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Y

(Effective Alternative Secondary Education)

MATHEMATICS II
X

MODULE 1
Integral Exponents

BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION


Department of Education
DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City

Module 1
Integral Exponents
What this module is about
This module is about algebraic expression with positive, zero and negative
exponents. Here you will develop skills in rewriting algebraic expressions with
zero and negative exponents and learn to apply this in solving problems.

What you are expected to learn


This module is designed for you to demonstrate understanding of
expressions with positive, negative and zero exponents, and:
1. evaluate expressions involving integral exponents,
2. rewrite algebraic expressions with zero and negative exponents,
3. solve exponential equations, and
4. solve problems involving expressions with exponents

How much do you know


A. Simplify:
1. 32 32

6. (x2)4

2. (52)2

7. 5a2b 2a5b2

3. 42 43 22 23

8. (3ab)(2bc)(abc)

28
5
4. 2

20 x10 y 7
6 2
9. 5 x y

36
34

20 x10 y 7
6 2
10. 5 x y

5.

B. Evaluate the following expressions


1. x0

6. 12b0

2. 1000

7. (-3)2(3)0

3. 5x0

a

8. b

4. (25)0

9. (3xy)0

6
b0
0
5. a

10. 3x0

C. Write the following expressions with the negative exponents


x 4
4
6. y

1.

3-1

2.

10-1

3.

8-3

8. (4-1)-3

1-4

x

y

4.

7. (xy)-4

9.

4 3

5.

x-3y3

10.

b4

b 2

D. Solve for x in the following equations.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4x = 64
10x = 1000
3x = 27
23x = 64
3x-1 = 243

Solve the following problems involving exponents.


6. The speed of sound is about 5.13 x 10 3 per second. Find the distance
traveled by sound in one hour.
7. After 64 days an amoeba will have approximately reproduced 1.845 x
1019 amoebas. Express the number of amoebas in standard form.
8. The speed of light is 1.86 x 10 5 miles per second. Find the speed of
light in km/sec. (1km = .62 mi)
3

9. One mole of hydrogen molecules has a mass of 2.016 g and contains


6.02 x 1023 hydrogen molecules. What is the hydrogen molecules
content of a 102 mole?
10. Physicist measuring the quantity of electric charge in coulombs(c)
found that one coulomb is equal to 6.24 x 10 18 electrons. How many
electrons are there in 103 coulombs?

What you will do


Lesson 1
Evaluation of Expressions with Integral Exponents
For all real numbers a, and integers m and n, the following laws of
exponent applies to expressions having the same base:
a. Multiplication:
am a n = a m + n
b. Powers of Power
(am)n = amn.
Examples:
1. 32 33

2. (23)2

3. a4 a-3

= 32 + 3
= 35
= 33333
= 243

Add the exponents

= 23(2)
= 26
= 222222
= 16

Get the product of the exponents

= a4 + (-3)
= a1 or a

Add exponents

4. 3p2q 2p3q2 = 6p2+3q1+2

35 in factored form

26 in factored form

Add exponents of the same base

= 6 p5q3

5. (a5b3)2

= a10b6

Get the product of the exponents

c. Division:
am an = am - n
Examples:
1. 75 73

= 75 3
= 72
= 77
= 49

Subtract the exponent


Express as factors
The quotient

2. 12a6 4a-3 = 3a6 (-3)


= 3a9

Divide the numerical coefficients and


subtract the exponents.

3. x5y4 x3y =x5 3 y4 1


= x2y3

Subtract the exponents of


expressions having the same base.

Try this out


A. Evaluate the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

42 43
5 52
24 23 32 34
102 103
(6)(62)(62)

6. (22)3
7. (32)2 43
8. (22)2 (3)2
9. (4 2)3
10. 102 53

B. Simplify:
1. (82)2
2. (7-1)-2
3. (42)2
4. (23 23)2
5. (54 5-3)2

6. (b6)5
7. (22b3)2
8. (5x5y3)3
9. (4c5d3e)2
10. (3a3b2c )2

C. Find the quotient:


1. 105 103
2. 93 9
3. 52 5-2
4. 7-1 7-2
5. 45 4

6. r7 r6
7. 14a10 2a-5
8. 18x6y3 3x3y
9. 15x3y4 5x3y
10. 24a7b5 c3 4a3b3c3

Lesson 2
Zero and Negative Exponents
Zero Exponents:
In the quotient rule, to divide expressions with the same base, keep the
base and subtract the exponents.
am
a mn
n
That is a
Now, suppose that you allow m to equal n. Then you have,
am
a mm a 0
m
a

Equation 1

But you know that it is also true that


am
1
am

Equation 2

If you compare equations (1) and (2), you can see that the following
definition is reasonable.
The Zero Exponent
For any real number a where a 0, a0 = 1
Examples:
Use the above definition to simplify each expression.
1. 170 = 1

any number whose exponent is 0 is equal to 1.

2. 6x0 = 6(1) = 6

In 6x0, the exponent 0 applies only to x.

3. (a3b2)0 = (1)(1) = 1

Distributive property

4. 3y0 = -3(y0)
= -3(1) = -3

In -3y0, the exponent 0 applies only to y.

Negative Exponents:
In the product rule, to multiply expressions with the same base, keep the
base and add the exponents.
That is, am an = am+n
Now, suppose that you allow one of the exponents to be negative and
apply the product rule, then you have, suppose that m = 3 and n = -3.
Then, am an = a3 a-3 = a3 + (-3)
= a0 = 1
So, a3 a-3 = 1

We get

a 3

Divide both sides by a3,

1
a3

Therefore we have this definition


Negative Exponents:
For any nonzero real number a and whole number n,
1
an n
a
and a-n is the multiplicative inverse/ reciprocal of a n.
Examples:
Simplify the following expressions.
(Note: To simplify will mean to write the expression with positive exponents)
1
5
1. y-5 = y

you get the reciprocal

1
1
1

5
(4)( 4) 16
2. 4-2 = 4

you get the reciprocal and simplify

1
1
1

3
(3)( 3)( 3) 27
3. (-3)-3 = (3)

you get the reciprocal and simplify

2

3

4.

-3

5. 2x =

1
2

3

1
8
27

Get the reciprocal to have a


positive exponent, simplify then
divide.

8
27 27
1
1

27
8
8

To divide fractions, get the


reciprocal and
proceed
to
multiplication.

1
2 2

3 3

2

3

1
2
3
3
x
x

The exponent 3 applies only to


the variable x, and not to the
coefficient 2.

Caution: The expression 4w-2 and (4w)-2 are not the same. Do you see why?
6. 4w-2 =

1
4
2
2
w
w

1
1
1

2
(4 w)( 4w) 16 w 2
7. (4w)-2 = (4 w)
Suppose that a variable with a negative exponent appears in the
denominator of an expression.
1
1

2
1
a
a2
8.
a2
1
a2
1

Change the negative exponent in


the denominator to positive
exponent.
1
2
To divide, get the reciprocal of a
and multiply.

Try this out


A. Simplify each expression.
1. 250

6. x0y

2. (m4n4)0

7. (xyz)0

3. 8m0

8. 10000

4. 7t0

9. (ab)0

5. pq0

10. 5a0

B. Simplify each of the following expressions.


1.

a-10

6. 10x-5

2.

2-4

3.

(-4)-2

4.

5

2

7. (2y)-4

8. 5t-2

1
4
x

9.

5.

3w-4

2
2
10. 3a

Lesson 3
Solving Exponential Equations
Exponential Equations are equations such that the unknown is an
exponent. Solutions may be rational or irrational. The method of getting the
solution is to equate the exponents of numbers which may have the same base.
Examples:
Solve for x in the following equations:
1. 3x = 81
3x = 34
x=4
2. 5x = 125
5x = 53
x=3

Express the right-hand member as a power of 3, 81


=3333
So, you have both sides as a power of the base.
Cancel the base, equate the exponents, therefore x
= 4.
Express 125 as a power of 5, 125 = 5 5 5
Equate the exponents and cancel the base
Therefore, x = 3.

3. 42x + 2 = 44

Both sides have the same base.

2x + 4 = 4

Cancel the base, equate the exponents.

2x = 2

Simplify

x=1

Therefore, x = 1.
Express both sides as a power of 3, 9 = 3 3 and

4. 9x + 1 = 27x

27 = 3 3 3.

32(x+1) = 33(x)
32x + 2 = 33x

Distributive Property of Multiplication.

2x + 2 = 3x

Simplify

-x = -2
x=2

Therefore, x = 2.

Try this out


A. Solve for x in the following equations.
1. 5x = 625

6. 33x 1 = 243

2. 8x = 2

7. 2x + 2 = 32

1
3. 4x = 64

8. 23x 3 = 64

4. 10x = 10000

9. 52x 3 = 125

5. 23x = 64

1
10. 2x + 3 23 = 4

B. Solve for x.
1. 7x = 49

6. 10x + 52 = 125

2. 4-2x = 16

7. 72x 1 = 721

3. 8

3x 1

20

=8

4. 62x 4 = 616

8. 3

-3x

1
= 27

9. 16x 1 = 4x 4

10

5. 4x + 162 =164

10. 2x 3 23 = 56

Lesson 4
Solving Problems Involving Expressions with Exponents
Scientific Notation:
It is not uncommon in scientific applications of algebra to find yourself
working with very large or very small numbers. Even in the time of Archimedes
(287 212 B.C.), The study of such numbers was not unusual. Archimedes
estimated the universe was 23,000,000,000,000,000 m in diameter, which is the
1
2
approximate distance light travels in 2 years.
In scientific notation, he estimated the diameter of the universe would be
2.3 x 1016 m.
In general, you can define scientific notation as follows:
Scientific Notation
A number is in scientific notation if it is expressed as a
product of two factors, one factor being less than 10 and
greater than or equal to 1and the other a power of 10
expressed in exponential form.
Examples:
Write each of the following numbers in scientific notation.
1. 120,000 = 1.2 x 105

The exponent of 10 is 5.

2. 88,000,000 = 8.8 x 107

The exponent of 10 is 7.

3. 420,000,000 = 4.2 x 108


4. 3,000,000,000 = 3 x 109
Note the pattern in writing a number in scientific notation. The decimal
point was moved to the left so that the multiplier will be a number between 1 and
11

10. The number of places will be the exponent of 10. If you move to the left, the
exponent is positive.
However, if the decimal point is to be moved to the right, the exponent will
be negative.
5. 0.0006 = 6 x 10-4
6. 0.0000000079 = 7.9 x 10-9
Note: To convert back to standard or decimal form, the process is simply
reversed.
Examples:
Write each of the following scientific notation in standard form.
1.

3.1 x 105

The exponent is positive 5 so you move the


decimal point 5 places to the right.

3. 1 0 0 0 0
Therefore, 3.1 x 105 = 310,000 in standard form
2.

8.5 x 109
8. 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

The exponent is positive 9 so you move the


decimal point 9 places to the right. Add zeros if
needed.

Therefore, 8.5 x 109 = 8,500,000,000 in standard form


3. 6.3 x 10-3
0. 0 0 6 3

The exponent is negative 3 so you move the


decimal point to the left. Add zeros if necessary.

Therefore, 6.3 x 10-3 = 0.0063 in standard form


4. 2.8 x 10-6
0. 0 0 0 0 0 2 8

The exponent is negative 6 so you move the


decimal point to the left. Add zeros if necessary.

Therefore, 2.8 x 10-6 = 0.0000028 in standard form

12

Scientific notation is useful in expressing large and small numbers


specially when you are solving statement problems.

Examples:
Solve the following problems.
1. Light travels at a speed of 3.05 X 108 meters per second (m/s). There
are approximately 3.15 x 107 in a year. How far does light travel in a
year?
Solution:
Multiply the distance traveled in 1 sec by the number of seconds
in a year.
This gives (3.05 x 108)(3.15 x 107) = (3.05 x 3.15)(108x107)
= 9.6075 x1015
You multiply the coefficients and add the exponents.
2. The distance from earth to the star Spica ( in Virgo) is 2.2 x 10 18 m.
How many light-years is Spica from earth?
Solution:
2.2 x1018
2.2 x101816
16
10
= 2.2 x 102

Divide the distance (in meters) by


the number of meters in 1 lightyear.

= 220 light years

Try this out


A. Which numbers are in scientific notation?
1.

0.92 x 102

2.

1.62 x 10-5

3.

10.63 x 103

4.

8.26 x 104

5.

0.34 x 10-1
13

Each of the standard numerals is given in scientific notation. The scientific


notation may not be correct. Identify the numbers that are correct.
6.

47,000 = 4.7 x 104

7.

31,400 = 3.14 x 104

8.

35,604,000 = 3.56 x 107

9. 4,620,000 = 4.62 x 107


10. 179,990,000 = 1.8 x 108
B. Write in scientific notation.
1.

120,000

2.

0.00078

3.

0.165

4.

1235

5.

678,435,848

6.

3,784,600

7.

0.0000000543

8.

0.00000077

9.

25.3 x 105

10.

39640000 x 10-3
C. Write the following in standard form.
1. The rocket is 3.8 x 105 km above the earth.
2. The satellite travels 4 x 10 kilometers per minute.
3. Sound travels 9 x 104 meters per minute in water.
4. Water has a weight of 1 x 1011 kilograms per cubic kilometers.
5. There are about 2.2 x 108 molecules in an atom.
D. Solve the following problems.
6. The diameter of a hydrogen atom is 0.00000001 cm. Express the
diameter in scientific notation.

14

7. The mass of the earth is about 5795 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg.
Express the mass in scientific notation.
8. The farthest object that can be seen with the unaided eye is the
Andromeda galaxy. This galaxy is 2.3 x 1022 km from the earth. What is
this distance in light-years?
9. A light year the distance travels in one year is equal to 9.44 x 10 12 km.
If the Polaris is about 64 000 000 000 km from the earth, how long will
it take the light from this star to reach the earth?
10. The speed of radio waves is 297 600 km per second. How much time
is needed for the radio impulse to travel from a station to a radio if the
distance between them is 1280 km?

Lets summarize
1. For any real numbers a, and integers m and n, the following laws of exponent
applies to expressions having the same base:
a. Multiplication:
am a n = a m + n
b. Powers of Power
(am)n = amn.
c. Division:
am an = am - n
2. Zero Exponents:
For any real number a where a 0, a0 = 1
3. Negative Exponents:

For any nonzero real number a and whole number n,


the multiplicative inverse/ reciprocal of an.

a n

1
a n and a-n is

4. Exponential Equations are equations such that the unknown is an exponent.


5. Scientific Notation

15

A number is in scientific notation if it is expressed as a product of two


factors, one factor being less than 10 and greater than or equal to 1and the other
a power of 10 expressed in exponential form.

What have you learned


A. Simplify the following expressions.
1. 850

6. 4w-2

2. 8t0

7. (4w)-2
c 5
7
8. d

3. (m4n2)0
16
b0
0
4. a
5. (-2)3(3)0

1
4
9. x
(a 2 ) 3 b 4
2
10. b

B. Simplify the following:


1. (5)4

6. (4a5)(5a3)

2. 52 5

7. (5w-2)(4w)-2

3. (4t)3
4. (m4n2)3

8. 45x7y4 5x3y3
20c 5
7
9. 5c

5. (-5)3(3)2

( x 2 )3 y 4
2
10. x y

C. Solve for x.
1. 83x + 2 = 820

6. 6x 3 52 = 191

2. 62x 4 = 616

7. 162x + 1 = 4x - 3

3. 35x = 243

8. 82x = 16x - 1

16

4. 272x = 813
2x

5. 25 = 625

9. 27

2 x

10. 25

1
3

=81

1
3 x
2

125

D. Write in scientific notation.


1. 170,000,000
2. 8,200,000,000
3. 0.00000035
4. 0.000000000065
E. Write the following in standard form
5. 4.0073 x 108
6. 2.791 x 10-4
7. 4.756 x 10-5
F. Solve the following problems.
8. The mass of the sun is approximately 1.98 x 10 30 kg. If this were
written in standard or decimal form, how many zeros would follow the
digit 8?
9. Megres, the nearest of the big Dipper stars is 6.6 x 10 17 m from earth.
Approximately how long does it take light traveling at 10 16 m/year, to
travel from Megres to earth?
10. The number of liters of water on earth is 15, 500 followed by 19 zeros.
Write this number in scientific notation. Then use the number of liters of
water on earth to find out how much water is available for each person
on earth. The population is 5.3 billion.

17

ANSWER KEY
How much do you know
A.

B.

C.

D.

1. 81

6. x8

2. 625

7. 10a7b3

3. 32768

8. 6a2b3c2

4. 8

9. 4x7y5

5. 9

10. 4x4y4

1. 1

6. -12

2. 1

7. 9

3. 5

8. 1

4. 1

9. 1

5. 7

10. 3

1
1. 3

y4
4
6. x

1
2. 100

1
4
7. x y

1
3. 512

8. 64

4. 1

y3
3
9. x

y3
3
5. x

b6
6
10. a

1.

x=3

2.

x=3

18

3.

x=3

4.

x=2

5.

x=6

6. 1.8468 x 107
7.

18,450,000,000,000,000,000

8.

3 x 105 km/sec

9.

6.02 x 1025

10. 6.24 x 1021


Try this out
Lesson 1
A.
1. 1024

B.

C.

6. 64

2. 125

7. 419904

3. 93312

8. 1296

4. 100 000

9. 512

5. 7776

10. 12 500

1. 4096

6. b30

2. 49

7. 16b6

3. 256

8. 125x15y9

4. 64

9. 16c10d6e2

5. 25

10. 9a6b4c2

1. 100

6. r

2. 81

7. 7a15

3. 625

8. 9x3y24

4. 7

9. 3x0y3

19

5. 256

10. 6a4b2c0

Lesson 2
A.

B.

1. 1

6. y

2. 1

7. 1

3. 8

8. 1

4. 7

9. 1

5. p

10. -5

1.

1
a 10

10
x5

6.

2.

1
16

1
4
7. 16 y

3.

1
- 16

5
2
8. t

4.

4
25

9. x4

5.

3
w4

2a 2
10. 3

Lesson 3
A.

1. x = 4

6. x = 2

1
3

7. x = 3

2.

3. x = -3

8. x = 3

4. x = 4

9. x = 3

5. x = 2

10. x = -5

20

B.

1. x = 2

6. x = 2

2. x = -1

7. x = 11

3. x = 7

8. x = 1

4. x = 10

9. x = -2

5. x = 4

10 x = 9

Lesson 4
A.

B.

1. No

6.

Correct

2. Yes

7.

Correct

3. No

8.

Wrong

4. Yes

9.

Wrong

5. No

10. Wrong

1. 1.2 x 10 5
2. 7.8 x 10 -4
3. 1.65 x 10-1
4. 1.235 x 10 3
5. 6.78435848 x 108
6. 3.7846 x 106
7. 5.43 x 10-8
8. 7.7 x 10-7
9. 2.53 x 106
10. 3.964 x 104

C.

1. 380,000 km
2. 40 km.
21

3. 90,000 m
4. 100,000,000,000 kg
5. 220,000,000 molecules
D.

6. 1 x 10-8
7. 5.795 x 1021
8. 2,300,000
9. 2.47 days
10. 4.3011 x 10-3

What have you learned

A.

B.

1. 1

4
2
6. w

2. 8

1
2
7. 16 w
d7
c5

3. 1

8.

4. 17

9. x4

5. 8

b6
6
10. a

1. 625

6. 20a8

2. 125

5
4
7. 16w

3. -64t3

8. 9x4y

4. m12n6

9. 4c2

5. 1125

y3
4
10. x
22

C.

1. x = 6
2. x = 10
3. x = 1
4. x = 2
5. x = 1
6. x = 6

7.

5
3

8. x = -2

9.

10.
D.

1
2

1
3

1. 1.7 x 108
2. 8.2 x 109
3. 3.5 x 10-7
4. 6.5 x 10-11

E.

5. 400,730,000
6. 0.0002791
7. 0.00004756

F.

8. 28
9. 66 years
10. 1.55 x 1023 and 2.9 x 1013

23