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Themes and traces (Chapter 10-15)

Native Americans

• Jackson’s Indian Removal act- Cherokees were becoming more civilized, were the only
exception to forced removal but after Jackson’s election Georgia extended its laws to
include Cherokees for removal.
• Jackson approved
• Trail of tears- Cherokee were forced to evacuate their lands in Georgia and travel under
military guard to present day Oklahoma. 16000 died.

African Americans

• Slaves that worked in the Cotton fields of farms and plantations


• King Cotton demanded Year round care
• Took Sunday off
• Black Christianity incorporated African Religion and stressed Bible parts that spoke to the
Aspirations of slaves wanting Freedom
• African Methodist Episcopal Church- Richard Allen. First independent black run protestant
church in the U.S.
• Rebellions in Louisiana but was suppressed.
• Vesey Conspiracy- plot to burn Charlestown and start the general slave revolt. Were ratted
out before plan could take action
• Second Seminole war- most successful because blacks accompanied Indians west
• Underground Railroad- Network of safe houses organized by abolitionists to aid slaves in
their attempts to escape slavery in the North or Canada
• Blacks had to carry papers in the south to prove their freedom.
• American Colonization Society- Abolitionist organized hoped to provide a mechanism by
which slavery could gradually be eliminated. The society advocated the relocation of free
blacks to the African colony of Monrovia present day Liberia.
• Slaves in the Northern south were moved south to support the cotton franchise.
• Cotton gin by Eli Whitney
• American antislavery society
• Liberty party- first antislavery political party.
• Fredrick Douglas
• Southern Gag rule
• Wilmont Proviso- any lands won from Mexico would be closed to slavery
• Free soil party
• Fugitive Slave Law- made it easier for slave owners to recapture runaway slaves.
• Kansas Nebraska Act- Popular Sovereignty
• Dred Scott case- Congress had no power in slavery
• John Brown- Harpers Ferry- Seized arsenal and armory. Stopped by Lee
• The Deep South Secedes because of Slavery issue
• Emancipation Proclamation- Freed all slaves that were in Confederate states that were
recaptured by the Union
• 54th Regiment- first Black regiment
• Black Codes- Blacks separated from the Whites
• KKK- secret terrorist society first organized in Tennessee in 1866 to disfranchise blacks,
stop reconstruction, and restore prewar order of the south.

Immigrant groups

• Mass immigration Begins after Industrial Revolution Takes off


• Use of Women and children as cheap labor
• From Ireland, Germany, and others
• Potato famine in Ireland made them pack their bags and move to America
• Low paid, lived in Slums, Catholic
• Germans were better off, more accepted than the Irish, Protestant, not as much in poverty
• Suburbs, slums developed
• Immigrants and wageworkers- cheap labor- accelerated the Industrial Revolution
• Men tended to machines- dominant of women workers
• Irish men willing to do women’s work
• Conditions worsened
• Irish were more willing to work longer hours for less, less prone to protest because of bad
conditions
• Immigrants favored Democrats over Whigs
• Immigrants helped the Union during the Civil war by working in the Factories while the
Americans took up arms

Women

• Marriage for love weakened the traditional parental role- had less control over selection of
child’s mates
• Wives more as companions
• The Cult of Domesticity- The ideology of domesticity stress the virtue of women as
guardians of the home, which was considered their proper sphere
• Women had abilities to affect the decisions of man
• Hardest for Free Black Women
• Working class women were not very well off
• Catherine Beecher- school teachers for women only
• Dorothea Dix- novel that told of inhumane practices in Asylum. Made reforms
• Abolitionism was a catalyst for women’s rights system
• Seneca Falls Convention- first women’s rights convention in Senca Falls NY. Elizabeth Cady
Santon and Lucretia Mott. Drafted the Declaration of sentiments
• Stowe- Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Women took over Men’s Jobs during the Civil War

Demographic Changes

• Louisiana Purchase for 15 million from the French


• Texas wins independence and we have a war with Mexico and gain texas as a state
• Oregon Territory acquired
• Defeat of Mexico gave us all of New Mexico
• Gadsten purchase for Railroad
• People moved west in search of gold and instant wealth
• After the civil war there was a shortage of men

Economic Transformation

• Entrepreneurs liked government aid


• Jackson and the Bank Veto
• Jackson vetoed the re-chartering of the bank ad withdrew all federal fund from it thus
killing the Bank.
• Southern economy was based on King Cotton
• The internal slave trade of the South
• The invention of the cotton Gin made slave prices rise
• Railroads are a huge success
• The Confederacy relied on the world’s dependency on their cotton for help
• Green Backs in the Union- new form of currency
• Southern wealth dropped because of loss of slaves or loss of assets

Globalization & international Relations


• The south sold 90% of the world’s Cotton
• Oregon- British American joint occupation- Adam-onis treaty with spain
• Decided on the 49th parallel
• Mexico had control over texas to California- had free trade policy
• Secularization act- emancipated Indians from church control
• Mexican government encouraged American Settlers into Texas
• Gave Slaves freedom- with exemption of Texas in which the people can have slaves
become lifelong indentured servants- was ignored by the Americans
• Because of being ignored- Mexican government stopped all immigration and importation of
slaves
• Texas revolted and declared independence
• Alamo- Americans fought bravely but were killed
• Sam Houston vs Santa Anna and Houston won
• Sam Houston 1st president- 10 year s lone star republic
• Sought Annexation by U.S. but U.S didn’t want to risk war with Mexico
• Santa Fe trail
• Oregon Trail
• The Mormon Trek- region of the Great Salt lake- resisted the government
• Manifest Destiny- support of territorial expansion, that god supported American expansion,
and that national expansion equaled the expansion of freedom
• John Tyler VP became President when Harrison died, focused on the annexation of Texas
• Texas and Mexico dispute over territory between Nueces and Rio Grande
• When Texas was Annexed Mexico broke diplomatic ties
• Polk sent troops to Louisiana
• General Zachary Taylor went into undisputed territory
• Mexican American War- ended by treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- Got north Mexico
• California revolted- Colonel Stephen Kearny- Bear Flag Republic soon integrated into U.S
• U.S didn’t take all of Mexico because its hard to incorporate a new culture
• During Civil war south asked Britain and France for help but didn’t succeed

Politics & Citizenship

• Democracy- direct rule from the people


• Equality of opportunity
• Jacksonian Democracy- Self made men, rejected idea that leaders should be drawn from
the elite. Jackson- first people’s president
• Republican party split over who next president
• Adams, Jackson, Clay, Crawford
• Corrupt bargain- Clay gave his votes to Adams for the Secretary of State position
• Adams won
• Tariff of abominations- authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that
posed a threat to national security
• Politicians learned that providing entertainment and treats could lure people to the polls
• Jackson defeated Adams in election
• Spoils system- Removal of federal office holders and replaced by supporters
• Peggy Eaton Affair- his entire cabinet resigned as a result
• Indian Removal Act, Nullification Crisis, Bank Veto
• Threatened of impeachment of Jackson- failed
• Emergence of the Whigs
• Whigs- opposed Jackson. Supported federal power and internal improvements but not
territorial expansion. Collapsed in the 1850s
• Loco-Focos- Wanted hard money not paper
• Specie circular- executive order that required purchasers of public land to pay I gold or
silver coin rather than paper money
• Van Buren- Jackson’s Successor
• Immediately faced depression- panic of 1837-1840s-whigs blamed it on Jacksonian Finance
• Whigs won the election of 1840 Harrison and Tyler
• Second Party System- Democrats and Whigs 1830-1850s
• Whigs positive liberal- duty to subsidize and protect enterprises
• Democrats- Negative liberal state- keep hands off economy
• Wilmont proviso launches the free soil movement- only whites settle on new land- no
slaves no free blacks no competition
• Election of 1848- Democrats- Cass- Popular sovereignty, Whigs- Taylor- won the election
• Compromise of 1850- Henry Clay- Congressional statues temporarily calmed the sectional
crisis- Gave Texas land to New Mexico while settling Texas’s debt, California as free state,
New Mexico no explicit prohibition of slavery
• Whigs becoming more weak- lost support of south because of allying with abolitionists,
nominating General Winfield Scott which made immigrants vote democrat.
• President Pierce
• Kansas Nebraska Act- Douglas new state of Iowa Free State and made the areas of Kansas
and Nebraska popular sovereignty.
• New Party the Republicans- opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories.
• Ostend Manifesto- wanted the acquisition of cuba
• Know Nothing Party- anti immigrant anti catholic party rose to national prominence though
the party enjoyed some success in local and state elections, it failed to sustain its
existence ad quickly disappeared
• Kansas an the rise of the Republicans- Bleeding Kansas- attacks over Slavery
• Election of 1866- Buchanan of democrats won
• Lecompton Constitution- A fraudulently elected group of proslavery delegates met in
Lecompton Kansas and drafted a state constitution. After bitter debate, congress narrowly
denied Kansas’s entry into the union under this constitution.
• Douglas little giant- Democrat
• Abe Lincoln- Republican- more radical stand of slavery
• Election of 1860 Lincoln Won
• South Secedes because of Lincoln
• Cooperationists- southern secessionists debated 2 strategies: unilateral succession by
each state or cooperative succession by the south as a whole. The cooperationists lost the
debate.
• Crittenden Compromise- congress tried and failed to resolve the sectional crisis in the
months between Lincoln’s election and inauguration. Leading proposal by John Crittenden
extending Missouri Compromise line west to the pacific
• Lincoln lead the union into victory and reunion of the south
• He was Assassinated
• Emancipation Proclamation
• Ten percent plan- full pardon of all southerners except confederate leaders and
readmission to the union for any state after 10% of voters in the 1860 election signed a
loyalty oath and the state abolished slavery- refused by Congress
• Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction- Small pardon to those that would swear
allegiance to the Union and accept emancipation.
• Radical Republicans- headed by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Summer- insisted on black
suffrage and federal protection of civil rights of African Americans. Gained control of
Reconstruction in 1867 and required the ratification of the 14th amendment as a condition
of readmission for former confederate states.
• Johnson had bad relations with Congress
• Provisional governments in the south
• Black Codes- prevented freedmen from becoming equal to white southerners
• 14th amendment- 1868- citizenship for ex slaves and constitutionally protected equal rights
• Radical Reconstruction- divided south into 5 military districts. Required states to
guarantee black male suffrage and ratify the 14th amendment
• Impeachment crisis of Johnson- failed
• Compromise of 1877- Democrats accepted the election of ayes in exchange for the
withdrawal of federal troops from the south and the ending of Reconstruction
Reform Movements

• Evangelicalism- Americans needed to be redeemed or uplifted


• Temperance movement- moderation or abstention in the use of alcoholic beverages-
attracted many advocates in the early 19th century. Their crusade against alcohol became
a power social and political force
• Smaller families because of less children for better life
• Extension of education- public education more powerful in north than south
• Horace Mann- worked for education and tax support
• Solitary confinement in state prisons, insane asylums, and poorhouses.
• Dorothea Dix-
• American Colonization Society
• Abolitionists, Black Abolitionists, Republicans, Women’s Rights
• Utopianism- hopes of utopia were wide spread in 1830-1850s, among evangelical
Christians as well as secular humanists these hopes found expression in various utopian
communities and spiritual movements
• Shakers- religious group- strict celibacy, gender equality, ad communal ownership
• Oneida community- free love
• Transcendentalism- people can move above material reality and ordinary understanding-
Emerson
• Brook Farm- Trans commune- mass bay 1841. attracted many leading creative figures
during its brief existence.
• Emancipation Proclamation- no more slavery
• Amendments 13,14,15

Supreme Court Cases

• Impeachment of Andrew Jackson- Failed


• Dred Scott Case- black man sued for his freedom. Lived in Free State. Supreme court said
slave was not a citizen so he cannot sue
• Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in Wisconsin- Missouri compromise
unconstitutional.
• Republicans claimed the court was a slave power conspiracy
• Impeachment of Johnson- failed by 1 vote

Religion + Philosophy

• Black Christianity incorporated African Religion and stressed Bible parts that spoke to the
Aspirations of slaves wanting Freedom
• African Methodist Episcopal Church- Richard Allen. First independent black run protestant
church in the U.S.
• Utopianism- hopes of utopia were wide spread in 1830-1850s, among evangelical
Christians as well as secular humanists these hopes found expression in various utopian
communities and spiritual movements
• Shakers- religious group- strict celibacy, gender equality, ad communal ownership
• Oneida community- free love
• Transcendentalism- people can move above material reality and ordinary understanding-
Emerson
• Brook Farm- Transcendentalism commune- mass bay 1841. Attracted many leading
creative figures during its brief existence.
• Germans- Protestant
• Irish- Catholic