modern German);

the one having an aspirated mute (or fricative representing the


aspirate)

The

where the second has a media and the third a

following formula will express this law

tenuis.

Grimm's


86
Grimm's

Changes and Modifications of Sounds,

regular illustration.

below, p. 91

I.

rGreek B
ILatin /

[chap.

Fuller illustrations are given in the table


IV.]

Changes and Modifications of Sounds,

87

English door, Grerman Thor (Old High Grerman


exceptional, did not 6vpa, fores

an

original

aspirate

show that d

of

tor), would be Grimm's


dvHra represents

in Sanskrit budhna (depth),


German bodam), b represents bh

So

dh.

(English bottom. Old High


of Indo-European bhudJma.

The

process

of this

'

Lautverschiebung,' or Dislocation of

Consonants, between the languages in question,

is

thus traced

by Professor Max Mliller (Lectures, Series II. Lecture v).


T. The physiological analysis of sound shows, at each of the Original proji

.....

I,

tnree points 01 consonantal contact, four possible varieties

pronunciation

hard sound

viz.

a soji sound Grimm's

or

(tenuis),

cess of the
ofcliangesfor.

by an audible emission of breath immeutterance of the hard or soft sound. Thus we

(media), or aspiration
diately after

have

Guttural

k, kh, g, gli.

Dental

t,

Labial

p, ph, b, hh.

The development

2.

between these

th, d, dh.

and maintenance

of,

varieties of

of,

the distinction

articulation is characteristic of the

increasing development of languages, in which

new

ideas are

constantly requiring expression, and the phonetic organs are

consequently driven to

new

when

the

There was probably a time

Indo-European peoples

no aspirates at all
at more than one

which gradually assume

devices

a settled and traditional form.

(as

and while some

un-separated) had

yet

dialects

never arrived

ignored them

aspirates, others

set of

al-

together or lost them again in course of time.

But it seems
likely that before the separation of the Indo-European peoples,
some of them at any rate had elaborated a threefold modificatenuis, media, and aspirate
thus
tion of consonantal contact

many

securing in
tear,'

The

dhar,

'

cases (e.g. the roots tar, 'to cross,' dar, 'to

to hold') distinct utterances for distinct expressions.

distinction thus gained

media, and aspirated media

was kept up in Sanskrit by

tenuis,

and

tenuis,

(t,

media, and aspirated tenuis


the aspirates had

d,
(r,

dh)
8,

6).

not been realised at

all,

in

But

Greek by
in

Latin,

where

the distinct utterance

of the third (or aspirated) variety of consonantal sound would

88
Grimm's

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

Thus

naturally be lost.

[chap.

(to take a case -where only

two

roots,

one containing an aspirated sound, had to be distinguished) in

we have da-d.9,-mi, 'I give,' and da-dhfl,-mi, 'I place;'


Greek keeps up the distinction in Sl-Sa-fu and ri-ffrj-fu; Latin
is obliged to give it up, and retains only one of the two roots
in da-re, to give,' replacing the other by different words, such
Sanskrit

'

as facere or ponere.
to the root dhd,

But

credere, eondere, abdere

who had no

point back

to place,' as having existed originally in Latin

The Teutonic

cognate languages.

in other

as

'

tribes

again,

aspirates, tried nevertheless to maintain the dis-

tinction between the threefold varieties of consonantal contact,

which had come to them

Aryan (Indo-European)

as

'

the phonetic inheritance of their


:'

forefathers

and

it

in

is

their

deavours to supply the place of the aspirates in words

en-

common

them with the other Indo-European nations that Professor

to

Max

Miiller sees the first step in the progress of

Where

bung.'

aspirated tenues, Gothic (like Celtic

the

corresponding mediae.

tenues.
after,

None

another;

of these,

'

Lautverschie-

had aspirated mediae, and Greek

Sanskrit

and Sclavonic) preferred

High German the corresponding


however, borrowed from, or came

they are 'national varieties of the same type

or idea.'
3.

Thus

far

'

Lautverschiebung'

is

the

representation

of

by nations which did not possess them but


the stock of common Indo-European words which began with
mediae {g, b, d) and tenues (k, t, p) led to further changes
These nations having,
in Gothic and High German utterance.

aspirate sounds

as

we have

mediae and tenues respec-

seen, already used their

tively to supply the place of the

aspirates,

found themselves

The Goths, for instance, felt the distinction


between the two series of consonantal sounds which Sanskrit
kept distinct as gh, dh, bh and g, d, b ; but they had already
in a difficulty.

employed the second to denote the


keep them

first

and

so, in

order to

distinct, fixed this latter series g, d, b in their

national utterance as

k,

t,

p.

Then arose the same

own

difficulty

of maintaining distinct the third series of sounds which Sanskrit

and Greek had fixed as

h,

t,^p;

and the only remaining

ex-


Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

IV.]

89

pedient was to adopt the corresponding 'hard breaths'


,

}i,

<^, Grimm's

Law.

and/.
Similarly the

High German

tribes,

having taken the sounds

which Greek took as aspirate tenues

x, S,

driven to adopt the breaths

the second variety ; while

ch, z,

for the third variety nothing

however
replaced
If

in the guttural

by Gothic

we

tenues by

7i

and

f as

was

to be h,

t,

f, were

but the mediae, which

labial series

have constantly been

andy;

denote the aspirates by


(iii),

left

<p,

and the breaths by

exhibit the process just described

(i),

the mediae by

(iv),

(ii),

the

the following table will

Changes and Modifications of Sounds.

90

[chap.

are possibly examples on a large scale of that tendency to maintain tbe distinctive features of a

word against the

phonetic decay, an example of which


tory lengthening' of a syllable to

sound

is

seen in the

make up

for

influence of
'

compensa-

some

loss

of

and which may often be discerned in a struggle of the

intellectual or instructive desire to preserve those parts of a

word

that are characteristic of

tendency to reduce the

effort

its

meaning against the physical

of articulation.

General Table of G-rimm's Law.

Original Sounds.

IV.]

Changes cmd Modifications of Sounds.

a
^

!Z|

H
%

M
>

91

CHAPTER

V.

FOEMATION OF WOEDS.

LANGUAGE

Elements

words.

made up

is

of articulate sounds

combined into

These sounds, however, convey no meaning in thema few cases of interjectional sounds)

selves (except in

and

it

when words are formed that we have language properly


so called, the medium of communication between men, the
means of expression of human thought. Thus, although to
is

only

understand the changes and varieties in the outer form of


language,

and

their

necessary to investigate the nature of sounds

it is

production by the physical organs of voice

'Phonology' or 'Sound-Lore' of linguistic study;

mate
or

facts in

the

the ulti-

language regarded as an expression of thought

meaning are words

or

rather, the

elements,

or several

combiuations of sounds expressive of meaning, into which a


careful
Analysis of

'

analysis

shows that

Morphology' or

'

Eadicaiand divided into 'radical'


elements.

^^^

all

Word-Lore

^.'

words can be divided

i.

e.

These elements are broadly

and 'formative'i.e. on the one hand,

word which gives its general meaning in


the simplest and most rudimentary form
on the other, all
portion of the

Some references to books which treat more fiilly of these questions


than is possible here, may be of service to the student. Thus, on Phonology
Schleicher, 'Compendium,' 1-204; I'crrar, 'Comparative
Grammar,' ch. i-vi. 1-86; Peile, 'Introduction to Greek and Latin
Etymology ;' Roby, Latin Grammar,' Book I. 1-302 Ourtius, (The
Student's) 'Greek Grammar,' | 1-99; and 'Elucidations,' pp. 17-47. 0"
Morphology: Schleicher, 205-241; Ferrar, ch. vii. viii. 87-127;
Koby, Book III. 740-999. In Curtius" 'Greek Grammar' and 'Elucidations the formation of Noun and Verb stems is treated as a part of
Noun and Verb Inflection.
:

'

'

Formation of Words.
those additions

to, other

vary or define or restrict this general


its

place among, and its relation

words combined into a sentence

The radical element

of thought.
root

wMch

adapt the word for

idea, or

93

of a

for

word

the expression
is

termed the

while under the term formative elements are included

(i) those modifications of the root either

by 'dynamic change'

or by the addition of suffixes (themselves originally independent

by which

roots),

it

becomes a Noun- or Verb-' Stem;'

(2)

the inflections expressive of Case, Number, or Gender, Tense,

Mood, or Person, by which these Noun- or Verb-Stems are


many various shades of meaning when

enabled to express so

placed in relation to each other as parts of a sentence.


[It should be noted here,' that this division into
L

of
Noun and Mvision
words into
^

Verb ('Nominal' and 'Verbal' Stems or Bases) is exhaustive Noun imd


In all Indo-European languages haustiYe.
of Indo-European words.
(and therefore in Greek and Latin) there are originally only
two kinds of words distinguished as noun (Si/ofia) and verb

The faculty
names {nomina,
and then leads him

man

him

(pfjiia).

of language

give

opofiara) as signs expressive of conceptions,

that

which

'is

to

said'

expressed by names.

in

form verbs

leads

first

to

{verba, pruiaTo) to express

about or predicated of the conception

All other

'

Parts of Speech' designated

by grammatical analysis have been developed out of one or


other of the two main classes of Nouns and Verbs. This is
sufiiciently obvious

with Adverbs, which are often merely

forms of existing nouns, substantive or adjective (e.g.


instar, torva iuens, irXeiov, n-Xfiora),

caseSiKijr,

and can generally be traced

back to archaic, or mutilated, or otherwise altered case-forms.


The same applies to Prepositions, which grammatical analysis

shows

to

from the

have

alike
originally adverbs \ separable
which they are used, and from the words

been

cases with

with which they are compounded in classical Greek or Latin;


many prepositions being still used in those languages as adverbs
So too with Conjunc(e.g. ante, cirenm, contra, extra, etc.)
tions
1

and aU

'Particles,'

though

it is

not always possible to

See Curtius' (The Student's) 'Greek Grammar,' 444-446; 'Eluci200-203,

dations,' ch. xvii. pp.

'

[chap,

Formation of Words.

94

words which, being in very constant

trace the original form in

use and not as the most essential words in a sentence, are

In words

the more liable to corruption and decay in utterance.

however such as

some

quam

quod, quia,

oti,

case form of qui;

hs

it

is

que

obvious;

is

evidently adverbial, and wt is

fs

wow = we wnum ; and we, nei


numbers of examples
might be produced, were we concerned now with more elaborate

merely
is

its

phonetic equivalent;

and

evidently a case form:

similarly,

proof of the statement here given '.]


Eoots.

By a ^root' we mean the simplest combination of sounds


which expresses the general meaning of any word or set of
kindred words, e.g. da is the root of Sanskrit da-d&-uii (Si'Sa^i),
da-mus, da-tur,

jug-um

Sanskrit da-tar

etc.,

nasal sound

(for the

(porrip), etc.

jug oiju{n)go,

in present stem cp. Xafipdva,

?-\aP-ov).

elements, suffixes and inflexions, which form

The formative

words from simple

roots,

are

Thus in SiSam, da-dt-mi, mi


pronominal element of
(=v&k-s),

s=sa

Thus every

first

person

E. word

several, or at least two

'

in

vox

The

roots.'

meaning in general;

{voc-s),

the

v&k

a whole gradually sprung from

is

first

in the ordinary acceptation of the term,


the

ma

Sanskrit

a weakened form of

demonstrative pronoun.

I.

independent roots.

originally

is

others

the

suffixes for expressing modifications of

i.

of these
e.

is

the

'

root

that which conveys

have degenerated into


meaning.

In the 'Isolating' or 'Radical' stage of language, the roots


remain separate and distinct

ma.

In Agglutinative languages the principal root remains the


same, but receives an addition in the form of a changeable
prefix, suffix, or infix

The

i-ma or i-mi.

Inflectional, or highest type of language, alters the prin-

cipal root (by reduplication or

of expression

N.B.

by raising the vowel)


^

for

purposes

ad,mi (Sanskrit emi), elm

simple root without modification

or addition of

suffix cannot form a word.

See Appendix II.


^

On

the three

'

stages

'

of linguistic growth, see ch.

ii.

pp, 4-8.

Formation of Words.

v.]

95

Roots are always monosyllabic ; and are distinguished


1.

Primary ;

2.

Seoonda/ry ;

yudh

e.g. i (go), ad, (eat),

da

(give),

yu

as

(join).

e.g. <M{i (strike), yv^g {jug, yoke, i.e. join),

flu (flow), ard (hurt), spac (see).


These secondary roots are probably in all cases (as evidently
yug, yudh, cp. with yu) modifications of primary roots, by the
(fight,

e.

i.

join battle),

addition of a letter or letters, expressing usually some extension

The

or limitation of the idea ^

additional element

been in some cases 'dynamic' (see above,


'

phonetic

'

i.

e.

may have
in others

a mere change of sound, afterwards turned to

account for the expression of meaning,


variation of the a-sound into a,

The primary

p. 51),

roots are the

e,

as

e.

the phonetic

g.

o (p. 36).

most important in the history

of language, but their predicative power being generally too


indefinite to

answer the purpose of advancing thought, they

were to a large extent encroached upon and supplanted by


secondary roots.
Philologists are not agreed
'root.'

Professor

root to be

'

upon the exact

Miiller (Lectures, I. p.

This, he says afterwards (Lectures, II. chap,

objected to as

making a root a mere

to explain the realities of language


in

one sense a root

we

is

an abstraction

abstraction,

These

efiects

we hear

in

the real force of roots

e.g.

we cannot

Max

replies that

for it is a cause,
its

effects,

that the root da, in

viz.

which
words.
itself.

and

some way

some necessary

yet explain, has

we cannot

iii.)

unfit

Miiller seems to maintain

connection with the idea of 'giving'

'phonetic types' which

and so

language, but not the root

the same time Professor

or other which

which he

to

only recognise and arrive at from

At

definition of a Definition of

215) states a
whatever cannot be reduced to a simpler or more

original form.'
is

Max

regards them as

as yet explain, but

which

alone give us definite forms on which to rest our enquiries into


language, standing between us and the

'

chaos of onomatopeia

^ e.
g. from root tar (whence Teiptu, tero, etc.) we get the modified forms
'not turned'),
(fro), tri (triticum), tru (rpioi, etc.), torh (torqueo, d-Tp6K-)js
tram (rpe/m)), trib (rptPco, tribula), trup ^Tpiiravov). Tra is a variety of

tar

tri

and tru are secondary, by modification of a to

i,

'

9^

formation of Words.

and

however

It seems

interjections.'

[chap.

roots,

them and the

as to the cannection between

we cannot know

that, as

with certainty the ultimate form of these

our speculations

ideas they express

little more than guess-work ^


Those therefore who disbelieve in the existence

can he

any chance of finding

in

roots and the ideas expressed


as

'

mere

abstractions,' as

which to
or

'

class

tickets

by them, prefer

headings

'

'

of

to consider roots

common

elements under

words belonging to the same family, as


After

of classification.

out in

find

languages

'

many
and

they

languages

in different

say,

forms

simplest

the

cases

if

all,

we

in the case of

natural power by which

An

idea.

labels

'

can only

in individual

we

find

simplest forms or roots to express the same idea,


to assume

or at least

of,

any necessary connection between

out,

different

it is

hard

any one of them any inherent or

it

connected especially with that

is

example of this view

may

be seen in Peile's

'

Intro-

duction to "Grreek and Latin Etymology,' where the definition

given^by Curtius of a root as 'that combination of sounds which

remains when a word


accepted
I

am

is

stripped of everythiag formative'

is

^.

inclined to think this latter view

the most consistent not

but with

science of language
said above (chap.

i.

pp.

at certain primitive

which we

cail

is

the safest, and

only with the present state of the

2, 3)

its

we

future

arrive

prospects.

by

As was

analysis of language

and elementary combinations of sounds,

'roots,^

and which, forming as they do the

common element in groups of connected or kindred words,


we speak of as conveying such and such a meaning. But we
must now, and I think always, accept
as

these

simplest forms

ultimate facts which Philology will never

explain to us.

Comparison of languages and analysis of words may now


' Mr. Peile puts this forcibly and clearly (' Introduction,' p. 42)
'That
there was some connection (between idea and form) originally I believe;
but I do not believe that it is ever discoverable with certainty and that it
was ever necessary, I deny.' And in support of this position he aptly
quotes M. R^nan's dictum (De I'Origine du Langage, p. 48), La liaison du
sens et du mot n'est jamais n^cessaire, jamais arbitraire, toujours elle est
:

'

motiv^e.'
^

Ch.

iii.

pp. 41-44 j(3rd

fid,).

Formation of Words.

'^J

97

and then point

to some simpler and more elementary form


than has yet been reached
but the prospect of finding out
the reason of such forms, and why they came to have the
:

meanings which they have in language,


altogether visionary, that

And

disregarded.

it

may

is

so remote, if not

for all practical purposes

therefore I prefer such

be

a description or

definition of roots as assumes nothing with regard to their


inherent power of expressing particular meanings, and whether

under the
takes

On

title

them

of 'abstractions,' 'labels,' or 'simplest forms'

as facts, but unexplainable facts.

this view, then, a root

may

be defined as

the simplest Definition

'

ascertained combination of sounds, which expresses the general

meaning

of

any word or

kindred words in one or more

set of

Indo-European languages ^.'


Koots are for the most p&rt
ideas of action, state, etc.

'pronominal or

'

'

ideas as

'

here,'

'

demonstrative

there,'

'

'

predicative,' i.e. expressive of

but there

this,'

'

'

he,'

'

I,'

number

a limited

is

roots (expressive

e. g.

of

of such

which cannot be

etc.),

traced back to predicative roots and must be considered inde-

pendent of those ordinarily

These pronominal roots

so called.

enter considerably into the formation of inflections


of the pronouns

and pronominal

some adverbs and

particles

^,

as well as

conjunctions and

(i. e.

prepositions).

' The distinction between roots, stems, and words may be shortly put
The root is the original part of the word, giving a certain idea
thus
the stem is that idea more closely defined to a certain bearing of it ; the
inflected form (or word) is the complete word as used iii speech in connection with other words in a sentence.
Compare Elucidations to Curtius'
:

'

Greek Grammar,' Translator's Preface,

p. vii.

*
list of Indo-European pronominal roots is given in Leo Meyer's
Vergleichende Grammatik,' I. pp. 324-335 cp. Perrar, 'Comp. Gram.'
The following are among the more important of these roots and
95.
their derivatives a, whence probably the augment (in Sanskrit a), and
possibly ifoi, aafii-s (^/lefs), etc.; i, in i-d, i-pse, i-ta, etc.; hva (who),
'

Skt. ka-s, Gk. ris, Lat. quis; irais. Ion. kois, ica-l (a locative), Kfv ; ta
(demonstrative), whence Gk. rhv, t^v, rb, oBtos, etc., Lat. ia-te, ipse, (for
;
da-, whence iro-Sa-7ris, o-Si, qiumdo, qwi-dam,
sa (demonstrative), Gk. 6, r), &^a( ; na, an, ana, whence Gk.
pa, in a-ir&, irapoL,
vvy, hv, fv, avd, Lat. nos, ne, nwm, in, etc.

ip-te), turn, tarn, item, etc.

unde, etc.

vii, vlv, vii,

bha, in Skt. inflections, -bhyas, -bhyam, and


-bhis, Gk. ^^t>l, and Lat. -his, -bus of dat. abl. plur. ; ma, tva, and sva
of 1st and 2nd pers. and reflexive pronoun.
irepJ,

ab, pro, per, etc.;

of

Formation of Words.

98
stems.

Stems

[chap.

'bases' or 'themes') arise from roots

(also called

by

modification of the root-vowel, or addition of formative suffixes.

Roots express a possibility (potentiality) of

The stems

action.

formed from them denote for verbs the action

itself,

for

nouns

the person, state, or thing concerned in or resulting from that

Thus the root 6?a= giving

action.
ha-y.1,

giver

cZo
;

I give

'

Sd-o-ii

is

da-d&-mi,

(potential);

of giving

'

inflections

(i. e.

'

declension or conjugation

withdrawn.

Inflections are the alterations in or additions to a word, to

InSections.
it

di-

= the person giving, the


do-nwm = thing given. The

da-tor

most readily detected by observing what

is

remains when the

So-njp,

'

= state

stem of a word

ending)

for difierent functions as parts of a sentence

fit

common

the

part which remains the same under these different uses being

Thus

the stem.

dominus

in Xdyos,

N.

\<57o

G.

K6yo-syo, \6yo-iOf \6yo'0 (\.6yov).

J).

K6yo-oif \6yip.

A.
v.

\6yo-y.

s.

\6yo- (stem used inter] ectionally, and o sinks to

The common part

\oyo-

is

the stem

the root

is

e).

Xey- seen in

Xf-y-fl).

N.

domino-s,

dominus.

Gr.

domino-i,

domini.

D.
A.

domino-i,

domino

domiuo-m,

dominum.

Abl. domijio-o,

domino.

v.

doming

domino-,

The common part dominoseen in dom-a-re,

befi-av, etc.

(or

illo-i, illi).

(as above).

the stem

is

-ino- is

the root

suffix

is

dom-

added to the root

to form a nominal base or stem.


Distinction

Word.

[Note that the stem

is

distinct

from the

inflected

word, and

must not be confounded even with the Nominative Case,


aaxppov- (seen in oblique cases a-&<l>pov-os, k.t.X.) is the
(ra<f>pav,

rrmlier

Case.]

npaynar-

of Trpayfut

have dropped the

final

and Latin words


-s

indicating

like

e. g.

stem of
consul,

the Nominative

Formation of Words.

v.j

So vox:=vdc-s.
voc-

The root is v8c- (seen


by modification of the root-vowel.

(pa-Ti-s (speech, report), root

tion

The same root

-s.

(pa is

99
in v5c-o)

nominal

(j)a- ;

the stem

Analysis of

suffix -n-, inflec-

lengthened to form a verbal stem

the nominal stem is <^aTu.


So in the formation of Verbs :

(prj-fil

eifu (ibo)

inflection

root

i (in

tfiev)

stem

el,

by modification of root

-/ii.

root

'6p-vv-iu,

Inflection

ia-.

verbal

op-,

Root and stem

Sanskrit asmi.

elju {su'm)=^i<Tfu {Aeolie),

this case identical)

(in

-fu.

-m- to form the present

suffix

stem.
(ftevy-o)

Root

(f>(iy-a>-iti.

to form the present stem

'

<f>vy-

(in -(f)vy-ov, 2 aor.) modified

inflection -/u

'

thematic vowel,' in-

creasing the stem before inflection, -a- (appearing also as o in


in

(fievy-o-nev, e

and

(j)fvy-e-Tf,

Jer-i-muSj/er-u-nt)

0,

i,

in Latin,

g. Jir-o=:<j)ep-a>,

e.

^.

[Note that in the Conjugation of verbs we must distinguish


Verbal-stems

difierent

common element

the'

Thus

verb.

stem

-Tvir-

'

common
perfect

'

the

'

generally

called

Tvirra)

(seen in 2 aor. e-Tvn--ov)

to

all

stem

we have
the

'

the

'

pure verbal

present stem

the

'

weak

aorist

stem

'

nmr-

'

forms of present and imperfect tense


tctv^-

'

forms of the same

a number of

of

in the scheme of

the

-rvijra-,

and

strong aorist stem' -nm- identical with the 'pure verbal

The

stem.'

fuller

consideration

head of Verb-Inflection (chap,

now by way

of these will

viii),

fall

under the

and they are enumerated

only of illustration.]

There are four main processes of word-formation from roots


viz.

(Tense-

Tense-Stems,' each

'

(i) Redwplication

in

imitative

names and perfect stems,

etc.

(2) Internal

Change by 'raising' or 'intensifying' the

root-

vowel.
^

In the

u)

abandoned

for

e,

work the earlier view of Curtius that this


a 'connecting vowel' was adopted ; but has now been
reasons given below (eh. viii).

firat

i,

(0,

is

edition of this

Word-formation.

'':

loo

[chap.

Formation of Words.

(3) Addition

of Suffiooes.

(4) Composition,

i.e.

the formation of two or

more words

into

one.

Of these
(4)

We

is

and

(2) have been considered and illusDynamic Change (chap. iv. pp. 51-55)
generally treated of in the grammar of each language.

processes (i)

trated under the head of

'

'

are now, therefore, concerned mainly with (3) Addition of

Suffixes.

This term

suffix

'

is

'

applied by writers

different elements in word-formation,

carefully

Thus we speak of

distinguished.
1.

on philology to

which must be

of Inflection, i.e. the 'Inflections' properly so


nouns and person-endings of verbs.

'Suffixes^

called ; the case-endings of

These will be considered at length in chaps,


'Formative

2.

are formed

'

Suffixes,'

bases

'

or

'

vi-viii.

by the addition of which to

And

stems.'

'

roots

as bases or stems are either

verbal or nominal (above, p. 93), so the formative suffixes

be divided into

The

a.

'

verbal ' and

'

nominal

verbal suffixes are chiefly -ya (ja) and

from which are formed the verb-stems of

many
'

other) verbs in Greek,

may

suffixes.'

and of the

all

aya

{-aja),

the contracted (and


second, and fourth

first,

Appendix to

conjugations ' in Latin [see below, in the

this

chapter].
6.

The nominal

more important
nominal stem

is

more numerous a list of the


Not unfrequently a
used to form a verb as well as a noun e. g. 0wsuffixes are

given on pp. 102, 103.

is

formed from ^uXqk-, the nominal stem of ipvka^ {<f>v\aK-s),


acu-o from acu-, the nominal stem of acu-s (a needle). Such

Xdo-o-o) is

verbs are called nominal (sometimes denominative) verbs.


3.

Stem

perhaps originally

Suffixes, a class of verbal suffixes

formative like ya and aya ; but unlike these, found only in the
present and kindred tenses.
sper-no, SfU-vv-iit, etc.)

Such are na, nu

ska (verbs in

-ctko),

-sco)

{jiap-va-fiai,

ta (p,\cm-T-a>,

and according to Schleicher the thematic


vowel a (bhar-ft-xni, <f)cp-a>[iu), etc.). Most common however as
TtK-T-o), necto, etc.)

a stem-suffix

is

in doKea, yaiiea,

ya

'

(Ja),

appearing as

in

and certain other verbs

l8-l-a>,

in eu

Sa-Ua, etc.

which are

as

distin-

Formation of Words.

v.]

loi

guished from the regular formation with aya by having this


suffix confined to the present
(p.

stem ; and passing by assimilation

104) into X\ {paKK(ii:=.^aKya),

etc.,

<r<T

or rr ((^vXao-o-a)=0vXaK-y<i),

see p. 75), or f (iK'Kl^ai=:e\m'&-ya>)

and in the verbs in io


etc.), and

of the third conjugation in Latin {cap-i-o, fug-i-o,


(possibly) after assimilation in pello, curro, etc.

ya is altogether
or aya which, as we have already seen,

cult to believe that this

formative verbal suffix;

It seems

distinct
is

diffi-

from the -ya

the most

common

though of course such distinction

is

possible.

Of the

origin of

all

these suffixes nothing more

is

known than

that the verbal suffixes were probably for the most part ordinary

or
'

'

predicative

'

roots, the

nominal

pronominal' or 'demonstrative'

suffixes for the

roots.

most part

APPENDIX TO CHAPTEE

V.

A. List of Nominai Suffixes ^

Derivative

ya

i.

(Greek

(^ja)

-lo,

Latin -io):

sign of feminine; (l>fpovaa


-va {vo),

2.

ar of

ara/re),

For

van=Fo,

(j)epoVT-ja,

Fov: ala>v=alFi>v,

aevum

m-vum

(root

eldas^ elB-FoT-s.

pass.

-ana,

Infin.

-na

Teprjv

donum, somnus (sop-nus)

et/ia=:

par tic. mid.

infin. eB-pfvai

jpecten ;

\c\onrevM,

-ivai;

-vai,

(-fvs),

6vp6s, rKiipMv,

serrao(n)j

4. -cm,
Ti&ovTi.

Tiprj,

forma, animus,
SM/ievos, alumnus (aXo/ifvos)

Spiia^oTTpaT

Fio-pjiT,

(jje'pevm

As

ingeriiti/m.

ft4\mva=^n\avja,

vacuus (vac in vac-m-e).

-ma, -mo, -mon, -mat, -m,eno

3.

and

&y-io-s, iimpa-=.ii6pja, Sa-a-a^

eadmius, coniugium, (root iug of iugum),

oKJa,

(Homer).
iKav&s,

Spyavo-v,

aTrjvai,

(pepeiv

^z

(jicpevi

part, in -dus, -on-do, -en-do,

-un-do.
-ta,

5.

adject.

-to,

in

-tat,

iroKirqi,

adject.,

part,

subst.,

koXtos, secta ;

and verbal

pass.,,

k\v-t6s, yvoo-xos,

ama-tus

veorris

(ve6T7]Ts), civitas (eivitat-s).

-tar, -ter, -tor, -tra,

6.

ship and
prjTpa
ic-s

nomima

agentis

pater, victor (or

victrix).

Part.

actionis ; sapultura,
7.
(fiva-is

-ti,
;

-si,

etc. in

etc.,

'

in words expressive of relation-

Trarrjp,

(ftpirmp,

with additional

fut.

stem -tu^o

a-iorrip,

tortop,

larpos,

suffix for fern. vict(o)r-

and feminine nomina

usura (ut-tura).

nomina

messis {=^m,et-ti-s),

actionis

vectis, potis,

liij-Ti-s

(root

/xa),

(pd-n-s

compos (compot-s), dos

' Fuller particulars may be found in Schleicher,


231 (pp. 361-463 German third edition).

'

Compendium,' 215-

Appendix

mens

(dots),

boKifiacria

Further formations

(ment-s).

Latin

Chapter V.

to

in -tus, whence supines in -U7n and

stantival use.
statua, etc.

-iuo
-tu-ti,

-u, dictu,

appara-tus, soni-tu-s,

cp.

secondary Suffix in

-avvri (-Twr)),

In Latin mucli commoner

a-vvr], 8iKaio-(Tvvrj .

etc.

e. g.

of purely sub-

a further formation in mortuus,

(-tva),

-tudon or -tu-din in servi-iut-is, dltitudinis.

and

e.g.

JcrTas^^tfrrair-s

6eis=6evT-s.

-ovcra:=ovT-ja.

10.

Greek fem.

formation in praesentia corresponds to

-es,

gener-is),

i>v^

aor.

So Latin
in prae-sens, sens^es-ent-s(e(r-ovT-s) ; and the

i(T-6vT-, dovo-a=ze(r-ovT-ja;

further

fivrjiio-

verbal nouns

ama-tum, casum^

etc.

9. -ant, -ent, -ont in partic. act. of pres. fut.

-ens^ent-s

femin. Bv-ma,

-<Tia

-tio, -tia, initio, servitio, justitia.

8. -tu, Pparil-s, aa-TV

cad-ium,

103

'

-OS,

-us in neuters, yivos, genus (genitive yev({a)-os,

ijfevSfis

(stem

-es

in neuter

yjrtvSes

and genitive \jfevSi(a-)os,

Masculines in -or=os, sopor, honor, labor [honos.

i^cuSoCs).

labos).

11. -ha, -co, Grreek


K0-, (jjvm-Kos, /c.r.X.

and the common adjectival

Sfj-nrj,

Latin pau-cus,

12. -ra, -la, Grreek ipvd-pb-s, Xa/i7r-pA-s, ax-po-s,

(root

in Se-Si-fUV,

8t

common

Sc-8oi-(ca),

a-iyrj-Xo-s

<J)v-\ti,

K.r.\. ;

oplx-^l-

variety of this suffix, (poPepos, Spoa-epos


of stem

perhaps only the

(fiofia-,

seems to enter into other

-vpo,

cande-la, loque-la, ala, velum, etc.

-apr],

Sella

etc.

dei-\6-c
-epo- is

but the

is

The element -po or -Xo

Spoao-.

suffixes,

ple-ro-,

Latin rvh-ro-, gna-ro-,

suffix

lo-cus, civi-cus, helli-cus, etc.

-aXo,

= sed-la

The element -la

-cbXtj,

(=

-1X0.

eS-pa),

also appears

in other suffixes, -ulo-, -ula-, -Hi-, etc.

B. Deeivativb Verbs in G-eeek

and

ADDITION OF THE SUFFIX -aya


I

-av

'.

-w

-6a)

-ao)
-aa>

,.

:=aja>

LATI^f,

ifljo),

or

formed by

ya (Ja\

= aya-m%
A

-are: -o^=-ao
e. g.

Sanskrit dain4ya.ini, Greek

hapaai,

Latin domo (domao),

Gothic tamja, German zahme.

Many

derivatives in

stantive stems in -a ;

-av,
e. g.

-are are connected with fem. subKopaa,

Kop,S),

Lat.

como, with

Kopij,

I04

Appendix

coma,

Kojid-ja,

-eiv

Others with

comd-jo.

-o

stems (originally -a)

armare {armo-)firmare

e.g. avTiav (avTio-s),


2

Chapter V.

to

{Ji/rmo-).

-ere:

-eo )

apxea, Lat. arceo (arkdjami).

e. g.

3- -ow,

-do)

4. -UlV,

-ia>

-ire,

-io

oja

(or

= aya/mi.

/fo>) )

7='-^-='ayami.
=

5.

-UflV,

ujomi.
-iere,

So
stem

6.

-uo

in Sanskrit

gAtu-yami

(jraiit),

Greek

yjjpvQ)

{=:garujomi),

yrjpv-.

In these the f arises from the effect of the j (y)


sound upon a preceding consonant, guttural or

-dfetv

dental J e.g. dp7rd^eiv:=dp7rdy-jciv (Apnay-fj), ^avfid^eiv

= davfidd-jeiv

(6avpaT-jj

'jrie^eiv

iney-jeiv

(wcTTtey-

imi^-driv), oljii>^ta>^olfwy-jfiv (olpay-rl), ATrifeij/

fiai,

^D^jriS-jciu, xapl^eirOai, {j(dpiT-os), oXoXufciK {SKoKvy-ij).


-traeiv

(r(T=KJ, yj, xj>

''j,

^j- e.g.

Baipria-creiv

(stem

BaprjK-), dK-

\do'(rciv (dXXay-ij), opvaireiv (op^X'v)) Kopitrtriai (jcopvB-), cpto-a-eiv (epcr-ijy, fpeT-ftos).

8.

-atpiv^dp-jetv
-eipeiv^ep-jeiv
-vpeiv

> the

^vp-jcui J

-aXXeiv

The

_;'

See pp.

'J4'j6.

sound heing thrown hack into

(y)

stem syllable and becoming the vowel

sound of

i (cp.

pi\mva:=p.Kav-ja, p. I02).
.

Probably from

X_;

but as no noun-stems end in

X {oK-s excepted), these are derivatives from stems


in

-Xo,

the stem-vowel o being

lost.

10.

{y)

sound thrown back as vowel into the stem

syllable, aa^-aipciv, etc., above.

[A large number of examples under each of the above heads


may be found in Leo Meyer's Vergleichende Grammatik, vol. ii.
pp. 1-78.]

CHAPTEK
Noun
To

VI.

Inflection.

the stem of an Indo-European noun are added (i) the

inflections

of case

(The dual

is

of number.

the plural, the sign

(2) in

a variety of the plural, which in Latin and

modern languages has fallen out of use altogether;


and where retained, as in Greek and Sanskrit, has a tendency
in most

disappear

to

Hellenistic

The

as

useless

and Modern Greek

cases

exuberance
it

of

were originally eight

viz.

Nominative, Accusative, Number

Locative, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Instrumental


of these, the Vocative, which

called,

the uninflected noun-stem used as an interjection'alone, however, retains

the full

of

and outside

no case properly so

is

In

expression.

does not exist.)

but

Sanskrit

number of independent case


number for in the plural

forms, and that only in the singular

the vocative disappears (the nominative being used, as in Greek


or Latin), the dative and ablative unite, and the instrumental

has

only one form (as against two in singular)

while the

dual has only three distinct forms, one for nom. and ace, one
for instr. dat.

and

abl.,

singular too gen. and

and one

abl., loc.

for

and

gen.

dat., are

and

loc.

In the

nearly related in

form.

In the kindred languages, the loss of distinct case-forms or. Merging of


more correctly, the merging of two or more originally Se-forms.

to speak
distinct

linguistic

case-forms into one

The

growth.
'

must have

begun early in their

oldest accessible remains of the

See however below,

p. 117.

Greek


io6

Notm

[chap.

Inflection.

language show us the ablative merged in the genitive

though

Latin, on the other hand, has retained the distinction of form.

The
to

dative and locative, again, have

a certain extent in

vanished from both.

Latin

become one in Greek, and

while the instrumental has

In both languages, however, we

shall find

remnants of both locative and instrumental forms, and Greek


has at least one conspicuous remnant of its lost ablative case
in the

common

adverbial termination -as.

The confusion

in

practice of the clear grammatical distinctions 'between different

cases

naturally led

and confusion of forms

to intermixture

so that no formula will represent all the correspondences be-

tween the case terminations of the three languages in question;


but a general idea may be given thus
:

Sanskrit.

Noun

VI.

107

Inflection.

one or other of these modes, and were masculine, or feminine,


or neuter^.'

Yet, widespread as

is

employment of generic Gender not

their

distmction, the Indo-European languages have no special phonetic element for its expression

is

by

This seems to show that the

Becondary means were employed.

we

universal distinction of gender which

Latin

directly

but, as occasion arose, various elements.

Greek and

find in

neither original nor necessary, but a subsequent

de-

velopment of language.

Modes
1.

of generic distinction

{narrjp,

facilis,

lirjTtjp,

manus,

by external means,

is

In Consonant-Stems and stems

i.e.

grammatical agreement

vavs),

in

-i-, -u-,

by the gender

(0 ttot^p,

or a diphthong

the only distinction of gender

t)

some other word in


saeva mamus, etc.).

of

priTrip,

With d stems (including a- 0- stems) the raising of the vowel to


d (Greek
Latin originally -a of fem. sing.) generally denotes
?;,

feminine gender.

Occasionally however a

advend, the original quantity), and a

humus,

etc.)

so that this

U)

{S,

is
is

means of generic

masc.

{noKirrjs,

fem. (080s, malus,


distinction is not

of invariably certain application.


2.

Certain

gender

place

its

is

is

appropriated

are

case-suffixes

or a case

particular

to

not employed in a particular gender, but

Thus

supplied by some other form.

the neuter has no final

-s,

in

nom.

sing.

either the accusative [novum, Shvov)

or the mere uninflected stem

dpi/, facile, facili)

(dXijfles,

being

used.
3.

Originally identical forms are distinguished, and the dis-

tinction adopted as a

the breaking

mark

of gender,

up of the a sound

in-TrtiTT/s,

into

0,

dpfTrj

so with

nova-d

novo-d,

(originally navat).
4.

Certain stem forms are appropriated to certain genders,

especially feminines, in -ja(-ya),

d6Teipa=B6Tcpja,

av\r]rp\s,

-is, -ic,

etc.; (pepovaaz^^epovrja,

vietrix^viet{o)r-ic-s, etc.

gender is retained in the Teutonic Ian- Gender in


distinction of "
fThe
modem lan1
1
T>
guages, e.g. modern German, and the Romance derivatives guages.

from Latin.

of

English has abandoned the

artificial

part of the

Ferrai's ' Comparative Grammar,' p. 200. See also Sayce,


Philology,' oh. yli. pp. 249-257, ist ed.

Comp.

'

Principles


io8

Notm

[chap.

Inflection.

Gender in

system, retaining a difference vnform, only where sex

guages.

an important distinction
the suflGx

-ess

in

(e.g. m.wn,

Princess,

woman;

lioness,

fundamental distinction in the pronouns

Other languages

what.

that generic distinction


class

but

it

he, she,

it,

etc.),

and

retains

or

its

who and

(e.g. modern Persian) have lost even


and in some languages of the Turanian

Turkish and Finnish) grammatical gender

(e.g.

never to have existed at

really

is

buU, cow;

There

all.

is

is

said

of course in the necessity

of things no reason for choosing one particular accident of a

conception rather than another as a subject for grammatical


distinctions

but, as a matter of fact, there is always a strong

work in men's minds, leading


them to invest even inanimate things with the idea of sex.
Thus a ship to a sailor, a railway train to a porter, is always
she ;' and uneducated people often use the pronoun he' where
natural personifying tendency at

'

'

ordinary usage prescribes

These are examples of the

'it.'

natural tendency to extend distinctions of gender taking


in a language which has

effect

generally repudiated such extension

to all objects as unnecessary: and it is to the unrestrained


working of such natural tendencies that we may ascribe the

great development of generic distinction at an early period in


the Indo-European languages, before, in fact, they had as yet

branched

off

from the primitive

stock.]

JDeclension.
Principles of
division into

Vowel and
Consonant
Declension.

Nouns

two main

are divided into

according
to the final letter of the
I.

Vowel- Declension (or

end in

-a,

-e,

ist (musa-),

II.

(javpo-) of

viz.

[facie-) 'declensions' of Latin

and 2nd

classes or 'declensions'
:

declension), includir^g stems

-o (the three varieties of

and thus comprising the

liova-a-)

stem

i.which

a the original vowel)


2nd {domino-), and 5th
;

Grammar; and

the ist

(TroXiTa-

Greek Grammar.

Consonant-Declension, including stems which end in a

consonant, or the semi-vowels

-i,

-to,

or diphthongs av,

ev,

ov

thus comprising the 3rd and 4th 'declensions' in Latin (judic-is,


navi-s, gradu-s),
or, woKi-s,

and the corresponding nouns in Greek

fiorpv-s,

pa<ri\(ii-s,

vaii-s,

/3o0-i).

small

[ipvKaic-

number

of

Noun

VI.

nouns with stems in


declension,

words in

e.g.

where

-or

the stem, e.g.

all

is

the inflections of this

follow

a>-

n-etfld-os:

this declension

sing.,
IS

or

o-

irei6a>,

109

Inflection.

rjpui-s,

^pa-os.

The stem of

best recognised in Greek in gen.

that remains after deducting the termination

Xemj/, \eovT-os; Svofia, ovofmr-os.


This
sometimes (but by no means always) the case in Latin, e.

is

g.

comes, comit-is ; judex, judic-is.


The final consonant will of
course generally be shown in this way, but the weakness of

Latin vowel sounds

(p.
56) often obscures the true vowel
of the stem ; thus in auspex, auspic-is, the nom. auspec-s gives

the true form (spec-).


remig-is, the true
cap-).

Such

Often neither retains

form being ag-

however

varieties

it,

e.g.

remex,

auceps, aif,cupis (true form

fall

under the head of Latin

Souud-Lor.

There are certain differences between the inflections of the Differences


two classes thus arranged, which make it more convenient between the
to classify i, u, and diphthongal stems under the consonantal sions.
than under the vowel declension. Thus, in Greek
:

(ffl)

In gen.

(6)

In nom. plur.

In Latin
(a)

Gen.

sing, consonant declension

-or (-as).
-es.

sing,

and nom.

in the vowel declension


(6)

has always

plur.

end in a long vowel or diphthong

in -s in the consonant declension.

Gen. plur. of vowel declension -rum ; consonant declen-

sion -um.
(c) Dat., abl. plur. of

vowel declension -is; consonant declen-

sion -bus.
[In older Latin however

did not exist

for

we

of a stems (see below, on Gen. Sing.), and

-as, -es as gen. sing,

-um

some of these differences apparently


nouns of the vowel declension -aes,

find in

as term, of gen. plur. in both

words show -6ms in

dat.

fiirnishes materials for

of inflection for

all

'

'

plur.

Archaic Latin thus

approaching nearer to a uniform system

'-

In Sanskrit there

terminations, the

See Boby's

a and o stems ; while certain

abl.

stems than do the earliest traceable stages

of the Greek language

scheme of

and

classes

Latin Grammar,'

vol.

is

but one general

of declension
i.

Book

(eight

II. ch. xii.

in

no

Noun

number) signifying th

different

modes of combining the

stem or base with the termination

of the

letter

[chap.

Inflection,

final

system

which might, no doubt, have been carried out by Latin and


Greek grammarians, had there been an equally careful grammatical analysis at an equally early stage in the history of those
languages, and had the formation of nouns and verbs from roots

and

'

crude bases

'

or stems been traceable with the same clear-

ness as in Sanskrit.]

Nominative Singular :
Nom.

Formed

Sing.,

Latin.

nouns by suffixing

in all

the stem.

-s to

This

-s is

generally regarded as representing a pronominal root -sa (de-

sa=Greek

monstrative pronoun);

o (cp. p.

This demonstrative root or stem with

66); sd (fem.)=^.

nom. sing, forms

-s of

Greek os, which in Homer is demonstrative. In


Greek and Latin the -s of nom. sing, is retained in many
words, which therefore need no further explanation (e. g. Aeneas,

sa-s,

i.e.

KpiTTjs

From
In vowel
stems.

dominus, 6e6s
others

urbs, n-oXtr

grains, fades,

has disappeared, but

it

its

^aa-iXeis).

presence can generally

e.g.
masc. vowel stems in -a have lost it, but such
double forms of masculine words as 'nrn&rrjs and hrnora (Hom.),

be traced

'

alxiir]Tris

and

hosticapas,
(

are sufficient evidence for

alxiaiTo.,

(Compare

existed.

and

also

its

poeta, Apella, beside

'ATreXXijt.)

jtoitittis,

136), Schleicher ( 246), and others, assume

feminine stems in

bona, dya6a,

as

a-,

having once

the archaic Latin forms paricidas,

sivfl.

its

Bopp
from

loss

but there

is

satisfactory evidence that such stems ever took the -s of

Benfey

sing.

Orient and Occident,'

('

i.

p.

no

nom.

298) maintains that

they did not.


In Greek

Consonant Stems (Greek).

Cons, stems.

hruttwral

I or ^.

and Labial stems

ipiXa^ (stem <t>vKaK-),

Dental Stems

and

.
:

-9

with the stem vowel becomes

0Xo| (0Xoy-),

8 never

Si/r (ojT-).

remain before

s,

but disappear,

the preceding vowel being often lengthened in compenstetion,


e.g.

"KafiTTCK

(XofwraS-i), x^P^^ (x"/"''"0' '''^'""P^^ (renurfrfr-s).

Sd/iap (SdnapT-)

lose

both t and

disappear.

both consonants before

sometimes lose t and

Stems

in -vt

{Tir\jras=TvylfavT-s,

In

sometimes

Soiis^fiovT-i),

retaining v {<f)epav=(j)epoiiT-s),

Noun

VI.]

In

stems sometimes the

-V

vowel

being

ToKav-),

in

each

6iv

6ls,

sometimes the

v,

lengthened,

case

^6av

{(ppev-),

<i>pr)v

are found, e.g.

(j(6ov-)

-s is lost

the Nom.

Sing,

(stem

rakas

e.g.

and sometimes both forms

SeXi^/c

StXc^ls,

iii

Inflection.

being the

in -s

(that

older).

After

-p stems, s

is

both consonants,

x^ps^

the p disappears.

The

and

lost, jran^p

(n-arep-s)

stem

solitary -X

but AeoUc keeps

In paprvs

p^i^o-ps-

(^X^'p);

{p,dpTvp-os)

both \

(SKs) retains

s.

In

-s

stems the second

vowel lengthened,

denoting nom. sing,

-s

stem

e.g. dXr;^r,

Consonant Stems

(Latin')
^
'

is lost

and the

dXij^tr.

In l**i"
Cons, stems.

Guttural and Labial stems

added to the stem,

s is

e.g.

vox

{voc-), lex (leg-), aueeps, urbs.

Dental stems

vowel was

and d disappear before

originally

lengthened

in

-s

and the preceding

compensation

but in

Classical Latin the tendency to shorten final syllables has again

shortened the vowel, except in monosyllables and after


ceding.

Tl\iMS

pes

eques {equit-is),

hut miles

(^ped-is), aries (ariet-is):

etc.

Stems in

-nt only reject

i-

{amans, amant-is),

Latin being more tolerant than Greek of combinations of


consonants

pre-

(milit-is),

final

but in old Latin and in the common dialect we

find infas, sapies, etc. (cp. the parallel forms quoties, quatiens).

In

-s

stems

-s of

nom.

sing, is lost,

originally lengthened, but

"We find however Ceres

and the preceding vowel

in Classical Latin
(Ceres-is), arbos

declension of such stems the final

-s

generally short.

(arbOr-is).

(except vas), and this r often supplanted final


honos, honor ;

arbos, arbor ;
vetVjS (the -s
if

being in

of nom.,

e. g.

robur cp. with

the older form).

masc. or fem. lose -ns, as homo {homon-s)

n is

-s

vomis, vomer ;

all cases

In the

became r in oblique cases

Stems in -n

but in some words

retained {jpecten,flamen), and in sanguis (originally sanguis,

Lucr.

and

iv.

-l

io^6)=^s(unguin-s,

stems

-s is

always

-s is

lost,

originally lengthened as in

retained and

lost.

After

-r

but the preceding vowel was

Greek

sal {sal-is),

par

(par-is),

actdr (actor-is).

In

-i

and -u stems

s is

generally kept (igni-s, gradu-s)

but

Noun

iia
where r or
tion -is

after another consonant precede

is lost,

remains as
Sanskrit

and

inserted before r ;

nom.

fern.

i,

the full termina-

which

aceT-=acri-s,

e. g.

vigil=vigili8.

[In Sanskrit nom. sing, -s

Nom. sing,

[chap.

Inflection.

omitted after consonantal stems,

is

the vowel being sometimes lengthened in compensation, some-

Thus va.k is nom. sing, from stem vak-, Latin vox=:


and durman&s {Svaiievfis) nom. sing, of stem durmanas
{&v(Tiieves) ; but bhiran {(jjepav) is nom. sing, of stem bharant[(jifpovT-).
Stems in ar (masc.) and &t (fem.) reject both r and

times not.
voe-s,

s,

thus

(stem pitar)^7raT^p, d&tS, (stem dktkr)=^8oTrip.

pita,

will be observed that in

nom.

sing, are fuller

than the corresponding Sanskrit.]

Nominative Plural
Nom. Hot.:

It

these words the Greek forms of

all

Originally a reduplication of the sign for nom. sing., -sasa ;

then -SOS (which

finally -as

(Greek

nom.

actually found in Vedic Sanskrit as

is

plur. termination in a- stems, e. g. i^va-sas


-fs

from

fisva-s)

which

of consonant declension),

and

is

the

form in most Indo-European languages, and survives in one of


the few remaining English inflections, the

of plural significa-

-s

tion.
In Greek

In Greek
lx6v-es,

raised

-es

[=i-as)

e. g.

is

added to consonant stems, as

Sometimes the vowel

iidvTi-es.

irSKets,

altered form of stem


raising the vowel)

-i

7roXes:=7r<5Xy-er

jrdXTjes,

iroKi-

of

(whence

form of stem woKv-

has been raised to

fv,

from

iroXfi-,

also the Ionic noKi-es

and jroXEis=woXcf-es from

cp. raxhs, iyx^'Kfes.

jroXev,

is

the

without

the altered

In these the v of stem

the v of this diphthong then

and

noifiiv-es,

and -u stems

changed

to p, which of course disappears altogether (above, pp. 43, 68).

The nom.
final -s,

plur. of

vowel stems

-m, -ai,

though on the analogy of Latin

infer that it once existed.

Comp. 247) that the


pronominal stem ta- {to-)

It has

loss
:

below) we should

been suggested (Schleicher,

nom.

of -s began with

i. e. to\,

to the theory being increased

shows no trace of

(see

rai

by the

this

sufiBx

stem

ta-

plur. of

according

ya (ja) a common

derivative suffix (see above, p. 102), would form in nom. plur.


tay-as,
rai)

which by

loss of final syllable

and that this termination

-ot -ai

would become

tai (rol or

was gradually applied by

Noun

Ti.J

analogy to

and

all a-

upon an assumption
the other

and

0-

This

stems.

for

113

Inflection.

which there

ingenious

is

but

it rests

Nom. Pimv

no evidence one way or

is

in philological enquiries

better to confine

it is

of language, and to be content with

ourselves to the facts

unsolved problems rather than risk hypotheses.

Latin Nom. Plural

In Latin.

Consonantal stems; always in

-es,

the quantity of which

supposed to be due to analogy from the


able,

ponding to Skt.

as,

Gk.

which

es),

off altogether (cp. Ten-ap-es)

e. g.

It is prob-

stems.

-es

(corres-

in quattuor has

dropped

so in Umbrian/rai!er=/ra<()r-es,

Nom.

Oscan censtur-=c6ns{t)or-es.
es

i-

however, that the original termination was

plur. of

i-

stems always in

here es was probably added to stem, thus giving

became

[Another explanation

is

-ies,

which

found on inscriptions and in MSS.).

Is or eis (all

es.

is

that the stem

i-

yas raised

to ey (as

TToKeis^TTokey-es above) so that oes=oV(Si?s=oi!y-es.]

u- stems in -Us=u-es (cp.


a- stems

nom.

the original form was -as

point to this

but

it

is

comparison of the other Italian dialects that

inferred from a

(=Latin ortae,
Matrona (nom.

vfKv-es).

plur. ae or in archaic Latin -ai

= a-es)

e. g.

Umbrian

urtas, totas

Oscan aasas, seriftas (=-arae, scriptae),


plur.) found on an inscription is supposed to
older form in -as with -s dropped ; but it might
totae ;

equally be an error for matronal, and in inscriptions a wide

margin must always be allowed


If -as

cutter \

The most

is

plausible theory

crease of the stem

for merely casual errors of the

the original form,

by

pronominal declension

i,

is

how do we

get

ai,

ae

that the i here represents an in-

such as will hereafter be shown in the

{ha-i-c, Jiaec, etc.

see below, chap. vii).

Thus equae=equaiequa-i-s (s being dropped as often in


Or it may be supposed that the -i- was added, upon
Latin).
analogy of the pronominal declension, after the

In the
to

the

0- declension

stem

o-)

we

was the

loss of final

earliest

form.

The various forms

Kitschl wishes to restore the form in -as in Plant. Trin. II.


avoid hiatus)
:

Nam

s.

get indications that o-es {-es added

fulguritae sunt alternas arbores.


I

iv.

138 (to

Noun

114
JJom. Plur., actually

found,

arranged ^

lead to this

inference,

may be

thus

Oldest forms

a.

Sal.)
-s

which

[chap.

Inflection.

(Carm.

Fesc&ninoe, pilumnoe, poploe,

r.

stem retained in

and therefore probably the

full,

oldest,

only having dropped.


2. ploirurrie

tion from

Forms

h.

(Epit. L. Scipio, see

Appendix

I.

2) a contrac-

i.

but connected with the later forms in

oe,

retaining

Bacch. see Appendix

-s {-es, -eis, -is) e. g.

I. ii.),

ei, i.

modies, ques (S. C. de

ds, libereis, magisbns, hisce (in Ter.

Eun. 269) These forms do not appear in inscriptions earlier


than 1 90 B. c, and remain for about a century. To explain
the presence in these later rorms of the final -s, which the

had

forms

earlier

Corssen supposes

lost,

analogy) to the forms of the consonant

(i-)

transition

declension

(by

but

it

seems at least as natural to suppose that in the early inscrip-

we

tions

see the result of a tendency to drop final consonants,

which was

artificially corrected

(when we know that the

during the second century

literati of

Rome

b. c.

took great pains to

a correct standard for their language), but finally

establish

prevailed; pronunciation, as usual, obtaining the victory over

etymological considerations in fixing orthography.

The

c.

We
thus

classical

therefore

-i.

trace the stages of change in these forms

a- stems
0-

form in

may

stems

a-es, ds, a-i{s), ae.

o-es, e{s), e, i.

is.

[In Sanskrit, all masc. and fem. stems form nom. plur. in -as
before which
{(jjepovT-es),

and u are raised

Nominative Dual (Greek)


Nom.

Dual,

Greek and
Sanskrit,

form of nom. plur. (as


j

and hhydm

'

vaA-as {voces), bMrant-as

Schleicher assumes for this

neuter

sivas (siva-1-as), ^vay-as (from avi-s).]

dat.

See Wordsworth's

an original

nom. dual

abl.

'

instr.

Fragments,'

-sas,

a lengthened
,

neuter, 01
dual).

etc.

nom.

plur.

This -sas would

Introd. ix. 9.

VI.

Noun

next become -as

but in

been further weakened


to e)

in Greek to

115

Inflection.

Indo-European languages

all

has

it

in Sanskrit to ka. (in feminine a- stems

which appears in the consonant declension,

e,

but in the vowel declension coalesces with the stem vowel,

r7ro-,

wriro)

x^pa^)(aipa-e.

In Latin duo (Sanskrit dvau) and ami>o (Sanskrit ubh&u,


Greek

aixcpa)

are the only dual forms.

Aecv^ative Singular

General type

-am

Accus. Sing.:

In Greek

for consonant,

In Greek, -m becomes
guage

the stem,

to

by

-v

Stems in

(pvyfj-v).

i-,

-av

appears only as -a added

Vowel stems

Tjpa-a.

KafiirdS-a,

for vowel-stems.

the euphonic laws of the lan-

and with consonantal stems

-m

and diphthongs

v-

retain -v (tirno-v,

generally form

av-, ov-

the accus. sing, on analogy of vowel-stems in

-v

irSKi-v,

^orpv-v,

fiov-v, vav-v.

Stems

sonant stems

(y

becoming

and the same

is

not unfrequently the case with other diphthongal

and

and

I-

however are generally treated

in eu-

v- stems.

f),

thus ^a<Ti\e-a=0cuTiKp-a

Thus we have the Homeric

beside vav-v; evpia-=.(vpef-a {y- of stem raised to


eipii-v,

and

6<j>pi-a

So too

bov-is).

The neuter

stem

(|3of),

{vqFa)

eF-) beside
jSoCs',

j3oC

/3o-6s=|3of-6r (Latin

TriSKrj-a^iToXey-a (iroXi-s) beside nSKi-v.

accus. in consonantal stems

subject to euphonic laws of the


(repaT-), p^Xi (/ifXiT-),

ends in

vij-a

and in the other case-endings of

treated as a consonant

is

cu-,

as con-

(^ao-iXcv-)

(jyepov

is

merely the stem

Greek language:

{(pepovr-),

yXvKV-

e.g. repas

vowel stems

in

it

-v.

In Latin, -m

is

The -em

stems.

present

I.

E. -am, but i-m

then became
original

the invariable ending with masc. and

of consonantal declension

i-

i. e.

is

fern, in Latin,

said not to re-

the stem lengthened by

-i,

which

before m, in both stems thus lengthened

-e

stems, with

a few exceptions

among the

and

lattery-

It is no doubt desirable to regard these few accusative forms

in -im

'

The

among the mass

of forms in -em as survivals of a

following nouns fonn accus. in -im, and ablat. in

Always

-i

buris, tussis, sitis, vis, Tiberis, etc.

Generally febris, pelvis, pulvis, restis, seouris,


Occasionally clavis, navis, sementis,

I 2

turris.

more

Noun

ll6
Acous. Sing.,

primitive form

and

harmony with the

this is in

of vowel degeneration

usual course

in Latin (above, p. 57) in

as seen in pedit-em, eqmt-em at first represented

a regular variety of original a)

with the

vowel of

final

and that

e is

this

-Am

{e

being

-em coalesced

stems into -Im or -em {i-em), -im

i-

and that

being the earlier form;

which

be maintained that -em

It might, however,

the lowest point.

[chap.

Inflection.

finally the

analogy of this

-im or -em caused the -em of purely consonantal stems to be


regarded as a long syllable, upon the erroneous inference that

-em was exactly the same in


This view

is

and obviates the

languages,
felt

all

words which exhibited

it.

not less consistent with the observed facts of


difiiculty

which cannot but be

in the theory of a different structure for one of three words

so obviously parallel as Sanskrit

Latin voc-em.

vdA-am, Old Bactrian v^k'-em,

This Old Bactrian accus. in -em of consonantal

stems seems to furnish a clear link between Sanskrit


Latin -em,

e.g.

barent-em,

cp.

-am and

with Sanskrit toh^rant-am, Latin

ferent-em.

To the vowel stems in -a


-m as we have

musa-m.

(-0)

sounded in pronunciation, and


old inscriptions.

Aceusative Phi/ral:

General type,

Accus. Plur.:

sing,

-m was added

seen (chap.
is

iv.

p.

honum

{bono-m),

73) was weakly

accordingly omitted on some

-ns, i.e.

addition of s to termination of accus.

m, which by assimilation to the dental

sibilant s

becomes

n.

by Gothic, the euphonic laws of which


did not forbid such a combination at the end of a word, e.g.
gastins (stem gasti-), sununs {sunu-)
but there are teaces of it
in both Greek and Latin, and also in Sanskrit and Zend.
This -ns

is

retained only

Greek accus. plur.

In Greek;
-vs

formed by addition of

to ace. sing., but

only retained in the Axgive and Cretan dialects,

:=Tovs, irpeiyevTavs=:irpea-^evTds.
sion, V disappears, the
tion, e.g.
xitpas.

iinro-vs,

= KaXa9, as
Attic

-ovs

in Pindar

(j)iXrio-ag.

vowel being usually raised in compensa-

iirnovs

In Lesbian

e.g. tovs,

Elsewhere, in the vowel declen-

(Doric

and

tTrn-fflr,

-avt

we have

like

became

Latin

-ois, -ats

-os)
:

thus

x^P'"'^,
KoKais,

^iK^(rcus^=<j)iK'j(ravs^^iKrja-avT-s,

In consonant stems

-s

follows -a of ace. sing.

Noun

"VI.]

making

-as

but in

thus beside

iroKi-as

and

i-

and

the ordinary accusative,

above on nom.

and be

plur., p.

u- stems there is .variety of

we have

7rd\i/as

7roXrs=7rd\u/-r.

form

Acciis. Piur.

TToXctf,

perhaps best taken as =TToKfy-as (see

is

105)

With

='koKTs.

117

Infiection.

but

might

it

also represent 7rdXo/-s,

neuters, a is added to the stem.

Latin accus. phi/r. of masc. and fern, stems always in -s. In Latin,
with long vowel preceding by compensation for the loss of
-m- ; thus -ds=-am-s, -ds=.-om-s; es {ls)=ems (ima), -us

To neuter stems

-wm-s.

-a is added, corpora=corpos-a.

[In Sanskrit, traces of the termination -ns are found

vowel-stems usually either

raised, e.g. dsva-s (equus), ace. plur.

To

but in

dsvan; dsva {equa),

So Avi-n (masc), Avis

plur. dsvas.

or s disappears and the vowel

is

ace.

from stem avi-.

(fern.)

masc. and fem. consonant stems, and monosyllabic vowel

stems, -as

is

added, vaJ-as, Asman-as, nasr-as (nau).]

The Accusative Bual


and fem.)

is

also a form duos, a/mhos,


this

in

Greek

also- in Sanskrit masc. Accus. Dual,

(as

the same as nom. dual.

In Latin

on analogy of

plural,

d,uo,

and

arnbo have

in fem. only

form {duas, ambas).

Vocative Si7igular

This, it has been already said (p. 105), seems to be in Indo- Voc.

European languages no

but the mere stem used as an

'case,'

interjection.

however been suggested, with some

It has

the vocative

is

back so that the


tion.

at

final syllable

The evidence

vocative

all, i.e.

certain

for this

the fact that in Sanskrit the


syllable,

of words accented oxytone in

throw the accent back


aSeXcjibs,

is (i)

as far as

novrjpos, Trarfip,

noted that in Greek,

if

but

it

will

SdeK(j)e,

is

Trarep).

(e.

g.

It is also

an oxytone noun becomes a proper name,


(e.g. d/io/)yor,*A/iopyof):

a passage in Aulus Gellius on the pronunciation of

Valeri as gen. or voc. sing, of Valerius.


it

Greek a

the nominative

go in the vocative

rrovripe,

in a majority of cases the accent goes back

and there

when accented

at the beginning of a sentence; (2) that in

number

drawn

became shortened in pronuncia-

always accented on the ^rs4

is

probability, that

originally the nominative with the accent

was accented Vdleri ;

As

as genitive, Valeri.

vocative, he says,

Sin^.

Hi

Noun

In Greek guttural and

In Greek.

[chap.

Inflection.

nom.

labial stems, the

voc. (except yvj'ai=7ui'auc-): but in dental stems the


is

used, subject to euphonic laws,

yipov

(yepovT-).

of participles in

-as,

vocative.

The

to

however

6eos

anomalous

it

In Latin.

for

is also

-vt) are

sing,

used as

stem with

sunk

generally used for voc. (though

is

Bee fwv)

so
-01

<j>lXos

of

(Horn. Od.

n-ciflii,

iii.

alSa-s,

a stems

fern,

(e. g.

375)

etc.,
-<a

is

as

asve) stands to the nomina-

e=-ai.

In Latin the nom.


used.

ova (arax-),

appears however to stand to nom. sing, in

masculine stems in
is

(stems in

-a>v

termination

voc.

Sanskrit voc. of
tive

Beus)

(as

we have

The

oiros.

-fts,

(n-aiS-),

used as

mere stem

and the nom.

iro8-)

voc. in -e of o- stems is the

in Matt, xxvii. 46

and

-ovs,

nai

e. g.

however (stem

irovs

is

In puer

voc.

sing,

0-,

is

used for vocative, except in

where the stem with

-0,

(for puer-us) the abbreviated

but puere

is

found

changed to

from of nom.

in Plautus.

Ths Vocative Dual and Plural

in Sanskrit

and Greek, and

the Vocative Plural in Latin are the same as the respective

nominatives.
Genitive Singular
Gten. Sing.

Indo-Euro
pean Forms. sufRxes

for all

for the genitive case, viz. for a- stems (a-, 0-),


others,

or

-as

nominal in their

origin,

the two roots sa,

ya

Greek Gen. Sing.


In Greek.

There appear to have been two forms of Indo-European

-s.

and sya

(Ja)

In consonantal stems

These

-os

{sja) is

are

sya;

probably pro-

perhaps compounded of

but of this we can have no evidence'.

[^-as)

yevovs (^=:yeveos=:ycve(T-os). -os is


^aa-iKe-tas).

suffixes

is

added to the stem

mB-os,

sometimes raised to -as (noKe-as,

In diphthongal stems v has generally passed into

F (consonantal) and thus disappeared,


The

fioF-is (0oii-), l3aa-i\eF-a>s

old view that -sya of gen. sing, appears aJso as an adjectival


the Homeric genitive b^iJioio=57jfi6t7iO'f the stem
of the adjective, though plausibly supported by the identity in Sanskrit
and other languages of genitive termination with adjectival suffixes (cp.
Max Miiller, Lectures I. iii), cannot, I think, hold against the question,
then do we never find Srjfioios instead of Srin6ffios ? aio in Si)n6aio-s
is the adjectival suffix no, the t being changed before i to s according to
the universal tendency of pronunciation botii in Greek and Latin. See
above, p. 78.
'

suffix in ST]fx6-(TtO'S, bo that

Why

Noun

VI.]

In

(^ao-tXet)-).

V-

119

Inflection.

stems forms like ymvos lyom-), Sovpos (Sopv-)

Gen.'Sins.,
Grfifik

are trauspositions from yovv-bs, Sopv-6s

show that the stem vowel

etc.,

while yXuKc-or,

has been raised to

and become diphthongal

to ^a(n\(-as=fia(ri\(F-os.

Similarly irdXi-as and

=7r6\ey-os

thus y\vKeos=:y\vKeF-os

stem vowel remaining

the

ao-i-for,

is

ev

(eF)

analogous

Homeric

unaltered

ttoXtz-os

Ionic

in

TToXt-OS.

Fem. a- stems have

-as or -s

added to the stem vowel,

a-ocplas,

Masc. and neuter stems in 0- originally formed gen. by

(pvyrjs.

addition of -a-yo, whence the Epic gen. in -mo; a.ypow=^aypo-tTyo


by omission of <r ^. The Attic gen. in -m (Aeolic -m) arises by
contraction from -oo = -oo-to, with first o- and then i omitted.

From masc. stems

in a-

transposed, and

is

syllable

of

0)

find three forms in

weakened to

u.

from

(0

^opia

-ao, 'Epfieiu),

being

lost),

probably =a-o-yo, ayo


-ao

The

suffix -as
-OS,

e. g.

etc.

^uus (domuus
(3)

-es,

Apolones
'

-ao is

sing, termina-

Asvk {equa), gen. &svkyas

The Attic

gen. in -ov

is

but

a con-

up

in Latin:

-os, -us, -es, -is.

senatu-os in S. C. de Bacch. (Appendix

(rarely

Venerus,

form in

which change the stem vowel

appears in Latin as

(2) -us, on inscriptions


A.U.C.

Aeolic has

(3opea-s).

earliest

in spite

by contrac-

-ao, TroXiTOi/^TToXiVa-o.

Latin Genitive Singular

(i)

-<b

(3)

from aos=: a,yas, the gen.

-a into ai {ay) before -as,

The

but Curtius, in his work on Greek

ava-s {equus), gen. 6sva-sya.

from

(i) -ao

syllables -do

then becomes one

(-em

(^'Epneta-s,

tion of Sanski'it fem. stems in -a,

traction

TroXeo)?, etc.)

KpoviSd.

AlSd,

Etymology, derives

Homer,

and the accent remains unaltered

synizesis

in final syllable, as with

tion
-a

by

we

which the quantity of the two

{'ArpeiSea), in

-f(B

(2)

I. ii.).

to the end of the seventh century,

after

100

From

this in u- stems arose the contraction us

inscr.)

B.C.),

Cererws,

Caesarus,

hominus,

It also survives in alius, illius, etc.

on inscriptions before the Second Punic W&r, Salutes,

and again

In the Thessalian

in late Latin, Caesares, campestres, etc.

dialect, the gen. sing, of o

about which there are two views:

(i)

that

it

stems often ended in -oi,


minus the final o

= -oio,

(Ahren.s, 'De Dialectis Aeolicis,' p. 221;


De Dialecto Dorica,' p. 528
sqq.) ; (2) that it is am old locative used in a genitive signification.
'

stems.


Noun

130
Gen. Sing.,

the ordinary gen.

-is^

(4)

The

[chap.

Inflection.

consonant stems proper.

sing, of

stems {ovis) was perhaps originally i8^=i-os

is of i-

we

ovis=:ovi-os, as

form alis-=alios

find a

by the tendency

to shorten^final syllables, aided

to see analogy

between two similar terminations oms, nomints, would


account

ficiently

for

the

consonant proper and

Greek
"
ft-

i-

genus,

cp.

-01,

uniform

subsequently
stems,

-is

suf-

of both

-is

obyiously parallel to

is

with

gener-is

thus

The tendency

{alius).

yivea-os

yeVor,

{yeveos,

yivovs).

The u- stems

stems.

tion

some

we

thus

cases

exhibit the greatest variety of gen. sing, inflecfind (i) -uos as above; (2) -uus, as above (in

however -uus may be due

the length of a vowel by doubling

to a

method of denoting

introduced by the tragic

it,

poet Accius, and prevalent on inscriptions from about 130-75'

found also regularly in MSS. of Pliny the

B.C.;

elder,

where

-uus represents -us of gen. sing. nom. and ace. plur. of m- stems)

by analogy, are

(3) -uis, retained in su-is, gru-is (which then,

declined like i- stems), and used by several writers


Cicero, e.g. senatuis, domuis,

Hec.

(Ter.

etc.,

quoted by

(Varro)

'j^e,),fructuis, victuis, etc.

an analogy of

-0

up

G-ellius
;

(4)

to temp.

quaestuis

perhaps

-i,

stems (from similarity of nom. sing,

-us),

or

some confusion with the past part, in -tus, most


of the examples being from words where t precedes the stem

possibly from

vowel

U-, e.g. adventi, quaesti,

ornati (all in Terence), senati,

Eoby's Latin Grammar,

vol. i. 399) ; (5) the


ordinary termination -us, by contraction from -uus or -uis.

furcti, etc. (see

Voweistems.
Gen. in -i.

In

0-

stems the gen. ends in

-i

or

-ei (inscriptions

time of the Punic "Wars to Augustus).


this termination are suggested

(i)

That

genitive.

it

is

locative,

This would account

which has supplanted the old


for,

and has probably been sug-

gested by, the

apparently abnormal

Romae, Tarenti

in

a locative sense

otherwise explained (see below, p.


(2)
i.

e.

That

like

Greek

grammatical usages of
these,

may

however,

be

1 1 9).

-ov, it arises

from the termination

agri=agroi=agro{s)i{o). This gives at

parallel

from the

Three explanations of

between the Greek and Latin

first

-sya,

sight a plausible

0- declensions

but the

'

Noun

VI.]

lai

Inflection.

only real parallel to this supposed Latin abbreviation of -syo


the Thessalian gen. in

-ot

truly points out that

mentioned above

(p.

and lupae from lupai rest on the

lupi

'

is Latin Gen.

and Bopp

1 1 2),

same principle ; and if lupi proceeds from Xvkow, whence can


lupai be derived, as the corresponding Grreek feminine nowhere
exhibits an -am or

(Comp. Grammar,

-t^io?'

189).

(3) That the original termination was o-is (i. e. -as added
to the stem), the final -s being lost, and -oi contracted to -i.

This explanation
-s

made more probable by

is

in the other Italian dialects

which lead us to

Oscan

Umbrian

-eis,

infer
-es,

an

traces of a final

Oscan suveis

Umbrian puples

aneis (Pompeiani) ;
etc.,

e. g.

(sui),

Pumpai-

{populi), katles {catuli),

whence
The analogy of fem. aconclusion.
For them we have
Italic genitive in -ois,

Latin

stems will also bear out this

-i.

in paterfamilias and the old genitives terrds (Naev.), vids (Enn.),


etc. distinct

for

which

evidence of a termination

is

that

it

is

-ds,

the readiest solution

a contraction for -a-is [is^as added to

the stem), a termination found in one old inscription in Prose-

pnais^^Proserpinae, and on
seventh century A. u.

inscriptions

and

(not

Juliaes,

slaves

Anniaes,

and Virg.) or

in -di (Lucr.

then be -traced to the same -ais by

before

(chiefly in

-ces

'

The other form

Vernaes, etc.).

may

vulgar

appearing as -aes or

of freed women

proper names

-ae

c.)

loss of final -s,

and corresponds exactly to agri^^agroi from agro-is.


This
explanation, which reconciles the two forms -as and -ai (ae),

and harmonises the declension of both masc. and fem. a- stems


(0- and a-) appears upon the whole the simplest and most
satisfactory.

Of stems
(rabies,

Virg. G.

in -e four forms

Lucr.
i.

208) and

see Eroby, Latin

contractions of

and

1083),

iv.

Grammar, i.
:
-ei and

-as of the a- stems,

Genitive Plural
original

of gen. sing, are found, viz. -es Gen. Sing, of


-e (fide,

-i (e.g. dii,

-ei

them.

An

-ei,

Hor. Od.

a variant for
357).

-es

Of

iii.

die, in

7.

these -e

die,'

4;

Aen.

and

i.

636;

-I

are

are phonetic varieties of -ai

and the explanation above given covers

Indo-European type -as-ams,

i.

e.

-as (gen. sing.) indo-Buropean type.

::

Gen. Plur.

+
+

[chap.

Noun, Inflection.

122,

-am (pronominal element found


(plural sign),

-s

-asams,

it

Of

-am.

whose

make

= Greek

-am

these forms,

-rum

tesham

bhy-am

see p. 120)

etc.

which

supposed, would gradually sink to -asam, -sam,

is

Latin -rum of a- and


before

in

imagined by ScHeicher and others

is

stems

0-

[equorum

stem

from

Latin -um

-av,

-sam,

quantity of o

while the

and of Sanskrit

equd),

(horum,) from stem ta (hie) perhaps points to -asam,

vowel

initial

long

with the stem vowel would

coalescing

pronominal

only the

Sanskrit

[In

syllable.

declension retains this trace of a longer form -8a,ni or -as&m.

with nouns, -km

va^ -am

added direct to consonant stems,

is

vowel stems

while

{voc-um),

before the addition of -ftm,

e. g.

increased

are

e. g.

by n

fi,sva-n-ftm (dva-s), dvl-n-a,m

(avi-).]

In Greek;

Greek Genitive Plural, -av^dm,


ois

of

o-

stems coalesces with

apparently the

it,

= Xuko-mk

with a- stems,

case

The

fern. gen. plur.,

however,

flex,

the masc. only

when

and

it

is

The

added to the stem.

is

XvKav

viz.

and the same

= x'^P^-"'"-

x'^P''"

always accented with circum-

the accent of nom. sing,

has been supposed that this

oxytone

is

an

difference points to

original difference in formation, the d- stems having the suffix


-a-cov

[-sam)

so that

x'"pS''=^X'"P'''<"'''

This

is

to some extent

borne out by the Homeric form a-av of such gen.


the

comparison of

ta,-sftm

ra-av

e. g.

(harum) from stem

out between two vowels

would thus be
In Latin.

ta.

a-

(p. 66).

Formed by adding-wm

in u- stems, and in 0- stems after


:

would of course naturally


rd-mv, is-ta-rum

and

Sanskrit
fall

and t^-s^m

parallel forms.

Latin Genitive Plural.


or u- stems

plur.,

gen. plur. fem. with

e. g.

ii

or

-om (found

or v) to consonantal

o-, i-,

fuhnin-wm, avi-um, magistratuom,frii,ctuum ;

and -uum, sometimes contracted into -um, passum (Lucilius,


currum (Virg. Aen. vi. 653).
Many consonantal

Martial),

stems are increased by


merc-i-um,, penat-i-um,

not a contraction

but this addition


(except

vir-i-um,

of,
is

-i

on analogy of the

amant-i-um

(also

-i

stems,

e. g.

amant-um, which

is

but an earlier form than that in -ium)


very rare with stems ending in -n,

complur-i-nm).

Some

consonantal

-r,

-s

stems

Noun

'^i.]

123

Infiection.

follow the analogy of -m stems,

e. g. alitu-um,'

(Lucr.

and Virg.)

Gen. Piur.

beside alit-um.
0-

stems (masc. and neut.) add either

The

{-asam) to the stem.

first is not, as

a contraction of the longer form


older, being the only one

it

is

to the

(^-om) or

-orum

sometimes regarded,
in feet probably the

Umbrian and Oscan

occurring exclusively on early coins of

dialects,
A. u.

known

-um

fifth

century

c, and most frequently on inscriptions of an early date

{Bomanom, sovom=zsuorum, divom, etc.). The other form in


-drum gradually superseded it, and occurs commonly on inscriptions of the second century b. c. and later
and in and
:

after

time

Cicero's

',

the

form in -um was found only in

nwnmuTn, dena/rium, etc.


tum and other numerals, especially distributive
certain words

e. g.

duum, dueendeum, divum,

nostrum and vestrum


virum and compounds, Italum, etc.
a- stems form gen. plur. in -drum; but
(see below, p. 136).
-vm, is form.ed (i) from masc. patronymics in -des {Aeneadum,
;

etc.), (2)

compounds of gigno and

both in dactylic poetry only

colo [terrigenum, caelicolum)

from the fem. stems amphora,

(3)

drachma (but these are probably borrowed from Greek),


stems have the form in -rum, (dierum,

-e

etc.).

The forms boverum, nucerum, regerum, lapiderum, noticed


by Varro, seem (if genuine) to point to the occurrence of the
longer form in consonantal stems with e = as a connecting
vowel

being sufiixed to the stem as with the other form in

-um where

the termination -ium

is

formed from a purely con-

sonantal stem.

Another explanation supposes an addition to

the stem of

because in some words an

-er,

sing, (aoipenseris, cuewm&ris, etc.),

and

is

-r is

found in gen.

therefore perhaps not

number in the words in question.


The Genitive Dual agrees in form with the Dative Dual

peculiar to the plural

(p. 123).

A hlative

Singular

The Ablative has been retained as a distinct form in Declen- Abiat. Sing.,
Sanskrit preserves guages resion only by Old Persian (Zend) and Latin.
' See Cicero, 'Orator,' xlvi.
155
mar,' 365 (toI. i. p. 1 24).

and compare Roby's 'Latin Gram-

Noun

124

and neut. a- stems, Greek in adverbs in

in masc.

AbiQt. Sing, it

^t

of Sanskrit ablative

original -d retained in

Thus

[chap.

Inflection.

sama,
The Sanskrit

abl. of kva.

'

neutr.) preserve the final -t (siv^t, dsv&t)

ablative

identical in

is

an

Old Latin and in Zend.

o;ii(or=:o/itoT=saniat, abl. of

ks)=I. E. hvat,

where

-tor,

this -t probably representing

similar

:'

n-Ss (Ionic

and

a- stems (masc.
:

in all others the

form with the genitive in -as

such

merging being prevented in the a- stems by the retention of


the longer genitive form in -sya.

Latin Ablative Singular

Here the

In Latin.

original -d (as in

has been retained

but

written

Zend d

by Schleicher)

only found in Old Latin and Oscan,

is

Thus we find on
praidad/ gnaivod (Ep. Scip. Appendix
couentionid, and the adverbs sicprad, extrad,
de Bacch., Appendix I. ii.). This form

being lost in Classical Latin and Umbrian.


inscriptions senatud,
I.

i.

l)

sententiad,

facilumed

C.

(S.

facilwned, with

g.

e.

Oscan a/mprufi-d (^=:improbe), suggests that


-e is an ablative in -ed,

the ordinary adverbial termination in

from adjectives in

-um, and thus distinguished in form

-us, -a,

from the masc. and fem. ablatives in


sometimes adverbial, as in

The

original

-od,

-ad (which are also

supra(d), contra{d),

cito(d),

quantity of the adverbial ablative

etc.).

in ~e{d)

is

generally retained, though shortened in some words in constant


use, e.g. bene, male.

In

0-, a-, e-,

-a, -e,

and u- stems, the long vowel of the ablative

-o,

-u seems originally to have been followed by the charac-

teristic -d,

inscription

which however

on which

it

at

fell off

occurs

is

an early period.

The

latest

the S. C. de Bacch. (i86 b. c),

a formal legal document with much in

its

orthography that was

by no means found constantly


Thus on that of Scipio
even in the earliest inscriptions.
Barbatus (see Appendix I. i. i) we find gnaivod, but patre ;
archaic at the time

and

it is

while on the other Scipionic inscriptions


Eitschl, indeed, holds that it

whom

was

he assumes to have used

it

hardly occurs at

all.

in use in the time of Plautus,


it

or not at pleasure

and

accordingly he restoi-es to the text of Plautus forms like med,


ted,

sed {me,

te,

se)

almost ad libitum for metrical conveni-

^i-j

Nonn

125

Inflection,

ence ', Corssen however maintains that the final -d of


was no longer heard or spoken, and therefore not

abl. sing. Abiat. Sing,

likely to

have been written, in the time of Plautus and Ennius;

ad-

mitting at the same time that Plautus might have availed himself occasionally mebri gratia of

an archaic form no longer in

use, just as Virgil in later times used the archaic genitive aquai,

or infinitive yan'er^.

la consonant and
terminations.

In

stems

i-

we

find both

and

-i

-e

as abl.

most adjectives in -is have -i


(thereby securing a distinction from the neut. sing, in -e);
most substantives and participles -e. Some substantives howclassical Latin,

ever regularly have

-i (see

usually have

-e,

is

Munro on

978).

are

-i

i.

-i

In

weakened to

above, p. 108, note); in others which


found, especially in Lucretius (see

also
late

and vulgar Latin

The history

-e.

all

of the forms

ablatives in

is

as follows.

The original form was probably -id (I. E. -&i), seen e. g. in marid
(Columna Eostrata, b. c. 260), couentionid (S. C. de Bacch.),
and traceable in ante-hac (the non-elision of which is perhaps
due to
then

original form antid-Jmc).

its

-e,

which quantity

batus (Appendix

is

I. i. i.) in

This -id became -ed and

found on the Epit. of Scipio Bara Saturnian verse, Gnaivod

patre
\

progna
I

tus

||

pistores

scrqfipasci

onwards

-e

becomes most common,


Scip. 4

consonantal

stems,

Lucr.

iv.

235

'

last

Eitschl,

'

(Appendix
luci

I.

Plant.

Cic. Phil, xii. 25.

tion to obscure and

forms at

and Plant. Capt. 807

qui alunt furfure sues.

on Ep.

e. g.

.,

down

Neue

weaken

-ei

i.),

and

-i

Plautin.' Excurs.

i.

Turn

From 150

b. c.

are also found

and

virtutei, ablat.,

Aul,

741;

Ter.

The tendency

all final syllables

to the weakest

(trochaic),

form

-e (see

-i in

Ad.

841;

of pronuncia-

brought

these

all

above, p. 57).

106,

The objections here


Ueber Ausspraohe,' etc. II. pp. 1005-1008.
urged by Corssen appear almost conclusive against Kitschl's view
e.g.
his citation (i) of many instances from Plautus where the final vowel of
abl. sing, coalesces by aynaloepha with a following vowel, with no such
"

'

'

'

traces of the influence of a final -d, as are found for example in Homer of
the lost ' digamma'; and (2) of examples from Ennius of ablat. in -S (voce
videtur, Corde meo, etc. in hexameters) without a trace of length by position.
The shortening of this -e, it may farther be observed, is itself
a subsequent process, presupposing the entire disappearance of -d from the
original ending -ed (see below).

'

Noun

12,6

The Ablative Plural


(see p. 129).

Loc. Sing.,

Indo-European type.

Locative Singular

The general type

is

[chap.

Inflection.

agrees in form with the Dative Plural

Indo-European noun-stems; but

for

-i,

pronominal stems have

which

-in,

is

The

point to the oldest form of the suffix.)


as

and genitive

dative

and

(its

to

locative is retained

and

Keltic,

it

has coalesced with the

functions being also shared with gen.

Greek and Latin).

abl. in

In Greek, the dative singular in


yipovT-i,

TToS-i,

etc.

-i is

properly a locative form

and the locative meaning

such forms as MapaOavi, SaKafuvi, wktI, k.tX.

and

stems

a-

side with
{x"!'^-

+ 0-

form

(=e-(co-i

is

we

it

a true dative (see below,

in

and in Doric

127): but side by

p.

e.g. r (wol),

-ei,

- being also found in Attic

from stem

ko-).

ayx}

a stem ayxp-, whence ayxov

points rather to a stem in

(Doric

retained in
dative of 0-

Tol)

1)

x/"'

of o- stems becomes in Aeolic

-ot

is

Tovrei, reiSe:
ekei

d/iaxel, iravoticei,

and aU\ might be

-s,

rrjvel,

vi

perhaps locative (=ayx^') from

aifo-= Sanskrit Sva, Latin aevo-

/xoi, <To\

is

The

find locative forms Such as oixot (oiko-

This locative

TvlSe, ii(Tvi

this

In Latin.

-am seems

an independent case in Sanskrit, Zend, Slavonic, Lithuanian

in Greek, Latin, Teutonic,

In Greek;;

(The

the older form.

locative termination of fern, stems in Sanskrit

though

locative of a

.the

stem

Doric form aih

the locative of which

is aU{a)i.

are probably locatives.

In Latin there are but few traces of a distinct locative case

the locative, both in form and ^functions, having become merged


in either the ablative or dative

(?

genitive) case.

In consonant

declension forms like rv/n, vesperl, heri {=hes-i from hes, Greek

x6h, cp. hesternus)

from

dat. or abl. in

From

0-

locatives,
soli)

may

be locatives, but are not distinguishable

I.

stems humi,

belli, foci,

Corinthi, etc. are perhaps

but are assimilated in form to the dative

or the

genitive.

Postri-die, quotidie, etc.,

(as in

illi,

and in Old

Latin die quinti, die crastini, seem to point to a locative form

merged
tia-i)

in the dative

and

so

Homae, militiae (Soma-i,

are perhaps originally locatives formed

the stem', but are

now

by adding

milii

to

undistinguishable from the gen. or dat.

::

Noun

'^i-J

Ferendie,

jam and

II, A.) are

'

137

Inflection.

the pronominal adverbs in -im (Appendix

supposed to indicate the

still

Loo. Sing.

older locative termina-

-in=-am.

tion

[The locative terminations in Sanskrit are -i (consonant and In Sanskrit.


diphthong stems), -a,u (masc. stems in i- and u-, the stem vowel

-am

disappearing),

and neut. stems in

i-

-e

ti-),

= a-|-i

masc.

and -in (only in pronominal declension).]

Locative Plural

From

(fem. stems in k-

a-),

the forms of this case in the Asiatic branch of Indo-

Loo. Piur.

European languages (Sanskrit -su, -shu, Zend shva, shu, -shu,


-hva, -ha, -hu and Old Persian -swvd) an original type sva-sa

and sa plural
Comp.

(sva pronominal,

philologists (Schleicher,

However

(aFi) of the dative plural,

really locative,

-(,

-a-i

or

which

TToa&i
(/cue-)

but also

ittttoio-i,

'

connecting vowel
(Epic.)

noKea-i

x^pa'ci

may

from

it is

In

n6\i-.

by

[liriro-t-a-t,

'

and

kv(t\

be,

-ara-c

e. g.

Kvv-c-irtTi,

and

o-

(as is suggested

result from a lengthening of the stem

but

or

thus, like the dat. sing, in

is

7rd8-f-(r(ri

and

TrdXicri

TTciKl-e-o-cn,

stems the forms

-tri

are sometimes added direct to

-<r(n

consonant stems, sometimes by a


(=:7rd8-o-i),

may

this

the Sanskrit -su evidently corresponds to the Greek

by some

sign) is postulated
256).

a-

by some)

^mpa-i-o-t)

simpler to regard them as formed by the addition of

the plural sign

-o-t

to the locative sing.

few feminine forms

like

appears to be added to the stem

unless

forms to have been written with an

Epic forms

' i

the termination

we may suppose

-a-i

these

subscriptum,' like the

which are from lengthening of a

-30-1, -i;s,

In a

(twTroi-a-i, ;(a)pai-(ri).

Bvpcun, 'Adrivrjm

in -aicn,

-ais.

In Latin, the

and
is

locative plural is

The

abl. plur.

dat. abl. in

-is,

merged

very possibly a locative form (see below,

No

Locative

Dual

is

has a form ending in

Dative Singular

General type
Latin

-i.

-ai,

form of

in the

however, of

0-

dat.

and a- stems

p. 129).

found in Greek or Latin

but Sanskrit

-6a.

Sanskrit

-e,

Greek -9 (=0-

01),

a (=a-|-aOi Dat.

Different views are held as to the origin of this ter-

mination, viz.

typ.

Sing.,

Noun

ia8
Dat.

Sing.,

(i)

That

it is

(2)

That

it

[chap;'

Inflection.

a strengthening of the locative

-i.

General
type.

represents the preposition dbhi, bh being

(= ma-bhyam,

in Doric iiuv and Epic rctv

lost

These pronominal datives

Latin

(cp.

is

tu-bhyam).
give bh

tibi, sibi, etc.)

and

The use

they perhaps point to the original form of the dative.


of the preposition ahhi,

towards,' to form the dative

'

analogous to the Latin idiom of ad carnificem dabo,

modern languages

Plautus, and to the use in


to,

d,,

stems

a-

(a-,

o-)

rj-,

Infinitives in

is used.

+ m:

In Latin, the dative in


century A. u.

give

c.

Junone, matre,

-e,

which

is

i-

and

this

pa<re= Sanskrit pitr

Scip. 4,

has

Appendix

-ei; paterei,

I. i.)

Biuvei,

-ei

e. g.

quoiet (Ep.

-ei

Finally -ei became

etc.

which does not

-i,

Schleicher (Comp. 254) regards


locative.

It

-i, -e, -ei

Latin orthography will supply

and

In

(e. g. ni, ne,

nei

many

cp. Eitschl's

and the

as varieties of the

and the history of

view of the relations of


vol.

i.

e,

268).

stems the oldest forms appear to be

(quoi, populoi, traceable in huic^Jioic).


first letter

Corssen

the locative

analogies to this variety of

quoted in Eoby's Latin Grammar,

a-, e-, 0-

-i

would seem perhaps more reason-

able to regard the three forms as identical

spelling

and

to be the original dative suffix

same form, but

Oscan

Apolenei, Biovii, Hercolei, etc.

appear on inscriptions before the date of the Grracchi.


considers

solvendo

Umbrian has

Later inscriptions (sixth

{patri).

Augustus) give

to time of

c.

form appears
e. g.

aere alieno, jure dicundo in Livy and Suetonius.

century A. v.

of fifth

analogous to Sanskrit -e=-ai:

some technical phrases,

to have been retained in

and u- stems

Inscriptions

-ai.

Diove (Jovi)

salute,

are probably

-ai
viii).

and

of consonantal

-*

perhaps represents Indo-European

e. g.

found in

in all others the locative

-evm, -mi,

-/ievai,

datives of consonantal stems (see below, chap.


la Latin.

etc.

of the prepositions

alone have the true dative termi-

nation, o(Kij)=oiKo--|-oe, 6ea.=6eain

would be

zu, etc. to express the dative.

In Greek,

In Greek;

ei,

pronouns generally preserve more archaic forms than nouns,

as

-e

as

lost,

in Sanskrit sivais, instrumental plur. of siva, and as

-ai, -ei, -oi

With such stems

the

of the termination -ai united itself to the stem vowel,

results -01, -di, -ei

seem to have been sometimes pro-

Noun

"^i]

nounced

as dissyllable

the full form

In

0-

po]pulo-oi

is

the case with

still

e-

stems,

where Bat. Sing.

^^^

retained \

stems the

final

just as in

:)

as is

139

Inflection,

however the traces of

was dropped {jpojpulo^populd-i^^

-i

Greek

(^mTta^iTiTa-i,="nr7!o-oi, etc.),

remain in

'

subscriptum.'

where

In a- stems

i survives in Classical Latin -ae=-ai: but, dative forms like


Matuta, Tusco-lana, etc. are parallel to Greek 6e5.=6em=.6a-aX,
and Latin populo, in the loss of -i. In e- stems also a similar
form in -e is found e. g. die, Plaut. re, Trin. 635, 657 Jide,
;

Anl. 659,

Amph. 391

pronunciation metri gratia of

Compare the remark


qui purissime

locuti

"facie" dixertint.'

Dative Plural:

facie, Lucilius, etc.

-ei

and a monosyllabic

gives the intermediate stage.

Aulus Gellius (ix. 14), 'In casu dandi


sunt, non " faciei " uti nunc dicitur sed
of

General type hhyams,

i. e.

Vhyam, of

dat. sing, (as seen in

!)* P>"r-.

Sanskrit pronominal declension, p. 143)


plural sign -s.
The pean
Old Prussian -mans of dat. plur. is the natural representative,

type.

by the laws of phonetic change, of Indo-European hhyams, and


therefore confirms the inference that this

is

-mus in Lithuanian (mumus, jumus=-nobis,

same form

for if the original

would have -mas

but

the primitive form


vobis) points to the

had been Sanskrit bhyas, Lith.

accounted for by the nasal m.

is

This case form appears in

all

Indo-European languages except

Greek, which employs locative

as in sing, (see p. 126).

plur.,

In Sanskrit -hhyams becomes -bhyas

(cp. ace. plur.

-as^am,-s,

p. 116).

In Latin, -hhyas became -bios or -hius, then -hos, -bus (for In Latin,
min-us=mi'nius and see also on p. 59) and a

loss of i cp.
parallel

form appears in

This -bus

is

and u- stems, and

is

no-his, earlier noheis.

regular termination for consonant,

found in amho-bus, duo-hus

i-,

stems)

(0-

the Dat. in
also

deahus, filiahus, liberta-

bus on inscriptions, and amha-bus, duahus, classical (a- stems)


diebus, rebus, classical (e- stems),

'

The

dative termination

-ei

-i is

usually added before it

of the ordinary fifth declension seems to


ei, and el; see for examples Eoby,

have been variously scanned as e-j,


'Latin Grammar,' 306 (i. p. 122).

-iw.

Noun

130
Dat. Piur.

to consonant stems {nomin-i-bus, etc.)

we have

hov-hus

In

times becomes

The

Dat. in-i.

temjpestatebus, navebos

e. g.

dat.

but in lo-bus, hu-hu8=.

possibly the remnant of an earlier formation

adding -6ms direct to the stem.

Old Latin,

[chap.

Inflection.

i-

stems i

is

found as

and in u- stems,

by

in

some-

as fruetihus.

i,

(also abl.) plur. of 0-

and a- stems (with the


-is, of which form there

exceptions above given) ends always in


are two explanations

(i) that it is dative, arising

=.-bhyas, which then becomes -hios (cp. mi-hei beside

then by contraction

y=6A
it

above,

This however

p. 69).

Comp.

Schleicher,

-is (see

seems simpler to believe (2) that

is

from

-fios

ti-hei)

and

261,

and on

very hypothetical

-is is

and

a locative termination

dominis^musais, dominois=nmsaisi, dominoisi,


and correspond exactly to Greek x<"P<"<''', aypoiai (see above,
That -ois, -ais were the original terminations of the
p. 127).
so that musts,

plur.

dat.

shown by the old forms oloes {illis), privicloes


by Festus, and by the other Italian dialects.

is

{priviculis) noticed

Thus an

old inscription (possibly of Latin origin

Oscan has Neidanuis,

cnatois {mis, gnatis).

and a- stems ends in

and of
stems)
Dat. Dual.

stems in -ds

i-

-es

gives suois,

and in Umbrian the

(Nolanis, legatis, lymphis);


of 0-

1)

legatuis,

-eis,

(perhaps on analogy of a- and 0-

Indo-European -hhydms, lengthened from -hhy&ms.


here drops the

-s,

and

finally

Xapa-<piv.

yevoiv

-o-cf)iv,

Sanskrit

and has -bhyam.

In Greek -hhyams became something like

thus

plur.

-is (later -eir, -er, -ir),

-es,

'-

Dative Dual:

-ipiv

diumpais
dat.

-iv,

-tjiuov,

which became

as in 0- stems i7nro-iv^ijnro-(j)iv, x^P"'^"^

All other stems follow the analogy of 0- stems, and


-oiv is

the usual termination throughout,

yUe(T-o-(j>iv,

iraTcpoiv

narep-o-fjiiv,

(stem evpv- with stem vowel raised).


fi\c(^apouv, etc.

(from stems to-

added to the stem

'

The Homeric forms

/3Xc<^a/)o-)

See Ferrar's

'

stems,

e. g.

to'uv,

appear to have an

The same form

so that ToCiv^To-i-^iv.

found in some consonantal

e. g. ytw'oo/,

evpi-oiv := eipeF-o-<j>iv

ttoSouV

Comparative Grammar,'

p. 269.

is

woS-o-i-<j>iv,

i'

Noun

Ti.]

where

Ssipfivouv=2eiprjv-o-i-(j)iv,

added to the

Inflection.

original

and afterwards

0-,

each

stem,

131

under the

(-,

have been

influence

of

analogy.

There

is

no trace of -hhydms in Latin or any Italian

Instrumental Sinqula/r:

dialect.
Instru-

inere appear to have been two Indo-European forms, (i)

-IM

(2)

these

and

mental Sing.
indo-Euro-

suggested (Schleicher, Comp. 258) that

it is

originally corresponded to the twofold

went with him'),

comitative ('I

-(2,

(6)

meaning of

{a)

'instrumental' proper ('I

cut it with a knife'), which are united in the Latin ablative


case,

and in our preposition

(i)

found

is

iji

in the adverbial forms


(II.

i.

(Doric

aim.

144, xiv. 499), dWaxrj,

from pronominal stem


'

with.'

'

Sanskrit {vtk-h)

irdvTt]

and in Greek possibly

Ayta),

Six" (^'X"), Taxa,

(Doric

rravTo),

whence the

ya,

locat.

^t

B^:=dya=yd

jam

for

(see

parasitic d,' p. 80).

(2) -bhi,

which does not appear in Sanskrit,

common

a termination

in

Homer, and not

the supposed earlier form of the dative


above.

It is used as (a) comitative

dual
rjol

(0/1'

is

in Greek -04,

to be confused with
-lu

mentioned

(jimvoiievrjcjiiv),

(6)

^k'ph Od. xxi. 313, cp. II. xvi. 734);


but more often in a locative or ablative signification, by the

instrumental proper

{(pi

easy transition from the notion of

by which

or

'

eV

ia-xapo<j>iv

(whence

to

'

'

or with

'

circumstances under which

place at which ' or


aTTo,

'

from at which

fK ttoito^w,

c|,

'

:
'

from on the

e.

g.

sea,'

has sometimes been wrongly interpreted as a

-<l>iv

genitive termination).

Latin

offers

no trace of either -d or

Instrumental Plural

Indo-European

-bhis, i.e.

except in a- stems, where

bhi

+ s,

bh

-bhi.

of plural.

Sanskrit has -bhis.

disappears (asvais):

the Vedas

however show dsve-bhis.

In Greek the

final s is lost after v (see p.

therefore identical with the singular


KOTvKr]Sov6(jii.v,

Od.

V.

433,

-(j)iv,

68) and the form

e.g. mOcjiiv,

II. ii.

is

794

Beocfiiv, etc.

Comparison of Adjectives :
The declension of adjectives has been

sufficiently explained ^omparison


tivea.

Noim

13a
Comparisoii

under that of substantives

tives.

of the formation of

'

and there only remains the question

This

degrees of comparison.'

of the composition of words,


roots

[chap.

Inflection.

i.

e.

suffixes,

and not confined to

wide and general use of

pairticular

and the order usually observed


to consider

them

way

may

These

in

different

But the

adjectives.

suffixes for this purpose,

grammars, make

it

convenient

at this stage.

The supposed type of

Comparative degree.

Indo-European

part

and superlative are formed by addition

for comparative

to stem of positive of particular suffixes, in no

from other

is really

the formation of stems from

is

formed by a

suffix

this

stem in

-yans {=yan-ta) or -tara.

be derived either from (i) verbal, or (2) pronominal

Those who derive from verbal roots connect -yan with

roots.

Jndo-European ya, 'to

go,'

whence Sanskrit

yS,,

Greek Uvai;

'tara with Indo-European tar, 'to cross over,' whence Latin


trans, English through

both roots thus signifying progression,

and heightening the idea of the positive.


But it seems better, without trying

to attach so definite a

meaning to the

regard them as derived

suffixes in question, to

from pronominal roots and


suffixes traceable in

nected with the

Greek, Latin)

common

-vant

-jjxvo-,

irol-iir]v,

other pronominal

('

-yans

e.g.

con-

suffixes -ant (part. act. in Sanskrit,

provided with anything,' Greek fevr in

lx6v6-pevT, xapifVT-, etc., -9,

in Afj-iiav,

akin, to certain

Indo-European languages,

and -manf (mana-, mari')

-ecrcra, -ev) j

ani-mo, al-mo, certa-men, car-men

partic.

plur. 2 per. -mini, etc.

-tara-=-ta-ra, the latter of which elements sometimes expresses


Compar.
suffix j/am.

the idea of comparative


as in Latin sup-er-us,
^
*

etc.

'

(i)

-yan

{^-yarns')

or -ians.

Sanskrit -lyas (base of comparative).

nom.

sing. lyan(B)

masc, lyaa neut.

ace.

ly&nsam.

in^str.

lyas-&.

Cheek

-lov

{-tav

nom.

tov-r,

lengthened), before which final


e.g.

<j)[\-iov

-o, -v,

(^(Xo-), fj8-iov (^8u-).

being
-po,

lost

and the vowel

of stem, are drqpped

6a<r(rov=:Tax-iov (raxo-), jjaa-

Noun

VI.]

aov^imK-iov

Inflection.

;
;

133

{jiaKpo-), alax-lov {auTX-po), iieiCov:=fiycov {fieyas),

foot Comparison
of Adiec-

i\

1^7- )

tives.
.

J.
Latin

._

-los,

-ids is

-ior,

-or,

-lus, -us.

the oldest form,

stem vowel

In

is

omitted

being

^db-ior

in accus. plur., but

lost as

In adding

retained in adverbial -iens.

-ios to

vowel stems, the

(prob-o-), sapient-ior.

Classical Latin -ios split into -ior, -ios

and the two forms

then served to mark distinction of gender (melior, melius).

The

distinction between them was not originally very marked


and remains of Old Latin give e. g. melios, masc, and prior,
posterior, neut.

Plant.

^-

Amphit. 548
'

Old Latin

o long in

-ior=-ios.

Atque quanto ndx

Capt. 782 (cMctior), and in


'

Proin

til

Menoeohmi, ^26

Greek

Ctompar.

-repo-s.

suffix -tara.

'

In Latin

it

appears in

u-ter, dex-ter, citra, ultra,

and

haec prdxuma.'

fuisti l6ngior
neut., tts,

ne quo abeas I6ngius ab aedibus.'

(2) -tara, Sanskrit tara,


^

in oblique cases), so

(as

igi-tu/r, etc. (see

e. g.

pos-teri,

ce-teri,

al-ter,

neu-ter,

frustra ; and possibly adverbs in

however Appendix

-ter

II, A.).

In pure comparatives, only in composition with the other form


-ios, e. g. ci-ter-ior, de-ter-ior, etc.,

(cp.

Greek

or sin-is-tero, min-is-tero-, etc.

XaX-iore/jo-r).

\mag-ister, min-ister^^ihe greater, the less person, cp. English

'mayor,' 'major,' 'minor.']

Comparison of A djectives.

The elements

Svperlative.

of superlative

formation in Indo-European

languages are -ta and -ma, either separately or combined, or


either of them doubled, or in combination with the comparative

stem ; as under the following heads

the production of these forms by assimilation, see above, pp. 75, 6


Schleicher, ' Comp.' 148 d, e (pp. 224-226), and Peile, p. 228.
^ Priscian quotes ' senatus consultum priori
bellum Punicum posterior,^
and says, ' Vetustissimi etiam neutriim in -or finiebant, et erat eadem
terminatio communis trium gencrum.' In the appropriation of -ior to the
masculine gender we perhaps see the result of analogy with substantives in
-or, honor, labor, etc., which are usually masculine.
'

On

and compare

'

Noun

134
^-

sufixes''

"*"'

numerals

ill

2 -m,a

wpofio-s,

3.

ta-ta

4.

ta-ma

[chap.

Inflection.

irparo-s, ckto-s, sexto-.

prima-, summo-,

etc,

the ordinary Greek superlative in -raro-s.

in Latin optumo-, dextumo- (or without the superla-

With these Corssen

tive iiea,,flnitimo-, maritimo-).

classes the

superlatives fadllimMS, aoerrvmus, veterrimus, which forms he

ho\ds=facil-timo-, aeer-timo-,veter-timo-; -timo after l,r becomfirst -simo-, and then by assimilation (p. 74) -lima-, -rimo-.
Thus proonmus := p^opic-timius (from an adjectival stem pro-

ing

pica-)

and by contraction proximus.

thence prapicsumus

MaccumMS
however

= mag-tum,us,

(see

mag-sumus.

Another

Roby's Latin Grammar, Preface,

forms=-ios or-s of comp. +

-i

-mus

possible

however

Corssen's

makes these

(-mas); e.g.facillimus=-

The difficulty here is


Both theories are

facil-is-i-mus under strong contraction.


in the insertion of i between is

explanation

p. Ixi)

and mus.

follows

a wider

analogy,

and

(except in one or two cases) rests upon an easier contraction

number

(see below,
5.

ma-ta; Greek

6.

yans-ta

8,

on -issimus).

jri/iaTo-s, e^hoimTo-s.

Greek superlative

in

ta-ro-, fieytaro-s, etc.

yans-ma=ias-ma=:is-ma=:i-ma in minima-, plurimo-,


where i is all that remains of the comparative suffix.
7.

etc.,

8.

yans-ta-ma=is-t%i/mo, found in two words, sallistumum

(tripudium), Cic. de Div.

sonMs-=tatus

mus

of

ii.

34. 7 2, explained as

and sinistumus, superlative of

On

deleter.

'

perfect

'

from

sinister, as deoctu-

the analogy of these two forms, Corssen

explains the regular Latin superlative in -issimus=i-is-tum'U:S=

-ias-tumus (see above,

another explanation
s

number

is offered,

4,

onfacillimus,

Here again

etc.).

that -issvmor=-is-imo

',

the double

being due partly to the desire to indicate the length of the

preceding syllable, partly to an attempt to preserve the sound


of s
'

It seems doubtful, however, whether s

sharp.

sharpened

syllable

is

'

to ss for merely phonetic reasons, except


lost

moreover there
9.

before
is

(as

it

in locassim,

etc.)

See Roby's Latin Grammar,'


'

vol.

i.

ever

and of this

no example in noun-forms.

tara-ma, in extremo-, postremo-.


'

is

where a

Preface, p. bd.


yi.]

Noun

Inflection.

-^iS

Paradigms of Koun Inflection in Sanskrit *, Greek, and Latin. Paradigms


^""
Schleicher, and Ferrar.)
Lto^
I (a). Consonant Stems
Consonant

(From Bopp,

Stems.

136
Inflection of

Consonantr
Stems.

Noun

Inflection.

[chap.

VI-]

,Noun

Inflection.

^37

Noun

138
I

(8).

Stems in

i-

Inflection.

[chap.


Noun

VI.]

(c).

Diphthongal Stems

Inflection.

139


Noun

146
II

(a).

[chap.

Inflection,

Vowel Stems (masc. and Beut.)

Noun

Ti.]

II

(6).

Vowel Stems

Inflection.

(feminine a-).

141

CHAPTEE

VII.

Inflection op Pronouns.

The Pronouns
which make

it

In many

nouns.

exhibit

certain

necessary to

cases they have

of

irregularities

consider

them

inflection,

separately from

undergone such changes that

the forms admit of only conjectural explanation


of pronominal roots employed makes

and the variety

it difficult, if

not impossible,

them to any uniform scheme. The Pronouns of the


and 2nd person, and the reflexive pronoun (Indo-European

to reduce
ist

ma-,

tva-, sva-)

have no distinction of gender

accounted for by their antiquity,

if (as

a fact which

is

appears likely) they are

the oldest extant elements in language, developed previously to


the introduction of distinction

The presence

of gender.

or

absence of this distinction divides the pronouns roughly into two

main heads,
(2)
Pronouns
without
Gender.

viz. (i)

Pronouns without Gender

(as above),

and

Pronouns with Gender.


Pronouns without Gender (ist and 2nd Personal, and

(i)

\
-D \
Kenexive).

The

original of these three pronouns,

able in the oblique cases, and in

but

Verb

-si, -ii,

see below, ch. viii);

tion of

meaning of these elements

of these three pronouns has

might without
best

many

1st

tva, sva, are trace-

speculation as to the derivais fruitless.

The

declension

points of similarity,

be considered together

upon the whole to take them

but

and they
it

seems

separately.

Personal Pronoun {ma),

Nom.
viz.

difficulty

all

ma,

Inflections of person {-mi,

Sing.

Here we are met

Sanskrit ah&m, Greek

at once

by a

different

form

iyitv (Doric), eyavya,,eya> (Attic),

iaiv,

Inflection
lavya,

laya,

Latin

egd,

lavei

and Tarentine) ; 1st Personal


and eyav probably arise from

Ah&m

agJiam,

ma-m,

ma

thetic' or auxiliary, see p. 83),

ifixi

Accus. Sing.

tilian

(i.

5.

Sanskrit

20) speaks of mehe

Greek yA or

quantity of

me

as

and in Old Latin med,

compared with

from confusion with the

sequence of

ink (e

is

/ic

ablat.

'

pros-

Quin-

Doric; Latin me.

occur, probably formed on analogy of the

arising

143

(Boeotian), iyavrj (Laconian

later ego^-

common form

of Pronouns.

ted,

sed

The

ablative in -d.

variously explained as

me

(Corssen ''), as a con-

being monosyllable (Schleicher, 265), or as


a compensation for the loss of -m, i.e. ?rae=me-m, mi-m (stem
its

mi- as in mi-hi).
Gen. Sing.

Sanskrit

Greek e^""

lost);

m.&ma (stem

reduplicated, case ending

(Epic)=ej[i6-<7yo (as -ou> of nouns, p. 119),

by

and by contraction
(Homer and Eurip.
Hel. 177) is formed by the suffix -BiV. so iiiBev quoted by
Ahrens from Sophron (circ. 450 B.C.) The fornis f/^c'oj, eVoCy,
eiieia

(Doric), then
(Attic),

ifiov, iiov

f/xEuj

(Doric),

loss of

iiielas,

(_/,

fuv (Doric).

e/ieC,

y)

e/io,

efi.i-8ev

ifms (Syracusan), are

usually explained

as addition of gen. sign -t to the old genitive.


is

In Latin mei

probably a locative, or borrowed from the possessive meus.

An

old genitive mis

restored

said to have been used

is

by Ennius.

Sanskrit ma-t, Latin me-d (as ie-d, se-d), a form

Ablat. Sing.

by Eitschl

to

many

passages in Plautus, e.g. Trin. 258,

1080; Amph. 812; Most. 365.


Sanskrit

Locat. Sing.

mayi ; Greek

dat. ^oi

(/to-

1)

and

perhaps Latin gen. sing. msi.


Dat. Sing.

Sanskrit

={e)ma-hhyam,
quoted.
mi-fei,

m^-hyam; Greek

ifuv (Doric) =e/ie-^i('

129; a form i/iivr] (Tarentine) is also


Latin mi-hei, mihl (afterwards mihi) is perhaps for

cp. p.

representing

an original

bh,

which becomes b in

tibei, sihei.

Tnstr. Sing.

Nom,

'
^

Plv/r.

No trace in Greek or Latin.


The Indo-European stem of this

See Wordsworth, ' Fragments,'

case

was perhaps

etc. Introd. xii. 4.


'Kritisohe Beitrage zur Lateinischen Fonnenlehre,' p. 528.

144
ist Personal

Pronoun.

of Pronouns,

Inflection

[chap.

formed by addition of the pronominal element -sma (sa-ma) to


,

the demonstrative stems ma-,

The

va-sma.

a-,

would account

first

second for (Vedic) Sanskrit

asme

ma-sma-, a-sma,

i.e.

Lithuanian mes

for

the third for Sanskrit

Greek

Gothic vds, English we.

va-,

(Aeolic),

Sfi/ics

rjfiels^,

the

vay^m,
A/ies

(Doric), arise

from stem asma, asmi^^anju- (by assimilation,

p. 74) or

by

to

(cp.

T)

rjiib-

and compensatory lengthening of a

loss of s

icr-iii, eljiij.

Latiu nos {ends, Carm. Arval.) seems connected with stem no,

which occurs in Greek


dat. plur. nds.

and

It

Sanskrit dual ndu, and accus. gen.

vaC,

may be

that nos

is

an

accus. used as nom.,

from analogy

originally n8s (Sanskrit nas), but lengthened

of the

common

Bopp, however, con-

accus. plur. in -os (equos).

and connects

siders that nos- is the stem, found e.g. in nos-ter,

both

and Sanskrit nas with sma, whence he derives

it

egomet,

and i'fwmo'=ismo

etc.,

Sanskrit asinan=asmaii-s

Acous. Plur.
(Aeolic),

-Wiet in

{i-smcC).

from same stem as nom.

plur.

Greek

ifiieas, ayLfic

Latin nos as nom.

plur.

Gen. Plur.
neut.),

nas

asm^kam

Sanskrit

Greek

(Epic) from stem


plur. of possessive

(an adjective in ace. sing,

afifiiav (Aeolic), ij^iemv

dufie-, rjfu-;

stem

(Ionic),

rifiSiv,

fffieiav

Latin nostrum=.nostro-um, gen.

NosVro-rum

nostra-.

is also

found in

Plautus.
Ahl.

Plw.

Sanskrit asm&-t

Latin o-6is (as

Loc. Plur.

Sanskrit asm^-su ; Greek (Aeolic)

Dat. Plur.

Sanskrit asmfi-bhyam or nas

where

iv=i-(j>iv (see

dat.).
ajini-iriv.

Greek

tjiuv, aixfuv,

above, p. 130); Latin no-bis (=wos-6s,

if

nos- be stem).

Dual.
vav, are

Greek nom.

ace.

vS>i, koj,

forms from a stem

wSe (Boeotian), gen. dat.

j/(o-= Sanskrit

nau, which

(without inflection) for nom. gen. and dat. dual.

nau

is

is

In form

vrnXv,

used
this

a regular nom. ace. dual from stem na-, as ^.svau from

Ava-,

2nd Personal Pronoun

An Ionic form fiiiUs, sometimeB found in MSS. of Herodotus, seems


have had no existence.

to

ifva).

VII.]

Nom.

Sing.
...

Sanskrit

bably

= -m

of

tvam ;

Latin

145

+ Da + ma)

(perhaps =<a

tvam

In

tu.

Greek

where

v pro-

rw-ij,

2nd Personal
Pronoun.

tow or

TV (Doric), with Boeotian forms

(TV,

or

of Pronouns.

Inflection

the u represents v

tv, tu,

F.

Sanskrit tva-m or tva; Greek o-e, re (Doric)


nv (Boeotian); Latin te=^tve-m, stem tvi- (for

Ace. Sing.
{=:(rFe,

rFe),

quantity see above on ist pers. pron.)

which
tvi-

TJmbrian has tiom,

=:tmo-m from stem

either =:tuom, :=tvam, or (Corssen)

lengthened by a

tava-sya

(see
;

e-^t^m=i-o-m from stem

ii8)j

p.

Doric

i-).

reoio (Epic), =fo-o-yo=

Sanskrit t^va; Greek

Gen. Sing.

and aov

(cp.

<Teio=tva-sya, then

reos, reovs, revs, tIos, tIws,

o-eo,

o-eO

in which -s

(Ionic),
is

added

to the old form (cp. on ist pers. pron.).

Abl. Sing.

Sanskrit tva-t; Latin

Bat. Sing.

tu-bhyam

Sanskrit

te

(old

Latin

Latin
ti-hi

ted).
;

Greek

Tetv

(Epic).

Nom. Plur. The Sanskrit forms yushme (Vedic nom.) and


yushma-n (accus.) point to tva-sma as the Indo-European form.
The Greek and Latin forms {v/iels, li/iiies, ifie, vos) are parallel to'
those of ist pers. pron., and so throughout the plural of 2nd
pers.

The Greek forms

Dual.
<r^au

(gen.

Latin has

dat.),

retain

retained

the

o-</)Si,

in

o-</)a>

(nom. ace), and

the v sound of tva:

</>

v in tui

and

the

a(pS>iv,

(T<{>=tv.

possessive

tuus

(=toass).

Pronoun {sva).
The stem sva- appears in Sanskrit only in compounds, e.g.Beflexive
Bva-yam (self), sva-tas (by oneself), etc.^ but it is used to form
the possessive sva-s= Latin sMits= Greek irFt)!, which appears
Reflexive

(by

loss of

F and change of a-, see p. 66) as oy the possessive


There is one distinction of gender in this

pronoun in Homer.
pronoun,

Nom.

viz.

Greek nom.

Sing., wanting in

Aceus. Sing.

pp. 66, 68).

Greek

f,

ace. plur. neut. <T^4a.

Greek and Latin.


Aeolic

<rF=sva, with

F=(rFe, Epic

inflection lost.

ies=a-eFe

(Epic), vlv (Doric), are perhaps reduplicated accusatives of

See Curtius'

'

Elueidations,' p. 85.

(see

The forms

julw

stem

146
Reflexive

i-

Inflection

(i/ut/i)

Latin

cp.

[chap.

of Pronouns.

Latin se^sve-=s'oi-m

sese.

either=S'ua-m or svi-o-m (see above on and

Oscan siom

Old Latin

pers.).

sed ; see on mei, ted accus.

Gen. Sing,

eib

(Epic)=o-fe-(ryo, eb (Ionic), o5 (Attic),

(Doric), eoOs (Boeotian), (see above on

forms the aspirate =0sui ; see on mei,


Ahl. Sing,

(p.

tui, p.

66) and F has disappeared.

eS, iov

all

these

(?)

Latin

si {in

si-bi)

143.

from stem

original ied=sei-d

se,

In

ifiovs, rcoSy).

^ sui.
Aeolic f01= o-fo-Z; Latin smi.

Loc^ Sing,

of,

Dat. Sing.

Boeotian Hv, Doric

Oscan

si-fei,

Umbrian

and

si-be

(cii')=-0iV;

tv

Latin

si-bi,

Eugub.^), which

se-so (Tab.

is

perhaps a reduplicated locative =se-io-i(?), or a genitive form

^sva-sya

but these are only conjectures to explain a very

obscure form.

In the plural Greek retains the stem but little altered (o-^tand has a very complete set of forms; while in Latin

=.sva),

the plural forms are identical with

Thus

the singular.

in

Greek,

Nam.

Plwr.

tr^6is=o-^t-es.

Accus. Pl/wr.
<r(pi

(r^as, cr^i-as (Ionic), a-c^d-as

(inflection lost),

Aeolic S-o-^e (a

'

(stem raised), Doric

prosthetic' or

'

auxiliary,'

see above, p. 83).

Gen. Plur.

a-cpav, (r(j>4-av (Ionic), a-<peiav (Aeolic).

Loc. Plur.

a-<pi-in.

In Greek Dual the stem a^a-

= sva.

<r^S-e then has

the

dual nom. ace. inflection as well as the stem vowel lengthened


ir(j>aiv

(gen. dat.)
'

o-(j>S>-(jiiv.

Wordsworth's Fragments,' Introd.


'

xii. 9.

Til.]

Inflection

I.

(i.)

of Pronouns.

Peonominal Declension without Gender.

Pronoun of the

1st

Person

ima-")

147

J 48

(ii.)

Inflection

Pronoun of the

2nd.

of Pronouns.

Person

(tva-)

[chap.

T^ii.]

(iii.)

Inflection

Refleodve

Pronoun

of Pronouns.

(sva-)

149


T50

Inflection

of Pronouns.

Pronominal Stem
I.

Masc. and Neut.

to-.

[chap.

vir.]

Inflection

of Pronotms.

151

152
form, and not

Pronoims
'

of Pronouns.

Inflection

having thus

Greek neut. sing. nom.


but in other respects
the nominal declension of 0- and

a modificatiou of

lost the final t (8)

the pronominal

the same as

is

[chap.

'

*.

ends in

a- stems.

In Latin

also the

and a

neut.)

a of stem

(fem.), quis, is,

ta is represented

by

and
But on

(masc.

aU-s being exceptions.

the other hand there are certain peculiarities which distinguish


the Latin pronominal declension more markedly than the Greek

from that of noun stems in


Peculiarities
of Latin

Pronoun.
declension.

a-, 0-, e.g.

addition of -os or -us (Indo^ formed by


_^ ' Gen. sing,
'
^
,
,
,
,
European -as, see p. ii8)=-isot consonantal declension to the
(a.)

,,

,1

-i

stem lengthened by

thus isttios=is-fo-i-os, hujus^no-t-os,

cujiis=: quo-i-os.
(6.)

Locatyve singular in -i used as dat., e.g. is-ti-=is-to-i

The form

(see p. 126).

quo-i (cut) being the


(c.)

quoiei,

however,

from the stem increased by

dative,

more usual

is

apparently a true

i {quo-i-ei),

the locative form

in classical times.

It has both locative plural

(ts-Jts,

see p. 127)

and dative

plural {qwi-hus).

The neuter termination -d (see above).


by i. This i is probably parallel to
found with pronouns especially, but after the
the Greek suffix
(d.)
(e.)

Increase of the stem


1,

Its place in

case-suffix, e. g. ovtoitX, Toh-\ outoii, etc.

between the stem and the


through

all

and

it

is

Latin

nom. fem.

sing, {qua-i, Jia-i-e, etc.)

is

not carried

i-us=

and in neut.

which are similar in form ; in masc. and fem. plurals in

plurals
-I

and

It occurs always in gen. sing.

the forms.

o-i-os; often in

case-suffix,

-oe-=o-i, a-i, as in

(p. 1 1 3),

The

and

nominal declension of

in such dat. forms as quo-i-ei,

declension of Latin pronouns

and

Wordsworth's 'Fragments

(Introd. ch. xiii. pp. 91-112).

of Mr. Wordsworth's

or

eo-.

and a- stems

treated very fully in

Specimens of -Early Latin'


I give here the main results

discussion, referring

work for details.


The chief pronominal stems
olio-, i-

is

0-

e-i-ei.

in Latin are

the reader to his

7io-, to-,

so-, co- {quo-),

These are employed in the formation of pro-

nouns in various ways,

viz.


"fTii.]

of Pronouns,

Inflection

153

(1) Simply, as quo-d, ollu-S, is.


(2) Eeduplicated

Formation

or compounded, as

in

is-to,

quis-^onotTro-

i-p-so,

nouns in

,,,

^^^-

Latin.

(3) Increased

by

by

(4) Increased

as qui (quo-i), eid (see above).

i,

and compounded, as

ko-i-ee {Mc), is-to-i-c

(istie).

These are

divisible into three classes, according to simplicity

of declension

viz.

(i. )

OU0-,

(ii.)

Eo-, quo-,
So-,

(lii.)

isto-, ipso-, alio-, etc.


i-

or

The following

eo-.

defective

to-, etc.,

and

enclitic stems.

peculiar or archaic forms

each of these classes

may

be noted under

Ollus (=ille) found in Ennius and old inscriptions, and Peculiar or

(i.)

STCllSilC

surviving in olim, which preserves the oldest form with one

In Lucretius and Virgil

it is

an intentional archaism.

IstMs, vpsus are found in Plautus,

The element

455).

I.

in i-p-so

is

and even in Terence (Hec.

the same which appears (as

or pe) in rea-p-se, quis-p-iam; nem-pe, pro-pe.


Alls, olid are late contractions of alius, aliud

CatuU.

The
in

Ixvi.

28

olid

is

frequent in Lucr.,

the

adverbs

illi-o,

e.g. Ter. And.-

iii.

5.

coloris ulli capiendi;

isti-c.

2,

few examples of

noun stems

alis.

ib. v.

38, isii modi.


-i is close

at

Terence has alterae and Plautus

use as

its

in 0-) are given

nulli consili; Plaut. Trin.

an ordinary genitive in

analogy.

alis is fem. in

locative is-to4, isti (see above, p. 126) is strictly locative

genitive (perhaps from analogy of

cases

who does not use

ii.

2.

37,

In each of these

hand to suggest the


isiae for dat. fem.

locative formation in -im or -in- (cp. Sanskrit ta-sm-in)

occurs in the adverbs olim,

illin-c, istinc,

Mn-o,

etc., cp.

long-in-

quus, prop-in-quus.

The
(ii.)

plural

is

declined like ordinary 0- stems..

The stems

ho- and quo- are further increased

having generally the


the pronominal stem

nom. hlc

(ho-i-c),

enclitic
co-).

c,

by

ho-

or ce appended (a remnant of

The

increase takes place in sing,

gen. huius (ho-i-os), loc. hlc (ho-i-c), and plur.

forms.

154
Declension
of Pronouns
in Latin:
peculiar or
archaic

nom. hi

ha-i ;

(Jio-i),

^.^'',
,
,
amples see Wordsworth,
/

ine Stem quo-

[chap.

of Pronouns.

Inflection

and

dat.

abl.

hihus (ho-i-bus,
for ex'
^

-i

as an interrogative pro-

p. iC?).
\

when used

(relative),

noun, has a special inflection for nom. with the case suffix

stem vowel o being weakened to

form

is

used indefinitely in ali-quis,

nom. fem.

and neut.

sing,

the

s,

The same

qui-d).

i {qui-s,

ne quia ; but then

si quis,

by

plur. are not increased

e. g.

aliqua, si qua.

In the declension
to ei (nom.

of

the stem

ts,

i is

sometimes increased by

gen. e-i-us, dat. e4-ei,

e-i-s,

sometimes turned into an

nom. plur.

or a- stem {eo-m, ea-m,

o-

e-i-s),

i-i,

etc.).

The following peculiar forms may be noticed


Nom. Sing. : ei'S (raised form of I'-s) is found on some
:

and perhaps adeo represents a raised form of

inscriptions;

neut. id (ad, eod)

but this

at best doubtful.

is

ffic {ho-i-o) is sometimes shortened to

not often

Mc

(Aen.

but

iv. 22),

hoc {hod-ce) never.

Aec. Sing.

im,

em

a time before the stem


Htic (adv.)

is

in quotations from old laws^ point to


i

was raised to

originally Aoc,

'

eo-.

to this place,' as in Aen.

viii.

423,

and Cicero Epp.

Hone

(Ep. Scip. Appendix

quon-dam
cusatives.

I.

Quom

are old Latin forms.

i.

is

and quo-m

the adverb

(S. C.

quum

and quaan, quanquam,, quod are


(See

Gen. Sing.

all

adverbial ac-

II. A.)

the suffixed

and in old poets


Local. Sing.

Appendix

de Bacch.)

or cum.; cp.

generally becomes consonantal

Ifmdus, cuius, eius are often monosyllables.

heio or hie (adv.) is locative =ho-i-c,

and so

perhaps are qui, qui-ne, and qui-jppe (sometimes explained as


ablat.).

The form

quo-i

is

found in Plautus^ in the phrase

quoimodi, apparently gen. (cp. istimodi above,

modi or cuicuimodi are found in Cicero


'

em

E.g. XII. Tab.


capitoj'

eato.'
'

i.

i,

viii. 12,

nox furtum

existing remains of the

XII

and

cui-

antestamino igitur
oooisit, jure caesus
Tables are given in Wordsworth's

'Si in jua vocat, ito; ni

'Si

153)

faxsit, si

it,

im

Fragments,' pp. 254-265.


'
'

'

The

and

p.

'.

For references see Wordsworth, Introd. xiii. 30 (p. 103).


Pro Rose. Araer. 95, Vereor enim emcuimodi es;' Att.

cmommodi

'

agam.'

iii.

22 ad

fin.,


vii.]

of Pronovms.

Inflection

Dat. Sing.
T

Jjucr.

on inscriptions ;

ei-ei

-1

iVom. Flur.

diditwr

the forms

ei)

Virg. G.

305, Aen.

iii.

601 and

iii.

vi.

in.

ha-i-c (haec)

uncommon

not

e. g.

Ixiv.

320.

propiered, postea, anted; posthdc

and the numerals

trigintd,

etc.,

show

pronouns in a without increase by

earlier neut. plural of the

as

is

(Eom. MS.), 852 (Pal.);

vii.

175
456; Catullus,

antidhdc, qudpropter ;

i,

in Latin.

The adverbial iorms postilld,


an

inscriptions,

for examples see Words(p. 114)


Fragments, Introduction ix. 9 and xiii. 34. In the

feminine haec (for the more usual hoe)


Lucr.

...
on

quot-ei

ques have been alluded to

eis, hisee,

under the noun declension


worth,

155

or e-i in Plautus, and Declension


ofPrononns
...

ei-i
^

,-,.

omms

130 (cibus

II. 1

and are evidence

for the original quantity

of neut. plur. d, seen in Sanskrit, and traceable in Latin poetry

Aen.

(See
464 gravid, Ter. Ad. 612 debilid.
Wordsworth,
Introduction
ix.
and
10,
p. 460;
and cp. Wagner, Introd. to Terence, p. 14.) A form

e.g. Virg.

Corssen, vol.
xiii.

iii.

ii.

35
ead in S. C. de Bacch.
;

is

disputed,

Bopp thinking

it

accus.,

Eitschl ablat.

Log. Plur.

quels or quts, heis or

eis,

Ms

are all in

common

use as dative and abl. as well as the dative forms in -bus, which
are

more usual with

Examples

quo-.

of hibus=ho-i-bus, i-bus

and l-bus are given by Wordsworth, p. .107.


(iii.) The defective stems so-, to- and others are
^

'

'

Defective
chiefly
' trace-

stems.

able in adverbial forms.

So- (Sapskrit sa-, Greek

o,

English

slie,

German

sie) is

seen in

sas in Ennius and

i-p-so, and the old accusatives sum, sam,

sos,

the XII Tables (Wordsworth,


may be locatives of the same

Sic {sei-ce) and si (set)

Umbrian

savi and

stem: but the analogy of Oscan

sve (=: Latin si) rather points to the pro-

nominal element sva.


si-c,

p. 108).

Sei, si (Italian se) is the

originally a pronominal adverb

case that,'

English,

and so 'thus' and

e. g.
'

It

Tennyson's

may

And ^0

be, so

'

=' there,'

'if;' cp.

Guinevere

thou purify

thou lean on our

We

meet.'

as
'

in

the use of so='if' in

:'

thyself,
fair father Christ,

Hereafter in the land where

two may

same word

'in that way,'

all is

pure

15^
l^nonnsin
Defective
stems.

Ta-, to- (Greek ro- in


article

-Ill

a number

is-to,

adverbs

of

(retaining the vowel a)

and oblique

see the Table

ta-m,

e. g.

turn, tun-c, i-tem,

[chap.
of

cases

on p.
r

ta-ntus,

Ko)
u
/
etc.

au-tem {a sunk to

U-ti (w-td, ut) is a locative from this stem;

e).

a-t, e-t

ov'To-s

Q.V-T6-S,

declined throushout in

survive

and

of Pronouns,

Inflection

are perhaps locatives similarly shortened.

and

att-f,

I-ta (so in

Naevius' Epitaph, 'Itdqvs p6stquam'est Orci trdditfls thesaliro')


is

ablative=' this wise

From

so alm-ta,

:'

otherwise.'

'

da-, do-, a similar stem to ta-, appear to

be formed
numerous adverbs and terminations, e. g. -dam, -do, -dwm, -dem,
-de, as in quon-dam, quan^do, do-nec, acfe-dum, etc. ; tan-dem,
qui-diem, etc.

Into

in-de, un-de, etc.

all

these forms the idea of

time enters (not necessarily dv/ration of time as distinct from


point of time in turn, etc.; for e.g. -(ZMi='now' in age-dwm,
as well as

etc.,

'

while

')

hence

be referred to the root

all

many Indo-European words


or

'

day

'

'

sky-father

(Zeiry

marios), etc.

etc.

There

of which

is

we

'),

is

'

God

whence

'

^,

in Sanskrit Dyaus-pitar

Zevs, Jup-pifer,

inter-dius, inter-diu ;

certainly in these latter

Dius Fidius

prope-diem, pri-die,

words and the adverbs

noun

are speaking a close parallel between the

stem div- and the supposed pronominal stem da-, do-

two stems are

identified

may

possible that they

for the conception of 'brightness'

leading to that of

(J)ies-piter,

it

the origin of dies, de-us and

di'e-,

by Corssen.

Other

ever, regard the identification as improbable

and the

philologists,
;

and

it

from

sa.

how-

certainly

cannot be taken for granted.

De (prep.)

is abl.

from stem da-,

explained by Corssen
like

Greek

man _/;
et-iam,

6ij, ^'8?;, Srjv.

our yea).

p.

(i.

Others refer

In quis-p-iam

quoniam retain

like se-d, se,

it

la-m

is

213) as =^dia-m,, 'this day' (die-m),

its

it

stemjV, ya-

to a

temporal sense

Ger-

(?

is lost

but

in their original use.

A stem na- {no-) or an- is supposed to account for na-m, quis


ii.

On

the various uses of 'dwm,

see-

Ramsay's

'

Mbstellaria,' Excursus,

p. 184.

" On these words, see


especially Max Muller's ' Lectures,' Series II.
Lect. X. pp. 425-461, 1st ed.; and Peile, ' Introduction,'' ch. v. p. 122
(3rd ed.).

'

VII.]

Inflection

na/m, etc.

The

full

form

forms in nu-m, nun-c,


last is of course

accus. forms

The stem anendo.

157

found in these and various weakened Pronouns in


nem-pe, e-nim, and Greek vh, which Defective

pronominal (see above, p. 145).

nae

is

vvv

of Pronotms.

(na-i), ne,

Greek

va-l,

preserved in Greek

is

Its force is

'

lithuanian ana-s^iMe.

ava, hv,

all

Latin an and in,

ana and

Sanskrit has

the other.'

'

that,'

These are

are locative.

Curtius compares av-a, and Latin an-

hdare, 'to draw up breath.' The negative prefixes

av-, a-,

Latin

in,

German and English un-, are perhaps connected


with the same stem.; hv, an in hypothetical sentences and
Sanskrit an-,

a-,

In, endo, Greek

questions are also akin.


iv-\-s

are local in meaning

iv-X

and ds=^iv-s or

the two uses of in with ace. and

being parallel to the two Greek forms.


The enclitic terminations ce or que in hi-o,
etc. must arise from a stem co-, perhaps a
abl.

'

who,'

-pe in

'

which,'

i-p-se,

'

any

'),

with the demonstrative meaning

quis-p-iam, rea-p-se,

etc.,

and

pro-jpe is possibly a dialectic variety of ee

substituting

for

ne-e, ne-que, at-que,

variety of quo-

k (by Labialism,'
'

'

there

in qui-ppe, nem-pe,

Oscan and Umbriaa

see chap. iv. p. 50).

CHAPTEE
Vehb

The Verb

Distinction

between
Verb and

(prjiia,

or Latin exhibits a

Noun.
pressed,

Inflection.

verhum, the

much

VIII.

'

word par
'

exceUence) in

Time, mood, person, number, and voice are all exand in some forms all at once, by inflectional additions

to the root or simplest form expressing the idea

root being in no

way

difierent

from a nominal

any power of expressing action etc.


thus only nouns with a pronominal
of

e. g. action,

by a nominal
root

it

Greek

greater variety of inflection than the

is

motion, sensation,
or a verbal root

etc.,

is

concerned.

The

affix.

this verbal

root, so far as

Verbs are

abstract idea

can be expressed equally

but when expressed by a verbal

further brought into relation as

a verb with other

words in a sentence, (i) by Person endings, attaching


a

definite subject or subjects (the distinction of

expressed, as

in

Noun

Inflection);

(2)

defining the aspect under which the

Number

to

it

being

by Modal elements,

action

is

regarded, as

a fact or a supposition; (3) by Tense elements, ascribing

it

to

a particular relation in time.


Verb forms
piei.

A verb form, then,

is

distinguished from a noun form mainly

by the greater number of different elements combined in it.


In any case-form of a noun we find one invariable element, the
stem, and one variable element, the case-ending, as in iraih-hs,
or at most a vowel besides, inserted to
jrat8-(, naiS-ae, etc. ;
connect the case-ending with the stem, as in

TraiS-e-o-o-t.

But

Verb Inflection.

159

there are very few verb forms of so simple a character.


e.g.

we have only stem and

l-fiev

connecting vowel, and inflection

inflection;

but in

ayoire,

iwfiev,

an additional element denoting moody in

In

in ay-o-ficv, stem,

we have

dydyoiTe a further

addition (to the verb stem) denoting time; in ijyayov another

And

addition, viz. the augment.

more complex verb forms,

in a

'

a comparison of any of the

synthetic

or Latin, with their equivalents in an

our own,

the best illustration of

is

language like Greek

'

analytic' language like

'

the general difference

between an analytic and a synthetic language, and the


complicated nature of the verb forms in the
sis of

two such forms

i-<i)CK{]-a-a-vT-o,

stem

as

i<f>iKrj(ravTo

and regeremus shows

'they loved themselves,'

3.

addition to form

added

to

the stem before inflection

denoting 3rd per. plur.


passive:
3.

(0)

sign of

Bign,

'

stem;

2.

middle or

sign of past time;


5.

denoting others with the person of speaking.

changed to r (regeremur)

it

which verb
tense,

last

plural

If s be

denotes that the speaker and others

with him are passive instead of

The example

verb-

of a pronoun,

personal pronoun;

4. sign of ist

2.

(a) in

thematic ' vowel

reUc

5.

augment;
4.

voice-letter, indicating

reg-er-e-iwa-s, i.

mood;

i.

tense-stem

6.

specially

The analy-

latter.

active.

given {reg-er-e-mus) shows the order in Order of

inflections are usually attached to the

mood, person, number, and

stem

viz. tions.

Modifications for tense

voice.

and mood come between the stem denoting the idea of action,
and the personal pronoun denoting the agent; inflections of
number and voice, which affect the position of the agent by
showing him to be either one of a number or passive instead
of active, are appended after the personal pronoun.

The
that of

analysis of verb forms

is

noun forms from the

be distinguished. There

is also

thus more complicated than

greater

number

a further

of elements to

difference, that

in explaining the different forms of every single

begin with one invariable element,


the explanation of verb forms
points,

from each of which we

i.

e.

whereas Further

with one stem only, in Tense-

we must assume
start as

dif-

noun we can tween Verb


several fixed

from a separate stem

;;

l6o
Verb

Mec-

stems.

Verb Infieetion.

[chap.

These special

in the explanation of certain groups of forms.

stems, or subordinate centres of classification formed from the

common

verb-stem

to

all,

known

are

elements of inflection by which time

as Tense

the

Stems;

denoted being of a

is

less

separable and general character than those of person or mood,

and being

in fact suffixes for the formation of subordinate stems,

each of which

is

the permanent element or stem in a series of

Thus

verb forms.

in a Latin verb the perfect

and supine often

show a

different

tense

and in a Greek verb such elements as ayay- in dydy-anev,

stem from that which appears in the present

dydy-oiTe, dyay-(iv, dyay-ecrBai

d^- in a^ofiev, S^oi/iev, a^eiv, etc.

\va-a- in eKvva, \viTa-i-iiv, \v(ra-s, \v<Ta-(r6ai


XeXu-jaat, c-XcXv-ro,

series of

or XeXu- in XeXu-xa,

verb forms, and must be regarded as stems, though

not the verb-stem, in each


fore, of

have each a comparative permanence among

All scientific analysis, there-

case.

verb forms in Greek and Latin must take into account

these special stems formed from the verb-stem

from dy- the stem of aya

d|-

of Xuw

stem of

Xvo-a-

Txmr- pres., TfruTT- perf.,


Ttin-To),

and

and

XfXv-

(e. g.

rui/ra- ,aor.,

appearing in e-Tim-ov ^)

and

dyay-

from Xv- the stem


from

tutt-

the

and thus the question

of stem, formation must accompany that of inflection in the case


of verbs to a
'

To

much

greater degree than in the case of nouns.

state the case briefly, it

formation

^that is,

of the stem

and

may be

said that in the noun,

formation of the word, or more correctly

inflection in the

narrower sense are distinct

but in the verb they combine, and encroach each upon the
other.

He

alone

is

completely master of the verb forms

from the verb-stem common to

all

can

first

stems, and secondly can inflect the stems

It

form

(i) formation, (2) inflection, or learn

stems before

we know how

who

the special

when correctlyformed ".'

not however necessary to follow the rigidly

is

all

scientific

order of

always to forin uninflected

to inflect

them when formed

but

the formation of stems must in the case of verbs be discussed

Tt)ir- is here called the ' pure verbal stem,' as distinguished from tuttt-,
the 'present stem,' Trnfia- the weak aorist stem, etc. The 'strong' or 2nd
aorist usually exhibits the pure verbal stem.

CurtiuB, 'Elucidations, p. 93.


VIII.]

;'

i6i

Verb Inflection.

at lea&i

pari passu with their

how

-as, -e, etc.,

without understanding

to inflect

It

inflection.

understand

-eus, -ft,

tutttco,

how

not enougii to

is

rirv^a, -as,

eTvyjra,

-e,

these different forms are

connected together in one verb.

In discussing the elements of Verb

Inflection, it is usual to Elements


of Verb

take them in the reverse order of their attachment to the verb- inflection:
stem, beginning from the end of the

word with

(i) the

most

universal and characteristic inflections, the person-endings, with


their forms for active and middle (passive) voice and their inflections oi
i.

e.

number ;

the formation of

Person-endvngs,

I.

oimood/

(2) signs
'

(3) <ew-inflections,

tense-stems.'

pronominal

i.e.

two

2nd, and Person Bnd-

sufiixes of ist,

3rd person in singular, dual, and plural number.


series for (i) active, (2) passive 'voice

;'

and

There are

in each series

there appear a fuller and a weaker form, which are distinguished

primwry

as (a)

and perfect

{-mi,

augmented tenses of
Primary,

riBrj-jxi,

Secondary,
II.
'

Mood

etc.,

Greek

-v, -s, -t,

used with

Indicative), e. g.

nnrTo-nai, TvTtTo-vTcu..

Indicative.

c-rvTrTO-mo

Infinitive

is

'

Of the

^.

standing in the relation

vocative,

and

'

Imperative

[The force of Moods

is

a question of Syntax

but

'Indicative' Mood:

it is

forms, called

action is

(2) the idea or suppo-

Sub'

This latter includes two distinct

respectively Subjunctive

and Optative

Mood,' and denoted in Indo-European by distinct

but the grammatical relation of these two so-called


^

be

moods'

taking, has taken,

sition of its taking place in past, present, or future time

junctive' or Indirect Mood.

may

it

strictly speaking, only two

modes or aspects under which the

or wUl take place

'

is

not of nominative but of

regarded), viz. (i) direct assertion that

series of

'

thus a sort of verbal interjection.

noted here that there can be,


actionis,

the

Moods,'

'

by a weaker form of person-

ending,

is

other so-called

a verbal noun, while

distinguished from the indicative

(jnodi

used with present, future,

Signs, to distinguish the Conjunctive and Optative Mood

'

'

-ti,

i-T'iBrj-v, i-TV7rr6-iJLr]v,

Moods from the

the

-si,

tenses), (6) secondary (-?,

Curtiua' 'Greek Grammar,' 226.

sufiixes
'

Moods

signs.

;;

1 6a

[chaf.

Verb Inflection.

Primary and Historic Tenses


_
,
,_
,
,
^ _
,
the Indicative Mood, and in the Latin verb' but one 'Sub-

Elements of is rather analogous to that of


Verblnfleotion.

m
.

Mood

junctive

mood

(see

The

recognised.

is

'

above, p.

159)

is

position

its

of

sign

of the

appropriate to

functions, as

modifying the relation between the subject (person-ending) and


action (verbal-stem).]

HI. Tense Stems may be thus enumerated


1. Perfect stem, originally formed by reduplication.

Tense
stems

2.

Simple or Strong Aorist (2nd


hibiting the verbal-stem in

3.

its

ex-

aor.), generally

simplest form K

Present stem, from vfhich with the augment

formed

is

the linperfect in Greek.

By

4.

Weak

g.

Future stem.

6.

Strong Passive Aorist (2 aor.

7.

Weak

or

Compound

Aorist.

pass.).

Passive Aorist (i aor. pass.)..

'Strong' tense-stems

we mean

those which are formed

from the verbal stem^ by reduplication or


or

Compound stems

'

are formed

'

to be.'

Under

this

as the Pluperfect

and

of the verbal

some formation from the root

stem, generally with


'

'Weak'

increase.

by combination

head
'

fall also

cbs

(is),

such subordinate formations

Futurum Exactum'

in

Greek and

IJatin,

from the Perfect Stem; or the special formation of the Imperfect in Latin.

Two
tion

other elements enter into Verb Inflection, an explana-

of which

may be

given here

the

Augment and

the

Thematic (or Connecting) Vowel'.


IV. TJie Augment.
The Aug-

Language seems originally to have employed,

merit

expressing past time, the


(a-bhar-a-n,

f-tpcp-o^v),

Augment

as a

prefixed to aorist, imperfect,

perfect tenses in both those languages.

by the secondary person-endings


As few Greek

means

in Sanskrit a, in

It

is

for

Greek

and plu-

always accompanied

but Gurtius

('

Das Verbum,'

verbs develop both the strong and weak forms of the


groups of tenses in each Greek verb, viz.
Present, Aorist, Future, Perfect, and Aorist Passive.
' See Curtius' 'Greek Grammar,' 246.
^

aorist, there are practically five


Verb Inflection.

VIII.]

104) suggests that

p.

originally the sole expression ofTheAug-

was

it

163

past time, and by increasing the word at the beginning gave


occasion for shortening the terminations.
first

a separable prefix

and

(as

in

:.

Homer) omitted

character would help- to

at

and in Greek from

Latin,

origin there have been various theories

That

moods but

all

disappearance

total

its

its

separable

(2) this

pleasure.;

account for

in

(i.)

was probably at

It

for (i) in older Sanskrit it is separable

Of

indicative.

a variety or abbreviation of Reduplication

it is

the vowel of both being

e,

and the two apparently coinciding in

such perfect forms as e-yvaxa,

But

--\jfa\Ka.

resemblance

this

seems to be purely accidental and the pluperfect tense, with


both augment- and reduplication (i-ye-ypa^uv), points to. their
being distinct forms.
(ii.)

That it='

present time

c?

privativum,' because past time

Past = Not
'

is

a denial of

This theory scarcely needs

Present.'

refutation.,
(iii.)

The view
that

etc.) is

it

generally adopted (e.g. by Curtius', Schleicher,

a demonstrative pronoun-stem referring to

is

German

past time,, like the

Greek
Greek

(as-

in Sanskrit)

dialects

(e. g.

consonant became

('

da, damals.

was

of

a,

a^paxf,

air^fo-Se,

Its original

which traces remain

(imperf. of aya)=z.a-ay-ov
S.rta,

which no doubt

arises

Thus,

e.g.

it

and .after the root wr- became


V

opvvfi.1

we

as arta to

analogy of other

came

fixed in

Greek

ar-nau-mi in Sanskrit.

should have expected a diphthong,

verb-stems beginning with


initial

the Doric &yov

to be regarded as nothing

With

i.e. ai,

or v seem to

vowels

e,

'Elucidations,' p.

(p. 36):

as op-, Spro stood


initial

and

have followed the

and no doubt the augment

more thana lengthening

no; 'Das

au{el, ei): but

vowel.

'

it

to form one

and &PTO corresponds to Sanskrit


from a-arta. This contraction took

place before the separation of the a sound into a,

to

the

before a vowel

took the form of that vowel and combined with


long syllable ('Temporal Augment').

in.

This before a

SSeipe).

Augment ')

Syllabic

form in

Verbum,' pp. 104 sqq.

of the

Theories of

;'

164

The separable character

The Aug.

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

augment

of the

Sanskrit and

in

meat.

Language

Homeric Greek

is

(as Curtius well

remarks) not unfrequently lays aside individual

no proof that

it is unessential.

'

'

symbols of meaning, when by means of them forms have been


coined so distinctly marked, that the original elements are no
longer

absolutely

In

necessary.'

Attic

Greek

it

never

is

omitted except in xp^" impf. of xP"? > in a few instances at the


beginning of lines in the speeches of ayyeXoi in the Tragedians *

and occasionally
istic

in pluperfect tense (but mainly in the Hellen-

Greek of the

New

Testament).

augment in verbs compounded with


Greek Grammar, 238) is due to the
Where
looseness of connection between verb and preposition.

The

of the

position

^prepositions (Curtius,

however the parts of a compound verb are not so separable, the


.augment

is

placed

first

e. g. awtoSd^ijo-a

from

oiKoSo^em.

Certain apparent irregularities in the form of the augment

Apparent
irregularities in the

(Greek Grammar, ,.2 36, 7)


consonant

Augment

may

be explained by the loss of a

explained.

(a)

ct

instead of

epira, itmaai, edco,' etc.

which

is

rj

before

With

doubtful, it can be

originally with a consonant,


syllabic

augment

f,

which

idi^to,

eXxm, inofiai, cpya^o/xat,

the exception of

after the loss of the initial consonant


e

{'work,' see p. 68), imp. epepyaCo/njV.


:

ex.'",

the origin of

shown that all these verbs began


and therefore had originally the

naturally coalesced with the following

f-(Te(mov, e-epirov

eda>,

into

tt

((r)ep7t<o

feKltraio {volvo), e-Ff\t(r(rov

e.

g. Fepyd^ofuu

(Latin serpo),

^.

augment before a vowel in eaSov (avbdva), iaBavv


Thus &vhavM^=<Tra.vhdvto (Latin
imvovfuriv {itveofiai), etc'

(6) Syllabic
{i>6ta>),

suavis, cp. the

vendo).

The

Homeric form

loss of the

0a8e)

aiveofiai=if<i>viO)i.ai

(Latin

consonant was perhaps in the

first

instance compensated for by lengthening the preceding vowel,


In such exajuples as Soph. Oed. Col. i6o3, .tox TrSpevcav, and i6o8,
kkmov, we probably have instances of 'prodelision of the
initial vowel after a filial vowel sound of the preceding word.
' Curtius (' Das Yerbum,' I.
pp. 131-126) examines fourteen words, in
seven of which he traces the disappearance of f, in five that of a.
'

irarpos ircaovaat

'

(Alcaeus), i-i'ittoiv, k-iaaaTO, l-rjicf,


other examples under this-head. Most of the words
referred to are discussed by Curtius in his 'Prineiples of Greek Etymology.'
'

t-dyriv, idX'qv,

i-iipom, dyi^jiyov, are

t-dh-av, i-&vaaae

VIII.]

i.

e.

165

Verl Inflection.

the augment

(root vid-)

whence such forms

itself,

Epic

as

^iSiii=E-/rfi'Si7

Elements of

but afterwards the reverse process took place and tion.

the following vowel was lengthened, whence such forms as


i-fjvSavov, i-avoxoei

(Homer),

l-itpav (root F^P't cp.

apparently with a

eoKav,

'

Latin

[Two

double augment.'

ver-eor),.

exactly

similar processes of compensation for the loss of f (u) are seen,


in the forms

(stem

Doubling p

(c)

both representing ^aa-iKeF-os

^aa-iKe-as,

/Sao-iXij-of,

jSao-iXfD-), see

above, p. 118.]

augment

after

is

generally owing to the fact

that a consonant has fallen out before

it

which consonant can

sometimes be discovered by comparison with the kindred languages,

e. g.

in tppeov:=i-(ipf-ov, Sanskrit a-srav-a-m, from root

= t-fpe7!-oviiova

Sanskrit sru-, and in fppenov

<rpv-,

a root

fpeir-.

the p of which is seen in KoKar-vpoi^.


Y. The 'Thematic Vowel.' In the ordinary conjugation ofThethema.
Greek verbs, the person-endings are not added directly to the
stem, as in the conjugation, of 'verbs in

(e.g. in-jitv, Si-Sore):

-/xt'

but between the pure verbal or tense stem and the inflection
there

intervenes (especially in Present and Strong Aorist) a

vowel which appears as

or

o,, <o.

(Doric for

nnrT-o-iiev, 'rivT-o-v-n

haps also as a in the Perfect Tense


Latin

appears as

it

u-nt; as a in er-a-m,
i

in

Noun

i,

0,

leg-o

= a,s-a-m,

ervTr-e-s

{yeyov-a,

rja)

TunT-<a-/ii,

and

per-

Im

yey6v-a-fiiv).

= leg-o-mi),

Greek

tu?it'<

e.g.

tutttouo-i),

leg-i-miis,

leg-

and perhaps as

e,

declension peJ-e-m, homih-i-bws (see however p. 116).

'11.

The nature of this vowel has been much disputed. Bopp Various
theories of

(Comp. Gram. 495) regarded it as a pronommal element its origin.


through which the action or quality, which is expressed in the
1

-,

'

e.g. the exroot in ahstracto, becomes something concrete


pression of the idea " to love " becomes the expression of the

person "

who

loves."

This however

'

person-ending ; and besides,

all

is

the function of the

analogy of language shows that

concrete' conceptions are prior to 'abstractions.'

Others

(like

Pott) take refuge in metaphor and call it the sinew (Nerv) of


the verb but this explains little, and leaves us to wonder why
:

the verbs in

and the second principal conjugation in San-

-jii

skrit lack this

'

sinew

'

altogether, without their vitality being

;;

i66

Ferb Inflection.

More

impaired.

satisfactory

and more consistent with

Theory that

was the view assumed by Curtius in

nectin^

discussed

more

vowel

this

'Tempora und Modi'

fully in

be ascribed to

the oldest

A definite

meaning, he there urges, can only

on the supposition that

it

^ound

assuming that they ever had


was concluded that the vowel

it.

it

in question

these grounds

connecting vowel,' a device

of language whose primary

render easier the pronunciation of two con-

to

is

tiguous sounds

as

e.g. in the forms

gen-i-tor, Sanskrit g^n-i-ta

Sanskrit tup-i-tas beside


i-hus ;

tvitto-s

and in 'verb forms

like

forms the pronunciation


insertion of

a vowel

is

all

(()ep'e-Tpov

in such

direct addition

beside cpeprpov

noun forms -as hominIn

Xey-o-/ii6i', 7rt5-o-;ttE5a.

all

these

no doubt rendered easier by the


without

it

euphony seems to coincide with the

of

veCJjeKrjyep-e-rris,

/3/3ejM-f-r;;r,
;

while forms like

hardly be pronounced at

for the

originally belonged

for

On

yev-e'-Ti/s,

it

have we any

'

(pp. 39-52), that

whereasthe history of language teaches us that in


verbs, both of Sanskrit and Greek, it is wanting ; nor

to all verbs

occasion

facts

Greek Grammar and

his

not a suffix of any actual meaning, but a purely

is

phonetio element.

is

[chap.

Tinrr-fiev,

nW-ade could

and thus the principle

effort to attain clearness

of person-endings to consonant-stems

could not have been consistently carried out without the elision
or modification of 'important consonants

(e. g.

the

or s of

first

or second personal pronoun), and consequent obscurity of mean-

ing where clearness was all-important.


This theory of a

recommend

'

connecting vowel

'

has

much

at first sight

by a sufficiently natural
explanation, for a large number of the phenomena to which it is
applied in Greek and Latin.
It is not, however, borne out by
the phenomena of verb-conjugation 'in Sanskrit': and it has now

to

'

g. in

it

for

verbs of the

accent always

falls

'

accounts,

it

Tud

'

class of verbal bases

ending in ^,

on the a added to the root ; thus, base H^, tud, to

a,

the

strike,

3 sing. H^fifi tud-S-ti. This stress is against the vowel being an unmeaning phonetio adjunct and so indeed is the employment of ^, a, the strongest
and fullest of all the vowel sounds.
In one sense, of course, it is a ' connecting ' for perhaps we should rather
say 'intermediate') vowel, as coming between the original stem or root'
and the terminations.
:


Till.]

Verb Inflection.

167

been abandoned by Curtius himself, who, in his recently com-

work

pleted

'

Das Verbum der Griechischen

Sprache,' explains

the vowel an question. as a 'thematic vowel,'

i.e.

a suffix to or

increase of the stem or 'theme' previous to the reception of


inflections.

Instead of

formed from

this root

being

person-endings

the

directly, for example, to the root ag, a

by addition

attached

nominal stem aga

of the

pronominal

suffix

is

(an addition which, in the early stages of word-formation, has


the same 'attributive' force as an adjective or pronoun with

a suj)stantive has in a more developed stage of language,


ag-a,

Greek

stem

ago, is

ay-6{-s)

root ag

ovtos 6 avijp

combined as a verbal stem with

nominal stem

it is

and

dvfjp)

ta, (ti),

3 sing. (aga-ti:=ayei, Latin agi-i), just as

s{a),

e.

g.

this

the sign of

in its capacity of

combined with the demonstrative element

the sign of nom. sing {aga-s=^ay6-s).

ceivable

much

So ag-mas, a conwould stand to aga-mas (ayo-nes, agi-mus),


the Latin nominal-stem ag-men might stand to a con-

as

ceivable

plur. form,

form agi-men on the analogy of regi-men.

These a-

stems had in course of time so overgrown the earlier stratum,


80 to speak, of forms

which attached the person-endings

directly

to the root, that they became the rule of conjugation, the others

remaining as a group of more or

less

forms (in the conjugation of verbs in

With

exceptional and anomalous


-fit).

this increase of verbal stems

by a might perhaps be

nu

classed the addition of the suffixes na,


SeU-iw-fiev),

to

(e.g. in trKtS-va-fiev,

which a comparison of the cognate languages shows

have been a very early feature of Indo-European word-

and Keduplication and Vowel-Intensification might


come under the general head of modification of the root in
But all of these are more conveniently
the formation of words.
considered elsewhere, under the head of the special phenomena
formation

also

produced by them.

Classification of Verbs.

A. Latin
The traditional
:

classification into four

ing to the vowel preceding

-re in

'

Conjugations,' accord-

the infinitive Mood, establishes,

Classifica-

in Latin.

68

Verl Inflection.

Ciassifloa-

by a happy

Verbs.

tolerably complete classification

instinct rather than

already applied to nouns


'

characteristic

us under
1.

2.
3.

its

'

upon any scientific principles, a


upon the same principle as that

Vowel stems
Vowel stems

according to the final or

(p. io8), viz.

The Latin Grammar

letters of the stem.

four heads v

[chap.

gives

in a- (ama-).

in e- (mone-).

Consonant-stems and stems in

iU semivowel {rego,

?-

capi-o, trihu-o).
4.

Vowel stems

This division

in i- {audi-).

may be

distinction already

retained, but simplified into the broad

drawn

in case of nouns between (a) consonant-

stems (including i-,.u- semivowel),

and

(6) vowel- stems, i.e. the

The

fluctuating forms of tenses

under the
B.
In Greek.

may be

reek verbs into verbs

traditional classification of

contracted verbs (in -m), and verbs in


scientific,

may

-/tt,

though in

in -a,

itself far

be to a certain extent utilised as the basis

The -a

of philological analysis.

have

considered separately

different 'tense-^tems.'

Greek:

The
from

the '3rd conjugation,'

i.e.

2nd, and 4th 'conjugations.'

ist,

seen, the thematic vowel,

of

which

the ordinary conjugation of verbs

i
is

sing., represents, as

we

a distinctive feature of

while the verbs in

stand

-^t

apart as a form of conjugation, rarer, and for several reasons

presumably

older,

than that in ordinary use.

for example, (i) the pronouns

In these verbs,

which form the person-endings

are less obliterated, and are added directly to the stem


8iSo-te)

without the intervention of a thematic vowel

form predominates in Sanskrit, and


oldest dialects of

Greek

is

(fV-^ieV,

(2) this

more frequent

in the

(3) the verbs in -ju contain the

elementary roots and denote the simplest ideas 'to

most

be,'

'to

give,' etc.

Putting these then aside as one form of conjugation,

we may

on the other hand the conjugation of

set

(treating the fluctuating

all

other verbs

forms of tenses under the head of

Tense-foymation), dividing these

according to the final letter

of the Present-stem (exclusive of the thematic vowel).

have

Thus we

'^iii']

Verb Inflection.

169

Verbs in Q.

I.

A.

Classiflca-

Vowel-stems.

Verbs in

1.

Uncontracted,

2.

Contracted,

\v-a>.

Tijud-o), rrote-a,

Rov\6-w.

B. Consonant-stems.
1.

Guttural,

2.

Dental,

3.

Labial,

4.

Liquid, Sep-m, dyyeXX-o).

ttXek-o).

i/ceuS-o-fiat, 7reid-a>, KO/itf-<o.


Tre/nTr-a), Xfi7r-o..

Verbs in MI-

II.

Inflections of the Present joined directly to stem:

1.

<jiri-fil..

Present stem formed by adding

2.

pure stem

to the

(These verbs belong to this conjugation

SelK-vv-fii.

only in respect of the inflection of the Present stem).


This 2nd principal Conjugation (verbs in -p) differs from
the ist (verbs in -to) only in the inflection of the Present and

Strong Aorist stems

and here the

presence or absence of the

'

basis of distinction

appears in the same manner in Sanskrit,

compared with

eV-/*!,

-/it

e. g.

As-mi, bhar-a,-mi,

The inflections of persons


the two classes, except so far as

iii

verbs retain a fuller and less impaired type of the person-

endings

and

the

(f)ep-a(^iii).

themselves are not distinct


the

is

thematic vowel,' a distinction which

especially in their 'primary form' (see above, p. 161)

offer

greater facilities for tracing the origin of these

inflections.
I.
I

Person-endings [A ciive).
Sing.

stem

ma

form

Sanskrit -mi, Greek

-fu,

Sanskrit -m, Greek

-v,

Homeric conjunctive forms,

optative forms,
in

two present

tions of

pronominal

ist pers.

I sing.

throughout

Tiirroi-fii,

act. of

tv^oi-im.

tenses indie,

The

verbs in
eiTrafii,

In Latin

it

-fit

etc.

fut. indie,

all

of consonant

remains also in English am, German

bin.

full

;'

in cer-

and in

appears as

sum and inquam, and in the

imp. and plup. indie, and

and in

'

i6eKa>-fu,

-m

termina-

subjunctive tenses

and

Person-end-

Secondary 1

of imperf. and 2 aor.

termination remains in pres. indie,


tain

from

(weakened as in mi-hi, and German mir).

I-

verbs.

It

Sing,

170
Person-

Plural

I
"

Two

1 Piur.

Sanskrit -mas, Greek

it=m + as

for this form, (i) that

that

'

-/les

(2) that

we'

=^ ma-si,

it

of plural

The ordinary

loss of

(as in 7ro8-fr,

so

of Attic Greek arises from -fus

-fiev

Bual ; Sanskrit -vas, a variation


vayAm, nom. pi. of ist pers. pronoun

v etjjekKva-nKov.

nom.

of

j)Iur.

-mas:

cp.

In Greek the

(p. 144).

of active forms serves as nom. dual.

plur.

pron.,

pers.

actually found in Vedic

is

and subsequent addition of

9,

nom.

ist-f-znd

i.e.

= 'I + thou.' A form -masi

Sanskrit.

nom.

(Doric), Latin -mus.

explanations (or rather, guesses at explanation) are given

pad-as):

by

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

Lithuanian

nom. dual of Sanskrit as-mi

retains -va, e.g. e^'ua=(as)-vas,

{sum).
2 Sing.

by

2 Sing,

The

loss of V

sound

2 pers.
ta,

pronominal element tva (see

both consonant and vowel weakened,


or dh, or

The

by weakening

Of

(dhi), -si, -s.

Ionic for

and

ti)

<fiepe-(Ti,

form in
hold
of

si,

Greek -a-t (as in ar-o-i,


The ordinary termination in -ek
The primary form is adinitted to be,

in imperfect -s

whence, by simple

-es, e.

(f)fpns

make

loss of final

g. (nipwSes (Theocr.

cj)epe-(n, ipfpes, (jtspeis

'

compensation,' but

by

cj>epecn

(as e.g. in

others (as Curtius)

in ^epets as

pf\mva=pi\avya,

the whole, perhaps, this last


(ea-crl),

Some

stress of pronunciation

while others (as Schleicher) regard the

es-si

comes the Doric

the middle step, and regard the second syllable as

(pepei-ai

back from

i,

3), afieXyes (iv. 3).

i.

to arise from raising -es in compensation for the loss

raised not in

On

i.

-9 {e<pepe-s).

the changes being

(,

to th
.to

two are most generally found,

these the last

variously explained.
g.

by aspiration

and a weakened

and secondary forms respectively; thus Sanskrit

has in pres. indie.

e.

i. e. t

to s (p. 78)

series of possible forms, then, of this suflSx is -ta, -tha, -thi

as primary

is

p. 145), or

appears in Indo-European inflection with

thrown

^aivai^(j)av-ya>).

In Latin es=
The original quantity
we know that ?, ei are often

is preferable.

es {edo)-=ed-si, legis^lege-si.

seems to have been


interchanged,

legls

and

we may assume

as

Zeg'eis= Greek \cyets,

able for whatever interpretation

we

worth noticing that a Boeotian Greek form


Xeyi) is found.

and account-

give to the latter.

It is

Xeyis (with 3 sing.

Till.]

Yerh Inflection.

171

The imperative 2 pars, suffix -61 (= Sanskrit -dhi) is an


commoner in Epic dialect (rerXa-^t, ma-Bi, Spm-Oi,

older Person-

form,

but surviving in Attic forms, like

yvS>-6t,

-, or FiS-di from stem FiS (8 assimilated, p.


74),

and

aor.

pass,

rpairri-di,

In ordinary Greek
ways

this

i-flt,

(by dissimilation,

Tvcftdri-n

termination

etc.),cta^es

to-^i=?ir-A from stemS^^?^,.


<tt9j-6i,

p.

79).

changed in various

is

The vowel

(a.)

whence

(6.)

is

In

mination

a-xe-di.

is

(larra-di), 8l8ov {8180-61), SecKvv {8dKvv-6i.).

to-ri/

imper.

2 sing,

In

of ordinary conjugation, the ter-

-act.

lost altogether,

connecting vowel.

which

= 86-61,

dropped, and the preceding vowel lengthened in com-

pensation, whence
(c.)

dropped, and 6 changed into the sibilant

is

80s, Sis, o-x^s

and

weak

characteristic of -the

is

final -e of

rvnTt,

etc.,

is

the

added, and the a

aor. imper. -v is

aorist

stem sinks to

0-

(\Cro-j').

In Latin the termination -dhi of imperative has disappeared

+ connecting

altogether, leaving the bare stem (or stem

as

ama,

i,

The

vowel),

curve.

es,

and

oldest

least corrupt

form of

this inflection {-ta, -tha)

retained in the perfect-stem, e.g. Sanskrit dadi-tlia= Latin

is

dedisti; Sanskrit vet-tha (stem

dissimilation (p. 79) otb-ra,


ois-6a\

the

vid-)= Greek

raised to F018- as Sanskrit vid to 'ved

\Fi.8

a-

and

this

is

ol<T6a

o'S-ra

by influence of the spirant

satisfactorily accounted for as part of the

But there are a number of other instances

Epic

dialect) of -a^6a

such account of

a-

is

(stem F18)

becomes by

In these two Greek examples

(stem es=^f-ra).

preceding 3a

stem.

the

cp. ^a-6a

as

-2

(chiefly in

termination, where no

sing,

These are thus enumerated

possible.

by Curtius (' Das Verbum,' p. 50)


(a) Twelve Homeric conjunctives
:

efieXijo-fia

fifteen other passages), emrja-da (xx. 250,


^6iKrja-6a

(Od.

xii.

121), cv8t](rda
ivadrjiT6a

(xxiv. ggl),

a-iTev8t]a-6a

(b)

221), ^ov\iVJ]a-6a

(viii,

(Od.

iv.

44S), txw^'^

(II.

(II-

Od.

(H.

i.

554, and

224, xxii. 373),


i.'99), 8r)6ivri(Tda (Od. xii.
six.

ffape^cXdoTjo-^a. (xisiii.

xi.

180), tqirBa (x. 67),

344), mrjo-da (xxiv. 260),

591).

Five Epic, four Aeolic, one Doric Present Indie, and one

2 Sing, form


173
endings

Ferh Inflection.

Entire Indic.

rWijo-^a

(Od.

SlBcoa-Sa,

II.

ix.

[chap.

404),

(Bekker

^iKjjirBa

(Sappho), ideXeia-Ba (Theocr. xxix.


in Arist.

186),

450); exaaSa,

xix. 270), etcrda (x.

Ach.

xxi.

(II.

<i>7iaea

SiSoio-^a

XPW^a (Megarian,

4), iroBoprja-da (vi. 8),

(Hymn

7.78), a-xria-furda

Cer.

366).

Imperfect Indic.

(c)

Euth.

397), ^ua-6a (Plato,

(^o-flo), ((prjo-Oa (II. i.

Tim. twenty-six; in compounds),

4,

y8r,a-da (v.

1.

^Seiada,

Od. xix. 93, and Attic).


(d) Optative:

^akoia-Ba (II. xv. 571), KKaioiaBa (xxiv.

(Od. xxii.

npo(j)iyoia-da

Various explanations have been given of these forms

Bopp

(i)

from

But we

causing

be regarded as the termina-

-a-Qa to

should, expect to. find the effects of such analogy

either in one or two isolated cases, or carried to a

some hold

extent, as

tion

-St (e.g.

This

St- is

German

false

Schleicher,

(e. g.

from the case of dental stems, where

-ti,

e.g.

being

first

Gothic vais-t (stem

applied to

2 pers. sing, as in
-a-da as

all

w<)= Greek

t,

d became

Foio-6a; this si-

and then extended to

perfect stems,

German and

With

English.

view

this

given above would of course harmonise

the difference being that the analogy


out

Comp.

analogy (such as that supposed by Bopp

for -o-6a)

naturally carried

greater

English doest).

hist, Jiast, gib-st, cp.

before

Bopp's view of

much

to be the case with the Teutonic termina-

held by some philologists

272) to arise by

all

suggested that they were due to a false analogy

ol<r6a, rjo-Ba,

tion.

619),

(Theognis).

3.2 5),. Eii;(r5a

in

more

is

Teutonic

the

consistently and

than

in

the

Greek

forms.
{2)
(

The view of the older grammarians, followed by Schleicher

272) and others,

is

that these forms

iii

-ada are a later

formation by the addition of -to to the customary form ending


in

s,

e.g.

cxfto-Ba, ^oKour-da,

etc.

Language no doubt

analogies to such a re-creation of a grammatical form


fresh

addition

obscured
small

(e.g.

number

of an

element,

reov-s /ieov-s,

p.

which
143):

is

there

offers

by the

already,

but

and the comparatively

of forms (and that in an early dialect) in which

to the fact that an awakened gramneedlessness of such a repetition


the
saw
matical knowledge
-o-da

obtains

may be due


viic]

Veri Inflection.

same element, and drove

of the

173

out of the literary language'.

it

In any case the literary dialect of a nation


survival of the fittest

among

is

formed by the

number of spoken forms

and

it

may have been one of


such by-forms, holding its ground still iu Homer before the
introduction of writing, but then disappearing.
Nor is it
is

quite conceivable that this form in -aQa

necessary that the explanation of Greek -ada should be uniform

with that of Latin

-sti

or Teutonic

if

-st,

we suppose

that the

development in question took place after the separation of


different branches of the Indo-European family.

The

original 2 sing, element, however,

though weakened, in

able,

auy motive

ex^is

and

is

perfectly recognis-

not easy to conceive

it is

Moreover, the stage of word-

for the addition of to.

change at which ta-=-iva had sunk to

s (s") implies that this

pronominal element was no longer recognisable in

form

and

it is

repetition as

is

:these

its earlier

probable that, granting the possibility Of such

assumed,

we should not

find the repeated ending

in so early a form.

Another explanation looks

(3)

of this
etc.)

<T,

as of the

o-

-ada would then =e(r0a, as

The Latin
(sunt)

to the root is for explanation

in other verbal forms (i aor., future in


-crav

perfect forms vidi-sti, vidi-stis

seem

to bear out this

view

lose sight of the similarity

-o-<a,

in bo<Tav^e<Tav(T)^erant.

and

(estis),

it is

and vide-runt

certainly difficult to

between the Latin

-sfi

and Greek

though (as will be seen below) the analogy of the two

-crda,

forms

is

not certain

one interpretation making the

is of e.g.

and perhaps

originally

ded-is-ti a tense suffix as in infin.

is-se,

a part of the verb sum.


(4) Curtius,

comparing the form -a6a with the -other verb

terminations in which
this

a-6

we meet with

the combination

as the result of phonetic change

The terminations which

<t6,

regards

from an original

tt.

exhibit a6, are

1.

Sing. Act.

2.

Plur.

3.

2 Plur.

Mid.

-(r6a (ecj)ri-crda).
-ii<rda

(ord. luBa).

-(T6e.

'
It is possible that for this, and many other cases of the final settlement
of dialectical forms, we are indebted to the Alexandrian grammarians.

Person-

174
Personendings.

^<2^^ Inflection.

[chap.


VIII.]

Verh Inflection.

175

authority of Curtius claims attention to his view, and

it

isPerson-

perhaps based upon wider induction from observed facts than

some other views

but Gurtius, like others, has to depend upon

assumptions at one stage or other of his argument, and our


decision will after all be only an estimate of the comparative

probability of unverifiable hypotheses.

such cases

Iti

known

better simply to call attention to the

seems

it

and to the

facts,

most plausible theories that are based upon them, without


down that one is right' and all the others

attempting to lay
wrong.]

we

If

Phi/ral.

I'

plur.

-maB=ma-si,

i.e.

ma-tva,

'

+ thou,' 2 Pto.

should expect in 2 plur. a form =tva-tva, expressing 'thou

+ thou.'

No

I plur. is

suoh direct evidence

-masi of

the Vedic

as

forthcoming; Sanskrit has only -tha (primary) and

bMra-tha

-ta (secondary), as in

pres.,

abhara-ta imperf while


,

Greek in all tenses has the weakened form -re. But Latin has
and
-fis, which may represent -tas, i. e. ta-si (' thou + thou')
:

There

Sanskrit in the dual retains a stronger form thas.


therefore evidence for an original -tas or

of either of the

two explanations

The Latin imper. form

-tote,

offered for

throughout, perhaps formed like

addition of

-v,

-mas

plur.

(p. r^o).

pronoun-stem.

2 pers.

Dual : Sanskrit -thas primary,

-Tov

is

which is susceptible

however, and Vedic Sanskrit -tat

seem to point to a doubling of the


2

-tTias;

Greek

-tain secondary.
-/lev

of

i plur. (p.

170) by

or corresponding to Sanskrit -tarn, which

may

be (as explained by Pott)=<v-aOT, -am being an appendage as

aham, vayam (see p. 144, and below on 3 dual).


The demonstrative pronominal element ta- (in t6-v, 3 Sing.
o5-ro-9, is-to, etc., see p. 150) is weakened to ti- / Sanskrit as-ti,
in

3 Sing.

Greek
cjjria-l,

fV-ri,

etc.,

nXovarios

ndrj-n (Doric).

by the usual

iviavros, iviav(nos)

of conjunctive forms in
in

a few used by

301,

Ifjo-i

Rhod.

iii.

Theognis,

1039

so

This

^.

becomes

-<n is also

Homer

later

ideXjia-i.,

writers e.g.

iiroTniiirpfja-t

wapa(j)dairj(ri,
'

assibilation of t before

-o-i
t,

in

Ttdrj-a-i,

(as in nXoiros,

retained in a

number

dirricn, ndS^iri, etc.,


miJ,jTKjjcTi

Arist. Lys. 348, opo-Jo-t


optat., in II. X. 346.

See above, ch.

iv. p. 78.

and

Hesiod, Op.

ApoU,

176

Verb Inflection.

The ordinary 3

Person-

sing, termination in

as arising e.g. from (^e'pe-(ri= original

But

two vowels.

of 2 sing, in -ns,
170,

p.

inadmissible

by one or other

by

loss of

it

between

<r

on the analogy

of the processes mentioned on

and t then

qjepeir,

falling

would throw

This

sound.

final

sometimes explained

-ei is

(j>epe-Ti

seems better to exj)lain

it

becoming

(fifpe-n

[chap.

as an

off,

on the

light

original quantity of such forms as legit, regit in Latin, if

suppose an original
of Latin

3 sing,

In any case the

lege-ti, legeit, legit.

is

the

secondary form of -ti/

we

final -t

Latin thus

retaining the inflection consistently in all tenses, while Greek

has lost

it

from the ordinary Conjugation of verbs, except in -to

of imper., Latin
(see

Oscan has

-to.

and Vedic Sanskrit

-tud,

pronominal element.

[The

of 3 sing, inflection survives as s

or th in English, he carries, carrieth; as


3 Flur.

3 Plur.

-tat

above on 2 plural), which point to a repetition of the

Sanskrit -nti, -n

Greek

in

-vri

German

ist.]

(Doric), -v

Latin

Mt.

Thus, primary,

bharanti,

ferunt.

(jiepovri,

secondary, abh.aran, e^epov, ferebant.

In Greek the termination appears only in Doric


etc.

In Attic Greek t becomes

(raised;

so ipip-o-vri

becomes

a-,

v disappears,, and

4>^pov(n.

Tegea (Arcadian) gives the forms

An

old

wrouTi, etc

so

a-i

with

f^opiouTt.

before it in place of v

in Theocr. xxviii.

which

KeXfiavai,

Kplvava-i,

is

inscription of

appear to be a transition stage between -ovn and


Lesbian dialect has

eVi, (pepovn,

the vowel

The

-oucri.
;

(jjalai,

xpv-

(an Aeolic poem).

Latin retains throughout the stronger form (see above, p.

1 7).

The imperative
peculiar forms
to

= Vedic

3 plur. in both Greek and Latin exhibits


t^ep-d-vra-v (Doric ipep6vTa>, hatin fermito) seems

Sanskrit -ntat

{t

lost

and

to Sanskrit -ntu of 3 plur. imper.

aav

is

cfxpera
(p.
V

a later formation,

+ a-av:=(TavT,

17).

LOTmrj-crav,

unknown

and to correspond

v added),

The
to

other Greek form

Homer

it is e. g.

-t<o-

3 sing.

the remains of 3 plur. of ia-p-i (asmi), asanti


is also used to form a later 3 plur. opt.

This -aav

and appears in

its

primary form in 3 plur.

perf. act.,

e.g. lijd(Ti=:fiS-(TUim.

[There

is

no evidence here

for a formation analogous to that

vrii.]

Verb Inflection.

assumed

for

and

we can

that

say

pronoun

2 plur., so that

that

is

-ti

177

'they'='he + he:' and

all Person-

probably represents the demonstra-

and that the element an or n


some way or other may give the notion of plurality.]
3 Dual: Sanskrit has primary -tas, secondary -tarn; Greek 3 Dual.
-Toi/ is primary =-te(s) + J/; -tj/j- secondary =:-ta.m.
Thus bh^r-

tive

-ta (as in 3 sing.),

in

atas

(pres.)

= (peperov, Abharatam (imp.) = i^epi-Tr)v


= -tarn, and so=-tt;i'.

-rav of

3 dual imper. also


\-tas

might be explained as=-te, -sa

(ep. -thas of 2 plur.,

= to + ai,

175); -*** 2/ Ise (as Pott)


pendage (see above on 2 dual).]

P-

a pronominal ap-

Middle and Passive

Inflections.

The name 'Middle'

voice, as applied to the Coniugation of Middle or

Irreek

Verbs,

Middle forms,

conveys no notion of the real distmction of forms


viz. their reflexive character,

expressing the effect

of the action of the verb upon the subject and not (as in the
'

Active ' forms) upon an external object.

The term

'

Middle,'

implying something between the Active and Passive Voices,

would naturally suggest that these latter are the original, the
Middle a later development of language: whereas it has been
.

established with tolerable certainty that language has generally

developed the

Passive from the Middle Voice in Verbs.

Sanskrit, for example,

we

find

In

belonging to each tense two

distinct sets of verbal terminations, corresponding (as 'we shall


see) to the Active

and sometimes
These

are

and Middle forms of Greek

applied

indiscriminately to

respectively (i)

called

'

but both
transitive

active,

verbs.

Parasmai-pada,' 'word'

directed to another,' because the action passes {pa/rasmai) to

another object (cp. the term


(2)

'

Atmane-pada,'

action
'

self').

the

'

is

'

transitive

'word directed to

restricted dtmane, 'to

'

from transire)
oneself,'

and

because the

oneself (dat. sing, of dtman,

These two schemes of terminations partly answer to

active

'

and

'

middle

'

voice

of

Greek Grammar.

Thus,

' Pada, =!i,n inflected word as opposed to the uninflected root.


The
term refers only to a scheme of terminations, and does not necessarily

carry with it the associations of


of that term.

'

voice

'

in the ordinary grammatical use

in

Passive,


17^

(PmSto)
Infleotioiis.

Verb Inflection.

^^^ * ^^^^

'^^

[chap.

conjugated in both ;padas, 'Atmane-pada

'

does

not alter the idea expressed by the root, but directs the action

some way towards the agent or subject

in

cooks,' palate, 'he cooks for himself;'

mate,

'

pa/^ati,

e. g.

'

he

namati, 'he bends,' na-

he bends himself

Passive verbs in Sanskrit are conjugated in Atmane-pada.

But while

Greek and Latin a verb

in

in

the Passive voice

corresponds in form to the same verb in the Active voice,


the terminations only being changed

Verb

is

in Sanskrit a passive

a separate derivative from the root (as e.g. causal

on one

desiderative or frequentative verbs are) formed


able

without

principle

conjugational

the

but using

the

of

structure

the

Atmane-pada terminations,
((j)epcTai,

active

The evidence

{(peperat, pass.)

by

bMr-a-te
insertion of

of the Sanskrit Verb, in addition to the obvious

but one form (and that, as we shall

origin refleadve) serves for Middle

Greek (though there are some


that the original distinction

but we

accepted

terms

same

tenses, supports the conclusion

between 'Active' and 'Eeflexive'

is

may

see, in

and Passive, while in

special Passive forms) the

form serves for both in certain

currently

(^tpet),

ya ^.

fact that in Latin

terminations;

verb,

bhdr-a-ti

e. g.

middle); but bhri-ya-te

the stem suffix

its

invari-

any necessary connection with

speak of these later under the


of

'

Middle

Medio - Passive)

(or

'

inflections.

Middle

The Middle or

(Passive)

foims in

verb

may be

so-called
.

considered

first,

'

Passive

not as

Inflections of the Latin

'

bemg

older,

but as exhibit-

Latin.

ing most distinctly this reflexive character.

(with the exception of

pronoun

2 pers. plur.)

the Active Voice

se to

by

suffixing the reflexive

the s of se generally pass-

ing by the euphonic laws of Latin into


characteristic

They are formed

r,

which

of the Passive terminations.

is

the familiar

Thus

to take the

Present Tense:
Sing.

2 Sing.

amo-se, amove, amor.

wmad-se, amarise,

amaris (or possibly, by intro-

vention of a connecting vowel, from the ordinary amas, amas-u'

See Monier Williams' 'Sanskrit Grammar,' 2436, 461.

Verb Inflection.

VIII.]

se,

....See on

amasus, amaris.
.

? sing,
f a form utarus=^ Middle
o and cp.
^
(Passive)

utaris ou an inscription).
r

,..-,

c-

3 bmg.

forms in
Latin-

amatur (u bemg perhaps a connecting

amat-u-se,

179

vowel).
Plur.

amam/wf

amamu(s)-se,

amamur),
Plur.
amamini

(or

amamus-io-ee,

cmia-

mur-v/re,
2

estis)

(sc.

of which

found in Old Latin for

is

famino, progredimino
cMnamini

-iievo-,

and 3

jpraefaminos

amatus sum,

pers. imper. ^-ae-

The formation

sis).

The form amaminor

es, est, etc.

grammars

imper.) given in

is

probably due to

r being added as the characteristic passive sign

by some

is

thus

imperf.

so

this

termed,

meaning;

as

if

imperat.

araa-se,

amanto-se, amantor.

appears that

it

where

employed, as in perf. and 2

is

amabam-se, amabar :

amator

rnnare, amato-se,

Prom

traceable throughout (except

a participle with auxiliary verb


:

(2 plur.

analogy,

false

amant-u-se, amantur.

The same formation


fut.)

of

and is supposed
had no existence except with the grammarians.

to have

3 Plur.

of a

plur.

the singular

therefore precisely analogous to that of the

{estis) is

perf. pass,

(i. e.

nom.

really a

is

formation analogous to Greek

participle

'

Deponent

they had laid

They are rather

to be looked

'

Verbs are wrongly

{deponere)

aside

upon

passive

as the survival

of an earlier stage of language prior to the superseding of the


original

Middle or Eeflexive by the

later Passive force of these

inflections.

The Middle

Inflections

in Greek

have more

those of Sanskrit, and the explanations

upon much

less

medio-passive.

sure

affinity

offered of

with

in

ground than that given of the Latin Theories of

Like the active person-endings they are capable

of a primary and a secondary form

(-licu,

-a-m,

'

solutions that have been proposed

determined, with any certainty.

2'

nectiou vvith

-Tm, etc., pres. forms.

and these are obviously formed by


-(TO, -TO, etc. imperf.)
some increase of or addition to the corresponding active terminations.
But as to what the precise connection is, Grammatioi certant et adhuc sub judice lis est.'- I give some of the
-Ii.r)v,

Middle and

both rest flections

but the question cannot be


i8o
Middle
OPassive)
Inftections

in Greek.

Theories
of tlieir
formation.

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

That in

I.

-fiai,

-a-at, -rai, etc.

to that of the Latin Passive

pronoun (sva)

to

we have

viz,

a similar formation

the addition of the refliexive

the pronominal elements from which the

This

active person-endings arise.

-sva,

Greek

-crFe, -a-e

thus suffixed give such forms as ma-si,

would

if

nta-si,

and the

'

falling out

or

-at,

sa-si, ta-si,

of s between two vowels in

Greek

The
(p. 66) would leave the Greek -(uu, -a-ai, -rai, -vrat.
recommendation of this view, if it could be maintained, would
obviously be that it brings Latin and Greek into harmony
upon a point where otherwise they must be regarded (and
have generally been regarded) as at variance. Most comparative

grammarians, however, appear

content to

such

accept

variance in the formation of these inflections as fundamental,

regarding the Latin (shared by Lithuanian and Keltic)


later;
2.

and uphold one of the two remaioiug

That

by Vowel

are formed from the active voice

-/iot, -<rai, -rat, etc.

Intensification (see p. 53), ai, Sanskrit

natural raising or intensification of

The

meaning.

to express

objection to this view

is

that

we

e,

being the

a change of
find

Vowel

employed in the formation of stems, as an

Intensification

agent in

as

theories, viz.

Word

Formation, but not in Inflection, which in

all

cases consists in the addition of suffixes.


3.

That

-fiai,

sa-si, ta-ti, etc.,

-a-ai,
i. e.

-rai,

etc.

are abbreviations from ma^mi,

that language expressed the

of the action upon the

'

reflection

agent by adding the pronouns bwice

over to the verbal stem, once as object case and once as nominative.

Against this view

it is

urged

(i) that, if in the

doubling

of pronominal elements in the plural of active inflections (see

above, p. 170) both elements remained, so

nominative case (e.g. mas^zego + tv),


precisely the

it

is

to

speak, in

inconsistent

the
that

same phenomenon in the middle voice should

me {mihi) + ego. [But this difmind that the formation of the active

give the different result of


ficulty is less, if we bear in

inflections

may have

taken place at a different and

stage in the development of language.

much

earlier

The same elements may

have combined in different ways at

different |)eriods

ferent strata or layers, so to speak, of

word

in

dif-

formatioii,] (2) that

Yin.]
if -fiat, -a-oL, -Tat ai'e

{^=: mas-mas,

while the dropping out of s and

and

may

3 pers.

thas-thas, etc)

to find Middle
(3) that

Inflections

supposed by this theory in

be justified by phonetic analogy, that of to in

ma{rn)i cannot be so

I pers.

we ought

explained in this way,

similar forms in the plural

i8i

Verb Inflection.

[It

justified.

however, parallel

is,

bhare=bhar-a-nie (mai) compared with 0cp-o-/iat.]


Upon the whole, this latter theory meets with most favour,

in Sanskrit

now by

being adopted by both Bopp and Schleicher, and

who

Das Verbum

in

ofiered to

(p.

Tempora und Modi.

in

it

"We may therefore adopt'

Greek middle

as presumably the correct account of the

it

or

flections,

at

Curtius,

80) retracts the opposition which he

any rate the best

working hypothesis

'

in-

for

'

deducing an explanation of them.

The middle
follows

Sing.

Inflections of the

Sanskrit has e as in primary form


Sing.

Greek

Epic forms

(jt-a-ai).

-et,

verbs

-/u

as in

(fiepeL=(f>e'pe(^(r)ai

e^epo'/xi?i'.

(Od.

Sl^rjai

Fn

-se:

perf. tense

and

tora-o-ai,

lOo),

xi.

was

later -eai

o-;

later again into

-17,

<t>epri.

Secondary form
with

like \i\aUai,

of imperf.

Sanskrit

(Od. xiv. 343) have only lost the initial

contracted into
as in

and

bhard

find

-fi-qv

abliare

-sat,

-sa^si,

-o-m is retained in verbs in -fu

reTvyjfai
oprjai

Primary form,

Sanskrit

-fiai,

we

disappears, and

Secondary m,am,j Greek

^bliar-a-nid=:0e/Dojtiai.]

mid.

will then be as

Primary form, ma-mi, mm,, Greek

[In Sanskrit the initial

S.

Greek Verbs

(eVWetro)

loss of

op(To,

Se^o,

becomes

o-

Xf|o

-ov,

-sas, -sa, Greek -tro, retained in imperf. of


and plup. tense irirv^o (Tr-<To). Epic forms

only

ipApvao, irapia-Tao, Weo, etc.

from

opo-f-o-o,

e(^e/>ou=e^peo-o

and imper. 6ov, 8ov.


3 Sing. : Primary form,

forms

cp. the

In ordinary Greek

etc.

c(o-)o

so in 2 aor. of -ju verbs, t6ov,

cSov

retained throughout.

-ta-ti, -tai,

Secondary,

Sanskrit

-ta-t, -ta,

-td,

Greek

Sanskrit a-bhar-a-ta).

In the imperative we find

which

of 2 sing,

p. 173)

recalls the

-a-Ba

and the explanation of which

most plausible suggestion


senting

act.,

-TO)

is

that

it

is

Greek

-to

-(rOa,

a form

and other forms

equally uncertain.

may

-rai

{i^epero,

arise

from

-ttco

(see

The

(repre-

of 3 sing, imper. act. doubled), rr becoming or

by

i83

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

Middle

dissimilation (p. 79),

Inflections,

spirant.

and then ad under the influence of the

See however, above, on -aBa of 2 sing.

In the Plural terminations

it

is

act.

easy to arrive at

less

still

even a plausible suggestion for their origin: and for

and

plur. especially such suggestions are but guesses.


1

Greek has

Plur.

form, with a variety in

both as primary and secondary

-/ic5a

-fitaOa,

Homer and

found in

later poets,

but not in Attic prose, and possibly a mere phonetic variation metri gratia;

would not

scan.

2 sing, act.;

for in

a majority of cases the form

Others however see in

-/jte-aBa

and on Curtius' view that

<t6

-fieOa

the form -vSa of

here arises from

tv,

would represent ma-tva-i. Sanskrit has for primary form


mahe, Zend maide, which points to a primary form madhai,
secondary -madJia, whence Greek -^6a. It is sugge.sted that
-fieuBa

mad?iai=ma-tva{s)i, mato()i='I

thou, to thee' (the reflec-

tion of the action being in this case expressed


of one of the
plur. act.)

by the

repetition

which make up the

'thou,'

'I,'

Greek has

-a-de

both as primary and secondary

Sanskrit has -dhve (primary), Vedic -dhvai and

(secondary,

This would make .ne6a=-iie(r6a.

2 Plur.

form.

two elements

-dhvam

being perhaps a later addition), a Vedic imper.

-dhva being found. 3 often disappears in Sanskrit before


hence we may infer an original -sdhvai, -sdhva, the Greek
equivalents to which would be -a6Fm, -crSFe. This reconciles the
Sanskrit and Greek forms, and Curtius' explanation of ad as

-in

dh

arising from tt (above, p.

174) presumably covers sdh also:

but the origin of this termination also

is

suggestion to that given above for

plur.

sdhvai, a6Fe=tva-tva-{tv)i, 'thou


3 Plur.

Kearo,

A similar

uncertain.
is

made,

viz. that

thou, to thee.'

Sanskrit primary -nte, secondary -nta, correspond-

ing to Greek
arai,

-i-

In the Epic forms -arm,

-vrai, -vto.

etc.)

the a

is

not a substitute for

v,

-aro (i<p6ap-

but

is

the

thematic vowel, which in this case has not sunk from the
original a

sound retained in Sanskrit bliara-iite abharajita

{(j)ipovTai, e<j)ipovTo).
(jSe/SXijaTat,

etc.),

In Ionic

this a is

whence the idea that

The imper. termination -aOav

is

found even after vowels


it

stands in place of

v.

on the analogy of other similar

'

Verb Inflection.

VIII.

183

forms, and crBa-a-av is a later formation analogous to

of Middle

Ttn-trav

(Passive)

,\

imper.

act. (see p. 176).

Inflections.

Different explanations are given of this termination. Schleicher's,


it arises from doubling the active termination {^-ant, -anti,
whence by omission of the second nt, oMtai), assumes that the a

that

(Grreek o) preceding nt

the inflection

not the thematic vowel, but part of

is

may

view which

be

Another suggestion

adopted here.

true,

but has not been

that ntai-=ntati

is

by the

(expressed by 3 plur. act.) of


the element 'to him;' so that it='he + he to Mm:' another,
addition to the plural idea

they

'

'

that these 3 plur. middle forms -vrai, -vto are the singular forms
-Tai, -TO, increased by the addition of the nasal sound for the

But though we have noticed

purpose of expressing plurality.

before (p. 55) the employment of 'nasalisation' in the formation


of tense-stems-', there

is

no evidence

formation of terminations.

Dual

for its

-iii6ovz=-ixi6a of i plur.

Aeolic form

with

v iipeXKva-TiKov.

An

[Sanskrit has vahe=:

also mentioned.

is

-fi^B^v

employment in the

All, in fact, is guess-work.

yahai (primary), and vahi=valia (secondary).]


and 3 Dual

-a-dov,

correspond to the

act.

and imperat.

-a-dqv,

forms

-tov, -ttjv,

imperat. mid. to -rm (see above,


the change from r to

meaning:

cr6

-a-dav

obviously

-rav, as -o-^m of

p. 161).

In

seems to carry with

3 sing,

all

these forms,

it

the reflexive

for a possible explanation see above, p. 174,

on

-o-^a

of 2 sing.

Verb Inflection

II.

The function
Inflection

to

Mood-signs.

mood and

have already been noticed

'

have
'

Verb Mood-signs.

now

Optative

Subjunctive (Dependent or Hypothetical) Mood,'

by which the supposition of a


its

[a).

We

these two groups of tenses being included under the

general term

from

their position in

(p. 161).

signs for (a) ^ Conjunctive,' (6)

distinguish the

tenses

of signs of

direct statement in the

The

classical

special

fact or action is distinguished


'

Indicative Mood.'

characteristic

of the conjunctive forms in Comunctive,

Greek and Latin appears to be a long vowel

preceding the termination.


'

Compare

Peile, Leot.

We

find

V. pp. 93,

however

in

4, ist edition.

(m,

ij,

a, e)

Homer


184
Mood-signs,

[chap.

Verh Inflection.

number

limited

Conjunctive. OT^-o-^fv,

vowel

of conjunctive forms, such as


ak-e-Tai

<^5i'-e-Tat,

(conj.

modal element

original a) denotes the

0, e (i. e.

l-o-fiev, /SX^-e-tqi,

of SK-to), in which a short

and the

comparison of these with a conjunctive form occurring in Vedic


Sanskrit

(e. g.

han-a-ti, indie, han-ti, as-a-ti, indie, as-ti, from

asmi, sum), points to the conclusion that originally the con-

by the

junctive was distinguished from the indicative

or addition to the stem of

in precisely

the indicative with

as

ternally,

indie, bharti,

from the

a thematic vowel

primitive indicative, so that' conj. as-a-ti

bhar-a-ti

insertion,

the same way, ex-

Latin /er-(<i).

indie, as-ti

And

indie,

as there is always

a possibility that formations outwardly similar may have been


originally one and the same, we may perhaps consider with
Curtius that the thematic vowel d and the conjunctive suffix
served the same purpose;

originally
i.

e.

the meaning of ' he


it

and that

bhara-ti,

as

'bearer he' (see above, p. 167), developed on the one hand


is

a bearer,'

'

he

bears,' so

might develop the meaning he may


'

'he

is

intended for bearing'

This however

is

(0,

e)

i.e. the force of

The

facts to

ceptions already mentioned,

it

appears as a

(a,

suffix

was

with a few ex-

(2) the certain fact that,

a conjunctive.

be considered are

fact that the conjunctive

(i) the highly probable

originally

speculation.

on the other hand

be, or is tp be, a bearer,'

q,

Now

a, e).

in

the ordinary conjugation of Greek verbs this long vowel seems


naturally accounted for

with the

'

thematic

'

or

by the combination of the mood-sign


'

connecting

'

vowel at the end of the

two uses of the vowel a, whether originally


identical or not, having of course become distinct with the
development of verb-forms. But in the conjugation of verbs in
-fii no thematic vowel is used (p. 169), and here the long vowel
stem

is

these

most plausibly explained as the result of analogy,

regarded as the characteristic


icr-fu

we have

mood

signs.

in conjunctive.
I

Sing, ia-a-ni, iaa,

Ito, S>,

3 Plur. iaSi-vTi, iSivri (Dor.), eaai,

a,

r)

Thus from

Siai,

following the analogy of the ordinary conjugation.

being
elfu=.


185

Verb Inflection.

Till.]

In Latin, the conjunctive

suffix a,

answering to Greek

<b,

;;,

Mood-signs.
^

appears in the pres. subj. of and, srd, and 4th conjugations


(consonant and e and

stems)

Mjaes), leg-a-tis (^Xiy-ti-re),

the

mood

sign

e.g.

mone-d-m, leg-a-mus (=Xey-

In a- stems (ist conjug.)

audi-a-m.

(am-e-m) and a few verbs have

is e

duim

nolim, possim, edim,

but this

have

The

e-mus.

mood-sign

e as

has

perfect

originally

I,

i,

sim,

e. g.

are both probably

The

imperf. and plup.

and

optative forms (see below, p. 186^7).


subj. in all verbs

amar-e-mus, regiss-

which however (from

confusion with the completed future indie.) often becomes


dactylic poetry: just as in the completed or

often treated as
Perf. Subj.

Thus we

^.

-en-

"

2nd

i in

Xis

fut. indie.

find

dederitis (Ennius), fueris (Horace), respueris (Tib.),

dederis, -credideris (Ofid).

eH-

egerimus,

respexeris- (Virg.),

dixeris

(Hor.

in

hexameters suspexeris).

2nd Eut. Indie,

-eri-

viderimus (Lucretius), dixerUis (Ovid), (Virg.

Georg.
-eri-:

ir. 59).

dedenHSjtransieritis, etc. (Ovid), /ecerimMS (Catullus),

dederis, miscueris, etc. (Hor. in hex.), dederig (freq.

in Prop,

and Ovid).

'

[As in Latin the conjunctive and optative coalesce into one


we might expect a mixture of conj. and

subjunctive Mood,
opt.,

forms such as we actually

Koby

find.

(Lat. Gr.

suggests that the proper Latin mood-suflSx was

i.

the Greek optative), which contractfed with a preceding


e.g.

ama-s, ama^i-s, amies;

indie, of

but as

suffixed

5'93)

(seen

in

to e

to the present

any other than a verbs would give the same form when

contracted, an

(seen in

Greek

conj.)

was

substituted.

This,

however, would not be true of consonant stems proper, where


there was no opportunity for contraction, e.g.

and

it

would have

by analogy

leg-o,

le-gi-m

d form was extended


seems best to admit the

to be supposed that the

to these.

On

the whole

confusion of forms, and explain

it

each

separately, without

re-

ducing them to uniformity.]


(6).

Optative.

The

suffix is

ya{ja) (retained in 3 plur. act.


i : in Greek, le, irj, i.

of Greek \eyo-ie-v) usually raised to jd, or

Optative


i86
Mood-signs.

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

The verbs in

form of the

retain the longer

-fu

Active Voice, the shorter

(i)

in the Middle,

suffix

e. g.

(t?j)

in the

Sing. iiZo-iijV compsired with Sito-l-piqv

SiSo-Jtjs

SiSo-L-ia)o

SiSo-iij

Sl5o-i-to

SiSo-i-vTo

3 Plur. StSo-ii-v

= SiSo-T-evT.
Verbs of the ordinary conjugation have the shorter form of the
sufBx,

which coalesces with the ^preceding

(whether this be

regarded as connecting vowel or an addition to the stem,


assimilating all stems to

the diphthong
(as

with

ot,

a stems, makes no

e.g. (^epoi-ju, rimro-i-fu.

longer form

-^i verbs), the

primitive shape (if=jd),

e. g.

is

(/jepo-ie-y,

difference here) into

In 3 plur., however
retained in its most

Tmrr-o-K-v.

With

the

longer form of suffix the secondary, with the shorter form the

primary person-endings are found.

'

Contracted' verbs in

-<b

employ both forms of the mood-sign with corresponding variety


of person- endings
thus from T-tfidm (=Ti/ido-/ii) we find pres.
:

opt. Tifiao-i-fu,

Tifimfii,

The strong (2nd)


e.g.

So-irj-v,

and

Tt/iao-iij-i', Ti/uoriu.

aor. opt. is

8o-[-iirjv,

formed like the present


(present,

etc.

Tvit-o-i-ixi,

diSol-qv,

opt.

SiSoifirjv,

TVTTTOlfllj.

The weak
characteristic

The passive
person-endings,
Optative
Latin.

aor.

Compare

from root as
I

3
1

3
1

employs

are

for

as

mood-sign, retaining

as

{es, es)

traceable

here and there in the Latin

in Sanskrit, Greek,
tttjv (

and Latin

pres. opt.

= i<r-trj-v)

s-ya-s

s-ya-t

Dual s-ya-va

s-ya-tam
s-yd-tam
Plur. s-ya-ma

s-ya-ta

s-yua

its

mood-sign with secondary

example the parallel forms of

Sing, s-ya-m ( = as-yi

a, Xia-a-i-fu, \va-a-i-iirjv.

\vSe-ir)-v, rvne-iq-v.

Optative forms
verb.

employs

(ist) aor.

stem -letter

[(trj-aav

a later form, see

p- 176.]

vin.]

187

Verl Inflection.

The evident correspondence


sim, with
verbs,

the

of this old Latin form siem, later Optative

optatives of the

parallel

Sanskrit and Greek

Latin,

that in other so-called conjunc-

irresistible evidence

is

forms in -im,

tive

Thus
-is, -it, we have optative formations.
duim (common in Plaut. and Ter. and in old
cp. Di te perduint used by Cicero) =(^aim=<Zas-

velim=vel-ie-m,
legal language,

which corresponds

ie-m,

to

Sat. II. viii.

There

90^

an optative form.
(TTa-ir^-ir),

Beside

which points to

-es, -et

=deicai-m

stet

is

subjunctive

the

the characteristic letter,

is

found Oscan sia-ii= Greek


the origin of the

sta-ie-t, sfa-l-t, as

and Greek

Umbrian

cp.

nua-o-irjv, nfuir)v.

appears also to be an optative form,

e.g.

dicem

a being here the vowel which in Greek appears

as o (see pp. 36, 54), as in

Skt. bhara-i-ina(s)

(jjepo-i-fM, TimTo-i-fu.

Gk.

bhare-ma

Thus we have

hat. fera-i-mus

<pep6-i-fi.es

/ere-mus^.

(pepoi-fiev

Tense-stems.

III.

These have been

I.

e is

iii.

Tab.).

'future indicative' of consonant-stems (3rd conjugation)

in -em,

may

(XII

Thus amem=^ama-i-m=^ama-ie-m :

X>orta-ia{t)-=portet,

The

edo (Hor. Epod.

reason for supposing that

present of a stems, in which

Latin form.

and to a (Vedic)

bo-ir)-v,

temjperint, coquint

also

is

Greek

^oedim from

Sanskrit form de-ya-m^

briefly classified

above

(p.

and we

162),

proceed to discuss them in the order there observed.


Perfect-stem

The most

characteristic feature of the Perfect-stem in Indo- Formation

European languages
root.

The

action;
itself of

is

Eeduplication,

i.e.

doubling the verbal

and

for this purpose language

seems to have availed

the same means or instrument, by which (as

we have

noticed above, p. 32) frequentative and desiderative verbs are

'

stem,

force of the Perfect Tense is to express completed %wa.

Curtius quotes also the Vedic forms

dhe-y-am = Oeir/v,

gfie- ya-s

yvo-'tTj-s.

' In Virg. Aen. xii. 8oi, 'Ne te tantus edit tacitam dolor,' Eibbeok's
correction, edit, is accepted by Conington : Forbiger, Gossrau, Heyne,
Wagher, and others, retain edat. See Couington's note, ad loc.
^ The following forms are
apa-barois dwo(pepois
cited from Zend:

au-feres (ab-feroris); bara-yen

= (pipo-itvir) =feren,t

(fera-int).

i88
Perfect-

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

often formed, and any strengthening of the idea of a

The

expressed.

word

is

conceivable form would be a simple

earliest

repetition of the root, with a further root indicating the subject,

vid vid ma. The 'agglutinative' stage of language would give


vidvidmay and the inflectional stage is marked by frequently
raising the .vowel of the second root and shortening the first
by loss of its final letter^ e. g. vivaidma ; the process which is
seen in so

many Greek

perfects, e.g. XeXooto

(stem

Xitt-), neiroiBa

(md-), etc.

It

Its relation

sent-stem.

is

indeed not improbable that the Perfect

may have been

a development from the reduplicated present with an intensive

reduplication,

tion of certain present-stems

is

employed in the forma-

and while many

have a distinctly present force


odi, novi,

and no augment

It has the primary person- endings

meaning.

its distinctive feature,

(e. g.

eyvaKo,

memini) in Greek and Latin,

so-called perfects

KeKTrjftai,

Kexpaya, olSa,

found that in Vedic

it is

Sanskrit, the oldest accessible type of Indo-European language,

present and perfect

the distinction between

'

and

facts certainly point to a closer connection

These

fluctuating.

intensive

'

is

slight

between the present and perfect formations than appears in


later developments of

Indo-European speech, and perhaps in-

dicate that the perfect, so far from necessarily implying past

or completed action, was at

first

a mere variety of the intensive

present.
Greek

The Greek language both in the form of its perfect-stem,


by the almost universal emplo3rment of reduplication, and in
.

its

usage,

by

restricting. the perfect-stem to the expression of

the idea of completed


to that of Latin

perfect-stem
-least of all),

tion,

in

action, displays

which, as

we

four or five different

and uses

differences in the

to

mode

antiquity superior

see

below, forms

its

ways (by reduplication

perfect-tense as an aorist.

its

therefore, gives

an.

shall

Reduplica-

the Greek perfect-stem, in spite

of formation, a unity

which

it

is

of

vain

to look for in Latin.

The

redupii-

Gated syllable.

The reduplicated
r

the initial letter of


syllable
usually
j
j contains
^

the root with the vowel


root-vowel.

e,

representing original a, the commonest

Apparent exceptions are due

to the phonetic ten-

Verb Inflection.

viii.]

dency towards easier articulation


sented by a corresponding tenuis
of

two

when

a mute followed by

it is

t-yvcD-Ka, f-^Xda-rrj-Ka

and

/iva

have

X,

is
fi,

Ki-Ktrj-jiai,

repre- Greek

is

(^av-), cp. ndrjfu

while

repeated, and that only


yeypa<pa, iriiikryya

e. g.

v, p,

and sometimes

yv, yX,

and on the other hand the stems Kra


In jTCTTTajKa an e has fallen
fii-itmifiai.
:

jtt.]

but those

all cases

consonants has only

The

thus an aspirate

[Exceptions are

0X

out between

Trecjyrjva

consonants only one

initial

{irKay-), n^iri/evKa (ttj/u-).

In

189

a stem beginning with two


surova,

sound with the augment

similarity of

thus occasioned

specified,

for its reduplication,

is,

of course, purely accidental

correct to say that any verb forms its perfect

'

e^rjTrjKa, etc.

163) which

(p.
:

and

is

it

is

in-

by prefixing the

augment.'
Initial

with

vowels are raised, as opdo-a,

initial

a,

f,

whole root

(i) doubling the

the

is

most frequent

The forms
an

in

Homer,

from

aipea>

but some stems


i.

e.

This

'

(a\et<f>a},

Attic

'

stem aXi^-,

Reduplication

g. apr\poTai, oKdXripm, etc.

Herodo-

'.

due to the

consonant of the respective stems (f ).

(feXtt),

either

e.

(oB-md-a, root 08-), or (2) repeating

e-aXw-xa, c-dy-a, f-oiK-a, e-avrj-pai, are

initial

has e-oXw-a

Sipdaica

Attic Eeduplication,'

e\avva, eXa-, cX-^Xa-iea).

tus has dp-mpr)-K.a

loss of

'

only of the root or, stem

first syllable

aK-ri\i<j)-a

take

o,

e-opy-a {hpy,

our work)

Homer

see above eh. iv.

for reduplication,

p. 68.

Certain verbs with initial consonant have


e. g. fiXijp^a, iiKrj<l)a, cljiaprai.

The root-vowel

is

generally, but not invariably, raised.

It

appears that originally this raising was confined to the singular

number ; a
tore, etc.,

fact which' explains the apparent

in the dual and plural of

this particular perfect-stem

parative Philology.

cated and raised as

is

all

the kindred languages.

'

'ii-p.v,

The verbal stem is hh, vid, which redupliabove would give vivaida: but the re-

duplicated syllable has disappeared in

Thus we have

anomaly of

The conjugation of
remarkably illustrated by Comolba.

See Curtius' 'Greek Grammar,'

275.

190
Perfect in
Sanskrit,
Greek, and
Latin.

Verb Inflection.

[CHAl".


vm.]
1.

Verb Inflection.

191

Strong Perfect, formed directly from the stem

iti-npay-a;

tUtco, tc-tok-o;

XetVo),

Trpdo-cro,

a being the COn-

\e-\oLn-a:

strong*
Perfect.

necting vowel between the stem and inflections, as in XcXor-a-

and others regard the

(Schleicher

/ici/.

The Strong

as part of the stem.)

the

tirely in
is

a root,

e.

case of
g. \i-a)

'

radical

and

verbs

'

like o of (pepoftev,

a,

Perfect occurs almost en-

whose verbal stem

(i. e.

generally the

is

and rarer

older

form.
2.

Weak

Perfect,

fo-ToK-Ka, Kc-Kpi{y)-Ka

the most

formed from the stem by insertion of


;

k,

the only form in use in vowel stems, and

common with

origin of this element k

stems ending in
is

unknown

,;

8, 6, p,

X, p.

,1,

The

Homer

occurs rarely in

it

(about twenty^ out of nearly three hundred known instances)


and then only with vowel-stems and is evidently an element
:

of stem formation, which


aorist forms eSmica,

and in

perhaps traceable in the isolated

is

%6r\Ka, r\Ka

in present forms such as Skk-Ka

aorists such as ^'pnXaKov, eirra-Kov.

comparison with the Latin ya-c-io, which,


be a present form corresponding to

The

Curtius suggests a
if

root fa-=^6f, would

e-dr)-Ka.

aspiration of the final stem letter in forms like yi-ypa(f>-a

(ypoTT-), ivrp/ox-a, eiXri^-a, etc. is

probably a mere phonetic altera-

tion without any definite reason.

who has

e. g.

found in comparatively few verbs.


eight aspirated perfects, most of

Bopp regarded
a view which

It

is

unknown

xeKonas, not Kexo^ms the usual Attic

Curtius

'

to

form

Homer,
and is

enumerates thirty-

them not found before Polybius.

these aspirated perfects as a distinct formation,

is

sufficiently refuted

by Curtius (Elucidations to

Greek Grammar, 272, pp. 123-128, English Translation).


The term Perfect Middle applied to e.g. yi-yov.a is Perfect
A perfect Middle or Passive can only be formed Passive,
erroneous.
'

in one way,

viz.

'

by

affixing

Middle person- endings without

connecting vowel to the reduplicated

TeTvppat^Te-Tvw-p^i.

The

final

stem, as

\e-\v-pai,

consonants of consonantal stems

change by the laws of assimilation before the


the inflections, as in the following table

initial p,

'

These are enumerated by Curtius, Das Verbum,'

Ibid. pp. 200, 201.

'

o-,

II. p.

210^

t of

Verb Inflection.

193
Perfect

Middle and
Passive.

Final Letter of

Stem

aasimilated.J

[chap.

'

Verb luflection.

VIII.]

Raising

(ii.)

193

Stem-vowel (without reduplication.

the

employs both); fdve-o,favi; Sgo, egi; jdcio,jeci;

rumpo (stem

video, vldi;

Some

rup-), rwpi, etc.

Greek Latin

lego, legi;

2.

Per-

naiaiog

explain the

length of the root syllable in these perfects by the absorption


of a reduplicated syllable

where v

below

(see

iv)

e.

i.

jeci=jejici, legi^legigi ;

But the analogy

fa/vi=/dv-vi.

e.

i.

or,

stem consonant, by absorption of a sufiSxed v

final

is

of Grreek

perfect-stems (above, p. 189) where vowel-rsiising and reduplication go together, perhaps points to a similar account of this

formation in Latin

one part of the process

is

but the

lost,

other remains.
Suffixing

(ui.)'

(perfect in -si) to consonant-stems; a later s.

-s

Suffiiing

form, sometimes found side by side with the older reduplicated


perfect

e.

punxi

g.

{-ed) with

pupvgi ; panxi {pang-si) with

For illustrations see Koby's


The termination -s-i is supposed to ^es-i, a perfect formation from the stem -es, and
therefore analogous to the -tra of Greek weak (first) aorist stem.
Strictly speaking, this perfect is a weak or composite tense,

pepigi ; intellexi (Jeg-si) with

Latin Grammar,

i.

legi.

670-675.

'

and (with the perfect in

it

;'

'

or -ui, mentioned below)

numbers

and

ii

being the

is

some-

head of 'Weak Perfect-

separately under the

times classed

stem

-vi

Strong Perfect-stem

'

seems more convenient to arrange

all varieties of

:'

but

the Perfect-

stem together.
(iv.)

Suffixing

or -v (-vi) tol-Sutaxing

(-ui) to consonant-stems,

-u

vowel-stems, as with most regular verbs in a,

stems with a few exceptions

di-vi ;

quievi,

etc.

and

from

form

inchoative

the

perfect

quiesco)

pres.

as

though

I,

(aholevi,

drop

from

amavi, audelevi,

the

and
final

consonant

stem, mon(e)ui, ferb-ui, and from some a- stems are found


similar forms,
also

from

e. g.

pres.

(rarely crepa-vi, cuba-vi)

crep-ui, cuh-ui

-io,

infin.

-ire

(J

being dropped),

aper-iti,

salui.

The

perfect form in

-vi, -ui, is

found in a considerable

class

of verbs with a Present-stem (see below, p. 204) increased by

or

sc,

e. g.

lino,

livi,

In stemui from sterno,

or levi ;
trivi

from

sino, si-vi ;
tera,

cre-sco,

ere-vi.

the stem originally

194
Latin Perlect-stem.

consonantal becomes a vowel-stem by metathesis of tbe rowel


'

and r
''"'

"^

[chap.

feri Injkction.

"'

pds-ui

is

from p8s-no, contracted, pono.

In certain verbs wbose stems end in -u {acuo, arguo, tribuo,


from loss of v, u being

statu-o, etc.) the -ui of the perfect arises

the stem-lrtter,

e. g.

In some other verbs the

statui:=statu-vi.

apparent Jdentity of perfect- and present-stem

may

arise

from

loss of reduplication {pamdi, verti, etc.).

N.B. The perfect-stem formed by suffixing v


modified by the omission of v in

and

plur. of perf indie,

brought together

tracted after loss

and 3

sing,

amdsti,

amdram,

amdstis, amdrunf,

Sometimes however the vowels are not conof v, e. g. ie and sometimes ii, as avdieram,

audiero, audiisti, as well as avdiati ; so frequently


eo

frequently

is

forms except

and the contraction of the vowels thus

e. g.

amdssem, amdsse.

all

from

peto,

and their compounds.

Sometimes both forms of Compound


are combined in one verb,

^nec-s-ui (stem

The ending
preterite of

e. g.

Perfect, in -si

met-o, messui:=met-s-ui

and -ui
:

nexui

Tiee-).

-vi,

-ui

is

generally recognised as

^ fu-i

the

stem/u- (Sanskrit bhu- in bhav-armi=a;iio, orior;

Greek (j}v-a>, (fiv-Tevm, etc. fu-am, fuThe original bh represented by /"in fu-i,
etc. (p. 69), may have passed into h
then hui would easily
lose its aspirate, and become -ui or -vi.
Whatever the process,
it is evident that vi=ui and that v must not be considered
as representing the f of fui.
The formation, then, of the
compound perfect in -vi is exactly analogous to that in -si;
3 sing. 2 aor. a-tohtl-t

iurus, fo-rem, fore).

a preterite form of stem/w- being used in one


of stem
Inflection of

Perfectstem.

es- in

case,

a preterite

the other.

....

The terminations are the same

for all four classes of perfect-

stems, being distinguished throughout from the Greek perfect

by the

characteristic

vowel l^ (found in

old Latin

in

all

^ Corasen (TJeber Aussprache, etc., i. p. 609, 2nd edition), quotes from


the poets, fuit, rediit, vidU, dedii, stetlt, and many others. Laohmann, on
Lucr. iii. 1042, instances petiit, abut, redut, penlt, from various passages
in Ovid, and Italiam fatis petiit auctoribus,' from Virg. Aen. x. 67, where
however most MSS. and eitors read ' petiit fatis ;' and goes so far as to
maintain that, the final it being necessarily long, Virgil would not have
'

Tin.]

Verb

persons except
plur.

we

plur.

plur.

and often written

find a suffix is-

{er-unt=:es-unt)

mination

195

Infleetion.

is

{is-ti,

identical

In

ei).

suffix

Is

as

whose complete forms

characteristic of the perfect indicative,

would he fec-ls-in{i)

and Latin Per-

er- of 3

cp. also the infinitive ter-

These forms then point to a

-is-se.

sing,

with which the

is-tis),

(l&tei fec-t),

fec-ls-ti,

fec-ls-t,

fee-ls-mus,

fecimus),

fe&,i),

fec-^s-tis,

fec-is-o-nt-=:feoerwn,t.

s in

Latin not unfrequently

would account

for the later

falls

out before

forms of

and 3

and

sing.

plur. also, except that here the l is always short in poetry,

no forms in
pose that in

which

have been preserved.

We

and

must therefore sup-

plur. the tendency to shorten the penultima,

seen at

is

forms of

ei

this

and of

perf. subj.

work

in 3 plur. tiderunt^,

dederimus,

etc.

(where

t is

etc.,

and in the

the characteristic

mood- sign) prevailed to such an extent at so early a period,


as altogether to obscure the original quantity.

[In the case of

3 plur. the syncopated forma dedrot, dedro, dederunt, on old


Pisauran inscriptions ^, show the early prevalence of such a

tendency.]

Others (e.g. Schleicher, Comp. 291) suppose two forms of


perfect-stem, one in Is the other in

I,

to account for the different

but must have written, e.g. in G. ii. 8i, Aen. ii. 497, exit not
v. 274 transit not transiit.
Lachmann's extreme view, however, is repudiated by Munro on Lucr. 1. u., and Conington on Aen. ii. 497
the former pointing out that Ovid is singular among the poets of his day
in lengthening the final it of perfects, which, though undoubtedly long
temp. Enaius, had come to be universally shortened like so many other
shortened

exnt, in

it,

Aen.

sounds in Latin.
Virg. Eel. iv. 61 {tidirunt), Aen. ii. 774 {steth-unt). Miscwerunt in
Georg. ii. 129, iii. 283, may possibly be trisyllable {-cue by synizesis).
Lucretius frequently shortens the er ; Ennius not so often
and it is
probable. that this quantity was a later poetical licence with perhaps some
foundation in the tendencies of ordinary pronunciation.
^ These inscriptions (chiefly votive, to female divinities) are given in
Wordsworth's ' Fragments and Specimens,' p. 167. On the marks of their
antiquity (not later than the Hannibalic war) see Mr, Wordsworth's
notes, p. 408.
final
'

03

tg6
^''^''''

fe-t"'

of the perf. indie, but this

P^i'sons

The formation above noticed

e. g.

from root vid,

a-ved-im (Vedic), aved-is, a-ved-it

sing,

from

2 sing, (as

(ish-ma

sufiBx

with Latin

cp.

with i-mus)

cp.

both

to know,'

lost the inflectioi*

but in

is-ti),

'

plur. a-ved-ish-ma,

Here Sanskrit has

a-ved-ish-ta, a-ved-ishus.

the

seems hardly necessary.

in is finds a parallel in certain

aorist formations in Sanskrit,

-ti

[chap.

Verb In/lection.

plur. retains

are

defective

in

1 sing.

N.B. If
is

this

account be correct, the

-ti

(older ~t&i) of 2 sing.

the only instance in which Latin retains the

pronoun

(see

forma (just alluded

regarding

to),

of 2nd' person

as the stem-ending (or

connecting vowel) throughout, makes the

sing,

analogous to the Greek 2 sing. -aOa;

-stis

-sti,

Another explanation of the perfect

170)

p.

and plur/

and accounts

for the 3 plur. -erunt as a composite form with es-onti 3 plur.

of

sum

(root es) analogous to L(Tairt=:ptd-aaim (p. 176) so that

dederunt=^dedi-sont (instead of ded-is-o-nt on the other view).

This view

from

plausible

is

and the harmony

simplicity,

its

between Latin and Greek forms which

conceives

it

and, con-

sidering the obscurity in which the early history of grammatical

forms

is really

fairly plausible

involved,

view

most approved by
sumably the

The other view, however,


and

philologists,

is

truer.

The Strong Aorist-stem

exhibits,

with few exceptions, the

Pure Verbal-stem, sometimes reduplicated ;

Aoristsenerraii.v=pure XtiVo),
Verbal-Stem.
,

verbs

(ftvy- ;

verbs,'

t
i
It IS Only

ayay-Hv from ay-a.

m
.

which the

present-stem
jSaXXo),

(enlarged),

stem

/3aX-

e.

g.

is

,.

distinct

Mira, stem Xwr-

from the

aorist,

coincide with the imperfect.

e. g.

further.

'

root-

Verbs

apx-a>, Xu-m, Xiy-a,

because in these cases

With

stem

(jteiya,

and but seldom from any but

whose stems cannot be traced back

form no strong

c-Xm-o-v from

e. s.

formed as a rule from

pure verbal-stem

whose present-stem = pure verbal-stem,


etc.,

is

therefore given as pre-

'Simple' or 'Strong' Aorist-stem \2nd Aor.\

2.

stronR

perhaps unsafe to say that any

is

it

untrue.

is

it

would

aya, however, the redupli-

cated form ^yayov avoids this confusion

and with some other

verbs the change of the vowel in the pure verbal-stem forms


viii.]

Verb Inflection.

strong

aorist

the

from

distinct

197

imperfect,

rpeir-a, stronsr

e. g.

Aorist- stem.

jf

(Tpair-ov.

Grreek has two main classes of Strong Aorist forms, corresponding to the two principal conjugations, (p. 169)
:

Without thematic-vowel, usually from vowel-stems

(i.)

Act.

i-Br)-v,

i-Bfj-s,

Mid.

i-ek-mv,

l-fleo-o, -9c-to

i-Sr)

i-Bt-aav

e-Oe-re,

i-Se-pLfV,

*,

e.

g.

(compound)
(but

c/Sai/),

i-ei-ntea, i-Si-aBe, l-BevTo.

iBov,

So ffirjv, e(j)dr]v, crXi/v, eyvav, iSKav, ?(j>vv, etc. and certain Epic
middle forms from consonant-stems without a connecting-vowel,
:

SKto, Sckto, Xk-to, jrnX-To, juk-to, Sipro

e. g.

(infin.)

aKp,evos, appevos, Siypevos,

The imperatives

{=a8-pevos).

and

XexSai, op-dai, hix-Oeu

Used adjectivally

a<r-pevos

Xe^o,

Spa-o

8e'|o,

bably weak aorist formations (see below)

are

more pro-

Kf-K\v-6i, (ce-rXu-tc,

are examples of reduplicated forms.

With thematic-vowel,

(ii.)

Act.

i-\in-ov,

,,^.j
-M-ia.

t-AtTT-o-fiTjVf

as in ordinary conjugation

i-Km-e-s,
,

l-Mir-e,

e-Ktir-e-ro,

e-Aiir-c-ffo,

and

.
^
so on, as Imperfect.

k\lTTOVf

To

this belong

Homer,

e.

most of the reduplicated forms, frequent in

g. neiriQ-ov, eearov:=iFeFeiT-ov (usually

eiiTOv), im(j}paSov, r)vvna!rov, TjpvKaKov.

without augment

Reduplication here probably

Eedupli-

does not (as in the perfect-stem) express past or completed


action

'

The

cited

is

by the augment, and the combinatwo elements would not be analogous to that found

for this is expressed

tion of the

original quantity of the root-vowel in some of the forms here


a matter of some uncertainty. In i-Bi-rriv, Bsivai, 6k-ais, and

kindred forms,
vowel of Be, So,

etc., the short


does in a majority of forms, is presumably the primitive root-vowel. On the other hand, the Indian grammarians allow no roots in a, but only in 8. ; so that Sanskrit da answers to
and in
Grreek So, Latin dare (but do-nuni), Sanskrit Sh& to Greek Be

bi-do-Tai^ bovvai^ So-ais, etc., <pa~6t^ fpa-T6s,

(pa,

appearing as

it

forms like yvu-vax,

yvaj-T6-s, yvw-ffis,

etc.,

l3iat-T/ai,

&\Qj-aLS, d\$i-vai, etc.,

re-Tpoi-fiai, e-Tpii-Bi]V, etc., the long vowel extends to the greater n umber if
not to all the forms, and seems to be original. Schleicher maintains that &
is the primitive form in all Sanskrit roots ; and readers of his Compendium
will find this assumption there carried out.
This view may or may not be
correct, but we have no data reaching far enough back into the history of
European speech to enable us to determine the question,

'

198
strong
Aorist.

We

in the pluperfect.

Reduplication,

Temp, und Modi,' pp. 150-164) enumerates


in 7 of which {^kuxov, apope, fitSae,
ireirapeiv, KexaSmv) he traces a Causative meanaorists,

\e\a6ov, \e\axov,

in

1 1

((cf(cXfTo,

rivliraire,

in 2 (irfTiKovro,

kikXvBi, XfXa/3f(r5at,

^vaKJJOv,

iire<f)pa8c,

Terayav) an intensive

a special transitive sense

ttijtIBoito)

remaining 10 {akoKKov, ^yayov,

while in the

XeKoKOVTO,

KexapovTO,

tpruKaKf,

TeTapmirBai,

aiiiTCTraKaiv, itriirKrfyov,

meaning

therefore look to other uses of

('

reduplicated

32

must

the expression of intensive meaning (above,

e. g.

Curtius

p. 52).

ing

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

special influence of the reduplication can

('Das Verbum,'

later treatise

reduplicated aorists

but

i've(j>vov)

pp. 21-32) he enumerates 41

ii.

in expressing an

Thus he
and

opinion as to the exact force of the reduplication.

only mentions

no

In his

be detected.

more cautious

is

KeKvB&a-i,

rjveyKov,

ctct/iov,

irecpiSoipriv,

fiejicaroifv,

ek/kXct-o (cf. keXcto),

k(kKv6i, (cf. k\v6i), ^yiWan-f,

perhaps rerdyav (as cp. with tangere) as examples of intensive

same verbs as before for causative force.


Greek forms and a comparison of Sanskrit, in which
reduplicated aorists are formed almost entirely from verbs of
force, while citing the

From

these

the, loth

class (principally causatives), Curtius arrives at the

conclusion

reduplicated

that in the

aorist

the reduplication

(Verdoppelung) belongs not to the tense-formation but to wordformation

and that

its

original

import was to give an intensive

or causative meaning, irrespective of time.

Traces of an aorist formation in Latin are supposed to

Traces of
Aorist in
Latin.

certain old forms,

e.

g. in tago, tagis,

mentioned by Festus
but the reading
{6i.y)

cp.

i-iray-riv,

beside farientes

relwtion to
Pure Verl al-

stem.

in

lie in

form of tango

(Forcell. quotes Plaut. Asin.

ii.

2.

106,

doubtful) exhibiting a pure verbal-stem tag

irriym-fu

and

in parentes

(=01

TtK-ovres),

(01 TUT-o-vres).

Present-stem.

The Present-stem

Presentstem' in

pres.

beside pres. stem tang ; in jpagunt (XII Tab.) by present

pango,

3.

is

an old

many

tion of

is

cases different

(as has

been already pointed out,

which with the various

tense, all the

forms of the verb

heading 'Present-stem'

p.

160)

from the pure verbal-stem, by combina-

is

suffixes of person,

may be

explained.

mood, and

Under the

in fact included a series of

morpho-

Verb Inflection.

VIII.]

logically distinct formations, each of

own

.,

meaning

special

passive,

199

..,.

which had
.

intensive, causative,

oriffinally its Presentstem in

durative,

intransitive,

inchoative,

(e. g.

iterative)

desiderative,

but in

Greek and Latin, while a variety of forms remains,


functions have
cases (such,

By

verbs).

disappeared, or survive only in

distinct

a few special

forms for inchoative and desiderative

as the

e. g.

Sanskrit.

Sanskrit grammarians the special modifications of

roots to form the present-stem of verbs are taken as the basis


of a classification of verbs

grammar

skrit

and the ten conjugations of San'

'

are ten classes of verbs arranged according to

the formation out of roots of verbal-bases or stems, which then

common scheme

receive a

jugational tenses

which alone are

'

tenses

'

is

verbs,

all

all

by the

affected

other tenses there

stem of

of terminations, in the four

i.

'

con-

and imperative)

(present, imperfect, potential,

rules of stem-formation.

In

all

one general rule for forming the base or


in all except the

e.

Sanskrit verbs belong to one

For Greek and Latin grammar,

in

four

'

common

conjugational
conjugation.

which no such elaborate

system of stem-formation and euphonic combination of stems


with inflections can be traced, the most practicable

classification

of verbs (as of nouns) is found to be a purely phonetic classifica-

stem (see pp. 167-9):


but in the various formations of the Present-stem we have the
tion, according to the final letter of the

outlines of a system akin to that of Sanskrit,

certain

extent be

made the

according to stem-formation,
distinctions of

which may to a

basis of a classification of verbs

but without the corresponding

meaning which give

its

point to such classifica-

tion.

The Present-stem

generally speaking an enlargement of formation

is

the Verbal-stem, either by strengthening this latter or making stem,


additions to

it.

For strengthening a

two principal means,

The operation

third, viz. Nasalisation.

tion

is

'

Intensive

language employs

and to these may possibly be added a

(see above, pp. 51, 53);

formation of

root,

Eeduplication, and Vowel-strengthening

'

of these is seen in the

Verbs in Greek, in which Eeduplica-

often combined with Vowel-strengthening (e.g.

7ra(7raXX<i>,

Tronrvia)

and Nasalisation

(e. g.

irafK^aivco,

vijv/ib,

Panfiaivo),

'

300

Terh

[chap.

Inflection.-

The employment,

means

ciassifica-

yoyyv^to, etc.

Bent-atems.

of stem-strengthening gives us three distinct classes of Present-

stem ^

and

we

if

take

first

separately, of these three

(as probably earliest in order of

time) those verbs in which the Present-stem


the

Verbal-stem,

stem, viz.

we

Verbal stem unaltered

1.

2.

Xiy-ai, ypi.(p-u, ayai, cado, tego, etc.

reduplicated

Stem-vowel strengthened

3.

with

identical

is

have four classes of Present-

shall thus

Si-Soi/Ji,

^tiya

mn(f)Tai, iibo, sero

= seeo).

(<pvy-), \e'nra (Xht-) diico {due),

fldo

(fides).

:
By insertion
By addition

4. Nasalisation

(i)

(2)

eKiyx'^' <"piyy<t tango, findo, fundo, etc.


le&nvoi (xa/i-), iaieva

forms in -vv-iu and -av-a

ster-n-o, sper-n-o, stern-u-o;

(3) -^y both these

To

these

\aii0-av-co (\aP-), imvO-Av-oi (imB-), etc.

may be added

Addition of sound

5.
6.

(i) as simple i

sound

(2) in a diphthong

by

Of

?),

which appears,
5oK-e-a

/iTjvla, sal-io,

Sal-ai, iMto/iai, ipatva,

Kreiva, etc.

a double consonant.
Lat. so (Inchoative and Iterative verbs).

(Tk,

these classes, it seems best to regard

2, 3, 4,

showing a merely phonetic increase of the root


as

and

(e. g.

Schleicher and

^though

less positively

and 5

his latest work'') regard 3

additional pronominal element {na,

nu

as

also

5,

as

6 and 7 only

formed by the addition of distinct (pronominal) stems.

however
in

assimilation into

Addition of sJi, 6k.

7.

classes, viz.

tvjtt-o) (twit-), etc. pecio, flecto.

ya (ja) (pronominal

(3)

more

three

Some,

Curtius

exhibiting an

or n, ta or

t).

In the

absence, however, of data respecting the original development


of these forms

that

we can

we must regard

say

is that, e. g.

this as

an open question

tvttto (rvTrri),

all

and Sclkw are like

ayo {aye), fully developed, possibly nominal, stems as far back as

we can

trace the

growth of language.

' It sometimes happens that two or more of these methods are employed
in forming from the same stem verbs. of a kindred signiiication, e.g epvyXavOdvoi, A.i^0ai, etc.,
TTwOdvofJiai, TreiuOopai
yavoj, ipevyu
TU7X(ii'a;, revxoi
etc.
See Curtius, Tempera und Modi,' p. 81.
' 'Tempora und Modi," pp. 67-123
'Das Verbum,' I. pp. 199-392.

'

::

VIII.]

201

Yerh Inflection.

The Present-stem
the Person-endings

receives in all cases the primary

and under each of

classes

1-4

verbs of both principal conjugations

e.

Greek

the
(p. 169 ),
stem with or vithout the addition of a

terminations to the

thematic vowel,

form of

fall

affixing

1.

(Unaltered)

2.

(Reduplicated)

7riir(e)T-iu

3.

(Vowel

7rei6-a>

4.

(Nasalised) mrvd-a (stem

and

\iyiii (Xiy-o-pu)

raised)

(stem

^a-iti.

ttct-)

and

(stem m9-) and


irer-)

Verbs of the remaining three

and

ri-Brj-iu,

-/ii

(stem

i-).

mr-i.v-vv-ni.

classes (5, 6, 7) belong almost

entirely to the ordinary or -m conjugation, characterised

by the

In Latin the other or

almost

thematic vowel.

except in isolated forms like

lost,

the

'

thematic

'

or

'

conjugation

-^t

es-t, vol-t, fer-t,

connecting vowel

'

is

i-mus

and

characterises all Latin

conjugation.
I

proceed to examine the different classes of Present-stem Formation

more in detail, following mainly the remarks of Curtius stem.


Temp, und Modi,' and Das Verbum,' as above).
1. Curtius ('Temp, und Modi,' p. 74) suggests that among the 1. Verbalunaltered present-stems should be included verbs whose stems altered.

rather
('

'

'

'

have undergone

'

strengthening,' but in which the strengthened

form has become stereotyped so to speak as the only existing or


traceable form, and the unstrengthened form
e. g.

yeia, 8eva,

afiei^o/im

\ei(jiai,

hendo, scando, incendo

that their stem-vowel

is

is

ftdo (on the ground

also disco, dico,

only lengthened, not increased).

allows however that philologically these forms


to the 3rd

and 4th

quite obscured,

and (with nasal) jungo, pre-

classes

respectively

and

may
it

He

be assigned

seems to be

a needless hair-splitting not so to class them.


2.

Keduplicated Present-stems are rare in Latin, which (as

we have

already seen in the case

retained this primitive


it

seems that gigno

method

(gi-gen-o),

of the Perfect-stem) has

of strengthening
si-sto

{=l-<Trri-)u),

but

little

sero=se-so

(stem sa- in sa-tv/m), and bi-bo are the only certain examples
Schleicher ( 295) adds sido=sis-do:=si-sedo, from root sed- in

In Greek the vowel of the reduplicated

syllable is generally

2.

EedupU-

sent-stems.

3oa
T'ormation

stem.

i
'

(not

as ia perfect-stem, p.

o-i-o-TO, ri'-^c

(root

SlCriiJiat=8iSyrifiat

(xpu);

and

is

but

h-jiev

54), imperat.

stem 0a
and npa-) introduce a nasal into

{jtKa-

TTifi.'TTpfriiu

xii.

also KL-xpni^i

pi-^as part. pres.

In these forms the

vowel of present-

final

often raised in the singular only,

fjLcv, Irj-iii

'l-ri-jur:=yi-ya-mi

Compare

105), Si-Sevrau (Od.

xi.

(root 8e- of Se-a)

the reduplication.

stem

r see p. 50)

(by assimilation, p. 76).

Si-Si;

and

m/i-n^rj-fii

i88), e.g. 8t-8p- (80-), X-aTa-=.

on change to

6e-,

S1-81) (II.

from a stem

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

8iSa-fu but 81S0-

e. g.

compare Sanskrit da-da-ml, dad-mas, where

is lost.

In the ordinary conjugation we have


=iu-fi,ev-a>,

si-sedyo,

to

which Schleicher adds

yiy{e)va, win(e)Ta>, filiwa


(p-

"tC<'>=^'^^i/<^

from root e8=sed, see above on Latin

would be simpler

rank

to

if<o =18^0)

76)

= ie8y(=
[But

sido.

in class 6 with suffix

ya

it

(ja):

for even if sido be rightly explained as above, it is not necessary

to assume a precisely similar development in

same root cS=:e(Z.]


come also under class

TiyvaxTKo),
7,

Si-SpdaKio,

Greek from the

TiTV(rKOfw.i,

irKJyava-Ka)

being formed by addition of

In

ctk.

the intensive forms TrmiraWa, SmBaX\a>,

Ttomvoio, SeiBicrKoiuu, etc.,

the reduplicated syllable

no doubt as being the

significant part of the

meaning conveyed by
on that

what was
chanical,

it

On

syllable.

intensified,

is

word

but as the consciousness of the

was

emphasis was no longer laid

lost,

the contrary,

it

Thus

one,

and so

copy,'

'

'

imitate,'

desiderative force
(root

lu-fieo-pjii

me-t-ior, etc.) originally='I frequently

and

became merely me-

the intensive or frequentative or

disappearing altogether.

some

became weakened

originally a formative element

ma-,

measure myself,'

has entirely lost

p.-,

in

by

i.

its

fre-

Latin imifor, imago are possibly weakened

quentative force.

forms of mi-mi-tor, mi-ma-go, formed on the same principle

from the same


Vowel of
Verbal-stem
3.

3.

root.

The vowel

of the verbal-stem or root is raised irregularly

in the pres. indie, of

but

t/ifK,

raised to

i-re
i

in

(stem
is, it,

some primitive

t)

stem

<^ij-/i,

imus,

itis

but

verbs,
(pa-.

e.

g. ft-fu,

els, el, ela-i

The Latin stem

i-

is

So, e-u-nt-

In the ordinary conjugation of Greek verbs the raising is


more regular throughout the present-stem, the unstrengthened


VIII.]

Verb Inflection.

form being often


\

{ fk

\
y<pvy-),

ir\ma, the

two

303

visible in 2 aor. (see above, p. 196), e.g. 06uy-i Formation

A\%'/i/Nyi\
Kriaa \Ka6-j,

'

KuTT-a

'

ofPresent-

rpmy-a

(tok-),

TrjKia

{j\.m-),

(rpay-) , stem.

having the second stage of intensification (see

last

Certain verbs in -tm from stems in v have had the

PP' 53) 54).

stem raised to

eu,

sonantal sound

F,

but the

of the stem has passed into the con-

and has thus been

gen. y\vKe-osz=y\vKeF-os, see p.

lost in present-stem (as in

119), remaining as v before a

consonant in other parts of the verb.

(stem pv- in

(iop.ai

'

ippv-rjv)

Thus

compare also

pe-a)=p(F-a>, pev-

wXe-o), x^-'") ''-(.

Curtius arranges the verbs under this head in two divisions


of vowel sound,
Xitt'

e\alco,

fi,

ev

etc.)

e.

i.

Xlirapos,

from

i,

x = <rf)ef<,

as in dXfiKJia (cp.

(root FtS)

fISofuu

Kfidai {kv6i aor., KeKvBatri); irevBopai

pea,

which exhibit completed strengthening by an addition

(a) those

(Homeric,

cp. TivB-eadai etc.);

(cp. i-ppvrj-v, e-xv-TO, etc.):

X^'fo)

nKr/Kicj^a,

(f-mO-ov)

neidto

(6)

those in

which the strengthening only appears in the increase of quantity


of the stem-vowel,

a to u or

e. g.

ij

(a

being by

its

nature in-

capable of receiving additional vowel sound, see p. 53), as in


\rjda

(\ad-), TjjKa

(tok-)

or

to

li

i,

as in rjSopai (root erf aS of avSava, cp.

Tpi^-a

(e-TpL^-rjv),

quantity

which

is

all

under

fall

system having

(j)pvya>

that

this

all

increase, such as

Greek

in-dia-are,

to

rplfico

{rpiffri)

{(-(jjpvy-riv)

exhibited

is

head

to

(instead of to

^.

from

i,

This simple increase of

by the Latin present-stems

the weakness

v to

ft,

of the Latin vowel-

ev,

of root

is

full

Dlco (root of

impossible.

and fidq {fides) are analogous forms


but the change was probably much more

SU-rf)

Romans than

to the Greeks,

have retained some consciousness of

its

raised to

to

e=ai

sidh,

6=au

sedh&mi

purpose.

Thus

Sanskrit exhibits the same processes as Greek.

ev),

ei,

X^^o) (Xe-'ka6-ov),

but extinguished diphthongs and made a

formal and meaningless to the

who seem

i,

eaS-oi/, etc.),

(cp.

XiTr, XeiVo)).

ush, osh&mi ('bum,' cp.

tpvy,

cjxvymy
i is

to

not raised to

ti, e.

g.

giihami

as in

Greek

('veil,' cp.

Ixa

KeiSa

but

is

and Zend

sotoetimes raised

gaozaiti).

' Curtius ('Das Verbum,' I.


pp. 218-226) enumerates 58 Greek verbs
under this clss, giving to its two subdivisions the titles Diphtbongische
and Mouophthongische Zulaut.'
'

'


204
Nasal
sound in-

4.

sertod.

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

The different
./..
4.

results of the principle of Nasalisation in

may

the formation of Present-stems

be thus arranged

body of the

(i) Nasal introduced into the

Latin, e.g. tcmgo (old form tago, p. 198),

chiefly in

root,

pango

(older pago),

fr'ango {fractus,fragor),fingo {fig-i), linguo, tundo,jungo {jug-

um),

etc., etc.

This, the simplest kind of Nasalisation,

is

employed, though

it is

combined with a nasal

a good many stems, such as

in

common

is

and Sanskrit, but almost unknown in Greek


{(TiftLy-iws), cXcyxco being perhaps the only cases where

to Latin

tr^lyya

alone

it

syllable (no. 3)

Xafi^-dv-a, dtyy-dv-a (Xa(3-, ^ly-),

see below.
Appended.

(2)

Nasal appended to the root

(a)

After vowels

with emov,

iriv-a>,

Tia, e<j)di-To,

nv-a,

<l)6lv-a>, (jiddva,

(jiSd-jjievos,

The

Sv-ca.

forms of
ra-Tos,

still

fii-jioa,

as

Compared
fiev,

perhaps nasalised

(in yi-yov-a, rov-os, lii-fiov-a, ^oV-os) are

4>ev

SivcD

roots yev, rev,

older roots which appear in the forms yi-ya-a,

In

Tri-^a-fuu.

Kplvco

and

KKlvto

the nasal passes

into other tenses also.


(6)

After consonants

Addition of
r.asal syllables.

(3)

Addition of nasal syllables

iKve-Ofiai,

Kvve-a,

olxvi-a

SiUw-iu)

irerdv-wfu,

Wfii,

a-KiSi/rj/ii,

KLpvriiii

'iKav-a,

nasal also) Xapfi-dvai,

Tiiivu,

ve,

va,

^eiyvv-fu,

vrj,

w, and

pr^y-vvfu,

aii^dva, afutprdva

av,

SeiKa-vd-o-jjuu

e.

g.

(icepdv-

oWvfu^oXwiii,

and (with inserted

6i,yydvai, -jfavhavta, etc.

Schleicher (Comp.

pronominal additions.

them

and

(positus).

Kipvd-a, jriT-vd-a,

hdK-va,

(e-Ka^-ov),

Kdjiv-a

spemo, temno, pono-=posno, posin-o

293) regards these nasal syllables as


Curtius, on the other hand, considers

as purely phonetic additions growing out of the simple

nasal sounds inserted or suffixed to produce a greater fulness


of tone, analogous to the intensification of vowels.
to him, therefore, the Latin forms pa-n-go,

According

in division

etc.,

i,

into which the nasal enters only as an extension of consonantal

sound, are more ancient than the forms in w-ju,

etc.,

common

where the nasal combined with a vowel forms a dissyllable.


[See 'Tempera und Modi,' pp. 63-66, where

in Greek,
tinct

the phonetic character of these nasal additions


illustrated

263

is

by analogies from Sanskrit; 'Das Verbum,'

and compare above, chap.

iv. p.

55.]

elaborately
I.

pp.

240-

305

Verb Infieetion.

VIII.]

The strengthening of the verbal-stem by addition of the s- Addition


t is chiefly found in Greek
e. g. in two verbs

5.

dental tenuis

only after a vowel,

two

in

avvra and apina (Attic for avva, apiai)

viz.

after a guttural, viz. ireKra, beside

and often

TiKTa (stem TfK-)

by assimilation

to

weUm and
and

after labials,

<p

Epic 0Xa0-

frai), Ka\vwT-a> (^KoKiPrj), tvitt-w (e-run-ovj, iplirr-io (later

are pect-o, flect-o,

as a pronominal

<

more probably a purely phonetic


tttoXls,

KTciva,

iiTtT-io-s

from stem

The

6.

which

beside

TTTokeiios,

in-,

insertion oi

form

The only analogous forms


stem

ta

(wXeK-ia).

but

increase of sound, as
Kaivm,

7r<iAir,

irokejios

for

Latin

in

{nexui:=nec-s-ui), plect-o

nect-o,

Schleicher regards the

being changed

(p. 74), e. g. ^Xdirr-a (/3Xd0-7),

epe0-(o), daiTT-a (rdcfi-os), etc.

and

ttckm,

it is

e. g.

in

compare

Latin sup-.

ya

{ja) between stem

and person-ending, 8- Addition

the characteristic of the fourth class of verbs (chiefly

is

intransitive),

and

also of the passive conjugation (see p. 178) in

many Greek and Latin verbs. The y (J)


sound seems to have been uncongenial to Greek organs of speech;
Sanskrit, appears in

accordingly

by

passes
it

it

is,

generally speaking, either vocalised into

may

assumes

be thus arranged

As

firjv-i-o)

The

Eum.

in Greek:

(Sanskrit svidya.mi, compare

sometimes long

loi)

As

e,

(i-iraiT-apjfv,

(e-a-Tvy-ov),

i&pa)s

(jufvUv,

II.

ii.

769

= (rFcS-pa>s),
from

cS-m).

compare Aesch.

so that perhaps these forms should be reckoned

Latin audire,

parallel to
(6)

JSi'co

(root IMV-), ead-i-m (Horn, ead-a, strengthened


is

in

I,

or

(i) y (j) sound appears as a vowel


(a)

The forms which

some other sound.

assimilation into

in doK-i-m,
ttckttos),

the

-eco

etc. ('=*/, -see

ya/i-e'-o),

(Epic

(jiiKeai

below).

Kvp-e-a (xup-o), Kvp-crm),

of these verbs,

<JHKai

and

TcaT-iofiat

i(j}l\aToj,

irrvyeai

which in other forms exhibit

a shorter stem, being different from the -ea of ordinary derivative verbs (see

Appendix

to oh. v. p. 103),

though probably

the distinction was forgotten.

The y {j) sound

(11)

thong
(a)

da,

'

(vocalised into

i)

appears in a diph-y.OJastina

Combined with the


divide,' or

du

{dah),

final
'

vowel of a stem-

burn,' (so

Saia,

root

i-ba-rj), fiai-ofuu (jua-o-ojuot,

2o6

[chap.

Verb Injledion.

^j?"*!

efiturdiujv),

stem by yo

K\aia,
(6)

stem and combined with

tte

in dixeiva>v=:dnepiav,

e. g.

and many others)

see fujv-l-a above

and

formation from root

many

so with

verbs ending in

derivatives from nouns in -/xa(T)=an older


hufiaaim, Bavfialva

aipw, fipco (Latin sero),

-/uaf,

cjidetfia (^e(j>0dp-Tjv),

i^av-,

-fiaiva,

e. g. ovoiiaivio,

Kadaipa (itaBapos),

(^TCKnap),

TeKfiaip-oiiai

its

/ifXmva^ /ieXavia, aarfipa^

^alva-=.(^av-jti> {i-^dv-rjv), KTeiva

thus

:=KTfvj(o (e-KTov-a), fiaivo/uu (another

(i/ifpos)

Kafr),

{omi-trm).

Thrown back within

vowel (as
aarepia,

stem

vala {tvaatra), Kala (Attic Kaa, fut. Kava-<a,

mnia

ifieipa

xalpa (J^dp-yv),

Kpiva {KpXv-a, fut.).


y(j)as)nassimilation,

The y

^jjj)

(j) sound passes into a double consonant by

asginiilation (see above, p.

(a)

By

sal-i-o), oreXXo)

(6)

See Curtius,

From

'

which

The

Kopvd-os).

been described,

I.

tra, e. g.

compare

(pvXda-a-a

Xtr-^),

{(pyXaK-ja),

(aWdy-ja, compare
KopvtrvcD

{Kopi6j-a,

process of change in these cases has already

Full

ch. iv. p. 75.

lists

of forms in illustra-

given by Curtius ('Das Verbum,'

are

In noun forms we may compare

I.

pp. 311-317).

^<ra-av=rjKJav (^k-iotoj), iXda-trwv

=^eKdxj(ov (eKdx-iTTos), KiKiacra^KiKiya, ;(apif(r(Ta=;(apte>T'^a

two

latter

a-wTeipa,

showing the feminine Bv&xja

etc.,

e'S-

From

8/

in

which in

the

/jteKaiva,

(11. 6).

(and sometimes yj) to

of 16-05, sedes), Sfa (oS-mSa),

o-^tS

(ya),

noticed above, passes back into the stem as the

sound of a diphthong
(c)

6,

pp. 300-303.

Tapax-rj), dXXd(ro-a>

dKKay-rfj, XtVorojxai (Xirjo-pai,

;3aXXm

also passes into oc^eiXm (11.

Vt ^j to

compare

(Latin

X; to XX, e. g. SKKoimi

Das Verbum,'

xji yjj

kJ,

Tapdaa-a (rapd^-jo,

,tion

<T^dK\ii)z=(r(j)aKj<o (e-tr^aX-iyv),

(f'-CTToX-iji'),

(e-^aX-ov), o(l>\Xa)^6(f>iXja,

above).

75)

pure assimilation from

tXufo) (/cXuSmk)

o-X'S"?),

{^(ppaS-ov),

<rxi'f<a

(root

xpd^a {^^^Kpdyja, cp.

also

root

f: e.g. ^op.ai {e8jop,at,

(fipd^ia

KE-

Kpay-a), aTa^to {aray-iiv), pl^a (e/)e|a=epfyo-a, pexBf, etc.), c'XeXiffti/

{l\c\ix-6t]).

In Latin the i
j (f) in Latin
Pressnt.
,.
i
^
stem.
jugation before
(capi-ant),

sound remains,
^

and u

and so

thematic vowel

e. s.

in verbs in -io of qrd con\

{capi-o, ccvpi-unt)

called fut.

becomes

i,

and the conjunctive a

indie, e (ca^ii-ent).

the

two

coalesce

Where
{cajpis,

the

capit,

Verb Inflection.

Till.

We

capimus, capitis).

307

should have expected

throughout Fonnation

n J,the original quantities


.-i.and1 capis anaT captt were probably
-

capimus and

stem by ya

from analogy with capio,

arising partly

capitis

of Present-

tendency to shorten an un-

capiuni, partly from the general

accented syllable, aided by the desire to distinguish the forms

from those of the 4th conjugation of derivative stems in


(avdvmus, auditis,

Other Latin verbs of this

etc.).

e.g. jaci-o {jac-tus), fodi-o {/ossus=fod-tus), fugi-o

aio:=agj-o

ag in ad-ag-ium),

(root

etc.

a present formation from the root


the

i(r-cryofiai),

sound

has

(compare

es

vello, fallo,

which

it is

for

u.

possibly

is

(te-tul-i),

But

this

e. g.

keeps sali-o beside Greek aWoficu,

alius beside aXXor, medius beside

and

and

pe-pul-i)=pel-jo, percello, tollo

(ttoXXcb,

curro, etc.

familiar to Latin,

ea-ofuu

before

Assimilation analogous to that observed in Greek


seen in pello

[fug-i),

In ero^esio,

etc.

disappeared

class are,

kind of assimilation

imWov

melior beside

iiea-a-ns,

and similar forms with

possible that in these

not

is

U, rr,

we

have a doubling and so increase of the consonantal sound with


the same object as that of the vowel increase in verbs of class 3
(p. 202).

In

[N.B.
-

in

mation

have been included only those verbs

this class

which the

suffix

ya

01 the present-stem

traceable in

common

by the addition

of the

the

V^
from a verbal-stem, which
,

conjugation

of

these

same

-e<o,

ja

suffix

which the

(j) to

-om (from

in

an original

effects) is

Greek the

'

con-

-aja, -eja, -y<i>=

Sanskrit -ayami, the regular termination of one class of verbs


(loth) in Sanskrit) from which the y {j) sound has dropped,
e.g. Tifiaa^=Tiiiiaja>,

from noun-stem

stem

6p66a=:6p66j-a, from stem 6pdo-.

(jiope-

(0opp-)

rifia-;

<j)opea>=:^opeja>,

from

Correspond-

ing formations in Latin are the ordinary ist and 2nd conjugations,

and verbs in u-o of the 3rd,

'

See Appendix

to

e.g.

Chap.

amo=.amao, from

v. p.

103.

(t/a)

t includ-

must be sent

verb-stems

its

suffix^a

latter is ed under this

nominal stems,

sound (or

These are

formation of derivative

retained throughout all tenses ^.


tracted' verbs in -aa,

From

other forms of the verb.

distinguished a

in

have been used in the for,

'Derivative'

Verbs with

ja) appears to

arniajo;

stem.

2o8
derivative
T CJTDS Willi
iufflxja.
,

moneo, from monejo

from

; statuo,

statujo

the a, e of the ist

and 2nd being the

uncombined

{statuis, statui-mus),

seem

all

of them

{kovTco,

supine stem

where

-ia>

above in

(jpartor), esurio

sound

is

compared

-i^a

found in some
i

sound with

probably con-

and in

-vva

-atva,

thrown back into the stem

by addition oija

-tor

in

-o-kib,'

especially interesting because


ticular

as

('),

e. g.

partur-i-o

= ed-turio.J

The verb forms

and the long

Latin desiderative forms in -tur-io are formed

11 6.

from nominal stems in

shows a contraction of

iirjvla)

Bapa-iva) the

(Xejati/tt),

etc.

remains

28), fU]vi(o, KovLa=:Kovtj-<o,

The terminations -a^io, -ofia,


ya (j) assimilated (see p. 76)

tain the suffix

7.'

the vowels remain

-00)),

parallel to Latin 4th conjugation forms in -io as

another vowel.

Addition

tense-stems, e.g. ISia (root

with 3rd conjugation cuplo,

ot<rK-(sc.).

except in the

Greek verbs in

{stat'utum=statu-i-ttcm).

through

Tiii.a>nev=Ttf).a.-o-nev, (jiopovfievz=

while in the -no forms

<i>op4-o-ficv;

result of combination with the connectmg-

vowel, as in the contracted forms

7.

[chap.

Verh Inflection.

meaning

('Inchoative' verbs)

-sco

...

we can

are

in this case prove a par-

for the additional element in the present-stem,

such special meaning having (as already pointed out) been lost
sight of in

the

other forms that have been discussed.

The

many

verbs

Inchoative (or Inceptive) meaning

is

both Greek and Latin (especially the

obvious in

latter), e. g.

yTjpd-o-K-o)

(cp. sene-sc-o), t)fia-a-K-ai (pube-sc-o), dvafiia-a-K-0-p.m (revivi-sc-o)

and can be traced in many


aKh-fj-ijK.-ci>
'

make

to learn,'

of di-sc-o,

others, e.g.

(cp. adole-SC-o), yi-yva-tTK-a

'

which

learn.'

paciscor, ulciscor) there

is

p,i-pvfi-a-K-(o

fii-fia-o-K-o),

the correlative (with causal sense)

In other forms
no

is

{re-min-i-scor),

(=gnoseo), and

(e. g.

jSXmcrKa),

historical trace of the

6paia-Ka,

meaning.

The Iterative forms of imperf. and aor. in -o-kov, common in


Homer, are an isolated preterite of this formation of the present,
'

e. g.

'

ex^-a-K-ov, Kf-o-K-oK, fiev-e-a-K-ov, etc.

Curtius (Elucidations,

pp. 142, 3) explains the connection between the

The

two thus:

Inchoative meaning consists essentially in the fact that the

action

comes to pass gradually; and the gradual realization

'

See Curtius,

'

Elucidations,' pp. 141-144.

^iii.]

Verb Inflection.

309

(which language originally intended to denote by these present- formation


forms) and the repetition of an action were regarded by Ian- stem

by

o-k-

guage as nearly akin.

Hence these iterative forms in -o-kov are


the sudden momentary action of the aorist.

the opposite to

The forms

'

in

-ana,

'

showing Connection

are also interesting as

-sco

the especially close connection between the Greek and Latin Greek and

branches of the Indo-European family.


like it in the addition to a very

Sanskrit has something ative

few verbs of hh, the regular

representative of sh in Indian languages

'

but there

is

no trace

of that specific meaning of the additional element which in the

two

classical

languages

name

give the

'

of adding the ok-,


'

We

is

retained to so great an extent as to

Inchoative

very similar in the two languages

need only compare (g)no-sc-o, {g)na-sc-or,

yi-yva-a-K-a,

iTi-Trpd-a-K-a),

yrjpa-aK-a vrith

Latin ira-sc-or

of stem

(i. e.

the

Ki-K\r]-crK-<o,

SiSa-o-K-ai,

SiSa^-, Xqk-) is

doc-eo), to perceive that the

cre-sc-o

derivative

Xa-o-K-w, in

lost with

disco

but whether

guage, which

is

Ctirtius'

(cp.

laws of formation are the same.'

Both languages unite the Inchoative element

with

which

to a consonantal

stem by the intervention of a thematic (connecting) vowel


or e)

with

fifid-tTK-a,

oK-i-a-K-o-iim, trrep-i-aK-a

and

Latin ap-i-sc-or, pac-i-sc-or ;

a guttural

The mode

to the class of verbs.

'

so-, is also

statement

'

(1,

i,

that the genius of lan-

ever intent on delicate distinctions, has separated

the Iterative forms from the Inchoatives, at least in part by


the connecting-vowel,'

may be

doubted.

is

borne out by the evidence,

sufficiently

The thematic or connecting vowel seems

be merely euphonic

(p.

to

166); and though language sometimes

avails itself of purely euphonic differences to express differences-

of meaning (see above, p. 36), there

is

no proof that

it

has done

so here.

The

origin of the element

o-k-,

sc- is

unknown.

Imperfect (Greek).

Formed from

the present-stem

with secondary person-endings


'

gam (go) is
yam (restrain)

Thus from root

ikTcJiSriai

gaskami,

from
etc.

Mh

by

e. g.

prefixing the

(a)

augment,

with connecting-vowel,

formed gsJchhS,-mi ; from ish (wish)


These forms stand for
ya&iAS-mi.
representing sk, na in i:hhS,y& (shade), Greek axta.

forms.


Verb

3IO,

^**J"
ia Greek,

E-i^fp-o-i-,

?-(j)ep-es,

connecting-vowel,
singular),

3 plur. e-<f,ep-o-v=e(l>epovT

etc.,

indri-v,

plur.

[chap,

Inflection.

e-Tide-fiev,

plur.

From

formation, see p. 176).

e-riBe-o-av

compound

(a

found two forms of

are

elpi

augment

imperfect, (a) eov=ecr-o-u, with connecting- vowel and

omitted
or,

with

(6) ^v=:^a--v

with the augment and with

dropped,

V also

^.

without

(b)

(stem-vowel raised in

-i/(t),

-ri-sii),

n-

dropped

Sanskrit forms from the correspond-

ing stem as- a ist preterite as-a-m^a-as-a-m, the vowel a

make the

being appended to the stem to


appears in another form of

i sing,

and

^a=:^o-a (Ionia ea^ without augment),

or ?<rav^erant

and

ment);

next page).
1

Sing,

This

fi/x (ftr-fii),

viz.

^aav^kaant,

in 3 plur.

eram=^esam (=:asani without augweak (i aor.) termination -a-a (see

Putting these forms together,

we have

[?"(=?

^a=^ffa(/i),

ftsa-m,
asi-s,

asi-t,

Plur.

= ^(r-,

fts-ma,

as-ta,

fl,san(t),

A similar
is

in Latin

finally in the

inflection easier.

imperf. from

^aav(T) or l(rav(T) = erant.

formation in Latin from the stem fu-,

i. e. fu-am,
-bam of the
The length of

generally supposed to survive in the termination

Latin composite imperfect (see below,

fuam

p.

d throughout

iu

explanation.

In Sanskrit the vowel a

before

erdm,

is

is

is

no

always raised to a

m or v of the person-endings (e. g. bhar-ft-mi, bhar-ft-vaa,

bhar-a,-mas of ist sing, dual and plur.


etc.,

220).

a fact of which there

but bhara-si, bhara-ti,

throughout the rest of the pres. indicative)

of this (the reason for which

is

and traces

unknown) may remain

in eram,

fudmus, extended by analogy to the whole conjugation of the


tense.
Eelatiotiof
Weak to

4.

27ie

Strouj?

I.

The

Weak

or

Compound
-^

Aorist (i aor.).
'
.

function of this tense

Strong Aorist,
time.

viz.

is

the same as that of the

the expression of momentary action in past

But whereas

the Strong Aorist

is

formed in general

only from verbs which form a present-stem distinct from the

pure verbal-stem

(see p. 199), the

Weak

Aorist

is

formed from

1:

Vin.]

Yeri Inflection.

verbs whose present-stem

all

stem

is

the same as the pure


verbal- l'o>t'on
'^

those with vowel-raising

present-stem (abovej pp. 202, 205), as


several verbs in

or dental suffix in the

and

jreiBa, Xein-m, tottoj,

have both forms of aorist

-fu,

Weak

byAorist.

Comparatively few

rekea, see p. 205).

(e. g. cXTTtfo), (jivKda-a-a,

e.g.

of

nominal-stem increased

(e.g. apx"") ^eyto, ypd<j)a), or a

verbs,

31

and in some

cases where both forms are found, they are used to denote an

and a

intransitive or neuter,
spectively,

weak

along with the

ever,
2

ea-Trja-a

eo-Ti/v,

e. g.

aorist pass,

f^rjv,

e^-qa-a.

Many

aorist

form,

exhibit

verbs,

re-

how-

a so-called

formed from the simple or strong aorist-stem

with the addition of

e,

^XaiTTO), efi\a^a,

e^iyriv:

meaning

transitive or active
;

rj

(see p.

f/SAa/Sijv.

221): e.g. (eiymfU,

e^ev^a,

In the later periods of the

i. e. the weak or compound aorist, the


had become widely extended with verbs from

language the newer form,


use

of which

which

it

was impossible

to

form a simple

aorist (e. g. the large

class of derivative verbs in -aa, -ca, -oa, -eva, -ifm, -afm, -aiva,
-vva, etc.), appears to

have superseded the older form, even

where the conditions for a strong


e. g. 0\dnT(i>, E;3Xa\^a,

2.

but not

Formation of the

Weak

were found,

aorist formation

ej3Xn/3oi'.

Aorist ^

The

ist preterite of the Formation


of Weak

verbal stem as- (dsam, dsts, dstt, see above, under head
Imperfect,

p.

auxiliary verb.

210)

is

The

added to the pure verbal-stem

ment

is

e-SfiK-o-a

it

an stem o-.

a of as disappears as in Sanskrit
and in i sing, the nasal /x or k falls

initial

(a)sm.as, Latin (e)sum;

away, as

like

of Aoristfrom

does in ace. sing. jrdSa^padam, pedem.

prefixed, as in strong aorist

and imperfect.

The augThus e. g.

(usually written c8fi|a) corresponds exactly to Sanskrit

a-dii-sham (sh here euphoniae gratia

for s)

the retention of

' The characteristic of this formation being the letter a, it is sometimes


called the ' sigmatio' aorist. This element s (<t), representing the root as
(<r-) of the substantive verb, enters into verb-formation in various ways
(2) in a pre(I) in single person-endings, auoli as Greek eSo-ffac (p. 176)
the 'weak' aorist in -aa; (3) in a perfect stem in
terite or aorist form
Latin -si (p. 193) ; (4) in the pluperfect of Greek and Latin, ^Si-{ix)a, videram. (p. 219); (5) in 'futurum exaotum,' \iXv-aoimi, sohe-ro (p. 223);
(6) in the Greek future in -(rw = s + ya (p. 213), and the Latin future
;

formations in -so, -sim, -sere (p. 217); (7) in the Latin subjunctive forms
lege-rem, lege-rim, legi-ssem (p. 223)
(8) in desiderative formations, e.g.
Sanskrit pipl-slia-ti, he wishes to drink,' cp. Greek Spaaeia, Latin vi-so.
;

'

213
Formation

[chap.

>

vowel sound a involving the


.... weakenedthe
,.,.,.,,
retained where

the

ofWeak
Aorist.

Verb Inflection.
loss of

full

which

and imperf.

aor.

original a is

IS

{f-rvir-ov, e-Ttmr-ov),

and in

nasal,

final

to o in strong

accus. of o- stems,

This retention of a becomes characteristic of the

HTiro-j/.

the only regular exceptions being 3 sing,

aorist,

weak

indie,

eS^e (=a-dLk;-Bha-(t)) and 2 sing, imper. act. Seliov.

Homeric forms however exhibit the weaker vowel sound,


Epic

l^ov, -cs, -f.

aor. of

iKa> j

op(r-e-(<7)o, Xcre-(o-)o.

and

weak

aorist

o (as in imperf.

of the permanent stem-vowel a in

mid.

indie,

anomalous

ikia-a>=:eX.vara-{a-)o,

we should expect

with

bi^o

Spa-o, "Ki^o,

omitted,

[Possibly however these forms repre-

sent an older formation of

connecting-vowel

e. g.

a^ere, Xucreo, e^Tja-ero, ibvaeTO, opcreo,

and the shortened forms

olare
i. e.

act.

Several

with the element a and

and strong

aor.) instead

2 sing,

Xva-a-, deiKo-a-, etc.]

imper.

sing.

mid,

\va-ai

is

analogous to pres.

Xuo-a-o-o, \va-a

imper. Xvov, from Xueo^Xue-o-o.

The double

common

a-

explained by the

from

first

Homeric forms may sometimes be

root p^s

fvvvfu^icrvviu,

forms from verbs in

in

being part of the verb-stem,

a-

-fw,

cSiKcurira,

where the

first

o-

Kopiira-a,
is

e.

g. eaa-a

and similar

due to assimilation

of final 8; Saa-a-ao-Sm^SaT-a--, stem 8ar-; and perhaps ircKeaa-a


i-eXes, the full form being lost in pres. TeXcm.
It is
more probable however that in this last case, and possibly in
some of the others, a-a- is due to the epic licence which we see
in 'OBva-a-eis beside 'oSvaeis, etc.
and this is certainly true of
the forms with double " from vowel- stems, tkaa-a-a, KOTia-a-aa--

from stem

6ai, etc.

With stems
preserve the

o-

in X, p,

of the

sonants (except
&pcra

and

times).

in

e. g.

the laws of Greek euphony did not

one form
a-

and possibly

compensation

vaTo=iyev-(raTo.

cKeXtra,

with these con-

cKepa-e,

Kvpa-as,

was assimilated

(p.

may have b^en

this

e.g.

n-

74) to the stem-

this

Homeric

the older process.

and lengthened the stem-vowel

eveiij.a=ievp,-<ra,

In Doric

(j)vp(ra,

which survived to later

ivepparo, etrreWav, iyevvaro, erfvva (cp.

Other dialects dropped the


in

aorist in contact

in a few Epic forms,

In Aeolic the

consonant,
SfpfXKa),

Xo-

pa-

p.,

weak

EO-rfiXa=l'o-TeX-(7a,

was a pure lengthening of

iyei-

the.


VIII.]

.Verb Inflection.

vowels

ii,

stem

e. g. e(j)dva,

313

ayyrjKa,

(j)av- )

and Attic raised a to


and e to ei, e. g.
were simply lengthened in all dialects, e.

was dropped

a-

after

pensatory lengthening)

ayyeCKa

g.

hlKa,

Ionic JPormation

I,

and V Aorist.

rjtivva.

in forms like KTia=KTifa (with

com-

Homeric ex^va=exfFa (root x"


Similarly the o- has dropped from eveyKa,

raised to x^"=^X^F)-

ej^ea,

to avoid the collision of too

ftira

stem ayyeX-

etprjua,

rj,

many

or of incompatible con-

sonants.

The vowel of all vowel-stems is lengthened before a- in the


weak aorist and future, eVoi'ijo-a, rroirjcra (Troie-a)), eXvo'a, Xvtrco (\v-a>).
In derivative verbs in -am, -em, -om, which a,\l=: -ay Sni formed
by suffix ya {-ja), the length of the vowel is natural as expressing
a contraction ; and from

this large class of verbs it

passed by analogy to others.

such forms as

from

KaKiaa

iKokeo'a,

rjpocra,

may have

few exceptions are seen in


ap6(ra (from ap6a)\ ^veaa

alvfto.

In conjunctive forms

a is lengthened to a,

rj

by the addition

of the mood-sign (see above, pp. 183-4), and the endings are then
similar to those of pres. conj.,
Xva-cD,

\va-rj-s,

etc.,

makes with a a diphthong


tive

'

in

-a-eia

o-

alone marking the tense,

In optative forms the

Xi5-o-<-/iat.

Xva-a-i-p.i, etc.

seems to be formed with the

The 'Aeolic

suffix

ya

[ii], le,

but with the indicative weak aorist terminations,


-as,

-e,

etc.,

analogy of

instead of
Tideirjv,

forms has sunk to


of this tense led to

becomes

ic

or

irj,

etc.
e

its

Xvaelrjv,

The

e.

suffix

g.
i

opta-

p. 186),

e. g.

Xuo-Eia,

which would be expected on

a of

weak

aorist-stem in these

but a feeling that a was characteristic


retention in the suffix

though the

letter

-ta,

which usually

there had really nothing

to do with the tense formation.


5. The Future Tense (Greek).
The characteristic Greek future termination in -o-m
has by some scholars been supposed) connected with

aorist

-era,

is

not (as

Origin of

thfe weak-o-(u(=eaim).

except in being originally a tense formation from the

same root as (er). From this root as (es) language developed


a present form by the addition of ya (see above, p. 205), viz.
as-i/d-mi=zm Greek fV-o-i'o) (a hypothetical form), the middle of
which, ea-topai, becomes Itro-o^m. The suffix ya, {ja, i) is perhaps

314

[chap.

Verb Inflection.

Fonnation identical with the root t, ' to eo,'


>
r i i-re
s > seen in l-uev,
of Greek
Future -<ru. be SO, as-yd-mi or o--tca='I go to be,' a natural
.

and

if this

mode

of ex-

pressing future time by the addition of an auxiliary verb

analogous to Je vais /aire in French, ' / am going to do ' in


colloquial English, and the Latin form datum iri for fut.
iufiu. pass.

The form

Traces of

form

-o-iu.

-o-iffl,

(by omission of

thus derived, has in most Greek dialects snnk


to

i)

Doric however preserves traces of

-nai.

the fuller form, sometimes with

Thus on

sometimes with

i,

found

are

inscriptions

(7rpay-(rio-/ifr), ^oaBrjirlovTi, }(api^wiu6a, etc.;

forms like
(3-

38)

following

Theocritus has future

133), avXrj(TevvTi (7. ^l),

ol(Teones (15.

o-.

jrpa^io/ies

atrcviiai

Aristophanes, employing the Doric dialect, gives forms

such as

ol<Teiifiis

e,

oTrevala,

^oaSrja-Uo,

(Ach, 741) 747)i oyopatrovvres (Ach. 75") J


79 (terms of a truce between Lacedaemonians and Argives both Dorian) we find eo-a-ciTatzi^iaa-eeTai^

and

So^fire, rjae'ire

in Thuc. v.

We

fa-a-Urai.

non-Doric Greek, meet with middle

in

also,

forms known as 'Doric future;'


xiii.

317),

(ThuC.

irXevofidQai

500,

The

etc.)

i.

4 3,

existence

non-Doric dialects -ata

way to
With

e.g.

viii.

the root

being

e. g. TtvS>, <j}avS>,
-i(Tco,

by

393,

and
Hel.

(Eur.

indicates

that in

go to

other verbs are compounded in

be,'

e.

g. the perfect-stem in

era in cecid-ero,

amav-ero

Latin

the initial

weak

of

aorist forma-

and in Latin sum; so that -ato becomes

The

future of stems in

X,

p,

luva, vepa, |3aX, etc. (which evidently arise

a- and contraction of -ea>, so that iiev&=


show an e between the stem and a- which is

loss of

fiieveaz=iicvc-(Tio)

sometimes supposed to belong to the root


position there

would be a

distinct

fs;

and older

forms, with the addition of the fuller form

stem.

ii.

originally prevailed, but gave

the normal future termination.

from

(jjev^oi/ieda

lost in the process as in the

tion (above, p. 211)

H,

l),

II.

liKivaoviieBa

-a-a.

this etri<a='I

compounded with

ii,

(Horn.

1081),

of these forms

(-crem)

order to acquire a future, just as


is

e'o-a-eiTai

Pax

(Ar.

KKavo-oiiicda

The analogy however

on which supclass

-ea-uo

of future

to the verb-

of certain Sanskrit forms,

tan-i Bhyft-ini=ri'--(ra) (whence reve-tra,

Tev(-a>,

rcf-u)

e.g.

seems


^v^m.]

Verb Inflection.

,-.

to justify the view taken in Curtius'

that the

is

2,15

Greek Grammai-,
'

..

Greek

262 \

Future,

'

a phonetic insertion between the stem and the

future suffix, in satisfaction of the laws of Greek euphony which


(as

an

we saw
o-

in the case of the

weak

in close juxta-position with X,

weak

aorist of such stems as

the contact

-<t>r]v-a=^^av-a-a

in the first instance

n,

aorist) did
i>,

not tolerate

In the case of the

p.

& disappeared from

e. g- (pav-,

in the future

by the intervention of

it

was retained

(^av-c'-o-a)),

but

then disappeared in accordance with another euphonic tendency


to drop

of the

<r

between two vowels

weak

in which

a-

aorist

(p.

a few exceptional

And

66).

(chiefly

survives in contact with p and

as in the case

Epic) forms remain


so in the future

X,

we

find exceptional (chiefly Epic) forms like Kepaa, Kvp<ta, depaofuu,

and KiXaa, which show the shortened form

in

that at quite an early stage of the language.

which show
ending are

Epic

traces of this e

and

Other futures

between the stem and the future-

ibovp.ai,z=i&i-trop,ai,

irrovixai,=:irT-i-(ropai,

fiaj^ovpai,

iiax(<^oiiai, iia)(iiTvofi.ai,

T has similarly been


(^^z^iPda-a,
o-

-o-(o=:-o-iai,

/Strati)),

lost

(XS>,

and the vowels contracted

fia/xS,

in ;8i^5

the so-called 'Attic futures'^:'

has been lost without contraction in the Homeric forms avva

(11. iv.

56), cpva (xi. 454), ravia (Od. xxi.

have become like present-forms by

of

loss

74).
a-,

These forms
but there are

others which really are present formations to which a future

' Curtius now molines ('Das Verbum,' II. p. 306) to the supposition of a
double aeries of stem-forms, e.g. m, mana, whence /ttv- of aorist iiuiva =

The i of Sanskrit tanl-shya-mi


would thus be a weakening of a in the stem-form tana-, corresponding to
Ttrf- of Greek r(ve{<r)ai =Tevfaiai. He allows that in the Greek examples
the vowel has "become a merely phonetic adjunct and it is apparently for
i~lifv-aa, nivt- of future nevai =,iieve-{a)a.

the sake of consistency with his present views about the 'thematic vowel'
in ordinary conjugation (p. 1671, that he ia now unwilling to regard it as
Whether, however, it is necessary to strain after such
originally phonetic.
consistency, in face of other undoubted examples of purely phonetic
insertion of a vowel (pp. 8,^, 166), may be doubted.
^ Other examples of 'Attic future' are SikSc (Hdt. i. g']) = SMaaeiv,
o\q. (Ar. Eq. 456) = KoA-afffi, ireXiu (Aesch. P. V. 2S2, cp. viKaaai, Eur. El.
1332), diroffweSS (Soph. O. T. 138), 7a/i (Aesch P. V. 764, etc.),Ka0(5ovfmi
(Ar. Kan. 200), and many futures in -lai, -lovfiai from 1 stems. The term
'
Attic future,' applied by old grammarians, is xeaUy incorrect, many of the
forms in question being found in Homer; while in some verbs (e.g. Si*afeu)
the Attic dialect invariably retains the a.


3l6

[chap.

Yerl Inflection.

"meaning has attached, notably


(chiefly Epic) tdofiat,

ibo

et-ju,

Trio/xai, /Se'o/^at

or

compare the forms

jSfto/tai, Srja,

etc.

Future (Latin).
Two forms

Here we

of Latin

Future.

subj. (with

find

186)

(see p.

however

two

distinct forms

consonant and
is

a modified form of pres.

i.

or m- stems) which like sim, etc.

i-

probably an optative form. With a- and

this form, if

e-

stems

used for the future, would lead to confu-

sion with pres. subj. in the one case {amemus), with pres. indie,
in,

the other {monemus)

and with these

(besides the
1,

more usual form in -am,

similar future in -ho

etc.

found from

is

-et)

-es,

stems in earlier writers (Plautus, Terence,

adgredibor, scibo,

etc.), e. g.

leiiibo

and we find veniet

of veneo=:venum, eo) in the

[The pulcrior

Seneca.

Future in

for the

Lex

exiet of

accepted by Orelli, has very

probably

more usual

Thoria, 112

Hor. Od.

little

MS.

-60, like

e.g.,

iv.

Propertius

venihit (future

and

4.

exiet in

65, though

authority;

evenit

is

quoted from old Latin.

coiTcct.]. Dicebo,jideho are also

This termination

aperiho,

but none of these forms survived in use

in the ist century B.C. except ibo, quibo, nequibo.

has

we

verbs, accordingly,

find another form, ama-bo, mone-bo.

-bam of the imperfect and

-ui, -vi

-bo.

of perfect (see p. 194), is generally supposed to be a tense-form


of the stem fu-,

'

to be,'

whence fui, fore,

explanations being given

'

am

it

two

thus ama-bo would be

a form analogous to

to be' (see above, p. 214).

generally adopted, perhaps on account

which

represents,

to love.'

-ho-=bu-i-o, fu-i-o ;

2.

and='I go

it

-bo=fu-o, a present formation

1.

analogous to

Opinions how-

etc.

ever differ as to what precise tense-form

la-la,

This latter
of the

close

esio, ero,
is

more

analogy

presumes between Greek and Latin in the formation

of the future, Greek taking one form of auxiliary

(eo--),

Latin

the other {fu-).

Was
Latin
it is

this future in -bo the original

Curtius

contrary to

('

all

Temp, und Modi,'

form of

all

futures in

324) thinks not, because

analogy that language should proceed from

a compound to a simpler form.


thinks,

p.

The most

primitive usage, he

was to employ the optative form {dicem, faciem) as


Till.]

;'

217

Tei-b Inflection.

future: the form in -ho beinff a later form, and as such applied Latin Fu,

turem

iio.

mainly to the derivative verbs of ist, 2nd, and 4th conjugations,


and but little to consonantal stems. Forms therefore like sugebo,
(which are very few in number), are not

dicebo, viveho

of

an

on the analogy of a- and

later forms

The ordinary

'

e-

futurum exactum

{amav-ero,cecid-ero, eic.)

verbs.

or

'

as has already

is,

'

Completed Future

been noticed

a compound form; the future (or pres. with


of stem

214),

(p.

fut. signification)

added to the perfect-stem, the

ero:=esio, being

es-, i.e.

characteristic

relics

but anomalous

earlier formation for consonantal stems,

of which vanishes

amav-ero, scrips-ero,

tetig-ero,

ded-ero, etc.

In the older language of Plautus, old laws, and formularies,


etc.,

found a

is

series of future

-so or -sso {facso,

tiz. indie,

{faxim, cmsim, locassim)


Plaut.)

forms with characteristic

amasso,

etc.)

infin. -sere

subj. -sim or -ssim

or -ssere (reconciliassere,

Lex Thoria
number of other examples are
Eoby's Latin Grammar, i. 619, 620 but almost the
jjass. indie, -sttur

Cato; faxitur).

Jussitur,

given in

or -ssitur {mereassitur,

only forms which survived after Terence are faxo,

Terence has besides excessis (And.

ausis.

(Phorm.

lassis

v.

15);

r.

difaxint;

Cicero,

these forms are given


I.

On

faxis ;

xi.

467).

ausim,

21) and apel-

Lucretius has cohihessit

(iii.

444);

19) and tepefaxit

Catullus, recejpso (xliv.

29); Yirgi\,jusso (Aeu.

(Ixviii.

iv. 4.

Two

explanations of

the analogy of amassem, amasse, consuessem,

etc.,

and

other forms acknowledged as syncopated (dixti, extruxem, con-

sumpse,

etc.,

see

Wordsworth's Introd.

xviii. 12, p. 149),

these

forms are regarded as formed by the addition to the perfectstem, of -so=-ro of the ordinary 'futurum exactum,' ihe e preceding this -ro (amavero) being on this view regarded as the
i

of perfect-stem shortened to

amasso

e,

classes the

forms in

-so

Thus

as abl. -t to -e (p. 125).

= amavi-so =ainave-so::= amavero.


under the head of

[Schleicher
'

in

fact

futurum exactum,'

of which he distinguishes (a) the shorter and older form -so

added to pure verbal-stem

which

-so is

(b)

Futures in
'

s;

the longer and later form in

added to the perfect-stem, including the ording,ry

'.sere,

31

[chap,

Verh Inflection.

LatoiPu-

forms amavero,

-aim, .sere.

To

and the syncopated forms a/masso,

etc.,

view two objectious are made

this

etc.]

(i) that it does

not

account for forms like cap-so, rap-so, faxo (fac-so), ^oMbesso,

where the present- and not the perfect-stem seems to be

etc.,

employed
s

(2) that it does

the view that this ss

is

not properly account for the double


not a compensation for the loss of

V or ui being not only conjectural, but contrary to the analogy


loss of v, would more
amdro ; or if it did become
amauso or ammo (cp. amdram^^

Amaveso, by

of other contracted forms.

naturally become amaeso, amaso,

amavso,

it

would contract to

amaveram, nauta=^navita, aetas=-aevitas,

Accordingly

etc.).

others explain these forms as


2.

-tra

Formed from

the ^ee<-Btem, like the Greek future in

-so, -sim, 'sere

being respectively a future indicative, sub-

junctive,

and

infinitive,

formed by the addition of

s to the

stem

or sometimes e of the stem being dropped, as in fac-so

fi.nal i

(faxo) from stem/cj/ sponso {spondso) from stem aponde;


ausim (aud-sim) from stem avde. Other e- stems preserve the
vowel, prohibe-ssit, cohibe-ssit,

etc.

The double

s in

these forms

and those from a- stems may possibly be due to a mistaken


analogy from the forms amasse, consuessem, etc., for amavisse,
or it may have been a mode of marking the
consnevissem, etc.
:

accent, or of preserving

by

additional stress the characteristic s

a single s between two vowels, as

we have

being very rare and almost always changed to


therefore, that in pronunciation of these

retain

what was

seen (above, p. 66),


r.

It

may

be,

forms the desire to

characteristic of meaning, viz,

against the phonetic tendency to resolve s into r

s,

struggled

and that the

success of this effort affected orthography in the Bs of the forms

in question.

The

objection urged to this explanation is the difficulty of

regarding ss as merely the result of accent in pronunciation;


a view which has already been set aside in the explanation of
the superlative termination -issimus (see above, p/ 134): but

upon the whole the

difficulty appears less

than those which

attend the other explanation.

[N.B, The verbs araesso, capesso, facesso, laeesso are prob-

319

Verb Inflection.

VIII.]

Latin Fuably similar formations,' originally future,' from arcio (=a(^-ao,

>
tures in -so,
see p. 65), capio, facio, laeio ; but they have been treated as etc.

and so received fresh

present-stems,

mood.
incedo

and

Lucretius,

648, v. 810)

root

(eV-a/i,

eo--

augment being

we have

eVa-f,

preterite of aorist

etc.)

is

Thus

prefixed.

etc.),

form from the Pluperfect;

perfect-stem

Tret6a>,

which

inftroidrj,

natural contraction was to

and AndX

t,

ei

pers.

iireiroiB-ea-eir),

in

et

In
and the

inflection.

imnoiBie

This

eirfiToWei,

{ineitoideaafies, eKOiBeajiis, iTtenoWrmes),

termination, and then to

its

having become

plur.

giving e.g.

-ei/ifv

sing, giving -eiv instead of

the extreme point of confusion being reached

plur.,

Trejroi^-,

found in old Attic

is

usual in 3 sing, was transferred by a false analogy to

-))v ;

added to the perfect-stem, the Latin,


froni

being added as secondary form of

3 sing, however a became

as

6z

pluperfect i-imroiB-Kraiy), whence Epic eneirotdea, con-

tracted naturally into


-V

II. xxvi.

probably a like form from^eio.]

is

Tenses forrried from the Perfect-stem (Pluperfect,

6.

(a) Greek Pluperfect.

and

formed from

is

petesso or petisso (Cicero, Tuscul.

iii.

of tense

inflections

Similarly mcesso {=incecl-so, p. 75)

where alone the

full

form was retained

when

in

[eirciToiBea-avljyi

and there was never any contraction, the ei representing a contraction was introduced, giving -eia-av as the termination.
But
this -eurav of 3 plur,, though always given by grammars, is
rarely found in the best MSS. of Greek authors
and many
:

good MSS. of Plato and Thucydides give in


later

and incorrect form

(6)

Latin Pluperfect.

perfect stem
(ra{ii)

-ijc,

not the

Here -eram,

-as, -at, etc.

added to the

obviously a coiresponding formation to Greek

e.g. ^Sea=:Se!Ta,
tlie

sing,

->'.

latin retaining fuller forms in

Compare
iiideram,

is

pluperfect

vld-eram

i sing, and 3 plur.


the older form of ^Sew, with Latin

form vidi=Foida

gSfa


220

[chap.

Verl Inflection.

Except that the Greek pluperfect has the augment, the two are
identical throughout.
(c)

Futurum exactmn'

'

by the addition of

(Greek),

(see

n-

above, p. 213) to the lengthened perfect-stem in active voice


Tedvri^a (-/ctrm), icrTrj^a

to the perfect-stem in the middle forms

XfKv-aofim, Treirpa^-ofxat^^ireirpay-aoiiai, yeydyjf-ofmi, etc.

(d)

'

Futurum exactum

(Latin),

'

by addition of

er-o, etc., to

perfect-stem (see above, p. 214).


7.

iJaMn Im-6am.

Imperfect Tense (Latin).

The imperfect

in -bam, like the future in -bo,

an exclusively Italian formation, found in

appears to be

Latin verbs except

all

sum, and supposed to be formed from the parallel root fu- as


eram from es. Fu-am, then, is the original of -bam, ; the process
of change being according to some the loss of

to

u and change

-fuam, -jam, -bam ; according to others, loss of

h,

(consonantal =m) to

hardening of the

This termination -bam,


vowel-stems,

-bas, etc., is

vowel

-fuam, -uam, -bam,^

b,

dd-bam, sta-bam, qui-bam, i-bam, and to

e. g.

but with

stems,

and the termination,

In old Latin poetry

audi-e-bam, reg-e-bam.

found with

(4th conjug.) and consonantal stems, a long

inserted between the stem

is

of

and

added directly to most pure-

derived vowel-stems in -a, -e {ama-bam, m.one-bam)


derived verbs in

e.

g.

e. g.

this e is often not

ai-bam, sci-bam (Plant., Ter., Lucr.,

Gatull.); servi-bas (Plant.); insani-bas (Ter.); saevi-bat (hucr.


V.

1003),

Ixxxiv. 8)

528),

etc.
;

and so in

nutri-bant

(vii.

3.

i.

25)

leni-bant (Virg. Aen. iv.

485), redimi-bat

instances are chiefly poetical,


is

audi-bant (Catullus,

later poetry

largi-bar (Prop.

(x.

is

that -^bam

not an original form, but a contraction for -iebam


that for all

further,

e-

stems

stem-vowel (mone-e-bam, mone-bam).


:

some explain

connecting-vowel
derived verbs in
gations

others

e-,

it

it

The

coalesced with

(e. g.

the

origin of this e is

as the lengthening of the ordinary

others as being merely transferred

by

and

derived verbs the form was originally

-ebam, but that with a- and


doubtful

These

538), etc.

and the probability

false analogy, to the

Bopp)

from the

3rd and 4th conju-

as part- of the suffix -aja,

enters into the formation of derived verbs in a-,

e-, %- (p.

which
207),


;:

'

viir.]

Yerb Inftect'wn.

3,2,1

and therefore confined in the first instance to these derived J^*' ?"
perrect.
verbs.
In support of this latter view it is urged that the
form in

parallel future

and

(in a-

others

(-

view be

correct, the e

be the result of
in a-,

-io is general

with some derived verbs

and 2nd conjugation), not unfrequent in


If this
stems), and very rare in consonantal stems.
ist

e-,

with consonant verbs reg-e-ham,

Another suggestion, that in the long

e-, i-.

will

etc.,

analogy from the vowel or derived stems

false

we have

the effect of a stem-vowel coalescing with the augment prefixed


to the auxiliary (e-bam), contradicts all analogy, not only of the

Latin language, which exhibits no trace of having used the

augment, but also of the Greek, where in compound tenses


the augment always leaves the auxiliary and takes

compound,

at the beginning of the whole

e. g. e\v<ra

place

its

not

Xu-eo-a

so too in Sanskrit, a-dik-sh.am, not dik-a-sam.

The

original quantity of

in the termination

-ham

pre-

ig

served throughout, except in 3 sing., which was shortened, (as

amat, monet,

regit, etc., see p.

176) in dactylic verse, from Ennius

downwards; the old quantity being seen in Enn. Ann. 141,


Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem
;

'

and (perhaps as an intentional archaism) in Virg. G.

Aen.
8.

V.

137

iv.

853.

Aorist Passive (Greek).

The two passive

the Greek verb are

aorist-stems in

dis- Greek Aorist

tinguished from other passive forms by active person-endings

whence

it

seems probable that their passive meaning

stems themselves,

i. e.

in the elements

e (i?)

and

6e [dfj)

the

lies in

appended

The precise connection, however, of these


elements with the meaning in question is matter of conjecture
(i) For the 'strong' 2nd aorist-stem e (17) is added to the 'Strong 'or
root, and treated as a root-vowel, the augment being prefixed.
to the verb-stem.

Thus from root


i-<^a.vr\-v;

imper.

<pav- is

formed the aorist stem

(j)avri-di;

conj. cpavc-a, ^ava>]

e-(j>av-e

opt.

has usually been regarded as a raising (Steigerung) of

some regard

The

17

origin of

as the original form,

(i/) is

uncertain

329-30) suggested that

it

and

Curtius

e
('

indie.

(^ai/e-ti)-i;

ij

but

a shortening from

it.

Temp, und Modi,' pp.

arose from the root jd (2/0)=' to go,'

Verb Ir^ection,

iZ'i

which

GrfiekAorist

employed in the formation of passive verbs

in Sanslcrit is

venum

[chap,

^eweo= passive of venum do or vendo), and


which e.g. in irjiu has a causative force='I make to go.' But
this is only a conjecture
and it is equally probable that e is a
mere increase of the stem, such as is found e. g. in the derived
(cp.

eo or

'

whose stems are sometimes treated as

verbs,

were the

final letter of the root itself

This, in fact, appears to

if their final letter

compare Aeolic

be Curtius' present view

(pCKji-fu.

Das Verbum,'

('

II. p. 322).

'Weak'or
1st Aorist.

The 'weak' or ist aorist-stem is distinguished from the


\
by 6 between the verb-stem and e (17). We may say either
that {rf) is appended to the verb-stem increased by 6 (instead of
to the pure verbal-stem as in 2 aor.)
or, more probably, that 6e
(2)

other

appended to the pure verbal-stem

(6ri) is

(stem

into ivpix'^T"-

Ttpay-")

analysing e.g.

iirpax6r)v

The form probably stands

more

in

or less close connection with numerous other formations in which

the same consonant 6 appears ^


(j>Sivv6a>, fuvvBo), irprjda

e.g. the present-stems reXfda,

(stem npa- of

Tri'fwrpijjut),

TrX^flm (77X0-), etrBia

(Epic)=e8-5<o (by dissimilation, see p. 79), from which with a


further suflSx u-^ja
ea-Bia,

This

6ri

or the

(i/a)

is

formed the present-stem

preterites ea-xf-d-ov,

riiiiva-d-ov,

ea-6te

rj^epi-B-ovro,

in

etc.

possibly identical with thejroot Be- (dJia)=.' to place,'

is

used in the sense of 'to do' or 'make,' with the same force
composition with

in

originally,

other verbal

stems,

as

our

English auxiliary verb did in such expressions as he did come.


If this be

so,

the formation would be originally active

comes to have a passive meaning

is

an unsolved

Sanskrit has a compound verbal stem crad-dhd.,

from which

crath='

is

trust,' 'belief,'

i.

e.

To

and da-dha,mi=Ti-5i)-;.

responds the Latin credo=cred-do (cp. condo, per-do,

how

it

to believe,'

'

formed a present Crad-dadhami,

difficulty.

crad or
this cor-

etc.)

dain,

and similar forms representing dha of da-dha-mi, rl-Btj-pi,


as dii- in dare represents do- da- of 81810^1, da-dft-mi and English
this

do,

did

is

from the same

root.

Thus in

e-Brj-v, i-Trp&x-Bn-v,

cre-do,

and English do, did we have one and the same element.
(3) From these two aorist passive-stems are formed two
'

A full list of these

is

given by Curtius, 'Das Verbum,'

ii.

pp. 340-345.

'

Tin.]

Terl Inflection.

223

by the addition of the ordinary future termination Greek

futures

with middle peyson-endings,

(see p. 213)

^ai/ij-o-o/im, XuS^-o-ojuai. Passive.

They are apparently late formations ; in Homeric Greek the


weak aorist in -Brjarofuu does riot occur at all, the strong aorist
only in

fityrja-fo-dai (II.

X. 365).

Tenses of the Subjunctive

9.

(i)

Mood

The Present Subjunctive

in Latin.

Latin Sub-

been explained above,

lias

pp.present.'

185, 186.
(2) Imperfect Subjunctive.

conjugations

is

The -rem which

in ist, 2nd,

jugation apparently with a connecting vowel


rem, audi-rem, dic-e-rem), probably :=-seTO,

{ama-rew,, mone-

-erem or -esem

e.

i.

an optative form of eram, esam analogous to amem.


I

plur. eremus, eram/us ;

amemus, amamus.

originally =esa-i-m

therefore

and 4th Imperfect,

added directly to the present-stem, and in 3rd con-

(see

Thus

in

This -erem (-esem)

above, p.

For the

187).

double s in essem, the ordinary imp. subj. of sum, different


explanations have been suggested.

Pott, followed apparently

by Roby (Latin Grammar,

makes essem^es-sem, the

first s

609),

belonging to the stem, the second to the suffix -sem

But

(-rem).

in the plup. sub], fecissem, evidently=/eci

and the two forms can hardly be treated

we have
eset,

traces in

esetis,

S. C.

said to occur.

is also

assimilation =eal-sem/
ts),

-|-

de Bacch. (Appendix

The form essem from

I.

edere

sumlaxlj ipossem-=pot-sem

ferrem=:fer-sem, veUem=vel-sem (see above,

ii)

is

-sei,

moreover

Old Latin of both forms with a single

on

esent

differently

s, e.

g.

fuisem

a case of

{pot-est, pot-

p. 74).

(3) The Pluperfect Subjunctive is apparently formed in the Pluperfect,


same way from the perfect-stem, by adding -sem, the s becoming
ss in the

ssem.

ordinary conjugation of

all

(Virg. Aen. xi. 118), extinxem (Aen.


i.

verbs

am,avi-ssem, reid-

Schleicher (Comp. 301) thinks that the forms viocem

987),

etc.,

are not, as

is

iv.

606), confluxet (Lucr.

usually supposed, syncopated forms

of vixissem, exstinxissem, confluxisset,

etc.,

but

relics of

an older

formation by the addition of -sem to an older perfect-stem


-

without

or

is :

of -sem to the
is

the ordinary forms in -issem being an addition

-is,

which, as

we have

seen above

(p.

195), there

reason to suppose was characteristic of the perfect-stem,

224

[chap.

Verl Inflection.

surviving in the terminations

THe comparison

is-ti, is-tis, is-se.

however of these forms with those acknowledged to be syncopated,

etc.,

consumpse, traxe,

rather points to the conclusion that the pluper-

forms in question are later contracted forms.

fect
Perfect.

dixti, intellexti, misti, accestis,

e. g.

promisse,

The

(4)

Perfect Subjunctive

to the perfect-stem in

rim

i-

is

formed by adding -sim=.-siem

thus feci-siem, which becomes fece-

the formation thus bearing some analogy to that of the

by the auxiliary sim {amatus dm),


futurum exactum amav-ero bears to the fut, pass.
The original length of the i in sim^siem appears

perfect subjunctive passive

just as the

amatus

'

ero.

'

infuenSj dederis (Hor. Od.


has been already noticed
'

futurum exactum

'

both tenses

tities in

iv. 7. 20),

of the

has led to frequent intermixing of the quan'

t is

properly characteristic of perf. subj.,

and Pabticiples.

Infinitives

The

Infinitive

not a

is'

'

Mood,'

various forms

its

\.

nothing more nor less than cases of verbal nouns

*Mood.'

and Grammar

lology

misnomer
its

though, as

completed future indie.

i of

inflnitire
not to be
classed as a

dederUis, etc.

the confusion with

(p. 185),

'

and

must begm by getting


for the proper

Infinitive Mood,'

real nature

Grammar

alike

being

and Phi-

rid of the

understanding of

The

historical development.

by

analysis

of the syntactical uses of the infinitive points to its

being a verbal-noun, 'sharing the properties both of noun and


verb

(i) of a

noun, in that

it

expresses the action of the verb

in general, Uke nouns of action, and in Greek becomes a verbal-

noun by combination with the


mitting inflections of voice and
of the verb to which

and not by

adjectives,

it

article;

(2) of a verb, in ad-

tense, in governing the

case

belongs, in being qualified by adverbs

and

(in

Greek

especially

mood

by combination

with

hv)

And

the analysis by Philology of the forms of the infinitive

leads us
is

no
'

'

sharing the functions of

in

still

more surely

to the

in oratio obliqua.

same conclusion;

grammatical forms of which the

class of

so that there

first

origin

For examples of this confusion, see Eoby, Latin Grammar,'


See Koby's Latin Grammar,' vol. ii. 1342, 3.

'

and

592.

Tni.]

Ferb Inflection.

225

subsequent development can niore certainly be traced,

and

a meaning more clearly seen to underly what meets us in

Greek or Latin Grammar as an apparently unmeaning form.


I.
In Greek we find two forms of infinitive, (i) the older Greek infln.

Homeric
form in

-evat,

-uv, {\ih.om-hai, XuTT-etv).

Sanskrit

mauS

(manai), the dative of a

infinitive

-jJtevm,

-j>sv

(eS-fievai,

(2) the -(lerai,

aiJ.vve-fiev) ;

corresponds to

-/Mevai

man-, by which

sufiis

a large number of nouns are formed in Sanskrit, Greek, and


Latin'; e.g. from Sanskrit gnS,, 'to know,'

Latin {g)nomen, that by which a thing

formed (g)nElman,

is

known,

is

while from the corresponding Greek stem yvm-

nav

(yi'a)-f4oi/-os)=;'a

knower,' the suffix

-)iov, -f^ev,

is

In Latin -men

etc.

is

nouns in the neuter gender,


tuta-men,

etc.

and

if

common

e. g.

we took

[^-man) being

used in Greek chiefly for forming masculine nouns,


Tvoljirjv,

name

its

formed yvm-

rXij/imj',

termination of abstract

teg-men, sola-men, ear-men,

the dative case of one of these

forms to express the object of doing anything, and said canes


fecit tutamini

domum, we should have an

exact equivalent to

the Homeric expression Kuvas erev^e ^vkaaixifisvai

purpose or
tive;

object is in reality

SofMov,

'he

made

Thus the notion of

dogs for the protection of the house.'

the primary notion of the infini-

and the expression in English of both dative case of

nouns and
say this

to

infinitive

Mm

')

by the same

reflects

come

preposition to ('I

to

a philological truth.

[The above explanation of

-invai is that preferred

by Professor

Max Miiller, to whose Chips from a German Workshop,' vol. iv;


There is, however,
I am indebted for the statement here given.
'

another explanation,

-mana {mana-i,

viz. that -/lerot is

cp. p.

the locative of a suffix

126), which, as will be

shown below

232), appears as a participial suffix in Greek (^epo-fieyo-s)

(p.

and in the isolated Latin form ama-mini


-fuvai

(sc. estis, see p. 179)


would, on this view, be a locat. sing. fem. of a verbal-

noun formed by

this suffix, analogous to xo/m-i

This explanation appears at


of

'

aor. infin., e.g. XCo-at

See

Max

MuUes's Chipa
'

first

sight

more

from stem

&om a German

from stem

x")"'--

suitable in the case

'kvara-

(p.

Workshop,'

211)

but

vol. iv. p. 33.

it

-nj<.

335
Greek

Infin-

i^evai, -iixv.

[chap.

Verb Infection.

cannot show the same clear coincidence of form and meaning


as the other view

and the analogy of

\va-ai,

different {Kiira-ai, Xvira-, see

The

p. 128).

than

the con-

would properly be something

similarity of termination in
"Kvtra-

when

-ntv-ai,

would tend to produce


though the dative of stem

was

sciousness of its being a dative

-m, however,

and would

locative,

lost,

was not

felt

assert itself

to be dative

by analogy

any more

as the right

termination.]

The
-juvai

probably an abbreviation of that in

infinitive in -pevis

though

has been suggested that

it

-/ifw

may be an

archaic accusative corresponding to Latin accusatives like tegvnen, etc.,

and expressing the general object of certain acts or

movements.
2.

But

Infinitive

in -evai.

in

besides the form in

Homer we

find both

we

-jievai,

"i-iuvai

and

find a

form in

-evai

l-h/ai, cfi-iievai (:=eo--/teiit)

thus

and

eluai (^=zia--ivcu).

Bopp and

others have accounted for this form

by supposing the

loss of

but

ju

it is

more probably a

collateral

formation from another sufiix -van or -an, added to verbal

By the side of d&mau,


Veda da-vaji, the act of

bases in the Indo-European languages.

the act of giving,

we

find in the

'

and a dative d4-vto, with the accent on the suffix,


meaning "for the giving,'' i.e. "to give." Now in Greek
this V would necessarily disappear, though its former presence
might be indicated by the digamma aeolicum.
Thus, in-

giving,

we

stead of Sanskrit d&T^ue,


Soevai,

and

stands for ia-Fivai,


iFcvat,

iir-ivcu,

should have in Greek

... In

contracted Sovvai.

ievai,

eivat.

and the accent remains on the

&oFctu,

the same manner ehai

Hence
suffix

Uvai stands for

-van, just as

it

did in Sanskrit^.'

The regular

infinitives of the perfect active (XeXour-eVat)

of the verbs in -fu

according to Professor

Max

and

nde-mt) should be referred,

{8186-vai, urrd-vai,

Miiller, to the parallel suffix -an,

dative -ane, for which again he quotes parallel forms in the

Sanskrit of the Veda.


locatives, refers

them
'

Schleicher,
to

who

a kindred

Max Mfiller,

'

regards these forms as

suffix -ana,

Oliipa,' iv. p.

34'

which appears

nil.]

Ferl Inflection.

Greek

in the formation of substantives in

and Latin

ariip-avo-s, etc.)

ayX-Avrj,

337
{hpeir-avo-v, riim-avo-v,

{jpag-ina,

dom-ino-s, sarc-

ina, etc.).

The ordinary
by

infinitive in -uv is generally

transposition of -fw

becomes

<l)cpea-i

opinions differ

of

(jiepfvai,

(pipcis
:

e. g.

some regarding

who hold

the existence of a locative in

The Doric form

in -ai^arise

from dropping the

the previous syllable


yes

As

(above, p. 170).

while others,

in

it

-i

side

by

(j>eprjv

is

found

thought to

instead of throwing it back into

i,

and Curtius, comparing

common form

postulates a

as

(pcpevi,

side with the dative

dei8ev=aeiSeiv^ is

compare the Doric form of 2

just

form

a phonetic corruption

as

with the ordinary form ape\yeis=:dne\yein.

(pepeiv,

(jiipeui,

to the

that (jjepimi is dative, suppose

-ev, e.g.

final

regarded as formed Infinitive in

becomes

<i>ipfvi

(pepeev,

be the stem (with thematic vowel),

-ev

raising (in the arsis of a metrical foot

An

sing. o/ieX-

Aeolic form

this with (pepev

in

the termination.
f)

and

which ^epe- would

The

of the last syllable

would give the Homeric infinitive in -eeiv ((jjvyhiv, ISictv, etc.).


The present infin. in -eiv, and strong aorist infin. in -eiv might
both arise from -eev ; the accent for the aorist being placed on
the thematic vowel {ij>vyiev, whence <j)vyelv), for the present or
the stem-syllable {<i>ipeeii, whence (jicpeiv). The termination -fv
may, Curtius thinks, be connected (by
Sanskrit termination -sani
Grk.

<j>v).

<ppf{<T)fv

bhava-sani

loss of s)

with a (Vedic)

pra-bhti-sh&ni from root bhu,

would then correspond to a supposed form

and Curtius

tive in re (^-) to the


=:lege-se

(e. g.

inclined to refer the Latin infini-

is

same

origin,

making

e.g. \iyea/=.\ey((iT)ev

There does not, however, appear much

(Jege-re).

evidence for these hypotheses.

The middle and passive


TimTe-a-dai,

TeTv(f>-6ai)

infinitives in -o-^m, -6ai {hlho-cBm,

are explained by Schleicher and others

as dative feminine formations from a suffix

dM,

i.e.

dhy-ai, 6yai.

Sanskrit exhibits forms in -dhya,i, which evidently correspond


to

Greek forms

in

-aBai:

e.g. bli4ra-d3iyM=</>epE-(r5at,

dhyai=ore-(Tfc, yd,g'a-dhya.i=afFcj-^at,
'

Max

Miiller,

'

Li Zend

Chips,' iv. p. 35.

sa^^

also occurs a

infinitive in


aaS

Verb Inflection.

[chap.

form verezidydi=p^e(r6ai, {verez=.Fpey or


(I)ve-<r6ai

origin of this

o-

doubtful.

is

It

may

possibly

analogy from other middle forms with


'ndav, in

Fepy),

the latter apparently showing the

which a

may be a
or it may

and h'H-zhdydi^.
of

o-

owe

phonetic strengthening of

origin to

viz. -a-Be, -cdov, -aSijv,

<r6,

perhaps original (see above,

is

The

-a-dai.

its

-6ai,

p. 173)

or

it

as -\ua6a of -fifSa;

be (as Bopp suggested) the reflexive pronoun (re=:

expressive of the middle and passive voice, as in Latin, prefixed to the termination -6ai

or

may

-irBai

by regular

arise

phonetic processes of assimilation and dissimilation from -Syai,


representing

I.

6ym would become by progressive


and this by dissimilation

E. dhy&i.

assimilation -66ai or -r^at (see p. 174),

The

-(rOai.

shows how
origin

existence of so

of this

many different explanations only


known with certainty of the

can really be

little

In

form.

TeTv4>-0ai=iTerim--a-6ai,

omitted for phonetic reasons, and

The forms

II.

(i)

tt

of infinitive in Latin are

Active

-re in

amare, monere,

-n or

-4

tive-jc,

-le.

The three terminations of

(i)

fwrier,

etc.

infin. act.

-as, dat. -asai ;

are really the same,

the -as being the same

termination as that of fem. substantives in


neuter in -us,

esse, posse.

the dative case of a verbal substantive

-viz, -se^=-sei, originally

whose stem ended in

and

in amari, moneri, regi.

-ier (archaic) in

Latin In-

in velle, nolle, malle.

-le

Passive

6.

etc.

-se of perfect amavisse,

(ii)

has been

it

assimilated to

-Mr=Greek

-os

-es (sedes, lobes),

(genus, robur, yivos).

has a corresponding dative formation, also used as


e.g. gfiv-Ase

(from

jriv,

'to live')

or

Sanskrit
infinitive,

and Latin wAe-re= Sanskrit

vah-ase.

The

older form -se

and es-se=ed-se, 'to

retained in the perfect amavis-se (the

is

perfect-stem ending in

-is,

eat,'

see above, p. 195), in esse, 'to be,'

and in pos-se=pot-se ;

s is assimilated

to the final consonant of the verb-stem in ferre=:ferse, and


nolle,

malle =vel-se, nol-se, mal-se.

stem

the

becomes r

after the

When added

vowel of

connecting-vow^l by which

it

is

a-, e-,

velle,

to the present-,

and

i-

stems,

and

attached to consonantal

Tin.]

Verb Infiedion.

and u- stems
e,

(rea-e-re, tribu-e-re)

the

339
of

-i

stems becoming

I-

as in cafe-re, present-stem capi-.

Latin Infiuti^e.

should be noted that some philologists consider -ere=-ese

[It

=-asai, and not

be the infinitive

-re, to

the penultimate e of reg-ere, cap-ere


the

suffix,

initial e of

view

this

part of the original

of stem capi- disappearing before

monere, audlre, the

On

suffix'.

is

the suffix

it

is

while in amdre,

absorbed into the

long vowel of the stems ama-, mone-, audi-.]

The
and

final

vowel of the

(iambic trimeter)

'Non

and Pseudolus,

i.

aiides aliquod

and tetrameters

ii.

136, trochaic tetrameter catalectic

3.

4-74

mlhi dare muni5soulum1'


:

argentum prdmere possiim dome'

oftener found before the 'caesura

is still

catal.)

originally e {=ei, '*'^^)>S^f'

'jfego soelestus ntino

It

was

infinitive

are found in Plautus, e.g. True.

traces of this

catalectic, e.g. Asinaria,

pause in tetrameters

'

4.

ii.

14 (iamb, tetram.

'Abso^de, ao sine

me hunc pMere,

qui Bumper

me

ira inc^ndit.'

So dare, Ter. Heaut. iv. 4. 2 (724) and other examples quoted


by Wordsworth (Fragments, p. 152) from Corssen.
The other Italian dialects have an infinitive form in -om,
-um,

-0,

apparently an accusative case of a verbal substantive

formed from the verbal-stem without any

suffix,

like

venum,

venum eo (veneo), and pessum do ; and the ordinary


-um to which attaches a dative or infinitive meaning,

2>essum, in

supine in
e. g.

spefitaium veniunt,

'

they come

to see.'

(2) Passive infinitive in ri-er, i-er (-n,

One

(a)

-i).

explanation of these forms makes i-er=i-se,

i.

e.

passive or reflexive formation from the infinitive active ana-

logous to amo-r from

amare-se

.'

assumed,

act. is

amo-

(see p. 178).

Thus amari-er=

while for consonant-stems a shortened form of infin.


e. g.

dice- or did-,

whence

dici-er.

It

is,

how-

ever, contrary to the phonetic analogy of Latin that -se should

'

'

Roby, 'Latin Grrammar,' i. 611.


See Corssen, ' Ueber Aussprache,'

etc.,

li,

pp. 474, J, 2nd ed.

Passive In-

[chap.

^erb Inflection.

23

amare-se, dici-se would naturally become

Latin infta-

thus become

-er

sive in

amares,

or dicis, as in 3 sing. amaris=amasi-se (p.

-ier.

And
is

dices,

given of the preceding


(6)

i']8).

tbe final r of -ier=re=se, as in amor, then no account

if

To

e.

new

escape these diificulties Corssen devises a

theory,

-r=:-re=-se the reflexive pronoun, and that the rest

viz. that

of the infinitive in -ier

is

a feminine substantive with a suffix

-sia (after vowels), or -ia (after consonants)

e.g.

from stem

ama-, amasia-se, ama-sies, ama-rier ; from stem

die-,

dic-

ia-se, die-ies, dic-ier.

These substantives would be analogous formations to gloria,

and the vowel change from as to e analogous to


The theory is perhaps
more ingenious than convincing, the mode of composition which
it postulates being difiicult if not impossible to parallel ; and
curia,

etc.,

that between materia and materies.

though
it

it

avoids difficulties which

must be ranked with them

beset other

as a hypothesis

explanations,

upon which

little

evidence can be brought to bear in either direction.

Roby

(Latin

Grammar, 614, 15) gives

same explanation as

to the phonetic change of -se to

-er,

passive suffix -r (I presume after


its

origin as=-e

it

(see p. 62).

sound

The

he holds that the ordinary

had taken that fwrn, and

had possibly been forgotten) was 'added to

the active infinitive in the form of

taking the form of

substantially the

"Without committing himself

(a) above.

er,'

the final e of

infin. act.

before -er on the principle of dissimilation

final

after another r,

r was then dropped, because of

and

ie

contracted to

^.

The

its ill

stages of

change on this view are amare-er, amari-er, amwrie, amari.

For the

shorter forms in consonant and

he accounts in the following way

if

i-

verbs (diei-er, capi-er),

the process above described

had been followed in these verbs, then, because the penultimate


infin. act. was short (dieere), the syllable er would

vowel of

have come twice over {diceriSr)

economy of utterance dropped the

but the instinctive desire for


first er,

i. e.

-ier

was appended

In the absence of
evidence for the date and exact process of the supposed changes,
this view is perhaps as likely to be right as any other.
directly to the final consonant of the stem.


'^ii.]

Yerh Inflection.

231

The period of transition between the two forms (-ier, -i) can Transition
'""^
be approximately defined from 220-120 B.C. The ' Lex Acilia to-i!
Eepetundarum,' circ. 123 B.C., offers the latest example from
inscriptions of the form in -ier, which form may therefore be
presumed to have passed out of common use after that date.

It also offers the

form in

example from inscriptions of the other

first

-i {darei,
9)

but the introduction of this form must

have been considerably

earlier, as it is

Plautus and Terence than that in

-ier.

more common even in


The dates mentioned

will probably represent with tolerable accuracy the period of

which -ier, and after which -i, was the regular


In the poets of the later Eepublic and the Augustan

fluctuation, before

use.

period, Lucretius, Virgil, Horace,

etc.,

the form in -ier

is

an

intentional archaism.

Perfect Participle Active (Greek)

An

Indo-European

meanmg

suffix

'possession of

or

-vat,

-vant appears to have the


,

Perfect ParticipleAoe. g. tive Suffix

or 'supply with' anything;

Sanskrit asva-van (stem asva-vat)=' supplied with' or 'pos-

In Greek this

sessed of horses.'

(with loss of digamma)


-ets,

is

-e<r(ra=-T r, -cvr-ya

suffix

appears as -Few, which

found in the adjectival termination


lx6v6-eK,

Ixdvo-FiVT, vi(^6-FiVT, xapi-FiVT).

vi<j>6-is,

In Latin

it

;^api-ir, etc.

(stem

becomes -vans, and

(on analogy of 0- stems) -vonso, -voso* which (with loss of v)

appears in the adjectival termination -oso-

fructu-bso, himin-

oso,/orma-oso (form-oso, an older form, formonso being actually

found in MSS. of Virgil,

The same
active,

which

suffix

was

etc.).

also used to

form a perfect participle

many

(as the perfect itself) is expressed in

lan-

guages by an auxiliary denoting 'possession,' 'I have done.'


Sanskrit has a perf. part, in -v&n (nom. masc), -vat (neut.),
to

which corresponds the Greek

perf. partic. active

neuter -os=foT (the stem appearing in oblique cases


-oT-a);

-as= Fot-s,
-dr-oy, -6t-i,

while the feminine -vla=^-v(Tya apparently results from

the combination of another suffix -vas {-us) with the feminine


suffix

-ya

{-ja),

and corresponds to Sanskrit

-ushi.

Sanskrit toa-bhtl-vd.H.= Trepan, 'ba,-}3harV&t=Tre(j>v6s


vid-ushi, vid-vat=:fejSo)s,

eiSuta, eldos

(root ftS).

The

Thus

vid-van,
effect

of

[chap^-

Terh Infection.

33^

seen in such forms as laTa-6Tes (Epic), which


later Greek contracted into iaT&Tes on analogy of other contracted forms, hut which was preserved from contraction while
the digairima

is

a consciousness of the original digamma in


Present Participle
Present
Participle

Active

-are*,

to-ra-f ores survived.

Actiiie.

well as the future and aorist participles) is found in


This (as
^
,
,
^ - __
Greek and Latin, and in other Indo-European languages, by
a shorter suffix -ant or -nt (with consonant and vowel-stems
.

Thus

respectively).

from stem

part,

nom.

sing, sinking to v or s

from

ei/i'

(ta-Tu-),

(j)p-ovT-

cct-oi/t-,

(^'"'-m'')"

ia-Ta-vT-s,

^'-^'^-^>
i(TTds

ya; and in

e'-coy,

i aor.

and the y

to

'urraiia^='urTavT-

with compensatory

{j)

sound disappears,

is ent-

(older out-, unt-,

Praesens, absens preserve a participle of

etc.).

sum, which exactly corresponds to that of


(e)s-ent-s^i<T-6vT-s;

which in Greek becomes

elfiX

given above,

the termination -nts of nom.


-av (or in

the phonetic laws of Latin.


to those of

in

yepovirm:=y^povT-ya, etc.

In Latin the ordinary participle stem

e.g.

In these forms the com-

(as in 3 plur., p. 176)

but remains in fem. substantives,

So

tcmiiu

and
The feminine forms are due

\v(Ta(Ta=kvcravT-ya.
a-

we

vt-s in

from

aor. act. Xvara-vT-s, Xvaas

raising of the preceding vowel,

in e-unt-is,

&v

later

{-ja), e.g. i(r-ovT-ya, iovr-ya, iovtra

hination it sinks to

<^ep-,

ea--,

lara-, la-ra-vT-

with long vowel preceding.

^^"T-s,

in

aor. pass. \v6euT-s, Xu^fi'r.

addition oi-ya

from verh-stem

in Greek,

have

aor. -as),

sing.,

becoming -ns by

The feminine forms corresponding

Greek are not used as

participles,

but are

common

as feminine substantives, sapient-ia, ahundant-ia, etc.

Greek Middle and Passive Participle in


Middle and
Participle
'*"'
''

The

participial suffix

the present and future,

and perfect passive

-/xevos

by which are regularly formed


middle and passive, the aorist middle
-p.evo-,

participles,

seems to represent an original

Indo-European -mana, one of the many developments of the


element -ma in the formation of nominal stems (see above,
p. 102).

In Sanskrit this appears as -mana, forming middle

and passive

participles

future stems; in
-mino,.

Zend

from the present, and strong

aorist,

and

as -mna, also participial; in Latin as

-mno forming substantives

like

ter-minu-s, fe-mina,


Verh Inflection.

Tiii.J

2^^

ahi-mnu-s, and with traces of a participial signification in the


isolated verb-form of 2 plur. passive,

amamini,

above,

etc. (see

Thus we have, from the stem hhar, Sanskrit bharam.ana, Zend hare-mna, Greek (jjipo-fievo-s, Latin feri-mini.

p. 179)-

Latin Past Participle Passive in

and Supines :
The suffix -ta (above,
one
of the commonest noun- ijatjn Past
p. 102V
jr
^
/>
Participle
suffixes among Indo-European languages, seems to have become Passive iu
'

at one period a regular

mode

Oscan

scrifto-

e.

g.

This function

.).

Latin

seripto-,

tJmbrian

retains

it

screih-to,

but here also there are many traces of a

less

closely defined use of the suffix in the formation of verbal

nouns

both substantive and adjective

adjec-

Such

etc.

^,

as in the

and nouns of action

tive termination to-s,

Kpi-rtjs, ttohj-t^j,

more

often as u- stems,

and the sif^ines'


which are obviously accusative and ablative cases

gemi-tus, fremi-tus, par-tus, etc.

and

Greek verbal
like

traces are found in the marly verbal substantives

in -tus, declined sometimes as 0- stems,


'

-u,

of expressing the idea of a perfect Supines,

passive participle ('having been'


in the Italian languages,

-tus,

'

in -vmi

respec-

tively of such a verbal substantive, often not to be distinguished

in form from the substantive itself actually in use.


for example, the substantive visus as used
'

Compare,

by Virg. Aen.

ii.

212,

Difiugimus visu exsangues,' with the supines visum, visu of

The

the verb video.


verbal

perfect part, passive, supines,

have therefore one

substantives,

formation, viz. the suffix ta-

the addition of this suffix

is

(to-, tu-)

and such

common element

of

and the stem formed by

sometimes spoken of as the

'

Supine-

by that term the base or stem common to


these various formations from verbal stems.
And in treating
stem,' understanding

here of the formation of the past participle passive in -tus

some

will be convenient in

head of supines
'

The

or

'

it

borrow examples from the

verbal substantives.'

-to to the verbal-stem is marked Phonetic


by certain phonetic changes, which may be shortly Vowei-stems
'"
In the formation from e- stems, the stem-vowel of -to.

addition of the element

some

in

'

cases to

cases

'

noticed here.

'

Roby's

of Latin verba, with their perfects, supines,


Latin Grammar,' i. ch. xxx. pp. 239-264.

list
'

etc., is

given in

334
Phonetic

becomes shortened to

Changes on
addition of

With

(tace-).

Past Partio.

Suffix -(*

IS

to Vowelstems.

re)

[chap.

T^erb Inflection.

in Latin,

e. s.

mont-tus (mow-), taei-tus

,-,/,

a- stems

generally remains as in amd-tus, but

it

attom-tus (tonasometimes shortened to 1 domi-tus laomd-),


/'
\
\
;

by a preceding v in adju-tws=:adju-

this i being absorbed

vi-tus (juva-),

tus {cave-),

and

cautus=:cam-

lauttis^la/vi-tus (lava,-), cp.

and fotus, motus, in which the v sound has also been

With

a.bsorbed into the preceding vowel.

mains, as in avdl-tMS, moli-tus / but

I-

stems the

% re-

occasionally dropped

is

out, as in sanc-tus {scmcv-tus being also in use), comjper-tus (but

jpen-^a).

From

the cases above-mentioned, in which

participial element

-to, is

must be distinguished those in which

it

preceding the
e,

either part of the

? is

In gem-l-tus, vom-t-tus,

stem, or a connecting-vowel.
frem-i-tus,

?,

a degradation of sound from a or

gertA-tus,

and a few similar formations from consonant-stems,

appears to be a connecting-vowel introduced for the sake of

euphony
ge^n-,

Without

(see above, p. i66).

it

the forms from stems

vom-, frem- would, by the ordinary euphonic laws of

Latin, either have lost their characteristic m, becoming /rew-<MS,

have assumed the ugly forms fremptus,

von-tuB, gen-Vus, or

vomptus, gempiw, by the insertion of


follow naturally

upon the

transition

sum-p-tus, sum-p-si, tem-p-lum

sound which seems to

from

gests that the forms ali-tus (post-Augustan)


al-ere, mol-ere,

ticiple

may

t,

s,

or

[cp.

( 698) sug-

and molUus from

be due to a desire to distinguish these par-

forms from the adjectives alius, moltus ; and that strepi-

may have

tus, geni-tus

vi) the connecting-vowel

the compound forms


tus, sepos-tus

and

had stems in a-

originally

In

gena-, cp. gna-scor, gna-tus).


is

e. g.

{strepa-

and

pos-i-tus (pono^^p^s-no, pos-

employed, but not universally, in


repos-ius, compos-tus

and eomposi-

seposi-tits.

Verbs in -w, whose present-stem

i=ya

to

Eoby

(i-e/i-evos)].

to the verbal-stem (above, p.

is

formed by addition of

205), generally affix the

supine or past participle element direct to the verbal-stem^


e.g. capl-o,

cap-tus.

either as the

ing-vowel;

Where

appears,

of present-stem, or

e. g.

it

may be

more probably

regarded

as a connect-

fug-i-tum {fug%-o, fug-i, fUg-a), where the


335

Verb Inflection.

VIII.]

insertion of a connectinff- vowel preserves the characteristic g, Past

,.,,

,.

which otherwise would have become


(see p.

certain

-J.

c before

Parti-

cipi* Suffix

as in Jractus

t,

.<.

80 we have eUci-ium, but iUec-tum ; and in


49).
words the connecting-vowel, not used before the past-

and supine,

participle

euphony

is

inserted before the fut. participle for

(or-tws, or-i-tmrus ;

mor-t-furus / par-i-turus, par-tus).

Verbs in -uo (m- stems) generally have u preceding


ticiple or supine,

e.

The stem-

g. acu-tus, exu-tus, irribu-tus, etc.

vowel of such verbs being generally

H, the

is

of par-

perhaps due to

coalescence of a connecting- vowel with the stem-vowel, e.g.


inibH-i-tus, imhu-tus.

few verbs retain

u,

e. g.

rU-tum

(ac-

cording to Varro rutmm), the future participle being ru-i-twrus,


cp. ob-rutus

and

clU-tus

from

With consonant-stems the


stem

clu-eo [liki-a),

sometimes softened to

is

a preceding dental
participle

(all

s,

whence

usually

by the

influence

ofiiant-steins.

dental-stems having -sus, -sum in past

and supine ').

The

dental either drops out, the pre-

ceding vowel being lengthened in compensation


=divid-tiiini,

in-clu-tus.

appended to the verb- ^^^'jo^^^f

suffix -t-

man-sum=^'mand-tuin, or

it is

(e.

g.

divl-swm

assimilated {mes-

sum=met-sum, quas-sum=-quat-s'um).
Lapsus from lab-or
and fixus {=fic-siis
illustrates the same process after a labial
iorfig-tus) after a guttural. The guttural, however, often drops
:

out,

e. g.

and

fie-tus (see p. 49),

And

lead to confusion vS&x fic-tus, part oi Jingo.

most other cases of change to


a

(as above) or after

arswm,
is

[Fig-tus

par-swm,=-paro-tum, spar-sus^=sparg-tus.

would naturally become

etc.),

it

formed with

is

liq^uid

s,

would

this

in this

and

otherwise than after a dental

and some other consonant

{ard-,

noticeable that the perfect active, if any,

-si : so that the s of participle

be the result of analogy from that of the

Futwre Participle in -turus (Latin)

The termination of the stem

and supine may

perf. act.]

of fut. partic. active in -twro Connection

appears to represent an Indo-European -tara, a variety of -tar,

which

is

Participle

largely used in the formation of nouns of agency {-tar) Noun-suf-

or implement {-tra).

In Sanskrit and Zend the

Por examples,

see

Eoby,

707, 8.

suflfcs;

appears

etc.

'

2^6

Verb

In Greek

as -tar, -tra.

<r<aTfip=(Ta)Tfp-s, etc.;

etc.;

it

tnflectiort,

appears as -rep in

and a feminine -Tpm=.tar-ya

while in other cases the

Another

found in

is

Greek form

nine stem in -Tpi8=tarid, formed by suffixing


Tra-TplS-os.
(fern. ),

vm-rpo-v,

pa-ter, ma-ter, etc.

sponsor^spond-tor,

apo-rpo-v,

and

doc-t{o)rina.

To

fut. partic. act.,

usuraz=ut-tti/ra.

pax-

of

vic-tor, censor=:eens-tor,

of implement,

further increased by -ya (id) to

a feminine

-rpa, -6pa

Latin has forms almost identical


as ara-tru-m,

Pru-Tn,=zclaud-tro-m, ros-tru-m=rod-tro-m.

-ic to -trie-,

is

a femi-

is

pax-rpa (root

ptj-Spa,

nouns of agency, as
etc.

etc.;

-tS, e. g. jrarpiy,

-tra appears as -rpo or -6po (neut.),

e.g.

patTiTa>=paK-y(o), Koiprj-dpa, etc.

by

iroirjTpia,

e.g. aasTetpa=au>Tep-ya,

syllable,

specially

larap, (orop-os,

the feminine suffix -ja {-ya)

i of

thrown back into the previous


S6Tcipa=86Tp-ya.

na-rfip, na-rep-os

or -Top in prjrap, prj-rop-os

The

claus-

suffix is also

-trio-, -torio- {jpa-1/rio-s, victoria)

suffix, as

in victric-s ;

by

-ino, as in

the longer form -tara corresponds -turo- of

and feminine nouns of

action,

e. g.

sepul-twra,

APPENDIX

I.

Specimens of Latin Inscriptions from 250 B.C. to the


close of the Bepublic.

The

of Latin Inscriptions

following selection

given as

is

more connected illustration of those gradual


the form of Latin words, to which incidental allu-

a fuller and

changes in

sions have been necessary in the preceding pages.

text of the inscriptions cited I

am

For the

immediately indebted to

made from the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinqrum


Mommsen) and Kitschl's Priscae Latinitatis Monumenta

selections
(ed.

EpigrapMca by Messrs. "Wordsworth (in Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin') and Eoby (' Latin Grammar,' vol. i.
Appendix B) ; of the general accuracy of whose citations I have
satisfied myself by comparison with the authorities whom they
have followed. The inscriptions are all in 'uncial' (i.e. capital)
letters.
The vertical strokes denote the ending of lines on the
'

inscription

original

but in the version

Scipionic Epitaphs they

mark

the

'

(in

of the

italics)

caesura ' of the Saturnian

metre.

I.

Epitaphs of the Scipios

I.

On

scription not later than

Cornelius

natus

suma

fuit
I

lucius

fortis

taurasia

L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, consul 298 B.C.

uir

consol

cisauna

opsidesque

240

scipio

barbatus

sapiensque
.

censor

samnio

cepit

gnaiuod

forma

quei

subigit

fait
.

uirtutei
.

apud

omne

Scipio Barbatus,

Gnaeo patre prognatus

prog-

patre
|

quoius

aidilis

abdoucit.

Cornelius Lucius

(In-

B.C.)

fortis vir sapiensque,

pari-

uos

loucanam

Apjiendix I.

22 8
Cujus forma virtu

U parissuma fait,

quifuit ajpud vos

Consul, censor, aedilis

Taurasiam Cisaunam Samnium cepit


Subigit omnem Lucaniam, ohddesque abducit.
\

'

2.

On

L. Cornelius Scipio, consul

perhaps earlier than No.


honcoino

duonoro
luciom
cousol

hec

ploirume

optumo

scipione

censor

cepit

^edet

cosentiont

fuise

filios

aidilis

Corsica

harbati

hie

fuet

aide

uiro

aleriaque

tempestatebus

(Inscription

B.C.

259

i.)

urbe

mereto

Swnc unwm pluri/mi eon sentiunt romai (i. e. romae)


honorum optimum fu isse virum virorum,
|

Lueivmi Scipionem.

Filius Bariati

consul, censor, aedilis

Sic

dedit tempestatibus
3.

On
.

perhaps son of Sc. AfricEinus

P. Cornelius Scipio,

Major, augur 180


quel

apud vos.
amque urhem pugnando ;
aedem merito votam.
hicfuit

Corsicam Aleri

cepit

apiceinsigne

mors

breuia
gloria

hon os

atque

in

longa

fa

cile

ut

fama

gesistei

omnia

uirtusque

re

tibe utier

lubens

recip t

quibus

factei superases
.

assent

ingenium

licui set

maiorum qua
scipio

aminis

dial

tua

perfe

(Inscription about 160 B.C.)

B.C.

terra

sei

gloriam
.

te

uita

ingremiu

publi

prognatum

publio

corneli

Qui apicem insignem

dialis

mors perfecit tua ut

essent

honosfama
quibus

si

virtusque

in longa

Jlaminis

omnia

gessisti,

hrevia ;

gloria atque ingenium,

licuis

facile factis super asses

set tibi utier (i, e. vii) vita

gloriam,

majorum.

Quare lubens

te

Terra, Publi,

prognatum

in gremium,
\

Scipio, recipit

PubUo

Corneli

(i. e.

Cornelia.)

Apjiendise I.

On

4.

who

L. Cornelius Scipio, (uncertain

inscription dates about


I.

239

Cornelius

en

en

f.

150

n. scipio

The

meant).

is

B.C.

magna

sapientia

multasque

uirtutes

hoc

aetate

saxsum

posidet

honos

honore

quom

quoiei

pa;rua

uita

defecit

non

uictus

est

ei

queiminus

sit

hie

uirtutei

datus

is

annos

ne

quei

quairatis

mand

nunquam
gnatus xx is

situs

honore

Lucius Cornelius, Cnaei filius, Cnaei nepos, Scipio

magnam

sapientiam mul

tasque virtutes

possidet hoe saxum.

aetate cuim pa/rva


|

quoiei

(i. e.

Is hie

situs.

cm') vita defecit

annos natus viginti

From

II.

mulieres

ihei
.

uelent

sacra

catis

ne

fuit

de

pr

utei

ques

est

suere atque

utei

deretis

senatus

figier

ioubeatis

utei

ita

ea

utei

noun dinum
eorum

in

ead

tabolam

cen suit

qua

fecisent

utei

uteique

ita

quam

ahenam

exstrad

exdei-

faciendam

gnoscierpotisit

sunt

sententia

ar/iiise

senatuosque

inter

sententiad

atque

couentinoid

facilumed

sei

in

uirei

neue

ploustribus

aruorsum

aiquom
.

remcaputalem

hoce
.

ubei

bacanalia

eeis

uelet

senatuosque

esetis

oinuorsei

mulieribus

quei

fecise

trinum

esent

scriptum

Livy xxxix. 8-18.

cp.

quam

haioe

scientes

urbani

B.C.
.

duobus

minus

sei

mandatus.

pious

quis

soriptumest.

sententiam

suprad

ne

pWus

nisei

homines

suprad

sit

the Senatusconsultum de Bacchahalibus, (or Epis-

uirei

mandatus

est

quiminus

Consulum ad Teuranos,) 186

censuere
.

honos, honorem.

victus est virtute

Dili

is

ne quaeratis honorem

tola

non

Qui nunquam

cen-

incei-

earn

atque

quam

sei

quid

diebus

ibei
.

dismota

x
.

sacri

est

ita

utei

suprad

scriptum

est

in

quibus

sient

in

uobeis
.

agro

tabelai

teurano

datai erunt

faciatis

utei

Censuere homines plus quinque wiiversi, viri atque mulieres,


sacra ne quisquam fecisse

vellet,

neve interibi viri plus duobus.

340

Appendix

mulierihus plus trihus, adfuisse

I.

Haec

mmdinwm
sententia ita

essent

est, eis

Atque uti

aequum

Eorum

esseiis.

qui advorsum ea fecissent, qyMm supra


rem capitalem facienddm censuere.
hoc in tabulam ahenam incideretis ; ita senatus

siqui

seriptum

est.

ne minus trinum

uti in contione exdicatis

senatusque sententiam uti scientes


fuit

de praetoris urbani

vellent, nisi

senatusque senientia, uii supra scriptv/m

censuit

Utique earn figi juleatis, uHfacillume nosc} possit ;

quam

Atque uti ea Bacchanalia, siqua sunt, extra


sacri

uii scriptv)m

ita

est,

tabellae datae erunt, faciatis uti

dimota

ihi

In agro Teurano.

sint.

same age as

III. Inscription of the

quid

si

in diebus decern, quibus vobis

est,

S. C.

de Bacch., but

less

antique in spelling, (the former being of a more formal legal

The

nature).

laimilius
seruei

sent

agrum

item

inpeirator

in

turri

decreiuit

lascutana

oppidumqu

possidere

example of doubled

earliest
.

habereque

quel . hasten sium

habitarent

quod

letters.

utei

leiberei

ea

tempestate

iousit

dum

es

posedisent

poplus

senatus

que
I

romanus

From an

IV.

uellet

act incastreis

PoUa

inscription at

ad

uiam

feci

omneis

ab

regio

miliarios

ad

capuam

tabelarios que

xii

febr

in Lucania, recording

executed by P. Popillius Laenas, consul 132

et

in

ea

poseiuei

works

B.C.

uia

hince

ponteis

sunt

nouceriam
.

meilia

cosentiam

tuam

italicorum

primus

cederent

et

capuam

ualentiam

eidem

conquaesiuei

eidemque
.

cxxni

ccxxxi

>H

paastores

fecei
|

xxciiii.

c^t'xxx

praetor

aedisque

ad sta-

fugiteiuos

Dccccxvii

heic

poplico

poplicas

S'Xxnii

fretum

sicilia

homines

.ut.de. agro
.

muranum
ad

in

redideique

forum

aratoribus

[Note in this inscription the fluctuation between

feci.

e,

ei,

(homines, ponteis, feci, fecei) and one example of doubled vowel

(paastores)^

V.

Two

inscriptions found at

Capua and Aeclanum, and

assigned by Ritschl (Pr. Lat. Monumenta, lxiii A, lxiii 0)

..

Appendix
to the years 108

forms

and (about) 90

241

I.

B.C.

but exhibiting in some

venerus, loidos, moiros) the spelling of a considerably

(e. g.

earlier period.

heisce

I.
.

magistreis

coirauerunt

aurelio

Hi

ped

venerus

ccvl/xx et

muru

fecerunt

aedificandum

ser. sulpicio

cof.

murum

magistri Veneris Joviae

CCLXX

"pedes

iouiae

loidos

aedificomdum cura/oerunt

Marco Aurelio

hidos fecerunt, Servio Sulpicio

et

consulibus.
.

2.0.
.

a stone-cutter's mistake for cos.]

[cof. is

quinctius

surus

moiros

turreisque

patlacius

ualg

munic

mi uir

equas

patron

qum

moiro

magi min
.

sportas

turreis

faciundum

coi-

Valgus patronus municipii,

M.

rauerunt.

Caii Alius,

Quinctius,

C.

Magius, Minucii filius, Surus, A. Patlacius, Quinti filius, quattuor viri de senatus sententia portas, turres, muros, turresque

cum mwro faciwndum

aequas

Law

VI. From Sulla's

Ann.

Tac.

urb

cedem

eius

quel

xx

'de

facixvnda^ curaverunt.

quaestoribus,' B.C. 80; cp.

earn

aerarium prouinciam optinebit earn

quaestorque

pequniam

ei

soluito

i<ys:

xi. 22.

deferto

optinebit

(error

idque

ei

quel

aerarium

scribae

sine

fraude

scribeisque

sua

mer-

prouin ciam

facere

herediue

li

ceto

quod

sine

malo

pequniam

earn

pequlatuu

capere

fiat

olleis

que

hominibus

liceto.

VII. From Lex Julia Municipalis,


quae

uiae

con tinente
.

earum

quae-

quoi

aed

curato

uiam

ea

urbem

habitabitur

aed

in

uiae

pars

sunt

erfint

erunt

is

nrbis

B.C. 45.

rom propiusue

earn

quoius

uiam

ob uenerit
.

p q
.

ubei

aedificium

arbitratu

ante

tueatur

eius

isque

quorum
ante aedificium erit quamque
quemque tueri oportebit ei omnes eamuiam
B

uti

342
.

Appendix

arbitratu

nus

eius

conmode

[p

is

tueantur

populus

neue eo

ea

a mistake ior p

I.

uia

loco

ao

consistat

quomi

utatur.

m .=pas8us mille.^

VIII. A monumental inscription upon a young actress, dated


by Mom.msen (C. I. R. 1009) and Ritsohl {Pr. Lat. Mon.
ixxxi.) at the end of the EepubUc, and exhibiting in the main
most of the
the orthography fainiliar to us in classical Latin
:

due to carelessness of the mason who cut

peculiarities being

the inscription
1.

The
(1.

propiravit, line 7

(e. g.

denecavit for denegavit,

deposierunt for deposuerunt, and infistae for infestae,

;
'

i)

apex' (see above,

and h6ra

(1.

7).

Eucharis
docta

erodita

heus

oculo

morare

amor
ubei
heic

se

crescente

propirauit
et

docta

quae
et

modo

hoc

infistae

silent

reliqui

bis

fletum

hie

discedena

leti

terram

apparui

corporis

laudes
.

decus

tacent

meo
.

diem

natales

ditis aeterna
.

manu

leto

genitori

post

mecum
.

mea

carmine

et

artibus

populo

cineremnostri

corpore

suae

decorauichoro

amor

tenentur

ludos

nata

perlege

spiritum

cura

genita

septeni

ut

prima
.

conscenderet

musarum
.

am,

dies

domw

mihi

xiiii

domMS

corporis

fatalis

l^ti

natae

floreret
.

deposierunt

patronae

tumulo

ambusto

tenebris

rogo

paene

uitae

inscaena

antecessi

tristis

nobilium

parcae

cum

vdxit

nostrum

dedit

gloriam

ultra

in

studium

et

hdra

erodita

graeca

en

denecauit

aspicis

conlocarent

aetas

etaeuo

quei

titulum

uirgo

quem

liciniae

artes

et

reliquiae

uiridis

errante

parenteis

omnes

gressum

1.

found on two words only,

p. 48) is

dicas kiiem.

14).
leti

APPENDIX
A.

The

Adverbial

following

list

II.

Terminations in Latin.

of the various terminations of Adverbs,

more or

Prepositions, or Conjunctions in Latin will supply

less

obvious illustrations of the statement on p. 93, that they are all


in their origin case-forms of Nouns.
A few examples only of
each are given;

and for a more complete

referred to Roby's Latin


this

arrangement

is

I.

Vowel-endings

-a

Grammar,

0-

the student

list

is

508-547, from which

borrowed.
:

ea, hoc, circa, juxtd, su^rd,

from a- or

i.

stems]

contra [ablative sing, feminine

anted, proptered, postilld,

etc.,

seem to be

accus. plur. neut. (see p. 155).

-d

ltd,

-ae
-6

quid [apparently accus. plur. neuter].

jprae [probably locative -ai, or dat. with locative force].

common

originally

termination,

adverbial

ablative

singular of -0 stems =: older -od ; cp. Greek ovra, oirms.


(i)

From

substantives

diminutive of ex tempore),
(2)

From

omnino,
(3)
'

adjectives

suhito,

signification,

and

participles

modo,

in such a

'),

etc.

secundo, etc.

postremo,

etc.

etc.

denuo (de novo),

cito,

vera; improviso, necopinafo,

Pronominal,

originally
('

illico {in loco),

Numeral adverbs; primo,

at the lowest or least

(4)

ergo {^pyf), extemplo {=:=extempulo,

so

place.]

chiefly

of

direction

to

a place (perhaps

adverbs of manner or circumstance)

whither to

'),

immo {=imo,

[ablatives with local

illoc (Plautus, later illuc), intra, porro

eo,

quo-ad

(ird/jprn).

'

Appendix

244
i^f'^f'
in Latin.

Under

head come the adverbs of direction ending in

this

-orsum,

-orsus,

11.

-o-vorsum,

-o-vorsus,

e.

i.

'

turned

towards

a combination analogous to quo-ad, ad-eo.

Adverbs formed by

(5)

suffix -do

or indu, an old form of in,

qua/ndo {quam-do), endo,

seen in the forms endoperator,

induperator (Ennius), and indigeo (indu, egeo).


-u
-e

diu, noctu,

the

du-dum {=:diu-dum

common

?).

Ablatives.

adverbial termination from positive and

superlative adjectives with -0 stems [apparently ablative sing.


see above, p. 124]

Ciceronian)

is

g. valde, vere, fere,

le.

probably =ac? prima,

analogous to imprimis;

the

ferme.

Apprime

(prae-

an adverbial expression

being due to the analogy of

other adverbs.
generally speaking a shortened form of the preceding (-e)

-e :

termination, like abl. sing, in -e of 3rd decl. (p. 125).

From

(i)

perne, etc.
esto.

-o stems (as

above)

-e

hene {bono-), male, su-

and perhaps macte in the phrase made

virtute

From

(2)
(abl.

other stems

dhunde, facile, i/mpune, mage, sponte

of spans.)

-pS

a form of que,

-ve

perhaps ='e?, thus mev=' or

-ce

ecce=en-ce,

Mc, ilUc,
-que

e. g.

nem^-pe

sic, etc.;

{=nam-pe,

cp.

namque).

not.'

and appended to locative adverbs,

etc. (see p. 153).

a case-form of qm, appended to pronouns and pro-

nominal adverbs (perhaps, as Eoby suggests, a kind of reduplication)

quis-que, quando-que, etc.

so with prepositions

and

conjunctions, absque, atque (ac-.que), na/mque, etc.


-pte

suopte, etc.

-de: in-de, unde,

by

possibly =j3cJfe, as in vi-pote.


etc.

Perhaps =(ie (preposition) shortened

loss of accent.

-ne

sine,

pone {=pos-ne).

Probably the same as the inter-

rogative particle we, which again may=ie, 'verily' (wrongly

written nae from analogy of Greek


-I

(occasionally shortened to

(i) Ablative cases of

a pronoun =' in which

i)

manner
case'),

sm

vai, vfj).

qui,

qmn

(qui-ne), si (abl. of

(=i-ee, 'in this way'), utt

Appendix! II.
(probably =g'Mo-<j, 'in which way,'
,

J.

prockm,

terminations
in Latin.

isUc

illlc,

UK,

heri, temperi, etc.

pronominal adverbs,

-bi of

being=s? above, Srew, Adverbial

ti

etc.

(2) Locative (or Dative) cases

usually

345

isti (Plaut., Ter.),

ibi, ubi, etc.

Consonant-endings (Labial and Dental)

II.

-6;

m6=; Greek

ah, Sb,

pronominal stem -pa

(p.

more

and in the termination

ano,

Sanskrit ara, upa,

vrrb,

The form

97, note).

from

suggests

virai

a locative case.

-am

probably accusative cases,

e. g.

quam, obviam, etc., and


os), perperam

thence by analogy to such forms as coram {cum,,

(per-per-am), 'thoroughly;' in termination /anam. of fctfariam,


etc.

suffix -dam appended to pronouns and pronominal


quidam, quondam, etc. (see p. 156).

and in

adverbs

-om (-um). Accusative cases donicum (Plaut.), later doiiec,


dum, quom {cum); actutum, circvm, (stem eirco-), clanculu/m
:

{clam, with diminutive suffix), emtremum-, parum, etc.

adversum,

-em

rursum,

etc.

accusative cases

prominal stem

propediem

see p. 156

to-,

-tern in

etc.

(from

etc. (cp.

-dam

autem,

-dem in quidem,

above).

-im
or

'

pronominal adverbs, with the meaning of 'at'

(i) in

from

'

a place

(see above, p.

im being

and so apparently a

locative termination

126), e.g. illim, hinc {him-ce),

(2) In termination -tim, {-sim) of adverbs

past participles

ferire), etc.

be locative

cases,

with the meaning of

which (as we have


a-,

-u-tim, -i-tim

u-,
e. g.

or

i-

is

i-

sed,

'

circumstance under

declension.

formed with

From

verbs or

stems we have adverbs in -a-tim,

certatim,

nominatim, minutim ; gregatim,

turmatim, generatim, tributim, viritim,

ad

etc.

suggestive of the accusa-

seen, p. 115) is thus

certain nouns of the consonant or

nouns with

strictim,

you stand'), confestim (perhaps from conpa/rtim,, ubertim, mcissim,, etc.


These may also
a,s

which ;' but such a form as partim


tive case,

from or similar to

raptim, conjunctim, mixtim,

sta-tim, {sta-re='

-d in

enim {=zin-im,

locat. of is).

haud, apud

is

etc.

perhaps the old ablative suffix

346

Appendix

II.

etc., is by some

But quod=. because, is most naturally


accus. of respect (cp. Greek on and the use of 6=' whereas');
and the same explanation must hold in th^ other phrases with
which it is compounded.

Adverbial
(p. 124):
terminations
,
in Latin.
called an

-t

and

and quod in guodd, quod utinatn,

in ast,
set

71

ablative.

et, at,

'

may

be only a phonetic variety of -d {homt

are given as varieties of havd, sed); ut seems to be

short for

Greek

It is true that

uti.

(see p. 124) rather points to the

be a different word

and

<a=a)r, the ablative of or

as final;

but then uti would

as this is improbable, it

seems better

up the attempt to show that as and ut are identical.


-n : aw = Greek hv, which by some is connected with ava;
in {endo); quin=quine.

to give

-I

vel,

procul, simul (older

perhaps imperative of

-er

semol= simile), accusative neuter

-per

')

same word as per

nep-av, pierce, etc.,

volo.

the suffix of the comparative degree

(comparative of suh=' up

en,

and

its

12^) in sup-er

(p.

compounds.

(preposition), connected with jrapa,

always of time

nuper (novumper), semper,

tc.
-ter

common

by some

stems,

adverbial suffix from nouns of 0- and

identified with -tus,

sion of the ablative suffix -d or

-t,

comparative sufiix seen in Greek

i-

and regarded as an exten-

by others connected with the


Latin

-repo-s,

de-ter-ior,

etc.

(seep. 133).

-tus:

Greek

appears to

-6cv,

as

= Sanskrit

-mus of

but -6ev more probably


-as : alias, foras,

-us

-is:

133):

-fiev

and perhaps
(see p. 170):

accusative plural.

etc.,

{ius),

of adverbs,

= another suffix -dhas.

secus, tenus, etc.

{i)=ios

-tas

plur.= Greek

ist pers.

perhaps neuter accusatives.

neut. ace. of the comparative suffix (p.

magis=-magios, nimis-=nimios.

Perhaps this

origin of is in pa/ullisper, tant-is-per, etc.

is

the

(2) Ablative plur.

in ybm, gratis {gratiis), etc.


-iens or -ies the suffix for

with the comparative

Greek

-uov,

-wv; Lat.

numeral adverbs, connected perhaps

suffix

-yams (Sanskrit,

-ids, -ius

see p. 132).

iyan(s),

iyaa

Appendix

Table of Cases used Adverbially in

Cases.used.

247

II.

Xiatiu.

348

Cases employed.

Appendioa II.

(3)

From

ablat.

Ajppendipe II.

349

of nouns,

pronouns, and obsolete

case

words.
(4)
2.

From

locat. case of

Adverbial affixes:

nouns and obsolete words.

e.g.

-tas

(cp.

Lat.

-6tv,

-tui)

sense of 'with,' 'from;' -tra forming adverbs of place;

with
-di

(Lat. -de) forming adverbs of time.


3.

in-,

Adverbial prefixes

e. g. a-,

'

privative

Engl, in-, mw-); dus-, dur- (Grk.

with difficulty;' su-,

'well,' 'easily'

D. Comparative Table

(Gk.

'

(cp. Crk. a-,

Lat.

implying 'badly,'

^i).

of Prepositions in Sanskrit, Greek,

and
Sanskrit.

Suo--)

Iiatin.

Appendix

Sanskrit.

II.

GENEEAL INDEX.
Aryan, use and meaning of the
Ablative, inflections of, in Latin,
124.
Accent, effect of, upon decay of
vowel sounds in Latin, 60.
Accusative, inflections of, in Greek,
Latin, and Sanskrit, 115, sqq.
Adverbs originally case forms, 95.
list of terminations of (Appendix
II), 243 sqq.
Agglutinative stage of language, 4.
Alliteration, illustrative of the ten-

dency to reduplication, 52.


Alphabet, relationship of Greek to
Phoenician, 40.
Phoenician, Greek, and Koman,
comparative table of, 42.
Greek, changes and modifica-

Boman,43.changes

and modifica-

tions in, 46.


of,

upon

the

seen in distinctions of gender, 107; -esnom.


plur. of consonant-stems, 113;
declension of ms, grus, and gen.
sing, -is of consonant-stems, and
-t of M- stems, 120; dative dual

in

Greek, 130; gen. sing,

isti,

-a$a of 2 sing., according to


Bopp, 172; amaminor, 168; conjunctive of verbs in -fu, 1 84.
Analytic languages, difference of,

152

from synthetic, 159.


Aorist, 'simple' or 'strong,' 196;
reduplicated, 197.
traces of in Latin, 198.
weak' or compound, relation of,
to strong Aorist, 210.
passive in Greek, 221.

'

of (spirants), 34.
of, in Latin, 69.
Aspiration of uuaspirated letters,

changes
77-

Assimilation of vowels, 6 1
of consonants, 73-79.

Augment,

in Greek and Sanskrit,


theories of its origin, 163.
Auxiliary verbs, traces of, in Latin,
26.
(prosthetic) vowels and consonants, 83.

Cases, original

number

Chinese language, the,

of,

105.

4, 7, 8.

Chordae vocales, their part in the

tions in,

Analogy, influence
forms of language

term, 10.
Aspirate sounds, and modifications

formation of sound, 30.


Classification of languages,
logical,

morpho-

4 sqq.

of nouns,
pronouns,
of

genealogical, 8 sqq.
108.
of
142..
verbs, 168.
Claudius, the Emperor, his attempt
to introduce new letters, 47.
Comparative philology, questions
treated by, I
Comparison of adjectives, 132 ; comparative and superlative suffixes,
ib.

'Conjugations' of Greek verbs, 168;


of Sanskrit, 199.

Conjunctive, suffix of, 184.


Consonants, meaning of the term,
30-

changes

classification of, 31-3S.


of,

63

general

ten-

252

General Indece.

denoies,
loss,

70

substitution, 64
;
assimilation, 73 ; dissi-

ib.
i

milation, 79.

.Consonants, insertion of auxiliary,

Grimm's Law,

original process

of

changes expressed by, 87.

illustrations of, 86, gi.

Guttural sounds, 33.

80, 83.

D
Dative case, inflections of the, 127130.

Declensions of nouns, 108 division


of, into vowel- and consonant;

declension, ib.
Definite article, development of, in
Komance languages, 26.
Dental sounds, 33.
'Dentalism,' 51.
Derivative sufBxes used in formation of noun-stems, 102.
Derivative verbs, formation of, by
suffix

ya

(ja), 103.

Digamma

Aeolicum,' the, 43, 67.


Diminutives in -ellus, -ollus, -illus,
'

-ullus, 59.

Diphthongs, formation of, 36.


weakening of, to simple sounds

consonants,
when
written in Latin, 47.
Dynamic change, 51 sqq.

first

Etymology, general principles to be


observed in, 49.
Explosive' or 'momentary' sounds,
32-

F
Final sounds, loss
'

antiquity

of, 12, 13 ; table of, 13 ;


divergence of, 16.
Infinitive, not a mood but a verbal
noun, 224.
forms of in Greek, 225-228 in
Latin, 228-231.

Inflectional (or terminational) stage


of language, 5.
Inflections of nouns, meamng of the
illustrated, 98.
verbs, variety of, 159.
effects of phonetic change upon,
22 sqq.
Inscriptions, specimens of Latin,

of

250-45 B.C., 237 sqq.


Instrumental Case, inflections

and Latin,

term

in Latin, 56.

Double

'

Imperfect Tense, forms of, in Greek,


209 ; Latin {-bam), 220.
Subjunctive (-rem), 223; of ei^i
and svim, compared, 196.
Inchoative verbs, 208.
Indistinct articulation, changes due
to, 79-84.
Indo-European family of languages,
meaning of the term, 9; subdivisions of, II, 12; comparative

of, etc.,

in

Greek

72, 73.

Fricative ' or

'

protracted

'

sounds,

32.

Future Active (Greek) m-aai, 213;


in -ffl (Attic), 215; Latin in -bo,
216; in -so, -sim, -sere, 217.
Future Passive (Greek), 223.
'Futurum exactum' in Greek and

Keltic group of languages, 12, 15.


Kelts, their migrations, 14.
Koppa, the letter, in Phoenician,
Greek, and Boman alphabets, 40,
45. 46.

L
Labial sounds, 33.
Labialism, 51.

Latin, 220.

'

Gender,

expression of, in IndoEuropean languages, 106.


Genitive Case, inflections of, 118123.^

Grimm's Law, formulae

of,

131Intensification of vowel-aound, 53.


Iranio subdivision of Indo-European
family of language, 11.
Isolating stage ; see ' Kadical.'

of,

89, 90

LautverscMebung' of Grimm's Law,


87.

Liquid sounds, 34.


Locative Case, inflections of, 1 26.
Long vowel sound, attempts to express in

Roman

character, 47.

General Index.

M
'

Mediae,' meaning of term and va-

'

rious names for, 32.


Medial sounds, loss of, in Greek and

Latin, 71.

Middle Voice, a prior development


to Passive, 177.

Middle or Passive (Medio-Passive)


inflections,

159, 161.

forms of (Conjunctive and Opta183 sqq.

Mutes, meaning of term, and other

names

for, 30.

N
Nasal

sounds, formation of, explained and illustrated, 33.


influence of, upon preceding
sounds, 77insertion or addition of (Nasalisation), 55 ; employed in formation
of present-stem, 304.
National peculiarities of utterance.

Pronouns, classification
flection of, 143 sqq.

Nominative Case,

Numeral

inflection of,

Phoenician

signs,

Greek, 42

Perfect Active (Greek), Middle and


Passive, ib.
Perfect-stem, formation of, in Greek,
188 sqq.; in Latin, 192 sqq.
Person-endings of Greek and Latin
verb, 161, 169 sqq.
Phonetic change, influence of, upon
grammatical structure, 22 sqq.
general principles of, 29.
limited sense of, as involuntary
change, 51, 56.
Plautine prosody, illustrative of decay of vowel-sound, 60.
Pluperfect Indicative (Greek and
Latin), 219; Subjunctive (Latin),
223.
Present-stem, its relation to the
pure verbal-stem, 199.
different formations of, classified,
200 sqq.

178-183.

Moods, number of possible, and


meaning of term, 161.
Mood-signa, position and function,

tive),

'253

Roman,

46.

142

in-

'Prosthetic' (auxiliary) vowel, 83.

R
Radical (or isolating) stage of language, 4.

no.
and

of,

Reduplication, origin and general


use of, 52.
employment of in Greek and
Latui Perfect, 187, 192 ; Presentstem, 201.
'Attic' in Greek, 189.
Relationship between languages,
evidences of, 18.

Optative, suffix of, in Greek, 185 ;


forms of, traceable in Latin, 186
' Aeolic' in -<xeia,
313.
Orthograply, fluctuations of, in
Latin, 82.

P
Palatal sounds, 33.
Paradigms of notm-inflection, 135-

illustrations of,

pean family, 23

for
;

Indo-Euro-

for

Romanic

languages, 24, 25.


Romanic or 'Romance' languages,
their descent from Latin, 19.
Roots, definition of,.94 sqq.
list of pronominal, 97 note.

141-

of

pronominal

inflection,

147-

149.
Participles, Perfect Active (Greek),
231 ; Present and Aorist, 232 ;
Middle and Passive in -/ievos,
ib.

Passive in -tm, 233

Fut.

Active in -turus, 235.

from
Voice, developed
Passive
Middle, 177.
Perfect Active (Greek), strong and
weak forms of, 191 ; aspirated
form, ib.

Sanskrit, relationship of, to Greek


and Latin, 1 7.
alphabet, and value of to philologists, 38
Table of. Preface, ad

fin.

Scipios, epitaphs of the, 237-239.

Sclavonic group of languages, 12, 15.


Semivowels (fricative consonants),
as distinguished from mutes, 32.
in limited sense, consonantal
sound of i, u, 35 note.

254
SenatusoonsuKnra

de BacchanalibuB, extract from, 239.


Sounds, relative strength and physical conditions of, 29.

Sounds, relation

of,

to letters of the

alphabet, 37.
Spirants (s, 0,/, ), their connection
with spintus asper and lenis, 35.

changes

of,

65-69.

'Spiritns' 'asper,'

Stems,

and

and

'lenis,' 34.

how

distinguished from roots


inflected words, 98.

Verb, how distinguished from noun,


158.

Verb, forms

of,

more complex than

those of nouns,

ib.

elements o^ i6r.
Vocative, not a case, 105 ; forms
inflection,

in

Greek and Latin,

of,

117.
in Sanskrit

Voice, distinctions of,


and Greek, 177.
Vowels, meaning of term, 30

enumeration of, 35, 36 changes of


loss, 59;
56; substitution, ib.
;

Suffixes, different kinds of, 100.

Tense-stems, 160; classification

assimilation, 61; dissimilation, 62.


auxiliary, prefixed or inserted,
83-

of,

162.

Vowel-scales, 54, 55.

Tenues, meaning of term, and various

names

Terminational

for,

32.

stage

of language

Words, analysis

see 'Inflectional.'

Teutonic group of languages,

Word-formation, processes

1 2.

Thematic (connecting) Vowel, 165.


Turanian family of languages, 8.

of,

of, 99.
into radical and

formative elements, 92.


division of into noun and verb

exhaustive, 93.

;:

INDEX OF SOUNDS AND FOEMS


EXPLAINED.

[N.B. In order to keep Greek and Latin forms together in this Index,
the different order of the respective alphabets has been thus adjusted
17, <v ( = e, 0) appear under e, 0; y imder
g ; 9 (th) under t ; f under s
i under x: <J>, x> ^> appear in their usual place, after .]

A, the vowel, 35.


breaking up of, into E, 0,
-a,

36,

54, 95accus. sing., 115,

&filies, dfiite,

sing., 131.
termination, 191,
a, -a, adverbial termination (Latin),
243-d, neuter plural, 155.
-o, adverbial termination (Gr.), 248.
-a, thematic, 167.
-d (orig. a), I. E. conjunctive suffix,
-a, -tea, perf.

66, 74, 82, 144.

ApmivaXiiv, 198.

instrumental

-d,

dfi0pOTOS, 84.
&fie\yes, 2 sing., 170.

1 84.

weakening of, in Latin to


ab-sem, prae-sens, 232.

-a,

i,

58.

dvd, hv, 157.


avaffaa, 75.
avS&vai, iaSov, rjSoiMi, etc., 203.
ivSpbs, 83.

amte-hac, 124.
-ao, -a, gen. sing., 119.
-aw, -ofiu, derivative verbs in, 103.

Apolones (old genitive), 62.


apprime, adverb, 244.
ar-biter, ar-cesso, etc. {ad), 65..

arcesso, 218.

accestie, 224.

dpripoTai, 189.

acer, acris, 112; aeerrimus, 134.


aSf\<pe (voc), aS\(pds, ll'J.

'Aryam,' meaning of the term, 10.

as

adeo, 154.
-ae,

nom.

plur.,

113; gen.

nom. plur., 113; aco.


117; gen. sing, (archaic),

(archaic),

plur.,

121.

sing., 121.

deiSev, infin. (Doric), 227.

as

dyayeiv, 160.
5710s, 66.
ago, actus, dfou, 77.
ago, in compounds -igo, 58.

asellus, 59.
dariip (star, steUa, etc.), 17, 83.

(I. E.),

gen. sing., 118.

-oToi, -OTO, 3 plur. (Epic), 182.


'ASfirqai (locative), 127.
oLTp^KTjs,

-ai (archaic),

nom.

plur.,

113; gen.

sing., 121.

-aiva, -eiva, verbs in, 104, 206.

aUl, alfs (Doric), 126.


aXyjnjT^, alx/J-fJTTjs, 1 10.
i\i\riiiai, l8p.
alicuti, alityimde, 71.
alis, alid,

153.
alius, a\Xo5, 207.
dWofuu (saZio), 206.

95.
Atmane-pada' (Sanskrit), 177.
au, diphthong, in Latin, 36, 56.
aucfips, aucup-is, 61, 109.
ausim, 66, 217.
ay a (aja), verbal suffix, 103.
'

B, formation of sound, 33.


&, confusion of, with v sound in
Latin, 68.
0, use of,

am

(Eng.), 169.
Him, 131.

by Greek writers

sent Latin

alterae, dative, 153.


b,

seldom

to repre-

v, it.

initial

0, parasitic, 84.

in Sanskrit, 90.

Index of Sounds and Forms Explained.

%^6

h, d, pEirasitio,

in

modem languages,
220; quan-

'old' ablative termination in


Latin, 124.
(pro-d, neut. sing, termination

0aal\fas,

nominal), 151.
dS, dha, distinction between roots,

84.

bam,

Lat.

tity of

iniperf., 210,
in,

221.

PaaiXea (iSatriAcv-s), 115


118 PaaiXfjos, 165.

len^,

maU,

-bM

(-^i)>

-bi,

dat.

124.

instrumental sing., 131.


143; as adverbial

sing.,

(pronominal),

hhyams, dat.

plur., 129.

hiho, 201.

-bo,

in,

excep-

216;

tion, ib.

bobus, bubuSt^^g,
0obs (Poi-s), 118.
etc.,

SiSrj,

29.

of,

StSivTOJV (Siu), 202.

-Sto-s,

compounds

-cipio, 5S.

termination, 157, 244.

cecidi (cado), 59.

pronunciation of, in Italian, 78.


ti, interchange of, in Latin,

and

ci

55, 203.

dies, Diespiter, 156.

37.

ceteri, posteri, etc., 133.


ci,

Stictj),

SiSafu, S3.
die, gen. sing., 121.

capesso, 218.
-ce, enclitic

65.
-dem, -do, -dam, etc., 156, 245.
denuo, adv., 243.
deus, 156.
817(010,

diewndo {jure), 57, 61.

C, in Latin, 31, 46.

capio, in

131-

Sfl,

dico (irirdic-are,

gen. plur., 123.

brother, /rater, etc., 20, 91.


-bus {-bos, -bios), dat. plur.,

pronunciation

SeiSlaffofiai, 53.
SAiplv, d(\(pls. III.

50.

Latin future

toims=dederwnt,

.
^
Siinvv/u, StMvviuv, quantity of, 1 90.

tional forms in, of 3rd conjuga-

bovermn,

SiSae, 198.
dedro, dedrot, old

195-

bifariam, adv., 245.


bin (German), 169.

Ms = Sis,

88.
SatSA\tos, 53,
S&ms, 64.
de, preposition, 156.
-de, adverbial termination, 244.

termination, 245.
-hhyams, dat. sing,

143

d,

78.

dto, adv., 243.


clamor, clarus, 59.
Claudius, Clodius, 56.
coerare, coirare (old fonns of curare),

adjectival termination, So.

diu, 244.
JDius FidMis, 156.
dixti, 59, 224.
Si^i;ai, 2 sing., 178.

domimus, formation

of,

98.

dono.dedit, 73.
dds (imper.), 171.
107, 236.
Sovpis (doph), 119.
duellum (bellum),
Brireipo,

duonorum

(Jono-

rum), 51.
hvybv (Boeotian) ^v/hv, 80.

56.
cogo, 59.

dudum,

244.

duim {daim,

condtoio, orthography of, 78.


confiuxet, 223.

So^ijv),

187.

-dwm, 156.

consumpse, 224.
corolla, 69.
corpus, corpor-is, 58.

coram, 245.
credere, etc, (root dhd), 88, 222.

cuculus, 52.
cucwrri [cwrro), 59.
cum (aiv), preposition, 50.

cum {quom, quvm),


J),

conjunction, 61,

formation of sound, 33.

change

of, to I, r, 65.
d, parasitic before y, 80.

d,

E, a phonetic variety of A, 36, 57,


95 ; position of, in scale of Latin
sounds, 57.
e, affinity of to r, 61.
gen. sing., 121.
? (orig, e), abl. sing., 125.
-e, -d, -i, dat. or loc, 128.
I, pronoun, 145 ; declension of, 147.
I, for reduplication, 189.
t, in conjug. of weak aorist (Epic),
212.
-e,

e,

-i,

Latin adverbs

in, 244.

Index of Sounds and' Forms Explained.


^a=^v, 210.

-eo;,

taSov, 164,
-J),

2 sing, mid.,

78.

ecce,

244.
ecus (equus), 62.
l7(J), 7011', etc.,

liroimi, sequor, 50.

ego,

142; declension

147.

186;

optat.,

e1it]v

equester, 79.
eqwidem, qiiidem, 83.

equus
of,

op.

with

(iirnos, asvas), 49, 50.


erajd, conjugation of, cp. with Skt.

Ssam, Gk.
of a in, ib.

tfo/au (sed-cs), 76.


ei-, for reduplication, 189.
-, 3 sing., 176.

syam,

iii6om>, iavoviiriv, kiipaiv, &c., 164.


f<pi 0iy4)i, 131.

edim, 187.
^Sed (jSeiv), conjugation
Latin videram, 219.

rfijf,

gen. sing, of a- stems in Greek,

119.

-rai (Epic), -(,

of,

357

ija,

210

^v,

quantity

-ere, 3 plur. perf. indie, 58.


-Ire, 2 sing, pass., 58.
(

l(r-i?)i/,

aiem), conjugation of, ib.

ergo, adv., 243.

epyov (work), 68, 71.

eiKoai, vigtnti, 78.


eZ/ti, ei^! (c<f/J). 6, 99.

ero, 207.

-iiv, infinitive in,

Ippeov, 165.
tenerunt, 3 plur. perf. indie, 195
dency to shorten e of, ib. note.

flo, eo, eS, etc.,

Ss (8m), es, (edo), 170.


-cs, nom. plur., 112 ; -es (Lat.), 113.

-eii/ (-effo,

-fa), pluperf. I sing., 219.

227.
cfcai, efifzivm, 226.
146.

conjunctive, 169.
feminine, 107, 236.

diraifu,
-et/ja,

~fis, 2 sing.,. 1

-CIS,

-efs,

-ess,

114; of

i-

atems, 113.
-eis,

dat. plur. of

nom.

is,

63, 155.

is,

114, 155.

ds, preposition, 157.

fut.,

75, 206.

es* (edo), 79.

karaoTfs, 232.
fffTfXAa (Aeolic),

conjugation

eicTova, perfect, 79.

iiBi}V, i0i/j.7jv,

kK&aaasv, 75, 306.


-171', aor. pass., 221.

cvaSc (Epic), 164.


euntes, 61, 62, 232.
extemplo, 243.
eidet, 21 6.

Doric

aor., 74.

^a6a, 171.

worTo^ii/, 131.

-ey,

214.

ia-ai {it), 17, 170.


fiaatiiv,

plur. of

eiffT^KCiy, 66.
cff

ta-jxtv, eff-re, 17.

iaaarat, Doric

eis=is, 154.
ess,

feminine termination, 108.

'iaaa (Jiwv/u), 212.

esseedere, 74, 228; infin. of sum,


228.

70.

-taaa, adject., 231.


plur. of 0- stems,

infinitive, 227.

-ellus, -Ulus, ullus (diminutives), 59.

of,

197.

ij\vSov, fi\'fi\ov8a, 54, 83.


-em, accus. sing, in Latin, 116.

-em, subj. (optative) forms in, 187.


ejjteio, kfievs, eftovs, gen. sing., 143.
^/ifts,

/ representing

ifijA (Aeolic),

74; ^c, imp., 210.

-endo (m), 157.


-cvai, infinitive,

fallo, trcfdXXa), 71.

(<TTfWa, etc.,

212.
enim, nam, 83, 245.
fvvviu, ves-tis, 74.
-ens, -ent-is, participial termination,

103, 232.
eov (imperf.
305.

aspirate sounds, 70.

facesso, 219.

facillimus, 75, 134.

226.

evetlia, iveiijjia, itrreiKa,

-efo),

Latin alphabet, 43, 69.


sound, formation of, 35 ; pronunciation, 69.

66, 144.

kfdy, 143.

-ew,

F in
/

elpil),

210.

derivative verbs in, 104,

fmrml, 67.
/on, 70.
/oOT (cp. egi,jeci,

etc.),

193-

faxim, 217.
femina, 10.
feriae {fet-tus), 66.
ferrem, 75, 223.
^e, gen. sing., 121.

quantity

of,

;;

a^S

Index of Sounds and Forms Explamed.

fldea, f'tdo, foedm (foidos), 55, 203.


foedos, fardewn
hor( = hoedus,

deum), 70.

193jam, 156.

fores (Sipa, door), 70.


fraB-tu8,frag-or, 49; frango, 204.
fui, 70, 194.

tijfu,

/undo,

iens, euntis, 232.

6k. optative

-If, -1)7, -I,

suffix, 185.

202.

Uvai,

atj>fvS6vri, 71.

of Latin perfect,

characteristic

i,

226.

i/tevai,

230 ; period
of transition between, 231.
Ulectum, cp. with elidttim, 235.
-ien, -i, pass, iniin., 229,

G, in Latin, 31, 46; pronunciation


of, 37-

generis, yivovs, 61, 66, 120.

illico, adv., 243.


iUius, ipsius, etc., 62, 152.
Am., accus., nouns which retain. 115.
{-in), locative, of pronouns, 153
as adverbial termination, 245.
im, subjunctive (optat.) forms in,

genus, declension of, 137.


gigno, 201 ; yiyru, 302.
yvvat (voo.), 118.

imago, imitor, 202.


ifiey (d/i), 202 ; Imus

gwudeo, gavistis, 59.


yevirstpa^ 65.
ycy~i~Trjs, 166.
7i'os,

im

jeMM, franas, 58.

187.

'>kn/m, I plur. perf.

H,
h,

of, 195.
vaclatus, 235.

the character, 43.

sound

mdmperator, 244.
-inis, genitive from Latin nouns in
-o{n), homo, etc., 62.

of, 34.

h, insertion of, after p,

t,

c,

r,

Latin, 82,
harena, harundo, haruspex,
orthography of, 82.
"EKiPrj, Heovha {Hecoha), 61.

in

inqua/m, 169.
interdiu, 156.

etc.,

verb forms

-io,

-10),

heri (x*^*), hesternus, 66, 126.


hie, pecu^rities in declension

of,

lojc, -ior,

tiiv, ioivei,

comparative

I,

i
{

Uivya (dialectic for

{equus, asvas), 49, 50, 74, 82,


140.

of 3 conjug., quantity

is, -it,

of,

207.

dat. plur., 130.


iaaai, 176-

ib.

-is,

scale of, 54, 55.

becomes

no.

ipsus, ipse, 58, 67, 153.

taiiiv, 77.

perfect infin., 195, 228.


-issimns, superlative, 75, I34iste, declension of, 150.
larri (fara-Si), 171; Jirras (partic),
-iese,

loss of, in Latin, 59.


affinity of, for dental sounds, 62.

i,

I7411),

fffTTOs

sound, weakness of, 57, 59.


representing a in Latin, 58.

i,

suffixes, 132,

143-

vowel, 35 ; J (Y), semirowel, ib.


attempts to distinguish them, 47
i,

104, 205,

i.?3-

luir/na, imr^Tijs,

to represent

in,

207.
iofiev, conjunctive, 184.

.154hiemps, hiems, 50, 84.


hisce, nom. plur., 114.
ho3 = huc, 154.
honSr, honoris, 60.

I,

(?o), ib.

indie, quantity

e in contact

with

a, 0, u,

232

62.

sound thrown back, 104.


nom. plur. of Latin 0- stems, 114

ia0t (ti/jJ

Greek

and

oTda, ft.)

superlative, 134.

i (y, j),

-KTTo-s,

-,

farap, 79.
-it, 3 sing. perf. indie, quantity of,

gen. sing., 120.


- (-ei), abl. sing.,

-t

(Gk.

125.
sing. (orig. in),

1), loc.

pronominal stems by,

i, increase of

in Latin, 152
i (perf.

Bubj.)

confusion

194
1 26.,

and

of,

i,

Greek

I (2

185.

suffix, ib,

fut.

indie),

ita,

note,

156.

jugvm,

^vyllv, 80.

jure dicundo^dsAivel), 128.


T(ov,

Epic aor.

l(a, 202.

t<u,

212.

Index of Sounds and Forms Explained.


k, h, in Sanskrit, 33.
K, in Latin, 46.

KAL.
Ka,

'

(Kalendae),

weak

memoria, 53.
-/iev,

191

-nfs {-mius), i pers. plur., 170.

-Hevai,

ih.

perfect,'

359

litv, infin. in,

KaXaipaif/, 165.

IxrjvTtv,

kAitvos, vapor, 50.

quantity

Iiipifxva, 70.

Ke/caSHiiv, KeKKvSi, Kex&povTO,


Kevfos (Epic), 65.
KiKtiraa, 206.

etc.,

225.

-lievo-s, participial suffix,

aorist, ib.

-/ieaSa,

-liiBa,

198.

182

102, 232,

205.

of,
*

(dual),

-neBov

183.
-pu, 1 pers. sing.,

Doric future, 214.


aorist (juxirXa-Kov, etc.), 191.

169.

H\avcro6iieBa,

miles, milit-is, 61.

-icoy,

lUfUo/tat, 52, 202.

Kopiaaai {ic6pv6-os), 75, 206.

mini, 2 plur. pass.,

79.

modo, adv., 243.


L, formation of sound, 34
origin
of its use as Koman numeral, 46.
;

I,

affinity of, to , 61.

I,

interchange

A.X,

N, formation of sound,
ii,

with r, 63, 64.


by assimilation from Ky, loi,
of,

lacrima, 65.
Xaji^hvai, 204.
lauttts, lotus, 56.

ne (ae), val, vr), 157, 244.


-ne, adverbial term, 244.
neg-otiwm {nee), 64.
nempe, 244.

\e-\onr-a, 53, 54.


Xe\atfov, Ke\axov, 198.
AtXaieat, 178.
Xiaao^Lai {Kir-rj), 75, 206.
-AAoi, verbs in, 104, 206.
locassim, 207.

veds (navas, noims), 36.


venobes, 64.
nolle, 228.

\vaeo, 212.

M,

formation of sound, 33.


history of the character, 44.
origin of its use as Roman numeral, 46.
-m, 1 sing, termination, Skt. and
Latin, 169.
-ma, -mo, -man, etc., noun suffix,

nos, 144; v(b, vtti, vaiL, vSiXv, ib.


ns, accus. plur. in Gothic, 116.
mt, final sound in Latin, 73 treat;

ment of stems
num, nunc, 157.

and n ffya,

ablat. sing.,

43.

124; Latin adverbs

middle and

-a, I pers. sing., 99.


-q>, -a, dat. sing., 128.

pass.,

theories of their formation, 180.


malle, 228.

classification of verbs in, i68.


{ta-a-iu), conjugation of, 184.

-01, Si,

Si

-3, contracted futures in,

mus, i
imxiaaonai,

214

'
;

At-

tic' future in, 215.

plur., 170.

occurro (obc), 74.

irnxovfioi,

oSovs, dens, 83, 86.


-01, -ai, nom. plur., 112.

215-

medias, piiaaos, 207.

68
compared with

otda {fiSuv, video),

/ieAi, likkiT-os, 72.

melior, 133 ; form, as


/idWov, 207.

lUKpbv

in, 243.

/lapimlptiv, 52.
-mas (Skt.), -lUS,

no, in.

57.95-o,

(magis), 67.
magister, minister, 133.
magistris, nom. plur., 114.

in,

0, a phonetic variety of A, 36, 54,

102.

mage

Itaxiaojim,

of,

J 39-.
vavy, vija, 115.

X(7r-y, 'd-\Lir-ov,

-rat,

33.

sound in Greek, 72.

present stem, 204.


-nam, termination, 156.
vavs (navis, naus), paradigm

lac, lact-is, 73.


lacesso, 217.

-aat,

final

V e^\Kv(XTiKdi/, 170, 171, 183.


-V, accus. sing, in Greek, 115.
-V, I sing, termination, 169.
-ya, -ve, -vrj, -yv, use of, to form the

104, 206.
U, in Latin forms, 207.
-la, nom. suffix, 103.

-fiai,

compared with

of,

Lat. vidi, 190.


S 2

conjugation
Skt.

veda,

26o

Index of Sounds and Forms Explained.

oTkos (yicua), otvos (yinum), 71.


'Otfjit, -otijv, optat. 186.
-OIK, dat.

dual,

oino^unum,

30

irioimi, etc., pres.

-oiiV (Epic), ib.

with

fut. sense, 216.

Tr/iTTB),

53, 59.
plaudo, ex-plodo, 56.

Doric

7rAU(7criT^at, iT\Vffo6fie6a,

73, 238.

oTaSa, 171.
oUus, olim, J53.

jrX(x*'^ (irA.K-ai), 50, 76.

S/i/M, 74.

irXoufftos, 78,

6fi(j)a\os,

7r(5\c(s,

83.

-wv, gen. plur., 122

participle

irdKeais,

(Lat.

stein,

232.

-dvTwv (Doric -6vtw), -wnto, 3 plur.


imperative, 176.
-ow, -0^, derivative verbs in, 104.
bipiiXtti, dtfi^Kkaij

206.

Spao, 181, 212.


-iis,

151.
-oso, adjectival suffix, 231.
-ov, gen. sing,, 119.

paradigm

of,

pone, adverb, 244.


pono, pomi, 71.
posse, 227.

possem,

etc., 223.
porgo, porrigo, 59.
pote (potis), 67.
postridie, 126.

rrpay/ja, Trpay/jar-os, 98.

(Doric), fiiture, 65, 214.


praeseas, 103, 232.
prirfje, 156.
procus, precor, 55.

racter, 42.
p, seldom initial

in

the cha-

Gothic

and

Saxon, 90.
and t, s, I,
p, insertion of, between
84, 234.
paC'iscor, wfiy-vvfu, 64.
padas (Skt.)=iro5os, irdSes, trdSas,

57-

pagurit (xil Ta.h.)

= panffunt,

igS.

iranTa\6eis, 53.
nafKpaiviLVy 53.

Parasmai pada

'

(Koppa), 45.

jiiaesior, jMaesiioc, 59.


qiiaestuis, quaesti (gen. sing.), 120.

qna/ndo, 244.
quattuor, r^rrapes, 51.
gue, 244.
gues, nom. plur., 114.
qui, adverb, 117, 244.

quia, 243.
quine, quim, 244.
quis, tU, 51.
guoaiZ, 243.
quoiei, dative, 128, 152, 155.
quom, quum, cum, 62, 154.

(Skt.), 177.

parentes, parientea, 198.

Parilia {Falilia), 79.


paterfamilias {gen.), 121.
pe, 157, 244.
vdSoj, neiroiSa, 54.
pejero, 71.

pepigi (pac-tum), 59.


treiretff/wii,

Q,
;

adverbial termination, 244.

-yte,

iTToKefws, iTTdXis, etc., 205.

135.

P, formation of sound, 33

'

(Ion.), gen.

propediem, 156.

-ov (-eiro, -co), 2 sing, mid., 180.


-ovaa, fem. participle, 232.
oa;,

7rti\(OS

itpa^iofits

Gk. adverbial termination, 124.


(ff/^os, suus), 66, r45
8s and d,

-tus,

Si/*,

jt6\7]OS,

iroJs (jJes), 91.

-via, -ds (for-), perf. participle,

231.
8

v6\ts,

sing., 119,

-ent),

-ovTi (-ovai), -unt, 3 pers. plur. 57,


176 ; -ocToi, -OKTO, 182, 183.

175(Ionic), 112;

ir(5Ais

accus. .plur., 117.

participle, 232.

ovoiM, nomen, 83.


-oi/T,

fut.,

214.

77.

TTftTiBov, 197,
pepuli, expuli, 192.
perperam, 245.
Tiiaov^i, future, 215.
petesso, 219.

K, formation of sound, 34
r,

the cha-

racter, 42.
affinity of to

-}

= se),

c, 61.
characteristic

passive terminations,
-re

(-8e),

Latin

original quantity

of

infinitive,
of,

Latin

78.

228

229.

recepso, 217.

-rem, imperf. conjunctive, 223.


remits, 71.
^iot, tppivaa, fppvrjv, etc., 7O1 203.
reppvli, repperi, rettuli, 102.
fii(a

{Wurzel, wort), 71, 76.

Index of Sounds and Forms Explained.


Moma,

71.

-rum, gen.

plur., 122.

-ruri, 126.

5, S, different forms of, 43.


s, changed to r between vowels in
Latin, 64, 66.
s

changed to spiritua asper, 66.


between Towels lost in Gk., 66.

(17),

<r

-, final,

loss of, 67.

sont (French), 17.

spar-sus, 235.
-ssem, plup. conj., 223.
-aaai (-TTtu), verbs in, 75, 206.
ff^ii, a(pm, etc., 145.
-si, 2 sing. term. (Eng. and Grerm.),

172.
statim, 245,
steUa, 17, 59, 83.
-a9a, 2 sing., 1 71-174.

-s, initial,

loss of, 70.


(tt), 75, 306.

-a9ai, inf., 174, 227.

<r<r

-fffle,

ss,

in Latin, 75, 76.

-s,

nominative

sutfix,

-s {-as, -s, -es),

s,

nom.

182.
aBhai, 81.

no.

-fffloi,

plur., 112.

-sti, 2 sing.,

174, 181 ; -fffloii', -ffflftKray, 182.


171, 173, 196.
stuUus, stolidus, 61.

3 sing. (Eng.), 176.

-s,

representing root as, s, various


use of in verb formation, 211 note.

'weak

-era,

aorist,' 211.

s6

(uTTo),

ss (Ss), 35.

cum, 50.

trill/,

skZcms (o\kos), 61.

-acu, 2 sing, mid., 181.

summiis, 74.

sal, &\s, 64.

gjimpsi (sijmo), 234.


avpiaSes (Doric), 170.
suus {apbs, &s), 66, 145.

the letter, 44.

aclr,
'

Sanskrit,'

aa<pr)s,

261

meaning of the term,

il.

-sya, gen. sing., 118.

81.

cxis, 171.
-aaco,

-SCO,

verb

forma

in,

208

-ffKov, ib,

scopulus, ffK6ve\os, 61.


seeundus = sequendus, 57.
sedes (?Sos), 35, 64, 66.
-aeia, Aeolio optative,' 313.
senatnos, senatuis, senati (gen. sing.),
120.
sepvMm (sepelio), 61.
'

sepositns, sepostus, 234.

sequer, iwoimi, 50.


sequor, socius, 55.
sero, 301.
-o-(, -s (Skt. -si, -s), 2 sing. term., 170.
-ai, -am, dat. (locat.) plur., 127.
si, sio,

155.

-0-1,

3 sing., 175.

-si,

Latin perfect

193.

vXrj, 64.
(stem), conjugation of, 186.

seal

201.
(Doric),

78, 175

ib.

-tus,

participle suffix to -sus), 235.


-t, nominative of stems in, iii.
to-,

pronominal stem, declension

of,

150.
-tar,
-tar,

the root, modifications of, 95.


noun suffix (agency), 7, 102,

236.
-tara (-repo-s), comparative suffix,
133Toeuc,

tago

gen. plur., 133.

= tango,

198.

-re, 2 plur., 175.

Tcofo (Epic), gen. sing., 145.


TTaycbv, 198.
reTV(f>ws, TiT-v(p6T-os,

no,

-Torp, -Tpoi' (Lat. -tor, -trum),


noun-suffixes, 236.
-th, 3 sing. term. (Eng.), 176.
6e\a, e8i\a, 83.
-Orjv, aorist pass., 222.

-TJ7P,

sUva,
sisto,

i,

Terv^ffat, 228.
in,

sldo, 201.

im

T, change of, to a before


in Latin {-ti to -si),

future

termination,

e^Xvs (femina),

214.
-ao, 2 sing. mid.

(secondary form),

-sim, -sere, Latin future forma m,


217.
-am, formation of future in, 213-215.

eh, 171.

solUstmvwm (tripudium), 134.

-001 (pres.),

awpia, aiiimT-m, 72.

Bvydr-rjp,

-so,

efjp

(Jera), 35, 86,

91.
Sibs, vocative, 118.
-0t,

2 sing, imper., 171.

Blv, Bis, 111.

-60V (aor.), 222.

daughter, 86.

Index of Sounds and Forms Exjilained,

36a
tMijo-i,

jsing., 175.

-IMS,

-uus,

gen.

-uls,

of

sing,

u-

-tim, adverbial termination, 245.


Tis, quis, 51.

stems, 120.
inrd,

-Us, 2 plur., 175.


-Ttti, -to, verbal suffix (present stem),
-Toi', 2 dual, 175.
raaav, 3 plur. imperat., 176.

TV (oi), thou,

etc., 20,

234

of,

(plpwv, ferens,

233

noun

softened to

after dental stems, 235.


(riJir-Ttti), 50.
Tv<l>9rjTi, I aor. imper., 171.

136.

(-6A),

-<pi, -<piv

instrumental, 131.
176.

and Latin, 45, 46.


XapUffffa, 206.

plur.

Ix^va, etc., 70, 203, 2 1 3,


X^ps (Aeolio) = xf 'P, IIX,
Xevia (Aeolic), 68.
Xeo), ex^a,

XOiiiv, x^'Sj'os, 1 10.

XPl") imperfect, 164.

pron.,

170.

W, the character, introduction


ipiKcL ypdi^fjuiTa, tf/i\Sis

of, 45.
yp&cpuv, 32.

64.

velle, 228.

Veda, Vedic, 53.


-ui (-vi), Latin perfect

a
in,

= Ks),

Y, the

origin of, 194.

history

of,

45.

character, 47.

the semivowel sound of ", 35.


y, how represented in Greek, 65.
y (^, {), influence of in assimilation,
y,

vidi, conjugation of, cp. vrith ofSa,

75, 206.

etc., 190.

videram, cp. with pSea,

pSeii',

219.

vlginti, eixofft, 78.

virgo, virago, 59.

223.

iilulo, 52.

122 ; adverbial termination, 245.


umerus, umor, orthography of, 82.
-ViTidue, gerundive termination, 57.
-unt {-ovTi, -ovai), 3 pers. plur., 57,
-jjm, gen. plur.,

176.
-va, -ufeu, etc., derivative verbs in,

104.

ya

{ja,

10, is),

noun

{trj,

to,

t,

etc.),

tive suffix, 132.


yug, the root, 80.

Z, in

Greek alphabet, 44; in Roman,

46. 47Zeis, 76.


-fo) (

Iv/ti],

99.

suffix, 102.

verbal

suffix, 103
(present
(optative), 205
185
stem) feminine termination, 107.
-yant (yans, ians, -taiv, -ios), compara-

ya

by. yy), verbs in, 104, 206.

fu-yjv (root yug), 80.

volumus, 57.
uoic, vocis, vSco,

193

viciens, 79.
victrix, 107.

mxem,

of,

ipevloOimi, future, 65, 214.

X, history of the character, in Greek

U, vowel sound of; 35.


character (F) in Greek, 43.
V (=p), changes of, 68.
u, affinity of to I, 61, 192.
V (Latin), pronunciation of, 68.
vapor, nairvis, 50.
-vas (Skt.), dual, 170.

S/3pis (uir^p),

paradigm

191.

^pdfw, 76.

T&lias, rdfco'T-ot, 1 10,

nom.

as a
ditto,

tpoploiai, 3 plur. (Aeolic),

rvcji-Sds

(Skt.),

Roman

46.

suffix,
t

Greek alphabet, 45

-<^, ' aspirated perfect,


tp&aSa, 174.

-taras, fut. participle, 235.


turtur, 52.

participle

144.

numerical sign in

(tego), 62.
(Boeotian), 145.

suffix,

ut, 155,

4, in
86, 145.

tugurium

vayam

245,

66.

iiaiiivr},

liti,

TpeTs, tres, etc., 20, 86.

-iMS,

viral,

uswa, 236.

305.

TiJi/ij

eub, 35

-Us, gen. sing, in Latin, 1 19, 152.

80.