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The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide


Sliding vane pumps can cut re nery
energy costs by $350,000 per year

How Advanced Automation

Controls Keystone XL

Alternative Sealing Solutions

For Diverse Applications

Trade Show Coverage

5 Reasons to Attend OTC

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From the Editor


nforeseen stops in production at an AGD agriculture manufacturing plant in

Argentina were reduced to zero percent in the last year, thanks to a comprehensive
predictive maintenance program and standardized stock availability provided by ITTs
Goulds Pumps. The AGD Group achieved a dramatic reduction in maintenance costs,
according to Alejandro Ch. Knoop, manager of ITTs operations in Argentina, and
increased the quality and eciency of production.
These improvements in productivity and prots were key ingredients in the AGD
Group receiving of one of the prestigious Heart of the Industry awards in 2014.
Companies, organizations and individuals use pump technologies every day to
improve their processes. Goulds Pumps sponsors Pump Appreciation Day, now in its
fourth year, to celebrate the signicance of the people who keep pumps running.
Pump Appreciation Day is April 14. It presents an
Visit the
opportunity to educate the world about industrial pumps
and the vital role they play in our modern way of life. Just
as important, it is a chance to put the spotlight on pump
professionalsfrom engineers to distributors to end users.
The awards program connected with Pump Appreciation
OTC, May 4-7
Day celebrates those who improve pump eciency,
Booth 6601
provide outstanding maintenance, solve engineering or
manufacturing challenges, exemplify high-quality customer
service and exceed expectations in providing an extra eort to keep pumps running. The
Heart of the Industry is awarded to organizations that use pumps to increase reliability
and improve processes, while the Pulse of the Industry award recognizes individuals who
have made signicant contributions in the eld.
The Heart of Industry and Pulse of Industry award programs are a unique way to
recognize the dedicated people and organizations that power our industry, said Aris
Chicles, president of ITTs Industrial Process business. We look forward to celebrating
these talented groups during our fourth annual Pump Appreciation Day celebration.
In the coming months, Pumps & Systems will feature some of these winners and share
their stories of success. If you know of someone making a dierence in the industry, we
would like to hear from you!
Best Regards,

Editor, Michelle Segrest


Pumps & Systems

is a member of the following organizations:
PUMPS & SYSTEMS (ISSN# 1065-108X) is published monthly by Cahaba Media Group, 1900 28th Avenue So., Suite 200, Birmingham, AL 35209. Periodicals
postage paid at Birmingham, AL, and additional mailing ofces. Subscriptions: Free of charge to qualied industrial pump users. Publisher reserves the
right to determine qualications. Annual subscriptions: US and possessions $48, all other countries $125 US funds (via air mail). Single copies: US and
possessions $5, all other countries $15 US funds (via air mail). Call 630-739-0900 inside or outside the U.S. POSTMASTER: Send changes of address and
form 3579 to Pumps & Systems, Subscription Dept., 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. 2015 Cahaba Media Group, Inc. No part of
this publication may be reproduced without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher does not warrant, either expressly or by implication, the
factual accuracy of any advertisements, articles or descriptions herein, nor does the publisher warrant the validity of any views or opinions offered by the
authors of said articles or descriptions. The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Cahaba
Media Group. Cahaba Media Group makes no representation or warranties regarding the accuracy or appropriateness of the advice or any advertisements
contained in this magazine. SUBMISSIONS: We welcome submissions. Unless otherwise negotiated in writing by the editors, by sending us your submission, you grant Cahaba Media Group, Inc., permission by an irrevocable license to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any
medium on multiple occasions. You are free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be
returned. Volume 23, Issue 4.

A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

EDITOR: Michelle Segrest
msegrest@pump-zone.com 205-314-8279
sgray@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2839
MANAGING EDITOR: Amelia Messamore
acash@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2826

Alecia Archibald
aarchibald@cahabamedia.com 205-314-3878
Lev Nelik, Ray Hardee, Jim Elsey

ART DIRECTORS: Jaime DeArman, Melanie Magee

lfreeman@cahabamedia.com 205-212-9402
lmasaoay@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2840
dmoody@pump-zone.com 205-345-0784

Mary-Kathryn Baker
mkbaker@pump-zone.com 205-345-6036
Mark Goins
mgoins@pump-zone.com 205-345-6414
Addison Perkins
aperkins@pump-zone.com 205-561-2603
Garrick Stone
gstone@pump-zone.com 205-212-9406

Maik Ulmschneider
+1 205-567-1547
+49 170 58299 59

Ashley Morris
amorris@cahabamedia.com 205-561-2600
Sonya Crocker
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PUBLISHER: Walter B. Evans Jr.

VP OF SALES: Greg Meineke
VP OF EDITORIAL: Michelle Segrest

P.O. Box 530067

Birmingham, AL 35253

1900 28th Avenue South, Suite 200

Birmingham, AL 35209

2126 McFarland Blvd. East, Suite A

Tuscaloosa, AL 35404





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This issue


Volume 23 Number 4



By Michael Lambert
Pumps & Systems MENA
As the debate over the pipelines future
continues, Siemens and TransCanada celebrate
six years of collaboration on an advanced oil &
gas monitoring system.


By Thomas L. Stone
Sliding vane pumps cut refinery energy costs by
an average of $350,000 per year.


By Thomas Streubel
NETZSCH Pumps North America, LLC
Customized equipment helped an energy company achieve greater
operational efficiencies, lower maintenance and improved diluent
injection control.



By Mark D. Halloran
Idea Werks, LLC
These solutions help enhance operational efficiency, profits and safety.

16 By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC
Can Deaerators Create Pump Trips?


20 By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.
Calculating Head Loss in a Pipeline


By Gobind Khiani


26 By Jim Elsey
Summit Pump, Inc.

Manufacturers and end users should consider how this standard will affect
their business.

By Kevin Bates
JWC Environmental
Grinders reduce debris that can
cause downtime and pose
safety risks.

By Steven J. Peck
National Pump Company
Follow this guide to properly align
and install vertical turbine pumps.

A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

What You Need to Know About

Bearing Oil

38 By Robert K. Asdal
Hydraulic Institute
New Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program Ensures Efficiency & Credibility




When you think resources,

think beyond equipment.
From safety/operator training and equipment management
technologies, to custom solutions engineered to meet specialized
job requirements, United Rentals offers much more than just the
worlds largest rental fleet. Were here to help.
3 Calculate your pump needs online
at UnitedRentals.com/PumpCalc

UnitedRentals.com/pmp | 800.UR.RENTS

2015 United Rentals, Inc.

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This issue



Vapor Recovery Units Reduce
Oilfield Emissions
By Glenn Webb


By Justin Zhao, AIGI Environmental

The double-lock, double-ring designs seal oil and other fluids more effectively than their
single split counterparts.



Smart Technology Detects

Costly Leaks at
Oil & Gas Facilities
By Brandon Perkins
GE Intelligent Platforms

By Jason Vick, Schneider Electric

Operator-driven reliability can extend seal life.


By Chett Norton, C.E.T., Triangle Fluid Controls Ltd.

Users must understand the characteristics of their equipmentincluding seating surface,

gasket load curves and manufacturing methodsto reduce the risk of leaks.


By Michael P. Cresap, PPC Mechanical Seals Inc.

Rubber Expansion Joints

Provide Piping Flexibility
By Rob Coffee
FSA Member


By Sakthi Sobana Pandian, Frost & Sullivan

End users will consistently purchase these critical wear component.



By Manuel Carcar-Gimeno


By Eddie DeSalle
Net Irrigate, LLC


By Kimmeng Seang
Sulzer Pumps

ROBERT K. ASDAL, Executive Director,

Hydraulic Institute
BRYAN S. BARRINGTON, Machinery Engineer,
Lyondell Chemical Co.
KERRY BASKINS, VP/GM, Milton Roy Americas
WALTER BONNETT, Vice President Global
Marketing, Pump Solutions Group
Advanced Sealing International (ASI)
CHRIS CALDWELL, Director of Advanced
Collection Technology, Business Area Wastewater
Solutions, Sulzer Pumps, ABS USA
JACK CREAMER, Market Segment Manager
Pumping Equipment, Square D by Schneider

A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

The Effects of Viscosity

on Sealless Pumps &
Bearing Selection in Slurry
By Hydraulic Institute


By C. Daniel Urquhart
RamParts Pump, LLC


THOMAS L. ANGLE, P.E., MSC, Vice President
Engineering, Hidrostal AG

The Basics of Lead-Lag

By Kurt Schreiner
Franklin Control Systems


The industry has developed a specialized method over time.



Image courtesy
of Blackmer
WILLIAM E. NEIS, P.E., President, Northeast
Industrial Sales

BOB DOMKOWSKI, Business Development

Manager Transport Pumping and Amusement
Markets/Engineering Consultant, Xylem, Inc.,
Water Solutions USA Flygt

LEV NELIK, Ph.D., P.E., APICS, President,

PumpingMachinery, LLC
HENRY PECK, President, Geiger Pump &
Equipment Company

DAVID A. DOTY, North American Sales Manager,

Moyno Industrial Pumps

MIKE PEMBERTON, Manager, ITT Performance


WALT ERNDT, VP/GM, CRANE Pumps & Systems

SCOTT SORENSEN, Oil & Gas Automation

Consultant & Market Developer, Siemens Industry

JOE EVANS, Ph.D., Customer & Employee

Education, PumpTech, Inc.
RALPH P. GABRIEL, Chief Engineer Global, John

ADAM STOLBERG, Executive Director,

Submersible Wastewater Pump Association

LARRY LEWIS, President, Vanton Pump and

Equipment Corp.

JERRY TURNER, Founder/Senior Advisor,

Pioneer Pump

TODD LOUDIN, President/CEO North American

Operations, Flowrox Inc.

KIRK WILSON, President, Services & Solutions,

Flowserve Corporation

JOHN MALINOWSKI, Sr. Product Manager, AC

Motors, Baldor Electric Company, A Member of
the ABB Group

JAMES WONG, Associate Product Manager

Bearing Isolator, Garlock Sealing Technologies

P9 Pump Drive with

EQP Global Motor


Toshiba International Corporation is proud to be a single-source
solution for your application demands, offering a complete
product lineup of electric motors, adjustable speed drives,
and motor starters. By pairing the P9 adjustable speed drive
with the EQP Global motor, we have set new pump control
standards in technology, efficiency, and ease-of-use that go
beyond the competitive demands of the evolving pump industry.

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HOUSTON (Feb. 23, 2015) ValvTechnologies, Inc., President Kevin
Hunt announced Elvis Gonzalez as director of manufacturing
operations. Based in Houston, Gonzalez will have management
responsibility for ValvTechnologies manufacturing operations
groups, leading the achievement of production, productivity, quality
and safety goals, as well as spearheading manufacturing process
continuous improvements. With more than 20 years served in
the valve and pressure control industries, Gonzalez brings global
leadership and operations experience to ValvTechnologies. valv.com


GERMANTOWN, Wis. (Feb. 19, 2015) WAGO
announced the appointment of Jeff Zimmerman
to the role of regional sales manager for the
Northwest region. Zimmerman will coordinate
WAGOs sales and marketing activities in
Oregon, Washington and Idaho. Zimmerman
brings several years of industry application and
relationship-building experience. Based out
of Portland, Oregon, he previously held senior
management and marketing roles at AOP technologies and Kinequip
Incorporated. wago.us


MENDOTA HEIGHTS, Minn. (Feb. 18, 2015)
General Pump announced that Nick Viestenz
officially joined the companys outside sales
staff in January. Viestenz has been with General
Pump for 12 years in a variety of capacities.
Having spent two years in General Pumps
service department, three years in research and
Nick Viestenz
development, and the past six years in customer
service/inside sales, Viestenz brings extensive knowledge of pumps
and their use in pressure wash, vehicle cleaning and industrial
applications to General Pumps sales force.

EXTON, Pa. (Feb. 12, 2015)
NETZSCH Pumps North America,
LLC recently expanded its sales
Mark Mintun
Jeff Bye
force by hiring Mark Mintun
as regional sales manager for
the central region of the U.S. He is responsible for supporting the
industrial and municipal distributors and EPC customers in Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kentucky, Missouri,
Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Mintun is based
in Chesterfield, Missouri. NETZSCH also recently named Jeffrey Bye
the director of customer service, engineering and projects, reporting

A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

directly to the president, Thomas Streubel. Bye is directly in charge

of managing and supervising the entire inside sales team along with
Martin Coats and his customer service team. netzsch.com


BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (Feb. 24, 2015) After
37 years at Motion Industries, Chairman Bill
Stevens announced his plans to retire, effective
March 1. Tim Breen, named president and
chief operating officer in 2013, then president
and CEO in 2014, succeeds Stevens to lead the
company. The two have worked during the
Bill Stevens
last few years to ensure a smooth transition.
Stevens began his career with Motion Industries in 1978 and has
received a number of distinguished awards, including 1997 and
2006 Genuine Parts Company Manager of the Year and the 2014
Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) Lifetime Achievement
Award. motionindustries.com


BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (Feb. 11, 2015) Revere
Control Systems announced that Gary Hine has
joined the original equipment manufacturer
(OEM) team as an account manager. Hine brings
more than 40 years of instrumentation and
control systems experience in technical and sales
roles, including 23 years of business ownership.
Gary Hine
In his new position, he will be supporting existing
OEM customers, for whom his extensive water/wastewater industry
experience will be beneficial. reverecontrol.com


WATERBURY, Conn. (Feb. 10, 2015) HubbardHall announced that Gerry Mastropietro has
been appointed as the chief operating officer
and executive vice president. Mastropietro will
report to Molly Kellogg, president and CEO of
Hubbard-Hall. As chief operating officer and
executive vice president, Mastropietro will be
responsible for the companys operations at
all three locations, as well as environmental
health, safety and security, purchasing and customer service.
Mastropietro was promoted from the role of senior vice president, in
which he oversaw sales for the companys distribution division.


ROSEMONT, Ill. (Feb. 4, 2015) Appleton Group LLC announced the
appointment of Victor Hoang to director, global project operations.
In this role, Hoang will lead a team of project managers, proposal
managers, engineers and administrators responsible for the
execution of large customer projects. This new cross-functional
organization will be focused on building a robust business

Chemical Metering Pumps and Flowmeters

for Successful Water & Waste Water Treatment.




CHESAPEAKE, Va. (Feb. 4,
2015) Volvo Penta of the
Americas has announced
the appointment of Marcelo
Puscar as director of
marketing. Puscar will be
Marcelo Puscar
responsible for managing
and implementing a strategic marketing plan
that builds, promotes and communicates Volvo
Pentas brand, products and services in the
marine and industrial market sectors. He will
report directly to Ron Huibers, president of Volvo
Penta of the Americas. He has more than 15 years
of experience in the marine and automotive
industries in sales, strategic and management
positions. volvopenta.com


(Feb. 3, 2015) WAGO has
added Carlos Ruiz as regional
sales manager for the
South Florida region. Ruiz
holds a bachelors degree
in electrical engineering
Carlos Ruiz
from Florida State University
and a Master of Business
Administration from the University of Florida.
Prior to joining WAGO, Ruiz served in several
business development positions at Anixter and
Stride Laboratories. wago.us

NEW YORK (Feb. 2, 2015) Thomas S. Passek has
been named president of the Copper Development

Three Models
Available with Feed
Rates Ranging from
0.1 GPH/.03 LPH to
158 GPH/600 LPH.
Brushless Variable
Speed Motor.
Terminal Blocks in
Junction Box for
Remote Connections.
Patented Tube Failure
Detection, Patented
Safety Switch,
Patented Method for
Extended Tube Life.

A 4X


Flex-A-Prene is a multi-channel pump

tube assembly designed by Blue-White
exclusively for Proseries-M and Flex-Pro
Peristaltic Metering Pumps.
Flex-A-Prene is engineered for
optimum performance and
pressure capability.




Works with clean or dirty fluids.

Non-invasive Clamp-on ransducers.
Full Spectrum of Pipe Size Capacities.
Smart External Communications.
Selectable Doppler or Transit Time.
T-Track Mounting System for Fast and
Easy Sensor Installation, with Nema
4X Quick Disconnects.


5300 Business Drive, Huntington Beach, CA 92649 USA

714-893-8529 fax: 714-894-9492 sales@blue-white.com

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Apr il 2015

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platform that delivers value

to Appleton Group customers
deploying major electrical
construction projects
throughout the world. Hoang
has a bachelors degree in
electrical engineering from
the University of Houston
Victor Hoang
and attended the MD3
Executive Management
Program from Malik Management Zentrum
St. Gallen AG, Germany. He is also a certified
project management professional (PMP).



Association (CDA). He succeeds Andrew Kireta Sr., who retired in

January after 36 years with the organization. Passek brings nearly
three decades of metals industry and association management
experience to CDA. copper.org


BALTIMORE (Jan. 6, 2015) Danfoss appointed Joseph Rich as
senior director of sales and marketing, North America. In this role,

Rich will focus on growing the companys VLT Drives business in

the North American market, providing leadership and directing
strategy for both sales and marketing. Rich comes to Danfoss with
an extensive background in variable frequency drives and motion
control technologies. Most recently, Rich was district manager for
the Northwestern U.S. at Rockwell Automation. He holds a Master
of Business Administration and bachelors degree in mechanical
engineering from the University of Akron in Akron, Ohio. Rich will
be based out of Danfoss office in
Milwaukee. danfoss.us

(Jan. 1, 2015)
SEPCO, Inc., has
appointed chief
information officer
Brandon Simmons as
director of marketing
and Whitney Brown
as marketing and
specialist. Simmons
will be responsible
for developing and
implementing a
Whitney Brown
new comprehensive
marketing strategy
for the organization. He previously
served for five years as an engineer for
NASA. Simmons has an A.S. in computer
science, a B.S. in software engineering,
an MBA in strategic leadership and is
currently completing a Ph.D. in business.
Brown will be responsible for producing,
editing and printing all of SEPCOs
marketing materials with industryspecific media content. She will also
work with sales engineers to gather
data for various projects along with the
companys marketing, publicity and
media exposure. Brown received a B.A.
in communications and public relations
from The University of Alabama at
Birmingham. sepco.com

Read more news about

new hires, promotions &
recognitions on

To have a news item considered, please

send the information to Amelia Messamore,
Circle 134 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

Demand Reliability

Because downtime is never on the schedule.

Electric Submersible
Pumps for Difficult
Wastewater Solids

Test All Electric

Motors, Regardless
of Location

The new SKG Series from BJM is

designed to obliterate flushable
wipes and other difficult solids in
wastewater applications.
Innovative features include:
Patent Pending RAD-AX
Dual Shredding Technology Radial and axial
shredding elements. System efficiency alleviates
potentially high surge load to the motor.
High Efficiency Motor High-torque,
4-pole motor - 2, 3 and 5HP.
Impeller Design High solids passage impeller
design expedites flow and hydraulic performance,
preventing clogs.
Robust Construction Chrome iron impeller
and suction cover. All shredding elements
are hardened 440C SS with a Rockwell hardness
of 55C+.

Energized testing
ALL-TEST Pro instruments provide
complete electric motor system
health analysis in minutes!

Predictive Maintenance
Route-Based Testing
Quality Control

Superior Motor Insulation and SS Motor

Housing Class F insulation and SS motor
housing for superior corrosion resistance
and longer life.
Double Mechanical Seals
Oil-lubricated (SIC x 2), with separate
lip seal.

Complete Stator and

Rotor Analysis Detect early
faults in AC & DC motors,
transformers and generators.

Oversized Bearings and Shaft

Handle extra torque and loads.
Motor Overload Protection
Defense against thermal and amperage
overloads. Available in 208v, 230v,
460v and 575v.

Driven Load Analysis Evaluate

and trend the condition of geared,
belted and bladed equipment.

33 Ft. HeavyDuty SOOW

Power and Seal
Minder Cable
For early warning
moisture detection.

Route-Based Testing and

Trending Ideal for predictive


Comprehensive Reporting
Includes bad connections, winding & turn faults, air gap,
broken bar, contamination, ground faults and more.


The ideal instruments

for troubleshooting,
quality control and
trending of electric
motors, transformers
and generators


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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Apr il 2015




AmpliTech Group
Announces New Wireless
Solutions Division
BOHEMIA, N.Y. (Feb. 20, 2015)
AmpliTech Group, Inc., announced
the formation of a division that will
be focused on implementing the
companys new business strategy.
AmpliTech Wireless Solutions
Division will use core technology from
AmpliTech, Inc., to develop new product
solutions for wireless and multimedia
markets. The new division will represent
AmpliTechs vision for the future
direction of the company.

McCrometer Celebrates
60th Anniversary
HEMET, Calif. (Feb. 19, 2015)
McCrometer will be celebrating its
60th anniversary at the 2015 Offshore
Technology Conference, May 4-7.
We are grateful to our oil/gas
customers, associates and suppliers who
have helped McCrometer achieve this
milestone anniversary, said President
Melissa Aquino.
In 1955, Floyd McCall, his twin brother
Lloyd McCall and brother-in-law
Art Crom founded the McCall-Crom
Engineering Company. Unable to find
the right flow meter for their irrigation
system, they designed the Mc Propeller
Flow Meter.
The company was renamed
McCrometer in 1961 by rolling together
the McCall and Crom names with
the term meter. Floyd McCall was
the product development heart of
McCrometer in those early days, and
in 1987 he invented and patented the
V-Cone Flow Meter.
Since that time, the Mc Propeller
and V-Cone Flow Meters have
become successful in the process
instrumentation industry.

annual Heart of Industry Award and

the Pulse of Industry Honor Roll.
These programs were developed as
part of Pump Appreciation Day, a
worldwide celebration of pumps as the
heart of industry that will take place
April 14.
The Heart of Industry and Pulse of
Industry award programs are a unique
way to recognize the dedicated people
and organizations that power our
industry, said Aris Chicles, president
of ITTs Industrial Process business.
We look forward to celebrating these
talented groups during our fourth
annual Pump Appreciation Day
The Heart of Industry Award recognizes
industrial operations for excellence in
using pump technology to improve plant
processing and enhance modern life.
Awards will go to companies or plants
nominated by ITT Goulds Pumps sales
offices and distributors, with a limit of
one winner per office.
In addition to the Heart of Industry
Award, nominations are being
reviewed for the Pulse of Industry
Honor Roll. This individual recognition
program is intended for people who
want to commend co-workers and
colleagues for their exceptional work
in pump operations, maintenance or
optimization. itt.com

EPA Releases Stormwater

Climate Change Tool
WASHINGTON (Feb. 13, 2015) As part
of President Obamas Climate Action
Plan Virtual Climate Resilience Toolkit,
the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) announced the release
of the Climate Adjustment Tool for
EPAs Stormwater Management

Model (SWMM)a downloadable

online stormwater simulation model.
The Climate Adjustment Tool allows
engineers and planners to evaluate the
performance of water infrastructure
while considering future climate change
projections, such as more frequent
high-intensity storms and changes
in evaporation rates of seasonal
precipitation, to determine the
benefits of resiliency decisions to
reduce local economic burden and
protect communities.
The new tool will enable users to
add climate projections to existing
simulations to determine the quality
of water traveling through traditional
Engineers and planners are able to
accurately represent any combination
of traditional and green infrastructure
practices within an area to determine
their effectiveness in managing
stormwater and combined sewer
overflows in their community.

AWWA Addresses Congress

about Keeping Drinking
Water Safe
DENVER (Feb. 5, 2015) In a testimony
before the U.S. House Subcommittee
on Environment and the Economy on
February 5, American Water Works
Association (AWWA) Water Utility
Council Chair Aurel Arndt stressed that
the solution to keeping drinking water
safe from cyanotoxins begins with
better managing nutrient pollution.
The subcommittee hearings are in
response to an event in August 2014
when the City of Toledo, Ohio, found the
cyanotoxin microcystin in finished water


ITT to Give Heart of Industry &

Pulse of Industry Awards

Asahi Kasei Corporation to acquire Polypore

International, Inc.
Feb. 23, 2015

SENECA FALLS, N.Y. (Feb. 16, 2015)

ITT Corporations Goulds Pumps brand
are reviewing nominations for the

Bentley acquired Acute3D

Feb. 10, 2015
Motion Industries acquired Oil & Gas Supply
Feb. 2, 2015

A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s

Smith & Loveless, Inc. acquired Schloss

Engineered Equipment, Inc.
Jan. 26, 2015
Hayward Gordon US, Inc. acquired Sharpe
Mixers, Inc.
Dec. 30, 2014


Quality You Can Believe In!

WateReuse Research Foundation

Emphasizes Importance of
Potable Reuse
ALEXANDRIA, Va. (Jan. 27, 2015) The
WateReuse Research Foundation
announces the release of a how-to
guide for building support for potable
reuse on the statewide and community
levels. Model Communication Plans for
Increasing Awareness and Fostering
Acceptance of Direct Potable Reuse
(WRRF-13-02) provides a roadmap for
advancing public acceptance of potable
reuse projects by building awareness of
potable reuse programs and by fostering
an understanding of the great need to
continue to expand water supply sources.
This project was funded by the WateReuse
Research Foundation in cooperation
with the Metropolitan Water District of
Southern California.
To have a news item considered, please
send the information to Amelia Messamore,

DIFFERENTLYabout water.


Stancor specializes in helping solve your water problems.

We are a leading designer and manufacturer of electric
submersible pumps and controls.
Our company is fully qualified to provide both standard and customized systems to
meet virtually any specification. Our engineering staff will help you design the right
control and pump for special applications, ensuring you get exactly what you need.

MSHA Approved Explosion Proof

Wastewater - Non Clog

Stainless Steel Models

Slurry Style


To find a pump or control system that is second to none,

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and issued a do not drink advisory for more

than 400,000 people. The contamination
was the result of an algal bloom in Lake Erie.
We recommend that Congress consider
ways to greatly increase the effectiveness
of nonpoint source pollution programs,
including the question of whether
nonpoint sources of pollution should be
brought under the jurisdiction of the
Clean Water Act, said Arndt, who is
also CEO of Lehigh County Authority in
Allentown, Pennsylvania.
Speaking on behalf of AWWAs 50,000
water professionals, Arndt noted that
cyanotoxin contamination is always
associated with excessive amounts of
nitrogen and phosphorus in water. According
the U.S. Geological Survey, nonpoint
sourcespredominantly runoff and air
depositionaccount for 90 percent of the
nitrogen and 75 percent of the phosphorus in
U.S. waterways.
Arndt commended the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agencys
(EPA) use of the Contaminant Candidate
Lists to begin the regulation process of
cyanotoxins to protect public health, but
he stated that federal agencies, including
EPA and USDA, should use existing
authorities to give much higher priority to
nutrient reduction projects that protect
downstream drinking water supplies and,
therefore, public health. awwa.org



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A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s


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om |psfreeinfo.com.
Apr il 2015


Troubleshooting & repair challenges
By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC, P&S Editorial Advisory Board

Can Deaerators Create Pump Trips?

Last of Two Parts

art 1 of this series (Pumps

& Systems, March 2015)
discussed what happens
to a boiler feedwater (BFW)
pump during plant transients.
The column included calculations
that show what happens when
the pegging steam supply to the
deaerator (DA) is cut o: DA
pressure drops, but condensate
continues to ow, cooling the
DA. We saw that the resultant
two-phase uid in the DA would
contain a small vapor fraction
when measured by mass, but the
proportion of gas to volume is
very large.
The evolving vapor that is
pulled into the downcomer pipe
combined with the lowered suction
pressure at the pump inlet can
result in a pump trip. This trip is
caused by insucient net positive
suction head (NPSH) and high
vibrations. The essence of the
process was shown in a video at
PVA module #8.
The cause of the problem in the
previous column was a ashing of
the DA. This column will examine
what happens if the downcomer
is connected to two pumps. In the
example, both pumps are running
before the plant transient event
such as a load rejection during a
generator trip.
Pump 1 is driven by an auxiliary
steam turbine, which trips because
the auxiliary steam is cut o after

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

the plant event. The entire suction

header of Pump 1 retains the initial
302 F water, trapped by the pumps
valve. In this example, all piping is
well-insulated, and no heat is lost
to the surroundings. Pump 2 is
motor-driven and continues to run
after the event.

As the DA cools, it continues

to feed Pump 2 with water at the
same temperature as the DA,
cooling at the same rate. The 50
feet of static head (approximately
21 pounds per square inch [psi])
provides sucient suction pressure
at the pump entrance (39 + 21 = 60

Figure 1. The system with two pumps (Graphics courtesy of the author)

266 F


pegging steam


266 F


50 feet
(21 psi)

to boiler

266 F


302 F



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Michelle Segrest, Editor, Pumps & Systems
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pounds per square inch absolute

[psia]), above the vapor pressure
(39 psia) of the 266 F water.
The uid in the suction header of
the idling pump encounters more
problems. The temperature is 302
F, which requires 69 psia as shown
in Figure 2. However, only 60 psia
is available, so the water might
ash into a vapor phase.

A potential issue is whether the

heating eect of the hot water
on the cold water that ows to
Pump 2 will be enough to raise its
temperature above the saturation
temperature and cause it to ash
into steam. Even if the temperature
does not increase that much, it
could become hot enough for its
vapor pressure reduction to reduce
the net positive suction head
available (NPSHA) at Pump 2 and
cause cavitation or a pump trip.
Consider an extreme scenario in
which the two amounts of water,
assumed to be equal in volume,
mix instantaneously. In this case,
the temperature would come to
equilibrium at 284 F, the average
of the two previous temperatures.
The incoming DA water could
provide additional cooling.
Suction pressure at the pump
inlet would be 60 psia. According

to thermodynamic tables, the

saturation pressure at 284 F is
52 psia.1 This is 8 psi below the
available 60 psia.

For cavitation to occur, the
pressure does not need to be
exactly at vapor pressure. Some
reduction of pressure will
occur from the usual point of
measurement to the area where
the pressure actually does drop to
vapor pressure, typically at the tips
of the impeller blades. The 8 psi is
roughly 20 feet of NPSHA and is
usually suciently greater than the
net positive suction head required
of a typical BFW pumpespecially
considering the extreme scenario
of the entire column of hot water
in the pipe from Pump 1 instantly
transmitting all of its heat to the
water in the pipe in Pump 2.

Liquid to Vapor
The transformation from liquid
to vapor is a complex process. It
depends on many factors, such
as pressure, the volume of the
area into which the product can
expand, insulation (adiabatic/
isentropic process), conduction
between adjacent media (such as a
colder water in neighboring Pump
2). For our example, assume that
the control volumeconsisting
of the DA plus both headersis
constant. This makes
the transformation a
Figure 2. The T-v diagram shows the thermodynamics of the transient inside the DA and the piping.
constant volume process.
As the liquid in the
T, F
header of Pump 1 tries
to expand into steam, it
will rst encounter cooler
water at the junction to
the piping to Pump 2. So
the 302 F steam meets the
266 F liquid. According to
thermodynamics, when a
s (V
liquid that is transforming
into vapor encounters
a cooler liquid, the
transformation happens
in milliseconds. The heat
vapor will cool it to liquid,
Some vapor
but it will also heat up the
cooler water in Pump 2.
Eventually, the 302 F uid
= 0.01746
would cool down to 266
F and come into thermal
= 0.01714
10.70 = g
equilibrium with the water
g ft /lb
in Pump 2.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


In reality, however, this

transformation would be much
more gradual. Plus, the water
would be cooled by the continual
resupply of the even colder water
from the DA. The eect on the
temperature of the colder water
would be negligible.
While vapor could possibly oat
to the DA and choke o the supply
of water to Pump 2, the scenario is
unlikely because vapor transforms
to liquid almost instantaneously.

In summary, the behavior of the
DA has the greatest eect on a
pumps cavitation during power
plant transients. The adjacent
piping containing the trapped
hotter uids is unlikely to cause
cavitation. The results will be
dierent in every plant, and
dierent piping and DA sizes,
piping designs, pump speed,
design, ow and insulation details
aect how these systems respond
to transients.
1. Cameron Hydraulic Data Book, 19th
Edition, 2002
2. R. R. Craneld, Studies of Power Station
Feed Pump Loss of Suction Pressure
Incidents, ASME, Journal of Fluids
engineering, Vol. 110, December 1988

Dr. Nelik (aka Dr. Pump)

is president of Pumping
Machinery, LLC, an Atlantabased firm specializing in pump
consulting, training, equipment
troubleshooting and pump
repairs. Dr. Nelik has 30 years
of experience in pumps and
pumping equipment. He may
be reached at pump-magazine.
com. For more information, visit

The behavior of the DA has the greatest

effect on a pumps cavitation during power
plant transients.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



A better understanding of complete system operation
By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.

Calculating Head Loss in a Pipeline

ast months column explored

the eects that oversizing
a pump has on the motor
driving the pump, the adverse
results of a pump no longer
operating at its best eciency
point (BEP) for extended periods
of time and situations in which a
design margin could increase cost
of ownership.
This column will explore
pipelines in detail, consider how
they aect the operation of piping
systems, and review the method for
calculating head loss in pipelines.
A pipeline is a circular conduit
used to convey process uid
from one location in the system
to another. A pipeline consists
of a circular pipe full of uid,
the process uid, and the valves
and ttings used to direct the
ow of uid through the pipe
in the operation. Each of these
items aects the head loss in
the pipeline. Most uids used
in industrial applications are
Newtonian, meaning that their
viscosity does not change with the
rate of ow. Water, oils, solvents
and petroleum products are
examples of Newtonian uids. For
simplication this discussion will
be limited to the ow of Newtonian
uids through circular pipelines.

Head Loss in a Pipeline

When uid ows inside a pipeline,
friction occurs between the moving
uid and the stationary pipe
wall. This friction converts some
of the uids hydraulic energy
to thermal energy. This thermal
energy cannot be converted back

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

head loss will be reduced by half. If

the ow rate is doubled, the head
loss increases by a factor of four.
With the exception of the Darcy
friction factor, each of these terms
can be easily measured. In this
case, little information about the
properties of the process uid or
the surface roughness on the inside
hL = f L v
D 2g
of the pipe material is available.
Although these factors seem to
most people to have an eect on
head loss, the Darcy equation does
hL = 0.0311 f L 3Q
not account for them.
The Darcy friction factor takes
Equation 1
the uid properties of density and
viscosity into account, along with
the pipe roughness. The Crane
hL = Head loss (feet of uid)
TP-410 manual provides the
f = Darcy friction factor
tables and formulas needed to
perform the head loss calculations.
L = Pipe length (feet)
D = Inside pipe diameter (feet) It also includes a copy of the
Serghide Explicit equation and the
v = Fluid velocity (feet/sec)
Swamee-Jain formulas allowing
g = Gravitational constant
for direct calculation of the Darcy
(32.2 feet/sec2)
friction factor.
d = Inside pipe diameter
The Swamee-Jain equation is
solved in two parts (see Equation
Q = Volumetric ow rate
2). The rst step requires
calculating the Reynolds number
of the uid in the pipeline. During
Evaluating the Darcy equation
this step, uid properties of density
provides insight into factors
aecting the head loss in a pipeline. and viscosity are considered. The
If the length of the pipe is doubled, pipe absolute roughness value and
Reynolds number are then used to
the head loss will double. If the
inside pipe diameter is doubled, the calculate the Darcy friction factor.
to hydraulic energy, so the uid
experiences a drop in pressure. This
conversion and loss of energy is
known as head loss. The head loss
in a pipeline with Newtonian uids
can be determined using the Darcy
equation (Equation 1).

Table 1. Head loss in a 100-foot section of 4-inch schedule 40 steel pipe with different flow rates.
Notice the Darcy friction factor varies with the flow rate. (Graphics courtesy of the author)

Flow rate (gpm)

Velocity (ft/sec) Reynolds number

Darcy factor

Head loss (feet)

















R e = 50.66 Q

[ (

+ 5.74
3.7d R e0.9


Equation 2
d = Inside pipe diameter
R e = Reynolds number
Q = Volumetric ow rate (gpm)
= Fluid density (lb/ft3)
= Fluid viscosity (centipoise
f = Darcy friction factor
= Pipe absolute roughness

The example below uses

Equation 2 to calculate head loss
in a 100-foot section of a 4-inch,
schedule 40 steel pipe with a
ow rate of 400 gallons per
minute (gpm).
The calculation shows a head
loss of 8.46 feet of uid. Next, we
will determine what happens when

the ow rate is changed. Since this

pipeline was calculated with a ow
rate of 400 gpm, this example will
calculate the head loss for 200 gpm
and 800 gpm through the same
100-foot section of 4-inch, steel
schedule 40 pipe.
A rule of thumb for pipeline
head loss is doubling the ow rate

Equation 2 example:
R e = 50.66 Q = 50.66 400 x 62.4 = 285,520
4.026 x 1.1


+ 5.74
3.7d R e0.9

[ (

+ 5.74
3.7 x 4.026 285,5200.9

)] [ (


= 0.018

hL = 0.0311 f L 3Q = 0.0311 0.018 x 100 3x 400 = 8.46 feet


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The choice of the pipe size has

nominal sizes available for steel
increases the head loss by a factor
schedule 40 pipe. In each pipeline
of four. This is because the ow rate a major eect on the head loss in
the pipeline. Table 4 shows the
the ID, uid velocity and head loss
is raised to the second power. As
Table 1 shows, doubling the ow
Figure 1. The Reynolds number and the head loss for the pipeline data listed in Table 1.
rate doubles the uid velocity and
The greater the flow rate, the greater the rate of head loss increases.
Reynolds number (see page 20).
Using the doubling ow rate rule,
the 200 gpm ow rate with its head
loss of 2.3 feet would result in a
head loss of 9.2 feet instead of the
calculated value of 8.5 feet. Using
the doubled rate, the 400 gpm ow
rate with its corresponding 8.5 feet
of head loss results in a head loss
of 34.0 feet of uid rather than the
calculated value of 32.4 feet. The
rule only provides an estimate.

Pipe Material
Often the construction material
limits the available pipe sizes and
schedules. For example, polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) pipe is available
in many of the same sizes as
steel pipe, but it is only available
in schedule 40 and 80 pipe
dimensions. However, the inner
pipe diameter (ID) can be dierent,
providing varying results in head
loss. Table 2 compares the absolute
roughness values for dierent
material with a 4-inch, schedule 40
steel pipe with 60 F water with a
400 gpm ow rate.
The Darcy friction factor varies
widely with pipe roughness. As the
pipe wall roughness increases, the
head loss increases.
Pipe Size
Pipe is available in dierent sizes
and schedules or wall thicknesses.
Users often mistakenly use the
pipes nominal size instead of the
actual ID when performing the
head loss calculations. Table 3
shows the available schedules for
4-inch steel pipes along with the
corresponding ID, uid velocity
and head loss when 400 gpm of 60
F water is owing.
Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Table 2. Head loss in a 100-foot section of pipe transporting 60 F water through a pipe with an ID of
4.026 inches and various absolute roughness values

Pipe material

Absolute roughness Reynolds



Head loss (feet)
















Cast iron





Table 3. Head loss and fluid velocity in a 100-foot section of 4-inch nominal size
steel pipe using the available schedules when transporting 60 F water at 400 gpm


ID (inches)

Velocity (ft/sec)

Head loss (feet)

















Table 4. The head loss and fluid velocity in a 100-foot section of schedule 40 steel
pipe using the available sizes when transporting 60 F water at 400 gpm

Nominal size

ID (inches)

Velocity (ft/sec)

Head loss (feet)


















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p u mpsa
| Ap r il 2015
on cardems.c
or visit



is displayed for a 100-foot section

of steel schedule 40 pipes when
transporting water at 400 gpm.
In Table 4, the head loss drops
rapidly as the ID increases. For
example, transporting water
through a 3.5-inch pipe results
in 16.2 feet of head loss, while a
6-inch pipe has a head loss of only
1.1 feet. This reduction in pipeline
head loss allows for the selection of
a smaller pump that requires less
power. A larger pipe, however, costs
more to purchase and build.
The Crane Technical Paper 410
recommends a uid velocity in the
range of 5 to 10 feet per second (ft/
sec) in a pump discharge pipeline,
and a uid velocity of 2.5 to 5 ft/
sec on the pump suction pipeline
when the uid is water. This is an
engineering cost decisioneither

pay more for the pipe and less for

the pump and pumping cost or
vice versa. Proper understanding
can lead to nding the optimum
pipe size based upon uid
velocity. Equation 3 can be used to
determine the optimum pipe ID for
a given ow rate.


0.4085 Q

Equation 3

d = optimum inside pipe
diameter (inches)
Q = ow rate (gpm)
v = uid velocity (ft/sec)

Table 5. Notice how head loss increases the viscosity of the process fluid. Also
notice that for the same process fluid, the head loss decreases as the fluid
temperature increases.




Viscosity Re


Loss (ft)















40% NaOH







40% NaOH







HX fluid







HX fluid







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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


For example, consider what

diameter should be chosen to pump
uid at 600 gpm through steel
schedule 40 pipes with a sizing
velocity of 8 ft/sec. The ideal pipe
size for this condition is 5.535
inches, but this example is limited
to given pipe sizes. Table 4 shows
that a 5-inch pipe has an inside
diameter of 5.047 inches and a
6-inch pipe has an inside diameter
of 6.065 inches.

Process Fluid
The uid properties also aect
the head loss in a pipeline. This
example demonstrates what
happens when a change of both
process uid and temperature
occurs. Table 5 displays the head
loss when pumping 400 gpm of
dierent process uids at dierent

temperatures through a 100-footlong, 4-inch schedule 40 steel pipe.

This example compares head loss
for water, a 40-percent solution of
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and an
oil-based heat transfer uid (HX).
All calculations are performed at
60 F and 160 F.
Greater uid viscosity results
in greater head loss. Some
uids may require external heat
tracing to keep them at a owing
temperature. Any change in the
process uid or uid temperature
should be investigated to see how it
aects the pipeline head loss.
Next month, this column will
evaluate the eects ttings,
check and isolation valves have
on the head loss of the pipeline.
Additionally, it will demonstrate
how to calculate the operating cost

of pipelines to help identify ways to

optimize piping systems.
Ray Hardee is a principal founder
of Engineered Software, creators of
PIPE-FLO and PUMP-FLO software.
At Engineered Software, he helped
develop two training courses
and teaches these courses in the
U.S. and internationally. He is a
member of the ASME ES-2 Energy
Assessment for Pumping Systems
standards committee and the
ISO Technical Committee 115/
Working Group 07 Pumping
System Energy Assessment.
Hardee was a contributing
member of the HI/Europump
Pump Life Cycle Cost and HI/
PSM Optimizing Piping System
publications. He may be reached
at ray.hardee@eng-software.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Simple solutions for end users
By Jim Elsey
Summit Pump, Inc.

What You Need to Know About Bearing Oil

First of Two Parts

common myth in the

industry is that new
pumps are shipped ready
to plug and play. Assuming their
new equipment has arrived fully
equipped to run, end users often
start new pumps with no oil in
the bearingsone of the most
common pumping mistakes.
Contrary to popular belief,
pump manufacturers do not put
oil in the pump bearing housings
before shipment. Th is is usually
because shipping a pump with oil
in the housings is illegal in most
circumstances. At least three U.S.

governmental entities restrict this

practice, because oilespecially
when being transportedfalls
under hazardous material
regulations. Government Title 49
of the Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR) contains several sections
pertaining to transportation of
hazardous materials. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency,
Department of Transportation and
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration all cite 49 CFR
(various section numbers) in their
regulations that prohibit shipping
pumps with oil in the housings.

Figure 1. Operating temperature and viscosity (Courtesy of SKF USA)

Manufacturers also avoid

placing oil in the pump bearing
housings because they typically
do not know which type or
brand of oil the end user will
choose, and the oil can easily be
spilled, leaked or contaminated
during the transportation and
installation processes. Most pump
manufacturers publish explicit
warnings about the need to add
oil to the bearings both in their
instruction operating manuals
and on the pumps.
Despite these cautions, starting
a new pump without oil in the
bearings is one of the most
common mistakes end users
makefar more common than it
was forty years ago.
The resulting damage is usually
signicant, causing unwanted
downtime and additional material
and labor costs.
To avoid expensive damage and
downtime, individuals responsible
for pump installation and startup
must ensure that the correct type
and amount of uncontaminated oil
is in the bearing housings.

Temperature Requirements
At the least, manufacturers
recommend the type and viscosity
of oil for certain ranges of
operating temperature. Some may
also recommend a few oil brands.
When selecting an oil, one of the
most important properties to
look for is its viscosity grade. The
correct viscosity can be determined

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


In the short time between drafting
the first Common Pumping
Mistakes column (How to Avoid
Costly Damage in One Simple Step,
Pumps & Systems, February 2015)
and its publication, I witnessed
two more incidents of centrifugal
pumps running backward. One case
involved an American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) pump.
While the impeller remained in
place for two days of operation,
it then backed off, spun into the
casing and damaged the pump.
Incorrect direction of rotation
does not always manifest in a few
seconds, but I would estimate that
it does 98 percent of the time.

using the correlation between the

expected oil and bearing temperature
and the proper viscosity required for
the application. This information
is typically available through a
chart or table provided by the pump
manufacturer or the oil supplier. In
the process of oil selection you should
select an International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) oil number
that would yield approximately 15
centistokes (cSt) when at the actual
operating temperature.
The expected oil and bearing
temperature can be estimated based
on the process or uid temperature,
the metallurgy and geometry of the
pump, and the ambient conditions.
In essence, it is determined using a
heat balance equation calculation:
how much heat the process uid and
bearings generate (due to load) and

how much heat is subsequently lost

to the environment.
If present, ancillary cooling
systems such as jacketed stu ng
boxes (seal chambers), pedestals
and bearing housings will also come
into play. Other variables in the
equation include the pump materials
and the load on the bearings. One
factor that is sometimes lost in these
calculations is the oils role as a heat
transfer medium. In most cases,
completing the actual
heat balance equation is not
necessary because the target can
be found by empirical means and
alternate sources.
The most common acceptable
maximum temperature limit for
oil in the majority of pumps is 180
degrees F. If users choose an oil with
the proper viscosity and quality,

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



that limit can reach a suggested

maximum of 200 F.
The oxidation rate of the
oil changes dramatically with
temperature. Th is rate is relatively
low when the temperature is less
than 140 F, but it doubles with
every 18-degree increase from 86
F. Th is phenomenon cuts the oil
life in half with every 18 degrees
of increase.
Research and my experience
have shown that the actual
bearing temperature at the outer
ring of the ball bearing is typically
5 to 10 degrees higher than the
bearing housing temperature.
The temperature of the oil is 5
to 20 degrees higher than the
bearing housing. In the eld,
however, the bearing housing
temperature is cooler than the

bearing and the oil. For that

reason, some manufacturers and
practitioners suggest that the
maximum temperature should be
175 F as measured at the bearing
cap or housing.
As a result, most operators
measure the temperature of the
bearing housing to determine the
corresponding pump bearing and
oil temperature. The temperature
must be objectively measured
with an instrument such as a
thermometer, surface pyrometer,
thermocouple or infrared
temperature sensor, not by touch
or feel. I regularly receive calls
from end users who report that
the bearing housing feels hot to
the touch. To most people, even
120 F feels hot. Th is is a subjective
method and should be avoided.

If the process temperature

is above 200 F, the bearing
housings could also approach
this temperature. For practical
purposes, however, the bearing
housing temperature will more
likely be 10 to 40 degrees less
than the process temperature,
depending on ambient
temperature. Many factors and
variables aect the heat balance
thermal calculation.
The frame and the shaft
typically dissipate a large amount
of heat to the environment.
As a result, the bearing frame
remains at a lower temperature.
For a typical American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) pump
at an ambient temperature of
70 F, the dierence between the
pumpage temperature and the


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bearing housing temperature

during initial startup. If the
temperature approaches 180 F
and if the rate of change is high
and constantly increasing (more
than one degree F per minute),
be prepared to shutdown the
equipment for protection and
investigate possible causes.

bearing temperature will increase

as the pumpage temperature
increases (see Figure 2).

60-degree pumpage will have a

bearing temperature near 115
200-degree pumpage will have
a bearing temperature near 140
300-degree pumpage will have
a bearing temperature near 160

Types of Oils
I recommend synthetic oils to
most end users because these
oils are extremely consistent in
their properties, are slower to
oxidize and are able to maintain
their viscosity properties in
high-temperature applications.
Synthetic oils are more expensive

Figure 2. Pumpage bearing temperatures (Courtesy of the author)

While these are general rules,

bearing load, dierent ambient
temperatures, oil type and
viscosity will yield dierent
results. Bearing life is a direct
function of the oil temperature.
I strongly recommend
monitoring and measuring the









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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


than mineral oils based on initial

cost, so the overall cost must
be evaluated.
While some natural-based
mineral oils can be used in certain
applications, synthetic oils are
generally a better option for
tougher operating conditions.
Any oil oxidizes with time and

temperature, but synthetic oils

last longer and have a higher
viscosity index, an indication of
oxidation stability. Users must
not confuse viscosity grade with
viscosity index.
Never use automotive oils
designed for internal combustion
engines. The additives used in these

Figure 3. Expected bearing temperature range and viscosity selection. A general

guideline only for typical ANSI pumps in normal service. (Courtesy of the author)

oils will negatively aect the sump

and bearing housing of centrifugal
pumps, resulting in water
accumulation in the bearings.
Consider using a high grade of
the proper viscosity turbine oil.
Turbine oils are non-detergent and
have the proper additives for rust
and corrosion inhibition. Turbine
oils are formulated
to shed water and
contain additives for
demulsibility. As a
general rule, some oils
that are not turbine
grade (some gear oils,
for example) may work if
the temperature is lower
than 140 F.
An often overlooked
fact is that selecting a
higher viscosity grade

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



than required will actually cause

the bearing to run hotter than it
would with a lower viscosity grade. A
viscosity that is too low of a grade will
have the same eect.

150 to 165 degrees F

Viscosity Grade 46
165 to 180 degrees F
Viscosity Grade 68
180 to 200 degrees F
Viscosity Grade 100

Lower temperatures could possibly

use Viscosity Grade 32.
If you have any doubts or questions
concerning the proper oil selection,
please discuss the matter with your oil
supplier and the pump manufacturer.
Do not assume that oil is just
oil and use what is handy or
cheap. The dierence could mean
years of service and reliability.
The money you think you saved by
using the wrong oil could cost you
many times over in replacement
bearings and shafts, labor and
lost production.
Part two of this series will
continue the discussion of
common bearing mistakes,
including contamination, oil
levels, oil changes, lip seals and
bearing isolators.

Read more from Jim Elsey at


Jim Elsey is a mechanical

engineer who has focused on
rotating equipment design and
applications for the military and
several large original equipment
manufacturers for 43 years in most
industrial markets around the
world. Elsey is an active member
of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, the National
Association of Corrosion Engineers
and the American Society for
Metals. He is the general manager
for Summit Pump, Inc., and
the principle of MaDDog Pump
Consultants LLC. Elsey may be
reached at jim@summitpump.com.
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From the Readers

The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide

70-year-old dewatering pump
station gets high-tech retro t

Common Mistakes
End Users Make

What Is Your Pump

Relay Telling You?

FSA Weighs in on
Environmental Policies

How to Avoid Costly

Damage in One Simple Step

Readers respond to Jim Elseys

new column, Common Pumping
Mistakes: Simple Solutions for
End Users.

Reinhard Hurt, CMS, educational chairman at RSES

Detroit, writes:
Good article on common pumping mistakes. As a follow-up
article, maybe mention the following related issues.
I gave a phase rotation meter to each worker at my
company. They responded, What do I need that for? I
just change rotation if necessary. The phase rotation of a
motor is assumed to be 1-2-3 or A-B-C clockwise rotation,
but who checks until its too late? It is assumed that the
utility phases building supply rotation is 1-2-3 or A-B-C
clockwise rotation.
But what if the transformer is replaced by the utility
and their lineman wasnt diligent in checking before
restoring power? Or what if an internal transformer was
replaced by an electrician and he didnt check? Existing
installations should have the feed restored to match what
already exists; otherwise, rotation of the entire plant
will change. That also implies that testing is necessary
before shutdown.
It is assumed that a variable frequency drive (VFD)
puts out the same rotation as input, but that is not
necessarily the case. It is rarely taught in the heating,
ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) eld that motors,
compressors, etc., are built to be phase rotation 1-2-3
clockwise rotation, but you rarely nd that mentioned
in literature. All you nd is instructions to make sure
rotation is correct. How do I know correct rotation on a
sealed unit? Unless you have experience pulling the pump
apart, you will not know if it has a threaded-on impeller or
nut/bolt-secured impeller. It is not taught that these two
possibilities exist.
So if rotation should be 1-2-3, it could just as well be
2-3-1 or 3-1-2 that gets the same rotation. I mention this

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

because someone asked if 1-2-3 was absolutely necessary,

rather than acceptable 2-3-1 or 3-1-2. You are unlikely
to get the utility to change something that is working
correctly without a good reason.
There are low-cost instruments available to test rotation
by spinning the motor in the correct direction that will
give an indication of the leads connected.
The other problem arises with a non-standard of
identifying rotation: shaft-end, lead-end and unknown
end, as in a sealed compressor.
One last thing: It is important to read the literature
rather than use it to light the celebratory re. It usually
states to check all screws, fasteners, couplings, etc., prior
to startup because they can become loose in shipping. As
an example, we had a fan blade y o upon startup and
cause damage. You could be the one in the path of that
ying object or be paying the bill for a replacement on
your dime once the after-action review is done.

Jim Elsey replies:

Thanks for your kind words about the article; it is appreciated.
I also agree with your comments and would add a few
of my own. Because my rst 30 years in the business were
mostly with very large equipment (pumps, compressors
and turbines with normal or average motor size of 10,000
horsepower), I have a slightly dierent perspective than
someone in the HVAC world. I have only really been
exposed to the HVAC world during the last 15 years. I
never could get consistent results with phase rotation
meters and, admittedly, the issue could be the operator
and maybe also the early years for the product. Further,
I needed to have the coupling o anyway, because we
needed to nd both the motors physical and magnetic
center. The coupling gap must be set for the motors
magnetic center or there will be bearing and vibration
issues. Not necessary with the smaller National Electrical
Manufacturers Associatoin (NEMA) frame motors that
use ball or roller bearings.
Because I worked 90 percent of the time with electric
utilities in my early years, I found they were never
consistent from one plant to another or from one utility
to another in respect to power (phase rotation) below the


transmission classes ranges (138 kilovolts). More than

once I had issues with the plant themselves switching
phases, sometimes for the whole substation or sections of
the plant.
The determination standard for direction of rotation
is set by the Hydraulic Institute as CW or CWW with
the perspective as if you were the driver. Prior to that
convention, you had dierent manufacturers with
dierent perspectives. Granted, sealed units like you
would commonly see in the HVAC world could be
an issue, which is all the more reason to read the
Installation and Operation Manual (IOM) and consult
with the manufacturer.
The articles I write for Pumps & Systems magazine are
based on a book draft I have for the 100 most common
mistakes, and ying equipment pieces is on the list. I,
too, have personal experience in that area.

on Jim Elseys February column
on LinkedIn
Moorthe N., consultant for pump application, service & marketing:

The costly damages are mostly due to suction condition

deviation and depend on the type of pump and
application, particularly vertical in-line multistage
pumps, which get damaged due to dry run from
insucient priming and not meeting net positive
suction head required (NPSHr).
Jim Elsey:

Circle 139 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Moorthe, Thank you. I fully agree with your comment.

These types of mistakes will be covered in future
articles. They are already on the list and near the top. The
entire series of articles for Pump & Systems magazine is
loosely based on a draft of my upcoming book, which has
the working title The 100 Most Common Mistakes with
Centrifugal Pumps and How to Avoid Them. As you
probably know, almost 80 percent of pump problems are
due to an issue on the suction side of the pump. Thanks
again for your interest.
Christine McTavish, technical sales representative at
John Brooks Company:

Nice article, Jim. Thanks.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



David Gunter, national sales manager - Aggregates Group at

Pearce Pump Supply, Inc.:

The article was well-written and spot on. I wish you

much success with your upcoming book.
Lewis Cathey, retired:

I was involved with a backward running pump. It was

a vertical cantilever sump pump in a bottom ash area
in a coal-burning power plant. During unit startup,
the operators complained that the pumps were not
emptying the sump, and bottom ash water was
overowing. I went to check it out and told them to run
the pump. There was a lot of noise and water agitation
but no lowering of the water level. I asked the electrician
if the motor was wired correctly, and he said it was.
He left and I asked his helper to check the motor. He
found that the head electrician had wired the motor
incorrectly. After he switched wires, the operators ran
the pump. The pumps emptied the sump quickly. There
was no damage to the big pumps because they were ashhandling pumps with plenty of clearance.
Jim Elsey:

Lewis, thank you for sharing your experience. I

sometimes wonder if I am the only person who sees
these type of issues, but when I talk with others, I nd
out it happens more often than people realize. The
vertical pump you discussed also had a positive method
of locking the impeller to the shaft, so the reverse
rotation did not remove the impeller.
Fatemeh Ahmadi, machinary maintenance engineer at IRAN

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Thank you very much for sharing this practical subject.

Want to join the conversation? Become a member of

the Pumps & Systems LinkedIn group to engage in
discussions with more than 18,000 industry professionals.

To have a letter considered for publication, please send it

to Amelia Messamore, amessamore@cahabamedia.com.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

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New Pump Test Laboratory Approval Program

Ensures Efficiency & Credibility
Programs will help OEMs and end users navigate a more regulated environment for U.S. pumps.
By Robert K. Asdal
Hydraulic Institute

s the U.S. Department of

Energy (DOE) develops
new regulations to
improve pump performance
and eciency, the Hydraulic
Institute (HI) has been on the
forefront representing the pump
industry. HI has been guiding
the DOE through aligning its
approach with current European
Union (EU) regulations on water
pumps. Details of the eciency
rulemaking are expected to be
nalized later in 2015 and will
be the subject of another update
from HI.
The DOE rulemaking on pump
eciency and a new national
pump test procedure has been
evolving since January 2011.
Working to maintain a level
playing eld for pump original
equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) worldwide that serve
both U.S. and EU markets, HI
sought to align new U.S. pump
eciency regulations with
those in the EU, where it made
sense. Recognizing the unique
characteristics of the U.S. market
while considering the global
nature of the industry, HI drafted
a pump test standard that would
serve as the basis for eciency
ratings of covered products.
The institute developed the HI
40.6 Methods for Rotodynamic
Pumps Eciency Testing

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

standard, which was written with

input from Pacic Northwest
Research Labs, working on
behalf of the U.S. DOE. Th is
standard is currently available
from HI at pumps.org/HI40.6 and
helps pump OEMs understand
what will be required regarding
testing requirements.
The notice of proposed
rulemaking (NOPR) announcing
the DOEs initial position on
the proposed test procedure,
enforcement regulations and
draft eciency regulations
was not available at press time.
However, HI has created a new
Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program in anticipation of a more
regulated environment for U.S.
pumps. The program will help
prepare pump test laboratories to
meet the rigorous requirements
for determining the eciency of
rotodynamic pumps tested to the
proposed HI 40.6 standard and
specically those pumps that are
subject to the U.S. DOE pump
eciency rulemaking.
Pump OEMs that voluntarily
participate in the HI Pump Test
Laboratory Approval Program
will become compliant with
HIs eciency test procedure by
participating in a professional
review of their ability to properly
test and determine the eciency
of pumps in accordance with

the HI 40.6 standard. These

external audits will also help
improve pump laboratory
processes and procedures, as
de ned in the Institutes new lab
approval program.
The HI Pump Test Laboratory
Approval Program has been
designed around the new HI
40.7 Program Guide, which
summarizes the key elements
of this voluntary program. HI
will use a third-party audit rm
to con rm a pump test labs
ability to test the performance
of rotodynamic pumps to the HI
40.6 standard.
The program will help pump
OEMs and other pump test
laboratories improve their
current laboratory procedures
and policies by working with an
experienced third-party auditor
to develop and maintain accurate,
uniform and repeatable pump
testing protocols.
In addition, the program
promotes an increased level of
assurances to pump end users
as well as to electric power
utilities that are working with
HI on rebates and incentives for
premium ecient pumps. The HI
Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program is intended to be an
industry-led eort to assess pump
testing according to the new HI
40.6 test standard.



Relatively new global standards, such as ISO 50001,
that encourage the adoption of best practices with
corporate-wide energy management programs, will
drive interest in operating pumps more eficiently.
According to the DOEs website, ISO 50001 provides
organizations with an internationally recognized
framework for implementing an energy management
system (EnMS). The standard addresses:
Energy use and consumption
Measurement, documentation and reporting of
energy use and consumption
Design and procurement practices for energyusing equipment, systems and processes
All variables affecting energy performance
that can be monitored and inluenced by the
A new standard to be published in 2015 will
also drive the adoption of more eficient pumping
systems. ISO/American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) 14414, Pump System Energy
Assessment, will cover the process of conducting
audits of pumping systems. This new standard
will also increase awareness of energy-savings
opportunities and bottom-line beneits of optimizing
pumping systems.
While awaiting regulatory decisions from the
DOE, HI offers pump systems optimization courses
that are hosted by pump OEMs, distributors, end
users, electric power utilities or regional energy
eficiency organizations.
Energy savings of 20 to 40 percent are typically
possible when pumping systems are evaluated based
upon a professional audit, said Mark Sullivan, HI
director of education and marketing. When we
eventually introduce prescriptive rebates, the market
demand for optimization projects with more energy
eficient pumping systems will grow dramatically.
Pump end users who have participated in these
courses have conducted numerous assessments of
their systems based on the knowledge they gained.
These ield audits have been instrumental in proving
the case that focusing on pump system performance
can result in signiicant improvements in energy
savings, eficiency and reliability.
For more information about these initiatives,
contact Mark Sullivan, director of education, at 973267-9700 x200 or at msullivan@pumps.org.
Additionally, HI and Pump Systems Matter offer
a new software tool to help end users better
understand the interaction between the pump and
the complete hydraulic network. PSMART is a system
simulation tool that is freely available from the HI
website at pumps.org.

he Test Laboratory
Approval Program
Any qualiied domestic or global
corporation, research institution
or laboratory can participate in
the HI Pump Test Laboratory
Approval Program.
Facilities must have in-house
capabilities to conduct pump
performance tests to the HI
40.6 standard, personnel that
understand HI standards and
pump testing techniques,
and quality systems that will
ensure continued best practices
after the audit.
As part of the program,
qualiied laboratories agree to
periodic audits of their facilities,
records, equipment and personnel
to determine compliance with the
HI 40.6 standard.
he audit veriies the
laboratorys ability to test
the performance of certain
products to speciic standards
and to adhere to the general
requirements of International
Organization for Standardization
(ISO) 17025 General
Requirements for the Competence
of Testing and Calibration
HI selected Intertek to serve
as the third-party audit irm that
will provide program support
to HI and conduct pump test
laboratory audits in compliance
with HI 40.7. Intertek engineers,
trained to support this efort,
conduct the on-site audits,
and HI staf members handle
program administration.
Initially, pump test labs are
audited for two consecutive years,
then once every two years after
passing the irst two audits. Labs
that pass the initial audits receive
the title HI Approved Pump
Test Laboratory and are added
to a list of approved pump test

Image 1. HI
program logo and
mark (Courtesy of
Hydraulic Institute)

laboratories maintained on HIs

website. Every lab passing the
audit receives an HI Certiicate of
Approval along with a logo and
mark (see Image 1).
Achieving HI Approved Pump
Test Laboratory status indicates
that the laboratory determines
pump eiciency consistent
with HI 40.6, resulting in
market fairness, credibility and
qualiication for utility rebates for
DOE regulated products.
HI members from many
pump OEMs assisted in the
development of the 40.7
guideline, said Mark Heiser,
test and validation lab manager
for Xylem Inc. Applied Water
Systems and co-chair of the HI
40.7 committee. It will be used
as an assurance to our customers
that our testing practices are
sound and that our products will
perform in the ield as they do
in the lab. Having more eicient
pumps and pump systems is of
great importance in reducing the
overall consumption of energy in
this country.

Premium Label Program

Pump manufacturers with
approved labs will be qualiied
to participate in the future HI
Premium Pump Eiciency
Labeling Program. HI is working
on this program separately
with the American Council for
an Energy Eiciency Economy
(ACEEE) and electric power
utilities. Other industry trade
groups are also involved, including
those representing motors, fans
and compressors.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



The HI Pump Test Laboratory Approval Program is

intended to be an industry-led effort to assess pump
testing according to the new HI 40.6 test standard.

Circle 152 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

The Premium Pump Eciency

Labeling Program will allow
participating companies to mark
pumps and related products
tested in HI-approved test
laboratories. The program is
intended to foster engagement
with the utility industry and
regional energy eciency nongovernment organizations
(EENGOs) as a part of their rebate
and incentive programs.
Currently in development, the
HI Premium Pump Eciency
Labeling Program will be
introduced once DOE regulations
are nalized. In the meantime,
HI is collaborating with ACEEE,
electric power utilities and
regional energy eciency
organizations on the design of
appropriate rebate and incentive
programs for pumps and extended
pumping products including
motors, drivers and controls.
Electric power utilities already
incentivize their customers
to purchase and install more
ecient products. These incentive
programs have been in place for
years and have eectively
pushed markets to adopt more
ecient products.
Few of these programs,
however, address pumps or
pumping systems. HI intends
that more ecient pumps and
extended pump products
marked with HI Premium labels
will also be qualied for rebates
and incentives.
According to ACEEE,
approximately $9 billion in
incentive funds is available
annually through systemsbenets managed by electric
power utilities and state public
utility commissions. While
the overwhelming majority
of these funds are targeted at


other products, HI is working

with the utility industry and
ACEEE to design new programs
that will create incentives for
pumps and extended pump
products. Prescriptive rebates and
incentives will eventually drive
the market toward the adoption
of more efficient pump products,
better energy efficient practices,
improved education and training,
and audits of pumping systems by
certified pump systems assessors.
To learn more about the
Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program, download a free copy of
HI 40.7 Program Guide at Pumps.

Robert K. Asdal is executive

director of the Hydraulic Institute
(HI), a trade association of more
than 100 manufacturing companies
worldwide. HI is best known for its
world-class standards, industry
guidelines and education courses.
HI represents the industry in
Washington, D.C., particularly on
the U.S. Department of Energy
pump efficiency rulemaking. Asdal
led in creating Pump Systems
Matter (PSM) to help energyintense companies, municipalities
and utilities save energy while
improving their profitability through
education courses and pump
systems assessments. Asdal holds
a B.S. in electrical engineering and
previously served as a member
of the Board of the National
Association of Manufacturers and
Council of Manufacturing
Associations. He also
serves on the Editorial
Advisory Board of
Pumps & Systems

To view the HI 40.6 Methods for Rotodynamic Pumps Efficiency Testing standard,
visit pumps.org/HI40.6. For details about the HI Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program, visit pumps.org/PumpTestLabApproval. Pump OEMs, pump specifiers
and others interested or involved with the pump industry can find the latest news
on DOE rulemaking at pumps.org/DOERulemaking. For more information, email

The Future Has Arrived

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Split Rotary Seals Save on

Replacement Costs
The double-lock, double-ring designs seal oil and other uids
more eectively than their single split counterparts.

aintenance personnel usually dislike rotary

seals. This is because replacing a low-cost
oil seal requires dismantling a whole piece
of equipment.
If an employee sees a leaking reducer, the rst step is
to stop the reducer because of safety concerns. The next
step is less clear. It is impossible to remove and replace
the old seal with a new one because maintenance access
is blocked by a shaft. The employee must shut o the line,
separate the reducer from the connecting equipment, pull
the cover o the shaft, nd the old seal and pull it o the
shaft. Finally, the employee can install a new seal, but
now he or she must put the equipment back together in
the opposite sequence.
This process will likely take a few hours. If the shaft
is more than one meter in diameter, the procedures
could require several days. The cost varies based on the
facility, but whatever the cost, it is far greater than the
approximately $10 value of the oil seal.

Image 1. Single split seal (Images and graphics courtesy of AIGI)

Split Seals
However, replacing the seal without shutting down the
line, separating the equipment and pulling the cover o
the shaft is possible. A split seal can prevent most of this
process. With a split seal, the equipment must be stopped,
but the pipeline does not need to be shut down, and the
equipment does not need to be dismantled. The cover
must be pulled apart but not removed from the shaft. The
split seal can be installed around the shaft, and the cover
can be replaced. A split
seal can turn a one-day
job into a one-hour job or
a few hours of work into a
With a split seal, the equipment must be stopped,
few minutes.
but the pipeline does not need to be shut down, and
These advantages are
not helpful if the split seal
the equipment does not need to be dismantled.
is ineective. The validity
is dicult to determine,

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


Images 2 and 3. A split seal is applied in large equipment.

because each piece of equipment is dierent, and each

plant has a dierent standard for leakage. The best
applications for this type of seal are water or lubricants
in extremely large equipment. This article will exclude
the metal bearing protectors that are limited to less than
300 millimeters (mm) of shaft diameter and far more
expensive than the equipment covered here. The seals
discussed in this article are polymeric split rotary seals
for large rotating equipment such as pumps, fans, motors
and reducers.
Most plants have these types of applications. The water
unit areas of chemical plants and mines, for example,
contain hundreds of large pumps. Tens of thousands of
large pumps, reducers, fans and motors are used in power
plants and steel mills. If the split seal works, plants could
save millions of hours of manpower and avoid millions of
hours of production downtime.

Image 4. Split bearing protector

Single Split Limits

Many single split seals are on the market, and they can
mostly perform without issues. While split seals can save
money and prevent downtime, the single split design will
not work, even in theory. Consider the easiest media to
seal: light. Light is easier to seal than uid because light
does not bend, but uid does. If a seal cannot stop light
from leaking, it will not stop water or oil either.
To test this theory for the single split seal, pull one
apart by hand to make a gap that is 2 to 3 mm wide and
hold up to a light source. If the cut is straight, light will
immediately be visible from the split. But if the cut is
V-shaped, light may not be visible. However, if the seal
is viewed from above, it is easy to see through the split
vertically. The water or lubricant can still move along the
shaft and leak.
Regardless of the cut, no simple shape can make the
split area overlap both horizontally and axially during a
A More Effective Option
The alternative is to use two rings and two splits to meet
the above requirements. With this new design, the pullapart test can be repeated.
For example, consider the ball and socket design. It
consists of two rings made of either the same or dierent
materials. The outer ring is bound by a spring while the
inner ring is energized by another spring. Both the outer
ring and the inner ring have a split cut. Normally, one
split is at the 5-minute position and the other at 55-inch
clock position during installation (see Image 3). As shown

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




Table 1. Testing Report # MF-130710, Testing Standard: ISO 6194-4-2007

Testing Parameters




ISO Viscosity

Shaft Surface

Chamber Bore
Surface Roughness


hydraulic oil

100 mm

130 mm


Ra: 0.2-0.63

Ra: 1.6-3.2

Testing Result
Testing Sample #

Sample quantity: 6

Leakage Rate

Total leakage: 0

in Image 4, when the split is pulled apart and viewed

horizontally, the ball will stop the leakage path. When
viewed from above, the inner ring will stop the leakage
path. Together, they overlap the split, both horizontally
and axially. The eectiveness of this overlap is not just
theory but has been tested in laboratories.

In the Field
This design has also been proven in the eld. During the
past few years, more than 10,000 pieces of this ball and

socket double split seal have been installed on various

rotary equipment, fans, motors, reducers and pumps,
including some extremely large equipment. One end user
has purchased a 1.4-meter split seal for a rotary shaft in
a steel mill every year for the past ve years. That user
saved a great deal in reduced labor costs and downtime
by eliminating the need to dismantle such a large piece of
The best version of a split seal delivers performance not
by a single split but by two very strange splits. Users who
currently work with single split seals and want to improve
performance should consider a double split option.
Understandably, users who have never had split seals
on their large equipment may be concerned about cost.
Compared with the price of an oil seal, the doublering, double-lock split seal is more expensive. The price
is higher because this product has to be manufactured
from anti-relaxation polymer material and some special
cutting tools, and it has undergone extensive research
and development.
This split seal design, however, will cost almost
nothing in comparison to the cost of installation and
saved production time. In fact, it will practically pay
for itself.

Read more about seals at


Image 5. The positions of the splits on the double split seals

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Justin Zhao received a Master of Science from University

of Chicago and a Master of Business Administration
from Rutgers University. For more information, visit


Invest in Plant Personnel

for Better Equipment ROI
Operator-driven reliability can extend seal life.

area to identify where the leak is coming from? Is the

fact of life is that equipment operators spend
leak coming from between the shaft and the seal sleeve,
more time with pumps than mechanics do.
between the seal sleeve and the seal gland, the seal gland
Leveraging this familiarity with equipment,
and the head, or from a leaking piece of tubing, piping or
operator-driven reliability (ODR) programs
union? Depending on the source, the operator may have
focus on maximizing plant reliability by enhancing the
an opportunity to mitigate the leak before creating
techniques operators use to monitor the equipment for
a work order that could lead to costly misdirected
which they are responsible. ODR is not a new concept,
pump maintenance.
and many companies around the world have deployed
If the operator only has the option to answer yes or no
ODR programs to various levels of success. One benet
to whether the seal pot level is in the acceptable range,
of ODR is the ability to improve seal mean time between
plant management can miss critical information. In many
failures (MTBF).
The rst step toward
improved seal MTBF through
ODR is understanding why
Figure 1. API Plan 21 (Graphics courtesy of Schneider Electric)
a seal fails. It is often for
reasons other than reaching
the end of its life span, such as
lubrication problems, vibration
or installation errors.
During their routine rounds,
operators are often asked to
document only if the seal is
leaking and if the seal pot
level is acceptable. While this
may seem reasonable, plant
management may not be
getting value from the tasks
they have asked the operator
to perform.
For example, the operator
can log that the seal is leaking,
but does he or she know
enough about the dierent
seal ush plans used in their

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




cases, knowing if the seal pot level is low, normal or high

could be a sign of a primary seal face leak, a secondary
seal face leak or even a seal ush cooler leak, depending
on the specic seal ush plan.
Some equipmentsuch as coolers, purges, vent lines,
quenches, reservoirs and collection vesselsis often
ignored during inspection. To ensure that operators
are monitoring the seal ush system properly, plant
management should optimize inspection techniques,
provide training on the new techniques with visual
aides both in the control room and in the eld, and
provide operators with the right tools to properly execute
the inspections.

Suggested Tasks for Operators

to Improve Seal MTBF
Because some leaks can be mitigated without
maintenance, operators should routinely monitor seals
for leakage and identify the source of the leaks.
They should periodically monitor seal ush line
temperatures before and after the orice(s) found on
many American Petroleum Institute (API) Plan 11, 13,
14 and 21 seals and calculate the change in temperature
(T). An increasing T is a sign that the ush line is

starting to plug. An infrared (IR) temperature gun is

typically needed to complete this task. Plant management
should mark and label the locations at which operators
will take temperature readings. Ideally, the locations
should be painted at black to reduce the likelihood of
bad readings caused by emissivity.
Operators should also periodically monitor the seal
ush line at the inlet and the outlet to the cooler found
on many API Plan 21, 23, 41, 52, 53A and 53C seals and
calculate a T (see Figure 1, page 45). A decreasing T is
a sign that the cooler may be starting to foul. Check to
make sure cooling water lines are properly lined up, and,
if possible, back ush the cooler while the pump is online.
In some cases, it may be necessary to shut down the pump
to back ush the cooler. This task generally requires an IR
temperature gun. Seal ush inlet and outlet lines to the
cooler should be properly labeled, marked and painted
at black.
Periodically monitor seal ush line temperatures before
and after the cyclone separator found on many API Plan
31 and 41 seals and calculate a T. An increasing T
is a sign that the ush line is starting to plug and the
cyclone separator should either be cleaned or replaced.
An IR temperature gun is the best tool for this task if

Quality is
Never an
Designed for Long-Life

Details that Matter

Cat Pumps engineers set out to design the longest

lasting, most dependable high-pressure pump possible.
From surface finishes to materials of construction,
Cat Pumps has optimized every design detail for long
life and dependable performance.

With over 47 years of experience and application verified

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temperature gauges are not

installed on the seal flush piping.
Seal flush inlet and outlet lines
to the cyclone separator will
need to be properly labeled,
marked and painted fl at black.
Routinely verify that the flush
line is totally iced over on API
Plan 31 seals when in butane or
propane service.
Routinely monitor seal flush
flow and pressure indicators
on API Plan 32 seals. Knowing
the actual stuffing box pressure
allows personnel to accurately
set the safe operating range.
Monitor seal flush control
system valves routinely to
ensure proper position and that
the strainer is not plugged on
API Plan 32 seals.
Routinely monitor buffer/
barrier fluid level in the fluid
reservoir on API Plan 52, 53A,

Figure 2. API Plan 72

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




53A, 53B, 53C and 54 seals. Knowing the actual stung

box pressure is important for accurately setting the safe
operating range of the barrier system pressure, which can
help maintain isolation of product from the atmosphere.
Periodically monitor accumulator pre-charge pressure
on API Plan 53B seals. As the pressure decreases, add
more barrier uid to increase system pressure back to an
acceptable range. If possible, record
the amount of barrier uid that was
added so that leakage rates can be
Routinely monitor quench
pressure and valve positioning on
API Plan 62 seals. Quench pressure
should never exceed the maximum
design limit.
If steam is used as the quench
method, operators should also
monitor the condition of the
steam trap.
Routinely monitor the drain
valve position and the overow
chamber level indicator on API Plan
65A and 65B seals. A high level in
the overow chamber may indicate
excessive seal leakage.
If heat tracing is installed,
ensure that tracing is working
during required periods. Operators
will need to drain the collection
vessel on API Plan 65B seals
when the vessel level indicator
approaches full.
Routinely monitor the pressure
indicator on API Plan 66A and 66B
seals to detect excessive leak rates.
These are typically monitored by
pressure transmitters and may not
require manual inspection.
On API Plan 66B seals, operators
should monitor the drain line
temperature to ensure that the
drain orice is not plugged.
Routinely monitor vent line
pressure, buer gas pressure and
buer gas ow on API Plan 72 seals
(see Figure 2, page 47). Pressure
in the vent line is an indication of
primary seal face leakage. Buer
gas pressure should always be
lower than seal chamber pressure.
Flow should be regulated to ensure

53C, 54 and 55 seals. Level changes indicate dierent

problems based on the seal ush plan used. A level change
often indicates primary or secondary seal face leakage.
Monitor vent line pressure on API Plan 52 seals
routinely. Increased pressure is an indication of primary
seal face leakage. The vent line valve should be open.
Routinely monitor barrier system pressure on API Plan


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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


that proper cooling is supplied to

the seal faces.
Routinely monitor barrier gas
pressure and ow on API Plan 74
seals. The barrier gas pressure
must be higher than seal chamber
pressure at all times. Barrier gas
ow could indicate primary or
secondary seal face leakage. If ow
is present, ensure that the upset
drain is not leaking.
Periodically monitor the
coalescing lter on API Plan 72
and 74 seals for high dierential
pressure. If the gas supply quality
is poor, the coalescing lter will
become plugged over time.
Routinely monitor the vent
pressure, valve positioning and
collection reservoir level (API
Plan 75 only) on API Plan 75 and
76 seals.
Increased vent pressure is an
indication of primary seal face
leakage. The collection reservoir
should be drained to a liquid
collection system as needed.

On-Site Implementation
These tasks are only suggestions,
but plant managers should
remember that a properly designed
and maintained seal can last
for more than 10 years. Field
inspections of seal ush systems
depend greatly on the eld
installations themselves and on
each sites readiness to embrace
ODR methodologies.
In many cases, successful ODR
implementation will require a
change of the existing plant culture,
adequate training programs and an
introduction of new technologies
for operators to use to eectively
execute the designated tasks.
Commonly used technologies
include mobile workforce and
decision support software
applications, ruggedized mobile
computers and peripheral devices
such as IR temperature guns.

Jason Vick is the mobility technical sales consultants manager at Schneider

Electric. He is responsible for providing mobile workforce enablement technical
guidance and best practices to customers in many vertical markets
including oil and gas, petrochemical, power generation, pulp and paper,
and mining. Before joining Schneider Electric in 2008, Vick spent many
years at the Delaware City Refinery where he held several positions
within maintenance, technical and reliability groups. He may be
reached at jason.vick@schneider-electric.com.

Experienced Solutions.
Proven Results.

Inpro/Seal, the inventor of the original Bearing

Isolator, continues to deliver permanent bearing
to rotating equipment. When you need superior
sealing performance and unmatched customer service with every
design, Inpro/Seals technology and experience delivers.
For proven results, trust the innovators, not the imitators. Trust Inpro/Seal.



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Gasket Thickness Tolerance

Knowledge Can Prevent
Pump Leaks
Users must understand the characteristics of their equipment
including seating surface, gasket load curves and manufacturing
methodsto reduce the risk of leaks.

he phrase Its just a small leak is rarely

found in the vocabulary of any maintenance
manager, pump operator or pipetter. Facing
growing concerns such as tighter Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) emissions legislation,
environmental issues, costly downtime and overall plant
safety, plant personnel understand that overlooking
a seemingly small issueincluding a leaking pump
casingis a serious risk. To reduce these risks, pump
users should carefully consider the characteristics of their
equipment to ensure eective sealing and reduce leaks.

Seating Surface
The nish or the condition of the gasket seating
surface has a denite eect on the ability of the gasket
to establish a seal. Compressed non-asbestos gasket
materials are porous and typically require a minimum
gasket seating stress of 4,800 pounds per square inch
(psi) to reduce or eliminate the porosity and achieve a
proper seal. However, using a polytetrauoroethylene
(PTFE) gasket material (particularly glass- lled materials
that reduce creep) eliminates this porosity issue.
Regardless of which material is selected, whether
non-asbestos or lled PTFE, sheet gasketing material
is designed to have a seating stress applied that allows
the gasket material to ow into the serrations and
irregularities of the ange face. This bite of the
serrations into the gasket material helps the gasket
to resist the eects of internal pressure, creep and
Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

cold ow. Gasket creep is a major cause of gasket

sealing issues and generally increases as the material
thickness increases.
Smooth nishes are usually found on pump casing
gaskets and other machinery or anged joints (except
pipe anges). When working with a smooth nish,
consider using a thinner gasket to minimize the eects
of creep and cold ow. Note that a thinner gasket and
a smooth nish will require a higher compressive force
(bolt torque) to establish a seal.

Pump Styles & Gasket Performance

While many pump types exist, axial split case and radial
split case pumps are common in the industrial world.
Both styles of pumps have pros and cons, specically
in terms of application gasket design. Proper sealing in
axial split case pumps can be particularly troublesome,
Figure 1. High and low stress concentrations on
a gasket in an axial split case pump (Images and
graphics courtesy of Triangle Fluid Controls Ltd.)


Figure 2. Compression curve for 1/16-inch Durlon 8500 gasket material

because the gaskets are mostly unconstrained and have

an asymmetrical shape that can cause both high and low
stress concentrations on the gasket (see Figure 1). Leaks
and gasket blowouts occur most frequently in these low
stress concentration areas.
Radial split case pumps have fewer sealing issues
because they have a more proportioned bolting pattern
and enclosed gasket design. However, these pumps have
smaller bolting areas, so the maximum amount of seating
stress that must be applied to the gasket can make sealing
dicult. In some cases, the seating stress cannot be
increased because of the design, so altering the eecting
sealing area of the gasket may be a feasible option.

Gasket Load Curves

Another eective tool for selecting a gasket material is a
load and compression curve, which shows gasket stress
being applied to the gasket versus the deection while
under that stress (see Figure 2). Compression curves
help show how a gasket material densies under
increasing stress as the original porosity is reduced and
closed. The material can withstand an increasing load
until the stress reaches a maximum value at failure
although compressing the gasket to this value would not
be ideal or recommended.
Compression curves are typically run on a loading
and unloading cycle to determine the eects of leakage
as gasket stress is reduced after initially being loaded
to a higher value. Depending on how many data points
are plotted, the results can be non-linear or linear.

Image 1. Diagram of calendar

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




Image 2. Lathe nose bar adjustability

Image 3. Knife blade supports

Interpretation of loading curves

and other real-time data from
the pump user is best left to the
manufacturers applications


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The Eects of
Manufacturing Methods
Specic gasket sheet manufacturing
methods can yield various degrees
of tolerance within PTFE sheeting
material. The gasket industry uses
two main methods: the HS-10
calendar method and the skived
method. With the calendar method,
the sheet thickness variation
within thinner gauge material,
such as 1/64-inch and 2-inch of
sheet material, is much more
dicult to control than with
skiving sheets. Calendared sheets
are made between two rolls, one
hot and one cold (see Image 1). The
solvent-based mixture is added to
the calendar, which pinches the
mixture between these rolls. A
problem with thickness tolerance
can occur because both rolls have
an outer machined crown. This
allows the rolls to atten out by the
deection caused with increasing
nip (the pinching space between the
two rolls) pressure from the added
material. The operator is always
competing against the deection
within the crown, so this method is
The method for making skived
PTFE is similar to slicing veneer
on a lathe. A hardened steel blade
is mounted to the nose bar of
the lathe, which is reinforced
throughout the entire length of
the blade (see Images 2 and 3). This


Specific gasket sheet manufacturing methods can yield various degrees

of tolerance within PTFE sheeting material. The gasket industry uses two
main methods: the HS-10 calendar method and the skived method.
makes the knife edge much more
resistant to deection, resulting in
truer gauges with less variation in
thickness throughout the sheet.
Both manufacturing methods
produce 1/64-inch and 2-inch thick
PTFE materials that are ideal
for pump casings. Typical gasket
thickness range for skived 1/64inch material is 0.014-0.021 inch
with a +/- tolerance of 0.003 inch
across the width of the sheet. The
calendar method produces a typical
gasket thickness for 1/64-inch
material ranging from 0.014-0.021
inch with a +/- tolerance of 0.0050.002 inch (based on available
industry literature). Based on
these numbers, the skived method
provides more consistent gauge
thicknesses, which can be a critical
factor in sealing smooth-faced
pump casings.
1. http://www.centrifugalpump.org/

Chett Norton, C.E.T., is an

applications engineer for Triangle
Fluid Controls Ltd with 12 years
of experience in both fluid
sealing and industrial process.
He is a certified member with
Ontario Association of Certified
Engineering Technicians and
Technologists Mechanical
Discipline and also is an active
participating member of the
Fluid Sealing Association Gasket
Technical Committee.
Norton can be
reached at chett@
or on Twitter





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0" " "

" " " "
" ""
" "

A World Class Provider of

Fluid Sealing Solutions




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Centrifugal Pumps on
Cryogenic Trailers Require
Advanced Sealing Designs
The industry has developed a specialized method over time.

Figure 1. The first generation formed bellow design (Graphics courtesy of

PPC Mechanical Seals Inc.)

ryogenic products are produced globally and

are critical to industries such as rening, steel,
medical, plastics, chemical, petrochemical,
brewing, welding and fuels. Liquid nitrogen
(LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid argon (LAR)
are some of the specic liqueed gases used in these
products. During cryogenic production and distribution,
operating conditions can be extreme. Pumps may operate
at speeds of up to 8,000 rotations per minute, operating
pressures may reach 400 pounds per square inch (psi) and
temperatures can be as low as -320 F (-196 C).
While many users in these industries have an on-site
air separation system for their cryogenic needs, others
rely on cryogenic trailers to deliver products. Because
pumps and mechanical seals can be aected during
transfer, the transportation of these products to multiple
destinations is an everyday challenge. The centrifugal
pumps on cryogenic trailers start and stop often, and
startup procedures are often not followed consistently.
These conditions cause conventional liquid-lubricated
mechanical seals to perform poorly.
If the centrifugal pumps are not cooled before starting,
priming will be dicult, and the seal faces will be
exposed to a gas instead of a liquid. Gas is a poor lubricant
and can be detrimental to the life of the seal faces. The
coecient of friction of face materials depends on the
ability of the uid to maintain a lm across the faces.
Because the pumps are started hundreds of times each
month, the opportunity for seal failure is exacerbated.

For more than 40 years, trailer pump mechanical seals
have been evolving to handle the challenging task of
Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Figure 2. The second generation blue face design


Figure 3. The third generation maroon design

sealing cryogenic products in centrifugal pumps.

Oxygen compliance makes the function of these seals
even more critical.
Trailer pump performance is often measured in the
number of hours the pump has run before the mechanical
seal is replaced. This run time
is expressed as the mean time
between seal failure (MTBF). A
typical seal life ranges from 50
to 1,700 hours, depending on the
amount of lubrication available at
the seal faces.
The rst generation of liquidlubricated mechanical seals used
on these trailers was a formed
bellow stationary design (see
Figure 1), which had a non-rotating
spring element. This stationary
design seal used a shrink-tted,
resin grade carbon stationary face
running against a harden stainless
steel rotary face. These seals had
fair seal life when used in liquid
cryogenic product applications. The
resin grade, stationary carbon face
and harden stainless steel rotary
face, however, would last only a
short time, especially if the pumps
were started incorrectly, causing
gas to lubricate the seal faces.
The second generation of
liquid-lubricated mechanical seals
used a blue wearing or soft face

made of glass- lled polytetrauoroethylene (PTFE) and

other special llers to enhance the loading properties
(see Figure 2). Originally, this glass- lled PTFE face was
shrink tted or epoxied into the bellows insert holder.
Later designs replaced the shrink t with a static O-ring
seal to retain and hold the face in place. The O-ring drive
was insucient for holding the face in a static position,
allowing the face to spin around the O-ring.
This design was later modied to feature a lug drive
that prevented the blue faces from spinning. Another
upgrade to these seals came in the form of welded metal
bellows instead of the formed bellows. The welded bellows
were more pliable and more forgiving than the formed
bellows, allowing for improved performance.
Further MTBF improvements came through the
use of tungsten carbide as the hard face in place of the
hardened stainless steel rotary face. The improvements
were especially pronounced in seals operating under high
pressure. Unfortunately, the industry did not universally
adopt tungsten carbide because of the higher cost.
The third generation of liquid-lubricated mechanical
seals also used a welded metal bellows design, but the
stationary face was changed to a maroon PTFE glass lled blended material (see Figure 3). Alternatively, the

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Figure 4. A lift-off gas seal design

material sometimes had ceramic llers. It originally also

used a static O-ring to seal and retain the face in place.
Eventually designs began employing a lug drive feature
instead, using a static O-ring to seal the face to the holder
in the bellows stationary assembly. The rotary face was
available in either hardened stainless steel or tungsten
carbide. This seal saw some improvement in MTBF but
still had issues when the uid lm between the seal faces
was minimal.
The fourth generation of mechanical seals transitioned
from a liquid-lubricated seal design to a dry-running gas
seal (see Figure 4). This non-contacting (lift-o ) gas seal
operates by establishing a very thin gas lm between the
antimony carbon stationary face and the tungsten carbide
rotary face. This seal is eective for sealing gaseous
environments and has negligible wear during startup and
shutdown. The drawback for this seal type is expense. The
cost is two to three times that of a liquid-lubricated seal.
The current fth generation design is a liquid/gas
lubricated stationary design metal bellows mechanical
seal (see Figure 5). This seal uses a polymer PTFE
composite stationary face with proprietary llers
developed by NASA. This material oers exceptional
tribological properties that reduce the friction between
surfaces and maintains superior pressure velocity (PV)
value, even when lubrication is minimal.
This premium polymer PTFE face incorporates a drive
lug feature along with a static O-ring, which provides a
positive seal to the stationary housing holder. The welded
347 stainless steel bellow convolutions were redesigned
for greater strength and durability. The premium
tungsten carbide rotary face has been incorporated as a
standard component. While tungsten carbide improves

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Figure 5. A liquid/gas-lubricated stationary design metal

bellows mechanical seal

the overall performance of the seal, the tribological

properties are advanced further through a proprietary
surface treatment.

Although many factors can contribute to a shorter seal
life for cryogenic trailer pumps, the biggest contributing
cause for most of these failures is seal face damage caused
by friction and wear.
This fth generation seal performs signicantly
better than the previous generations because it works in
both liquid and intermittent two-phase environments.
The combination of the stationary bellows design, the
tribological properties of the seal face materials and the
treatment of the tungsten carbide rotary face reduces the
friction and wear in these two-phase environments.
Michael P. Cresap is vice president technical services
manager of PPC Mechanical Seals Inc. He joined PPC
Mechanical Seals in 1973 and has worked in engineering
in various capacities, including engineering manager.
His current responsibilities include technical support for
sales, research and development, and training. He is also
involved with pump/original equipment manufacturer
for application engineering. He was the team
leader that developed the seal design for this
article. Cresap may be reached at 1-800731-7325 or mcresap@ppcmechanicalseals.
com. For more information, visit



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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




Enhanced Seal Features

Prompt Market Growth
End users will consistently purchase these critical wear components.

in mechanical seals, despite the high initial cost. The

he life of equipment, such as compressors or
need to upgrade aging production facilities to increase
pumps, depends on the functionality of individual
eciency and comply with changing regulations presents
parts, including seals. As the useful life of a seal
signicant opportunities in the retrot market for seal
increases, so does the reliability and robustness of
manufacturers in North America.
the pump. Premature seal failure is one of the reasons for
While these growth trends are positive for the seals
growing maintenance costs and overall cost of ownership.
market in North America, some factors restrain the
Issues related to wear, heat resistance and corrosiveness
growth of seal manufacturers. The seals market has
are carefully evaluated before designing a seal. These
grown to be price-competitive with the entry of low-cost
physical factors, coupled with economic impact, inuence
products from Asian manufacturers. Although quality
the seals market in North America.
was a problem with these products, recent years have
Strong Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
shown an enormous improvement. Another restraint
guidelines in industries such as rening and chemical
to the seals market is the adoption of sealless pump
processing are expected to have a positive impact on
technology, which eliminates the need to maintain
the demand for pumps. These critical industries are
any mechanical seal in the production process.
bound by regulations to ensure hazardous materials are
Industries, such as pharmaceuticals, are adopting
not released, since this can be harmful to people and
this technology to achieve zero leakage and maximize
the environment. Seals prevent both harmful release
operational protability.
of material and monetary loss. In industries such as
pharmaceuticals and food and beverage, loss of
products decreases the operational protability.
Figure 1. North American seals market revenue forecast and growth rate (Courtesy of
Seals also block external agents that may
Frost & Sullivan)
contaminate products from entering the
production process. These seals have higher
resistance to corrosion to prevent in ltrating
the ow with metal pieces. Such hygienic seals
are widely used in sanitary pipelines of biotech,
pharmaceutical, dairy, food and beverage,
industrial and semi-conductor industries.
All plant operators aim to optimize processes
by minimizing operating costs and downtime,
and maximizing production. Hence, designing the
mechanical seal to meet functional needs with
sucient research in operating requirements
will drive demand for seals. The maintenance
cost savings and the operational excellence that
plant operators experience boost investment
Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


Market Overview
According to Frost & Sullivan analysis, it is estimated that
the North American seals market held revenue of about
$1,300 million in 2014 and grew 4 percent over 2013. It is
expected that the market will grow at a compound annual
growth rate (CAGR) of 4.1 percent through the forecast
period. Figure 1 gives the forecast analysis for rotary and
mechanical seals from 2011-2019.
The rotary seals segment contributes about 60 percent
to the total revenue of the market in North America.
However, it is expected that mechanical seals will
capture more market share by 2019 thanks to increased
functionality. The demand from the automotive sector
sustains the rotary seal market, which is expected to be
stable during the forecast period.
Investments in the oil and gas industry, particularly
in exploration and production of shale, will boost the
demand for mechanical seals. The shale gas boom has led
to the growth of related industries, such as the chemical
industry. However, the current economic climate is
expected to result in a stable seals market since most
demand will be for the replacement requirements from
existing facilities. A signicant portion of the revenue
for the seals market is from the oil and gas and chemical
industries, which have harsh
working conditions. End users
are always looking for improved
seals and unprecedented reliability
for replacement. The water and
wastewater and power generation
industries face similar issues and
require frequent replacement
services for worn-out seals.
The improved mechanical
seals are based on composition
of dierent metals and diamond
coatings, which increases the life of
a seal by making it more resistant
to wear with highly corrosive uids
or sometimes even dry running.
Additional enhancements include
special grooves on the surface
that reduce friction during dry
run. These grooves serve as a thin
layer of lubrication, increasing
energy eciency. As these
innovations continue to evolve,
the performance of mechanical
seals will improve with extended
life, reduced operating cost and
increased returns on investments.

Eective maintenance of rotating equipment also ensures
a long seal life. Over the years, breakdown maintenance
has been replaced by preventive and proactive
maintenance. As a part of their marketing strategy, seal
manufacturers or original equipment manufacturers
partner with automation solution providers for real-time
information on equipment condition. Capturing factors
such as pressure and temperature helps users recognize
discrepancies in the normal operation. This reduces
unscheduled downtime and production loss.
To solve production issues, end users should adopt
condition monitoring of seals based on surface
temperature and vibrational analysis to schedule
maintenance activities and take preventive measures. The
use of seals in severe production conditions, which are
not easily accessible, is improved from such technology
and has become a signicant part of the seals market.
Sakthi Sobana Pandian is a research analyst
for Frost & Sullivan. She can be reached
by contacting Ariel Brown, corporate
communications associate for Frost &
Sullivan, at ariel.brown@frost.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015


Keystone XL
Represents the
Next Step in Pump
As the debate over the pipeline s future
continues, Siemens and TransCanada
celebrate six years of collaboration on an
advanced oil & gas monitoring system.

TANTON, Neb. (Nov. 11, 2014)Even as the

Midwest cold dipped into the teens, the steel at
Pump Station 38 was hot to the touch.
Beneath the curved pipes rushed hundreds of
thousands of barrels of Canadian crude oil destined for
Gulf Coast reneries. Pump Station 38 is one of dozens
of pump stations along the Keystone XL pipelinea
1,200-mile addition to the Keystone system that connects
Hardistry, Alberta, to Steele City, Nebraska. Six years
of political debate has made the Keystone XL (KXL)
project a favorite for national headlines, but the real
story lies in the innovative technology that makes the
expansion possible.
During a visit to Pump Station 38, Pumps & Systems
had a rst-hand look at KXLhow pumps, motors and
advanced monitoring solutions combine to provide reliable,
safe transfer services for the next chapter in U.S. energy.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Mapping the Pipeline

A common misconception is
that KXL will be the rst oil
pipeline on American soil.
The pipeline is actually another addition to the
Base Keystone systemthe fourth phase in a crude oil
transfer network that spans much of the Midwest and
reaches from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
Base Keystone started as 275 miles of pipe and ve
pumping stations. Now, the system and its expansions
rely on more than 200 pumps to handle 47 approved
petroleum products.
TransCanadas Corey Goulet worked on the systems
Gulf Coast expansion before taking over as president
of KXL.
It is the safest pipeline system built in North
America, he said.

Pump Station 38 at Station, Nebraska, carries Canadian
oil sands crude as part of the Keystone XL expansion.
(Photography by Michael Lambert)

Today, more than 56 pump stationsabout one

station every 50 milesare needed to transfer crude oil
from Alberta to the Gulf Coast, he said. Steele City acts
as an intermittent hub, either moving products east or
south toward the coast.
With the completion and approval of KXL, Canadian
crude will have a direct path through Steele City to
the Gulf Coast. This shortcut will increase the speed
and availability of petroleum products and reduce the
number of pump stations needed to about 35. These new
stations will add about 130 pump units to the system,
such as the four pumps in parallel series at Pump
Station 38.

Check valves at the entrance and exit of the pump circuit

determine if the products need to enter the circuit or
continue through the pipeline.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Pressure Control
Virgil Pfenning, area manager of Pump Station 38, said
that the products move through the station at more than
1 million gallons per hour, or 660 gallons per second. This
is equivalent to walking pace, Pfenning said. At this
rate, about 550,000 barrels of crude product are handled
by the stations pumps each day.
Pressure control is key. A series of pressure gradients
separate product batches from station to station. If the
ow rate decreases, the batches mix and contaminate the
products. At Pump Station 38, as well as all the stations
along the KXL route, pressure is managed solely through
variable frequency drives (VFDs).
In a parallel sequence, such as the one at Pump Station
38, the discharge of one pump is the suction of the next.
The VFD only runs one pump in the series, usually the
last active pump. During the site visit, three pumps in
the series were active. The sites VFD worked on the third
pump at 60 hertz, or 100 percent.
KXLs VFD control system was designed and supplied
by one companythe same company that has been with
the project for the last seven yearsSiemens.
Flexibility & Monitoring
VFD control is only one aspect of the total monitoring
solution responsible for the high level of reliability
and safety at KXL. Ted Fowler, Siemens Oil & Gas,
described the design of KXLs automation architecture

as modularthe system can handle and adapt to more

pumps as the project expands. As delays from Congress
and the U.S. Department of State have hampered the
pipelines completion, this modular design has become
like a silver lining for the pipelines future, Fowler said.
At Pump Station 38, human-machine interfaces (HMIs)

Data-Driven Safety

Every KXL pump

station transmits
20,000 data points
every five seconds to
alternating satellites.

These data points are

monitored from an
oil control center in
Calgary, Canada.

If the communication to the

satellites is lost, the pump stations
can rely on a landline failsafe
connection to the oil control center.

The pumps operate in parallel series, with a variable frequency drive adjusting the
outgoing pressure of the final pump based on the petroleum product in the batch.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


display and transmit more than 20,000 data points every

ve seconds to the oil control center in Calgary, Canada.
Valve site data from the mainline valves between pump
stations is sent every 30 seconds. Alternating satellites
transfer the data, but a landline failsafe activates if
communications are lost.
The extensive monitoring solution is driven by a
commitment from both Siemens and TransCanada


Jan 9

The journey to approving the Keystone XL pipeline began in 2008, and after more than six years of waiting, the project has yet
to be approved fully by the U.S. government. Congress and the Obama administration have squared off over the years about
the pipelines safety, environmental impact and role in the future of U.S. energy. Following last years midterm elections, a new
Republican-led Congress has renewed efforts to gain approval for the pipeline once and for all.

The House of Representatives approves H.R.

3, the Keystone XL Pipeline Act, authored
by Rep. Kevin Cramer (R-ND), which would
authorize construction of the project.

Jan 29

to provide a safe operating environment prepared for

anything. If the pipeline leaks and pressure suddenly
changes, the reaction is immediate but careful. Neither the
supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) programs
nor the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) will allow the
valves to close without a staggered pump shutdown.
Liquid lines are harder to shut down or bypass than
gas lines, Fowler said.

House approves S.1, the

Feb 11 The
Keystone XL Pipeline Approval

The Senate approves S.1,

the Keystone XL Pipeline
Approval Act.

March 4

Act, sending the bill approving the

pipeline to the presidents desk.

Feb 24

The Senate fails

to override the
presidents veto.

President Barack Obama vetoes

S.1, the Keystone XL Pipeline
Approval Act.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





It is the safest pipeline system built in North America.

Corey Goulet, president of KXL

If the PLCs come o ine, all the pumps

shut down in a cascading manner to
prevent hammer in the pipeline. If SCADA
loss occurs, the drives gradually move to
a safe operating pressurea tall order
for a system that can reach up to 470,000
horsepower of pumping power.
Ultimately, technology can never fully
replace the human element. Pump Station
38 receives a minimum of one site visit
per weeksometimes up to three visits.
Operators at the oil control center are
always on call to receive emergency alerts
on the pipelineincluding a recent call
from a local Nebraska farmer who believed
he saw a leaking pipeline. Crews responded
quickly and conrmed the call was not
a threat.

your Pumps,
Seals and

Technical Support &
Used Oil Analysis

Improve pump reliability, MTBF*, reduce downtime and energy

consumption with Summit CentriPump PPO and SPO Series
synthetic lubricants. Synthetics lubricants are resistant to oxidation,
enhance wear protection, and reduce friction. They keep your
equipment running cooler, smoother, longer and more efficiently.
Summits selection of Barrier Fluids provides a wide range of
viscosities for mechanical seals. All Summit Barrier Fluids are
NSF H1, Kosher, CFIA and Halal approved products.

Industrial Products

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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

While the future of KXL is still a question
for politicians, the close collaboration
between manufacturer and customer
that has dened the project sets the
model for true technical innovation
in the automation and monitoring
industries. The partnership between
Siemens and TransCanada has combined
the leading technologies in pump system
conguration, motor and pressure
control, and monitoring software. The
result is an operating architecture that
highlights safety and provides a blueprint
for continued domestic and international
partnerships during the U.S.s energy
golden age.

Michael Lambert is the

managing editor of Pumps
& Systems MENA. He may
be reached at mlambert@


Solving the
Storage Challenge
Sliding vane pumps cut renery energy costs by an average
of $350,000 per year.

illions of gallons of refined

petroleum products pass through
storage facilities on a daily basis.
Terminal operators must employ a
battalion of transfer pumps that operate reliably
and cost-effectively at predetermined flow rates.
While operators have several choices, including
centrifugal, gear and lobe pumps, storage terminal
networks present unique challenges that must be
considered when selecting equipment.
Transfer pumps play a key role in the terminals
supply chain, but they are also the terminals
biggest energy consumers. According to a report
from the United Nations Industrial Development
Organization, pumps can account for up to 20
percent of total electricity use in the industrial
sector, and a pumping systems average efficiency
is about 40 percent or less. When efficiency
is low, pumps consume more energy, produce
more emissions and fail more often. At storage
terminals, operators must maximize throughputs
while using energy efficiently.
Too many terminal operators still reflexively
depend on centrifugal pumps, which are not the
most energy-efficient choice for their application.
Centrifugal pumps rarely operate at their best
efficiency point (BEP)the point when product
flow rate and discharge pressure are equal around
the pumps impeller and volute. As a centrifugal
pump moves away from its BEP, the impeller

Image 1. Storage facilities can experience large-scale benefits from

efficiency improvements. (Images courtesy of Blackmer)

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





experiences uneven pressure. The resulting

radial thrust will cause the pump shaft to
deect. When the shaft deects, excess load
on the bearings can damage the mechanical
seal and lead to uneven wearing of the gland
packing or shaft sleeve. Once a centrifugal
pump operates too far away from its BEP,
cavitation occurs, which can quickly destroy
the pump casing, back plate and impeller.
Centrifugal pumps pose other challenges
in storage terminal operations. Performance
often suers when pumping uids with
a viscosity higher than 400 centistokes.
Flow rate control can become a serious
maintenance issue. Low-ow centrifugal
pumps consume more energy and require
more pressure, while higher ow rates can
lead to friction loss. Terminal operators often
select oversized pumps for their application,
increasing energy consumption as well as
operating and maintenance costs.

Image 2. Sliding vane pumps eliminate slip and minimize pulsation.

Sliding Vane Pumps

Positive displacement sliding
vane pumps are a more ecient,
cost-eective replacement for
centrifugal pumps in storage
terminals. These pumps allow
operators to meet energy-saving
initiatives while maintaining
throughput rates. By integrating
this technology with a systems
approach to the pumping
system, the storage terminals
overall eciency and protability
will improve.
In sliding vane pumps, several
vanes slide in and out of slots in
the pump rotor. The vanes form
pumping chambers as the vanes
move outward and bear against
the inner bore of the pump casing.
Fluid ows into these chambers as
the rotor turns, traveling around
the pump casing until it reaches
the discharge.
Positive displacement sliding
vane pumps can handle a wide
range of viscosities, from very thin
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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


liquids to liquids up to 50,000 centistokes. Flow rates are directly

proportional to the pumps speed and can reach as high as 7,850 liters
per minute. The pumps can also eectively generate high pressures
when needed for low-ow applications.
The self-adjusting vanes eliminate slip, which robs the system
of energy, and ensure high volumetric eciency. The rotary design
minimizes pulsation, while suction-lift and line-stripping capabilities
help optimize product recovery. Hydrodynamic journal bearings
reduce friction, heat and energy loss. The pumps can also run dry and
An average storage terminal facility may spend $1.4 million
annually on energy to run their pumping systems. Sliding vane
pumping systems can help produce energy savings averaging about
$350,000 per year.

Real Savings
Storage terminal operators must make every eort to optimize
energy eciency at their facilities. Central to energy-saving
initiatives is selecting the right pumping system for handling rened
petroleum products. Positive displacement sliding vane pumps meet
the needs
of storage terminal networks while reducing the energy demands
typical with centrifugal pumps.
With the help of systems designed
around sliding vane technology,
terminal companies can control
energy expenses without
compromising performance.

Image 3. In sliding vane pumps, the vanes form

pumping chambers that transfer fluid as the rotor

Thomas L. Stone is director of

marketing for Blackmer and PSG.
Blackmer is a brand of rotary
vane and centrifugal pump
and reciprocating compressor
technologies from PSG, a Dover
company. Headquartered in
Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois, PSG
is comprised of several leading
pump brands, including Abaque,
Almatec, Blackmer, Ebsray,
Griswold, Maag Industrial Pumps,
Mouvex, Neptune, Quattroflow,
RedScrew and Wilden. For more
information, visit
blackmer.com or
psgdover.com. Stone
may be reached at
616-241-1611 or
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Progressing Cavity
Pumps Simplify Crude
Customized equipment helped an
energy company achieve greater
operational eciencies, lower
maintenance and improved diluent
injection control.

or more than six decades, a Canadian

energy company has been delivering energy,
including oil and gas, across North America.
A large part of the companys business is the
operation of the worlds longest crude oil and liquids
transportation system, conveying crude oil and other
liquid hydrocarbons from the point of supply to rening
markets in the midwestern U.S. and eastern Canada.
This company had two goals for its pumping system.
First, it wanted to streamline the system for its waste
oil storage tanks. Second, the company needed a system
to improve its diluent blend into heavy crude before the
product joins the main pipeline for distribution. The
energy pipeline company asked a pump manufacturer
to design and build customized pumping solutions for
greater operational eciencies and lower maintenance.

Waste Oil Storage Tanks

This energy company relies on pumping stations to
power the liquid fuels through the pipeline. At each
pump station, a 5,000-gallon (19,000-liter) underground
storage tank is buried below the frost line to prevent the

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Image 1. The need to reduce maintenance and simplify the transfer

of oil from an underground tank back into the pipeline required a
pump manufacturer to design and build a custom, 10-stage vertical
progressing cavity sump pump to satisfy customer requirements.
(Images courtesy of NETZSCH Pumps North America, LLC)


liquid from freezing. Each tank is used as a collection

point for waste oil from service work performed on the
main pipeline pumps.
After completion of the service work, the liquid
must be pumped from the storage tank back into the
pressurized pipeline. This process
had previously consisted of a twopump system with a cantilever
pump used to lift the waste oil out
of the tank and a high-pressure
piston plunger injection pump
used to move the oil back into
the pipeline.
The main issue for the end
user is that two pumps for each
storage tank means twice the
maintenance, the consulted
pump manufacturers engineer
said. Additionally, with the high
pressure required to operate
the piston pump, pulsation was
causing pipe stress. The energy
company wanted to eliminate the
pipe stress and simplify the system
with one pump that could provide
smooth, almost pulsation-free

A Customized Solution
After several meetings with the
energy company to understand
the process and the challenges of
their two-pump system, the pump
manufacturers engineers designed
a custom 10-stage vertical, semisubmersed, progressive cavity
sump pump that can lift the heavy
oil out of the tank and that has the
capacity to achieve 700 pounds
per square inch (psi) (48 bar) of
dierential pressure if the system
required it in an upset condition.
The pump manufacturer
addressed many technical
issues, including the use of a
mechanical seal, to the energy
companys specications. A
common pump length with
a drop tube and strainer was
specied to accommodate any
changes in sump depth. The pump

manufacturer also performed chemical compatibility

tests on several dierent elastomers. The unique pump
selection allowed the manufacturer to eliminate universal
joints by incorporating a exible connecting rod. Design
engineers also considered the electrical service at the site

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





by selecting a 20-horsepower driver that corresponded

with the existing two-pump electrical arrangement.
The housing was designed to accept the user selected
mechanical seal with the capacity to operate at 700
psi (48 bar).
The selected pump was ideal for this application, with
dimensions (length, height, mounting ange) to t the
energy companys existing underground tank. This pump

Pump type:

Custom vertical progressing

cavity sump pump


20 gallons per minute /

4.5 cubic meters per hour


720 psi / 50 bar


Crude oil


23 F / -5 C


100 centipoise

also operates in reverse, requiring the seal to be on the

discharge side and the entire housing to be pressurized.
The rotor and stator system is located at the lowest point,
which helps prevent dry running. The space-saving design
of the entire pump (except for the drive and discharge
ange) disappears into the tank, providing a clean
installation. Additional heating and isolation of external
equipment is unnecessaryan important attribute in
ambient operating temperatures as low as -40 F.
With the critical operating nature of the oil and
gas transport industry, the energy company expects
high-quality control requirements. Before placing the
order, the energy company sent a team to the pump
manufacturing plant to verify that the manufacturing
processes would meet its high-quality standards.
The selected pumps are produced in accordance with
American Petroleum Institute (API) 676 and shaft seals in
accordance with API 682. To date, more than 20 vertical
pumps are in operation with no eld issues.

Diluent Injection Control

This same energy company nished an infrastructure
project that included the
construction of 15 new storage
tanks ranging in size from 250,000
to 530,000 barrels. This project
also encompassed all associated
piping, manifolds and booster
pumps to facilitate the crude oil
transfer to and from the storage
facility, the mainline piping system
and other connecting carriers and
terminals. With a goal of reaching
the highest operational eciencies
at the storage facility, the energy
company wanted a pumping
system to blend the heavy crude
oil from the tanks with diluents to
lower the viscosity of the crude to
be pumped to the main pipeline
Vapor Recovery? LPG Transfer? Natural Gas Boosting?
The answer is the FLSmidth Ful-Vane rotary vane compressor!
for distribution.
Built robustly for long service life, it has only three moving parts. Combined with low operating speeds
The energy company conducted
which minimizes wear and vibration, it is designed to not only outlast other compressors, but save you
an in-depth evaluation of pumping
money on power and maintenance costs.
systems. It originally settled
Suitable for natural gas, are gas, bio gases, LPG vapor, and ammonia refrigeration
on a multi-stage canned pump
Carbon ber vanes last longer than traditional blades
Variable ows with VFD and/or bypass
for this application but still had
Single stage to 3000 SCFM, two-stage to 1800 SCFM
reservations about viscosity and
Discharge pressures to 250 PSIG
injection control. For this pump
Made in the USA for over 80 years
type to work, it would need to
Find out more at www.flsmidth.com/compressors
operate at full speed and capacity
and modulate the injection ow
Operating speed: 232 rpm

Simple, Reliable

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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


through a control valve. The

irregular viscosity of the product
through the drawdown of the
storage tank could cause problems.
As the crude oil sits in storage
tanks, lighter product moves to
the top, and the heavier product
moves to the bottom.
Crude oil is drawn o the
bottom of the tanks rst, which
is where most of diluent injection
is required, said Luke Bauer, a
senior application engineer with
the pump manufacturer. As the
products viscosity changes, the
amount of diluent being used
must be adjusted. We approached
the design of this system with progressing cavity pumps
to take care of operating issues associated with constantly
changing viscosity.
The extremely cold operating temperatures during the
winter months was a critical design issue. With ambient
conditions of -22 to -40 F (-30 to
-40 C) and diluent temperatures
as cold as -8 to -13 F (-22 to -25
C), the pump manufacturers
engineers carefully considered
the elastomer selection for
this application. Because the
progressive cavity pumps would
operate outdoors, a patented
reduced wall stator was selected
with heat tracing to ensure that
a 23 to 32 F (-5 to 0 C) operating
temperature was maintained
within the elastomer. Additionally,
three resistance temperature
detectors (RTD) were mounted in
each pump to provide feedback
data to the control system.
The chemical compatibility of
the diluent also presented a design
challenge. Two dierent diluent
samples were given to us, and we
did a lengthy immersion test with
several elastomers at dierent
temperatures to provide a better
picture of how our elastomers
would react, Bauer said. After
extensive evaluation and swell
testing, a special blend of Viton

Image 2. Large progressing cavity pumps are required to work

outdoors in sub-zero temperatures.

was designed and produced for the stator and seals that
would be used.
To compensate for the cold temperatures, the pump
manufacturer designed a slightly oversized rotor to
maintain the interference t at sub-zero temperatures.

Circle 161 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Pump type:

Progressing cavity


1,136 gallons per minute /

116 cubic meters per hour


258 psi / 18 bar



Operating temperature:

-8 F to -13 F / -22 C to -25 C


0.9 / 1.09 centistokes

This presented an additional hurdle at assembly time. The stators were

packed with ice to t the oversize rotors during fabrication.
Other custom design features were required as well. The energy
company requested that the pumps be mounted on a metal grid platform
because the standard baseplate for these pumps would not provide
enough support. The pump manufacturer designed a new baseplate
incorporating a reinforced 8-inch I-beam with a drip pan and lifting
supports. The energy company also wanted a pump housing with added
connections for a relief valve return and other monitoring equipment to
be installed on-site. The pump manufacturer designed a spool piece to
attach to the pump housing inlet, providing the extra connection.
By using four custom-designed progressing cavity pumps piped to a
common header, the pump manufacturer provided the energy company
with the required level of diluent injection control. The energy company
can run any combination of the pumps and, with the use of variable
frequency drives, they have complete control over diluent injection. The
large pump size also allows the energy company to run the pumps slower
for a longer life cycle.

Circle 166 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Long Term Solutions

Both pumping issues for this energy pipeline company were solved. With
many of these pump stations in remote locations, the major benets
include lower operational cost and less eld maintenance, especially in
the extremely cold operating environment. All of the pumps have been in
operation since 2010 without the need for maintenance or service work.
Thomas Streubel is the president of NETZSCH Pumps North America.
He has been with NETZSCH for the past 36 years in various international
roles in Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. The NETZSCH Group is
manufacturer of machinery and instrumentation with global
production, sales and service. The NETZSCH Business Unit
Pumps & Systems offers NEMO Progressing Cavity, TORNADO
Rotary Lobe and NOTOS Multiple Screw pumps along with
macerators/grinders, metering systems and custom-built
equipment for industrial and municipal markets worldwide.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

How Gear Motor

Technology Increases
Vertical Pump
Drive Efficiency


A P R I L 16 , 2 015
In today s high-volume pumping applications, energy ef ciency and cost control
are more important than ever.
A new solution using low-pole-count induction motors and proven gear motor
technology offers effective results to these important challenges. Learn more by
attending this webinar which discusses this alternative to large, high-pole count,
synchronous motors. This new technology provides lower capital costs and a
smaller drive envelope for high-power, low-speed pumping applications.

About the Presenter

Michael Thomas Myers, PE, MBA, is a Global Business Manager for CST,
Large & Specialty Gearing for Baldor Electric Company, a member of the ABB
Group. He is responsible for ABBs global large gearing and specialty gearing
business. Myers holds a B.S. in mineral engineering from the University of
Alabama and an MBA from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. During
his more than 30-year career, he also has worked for Rockwell Automation
and Drummand Company, Inc.




p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Incorporative Production
Additives Improve Pump
These solutions help enhance operational eciency, prots
and safety.

lthough they have been around nearly as

long as the oil industry itself, production
additiveschemicals that help move crude
through the ow stream fasterrarely receive
more than a eeting consideration. However, with cost
pressures as well as health, safety and environmental
(HSE) concerns on the rise, oileld and renery
professionals are realizing the benets of additives. This
demand is driving development of greener, more costeective formulations.
Additives have contributed to every major industry
milestone during the last 150 years, from the
distillation of kerosene in the mid-1800s to the critical
streamlining of crude movement through pipelines
in Algeria, Alaska, Canada and Russia in the 70s and
80s. Many early indicators show a recognized need for
additives that could help turn crude oil into usable
products for prot.
The reason for this is simple: Crude is dicult to
extract, transport and rene. The oil is under extreme

pressure in its natural state, and it is often just one

component in a hot, roiling mixture of gases, saltwater
and other substances. Diculties continue as the oil
moves out of the reservoir. When crude oil cools in pipes,
pipelines or tanks, its organic solvents evaporate, which
causes increased viscosity that results in signicant
extraction and transport problems.
These factors have driven the development and
evolution of production additives, or specialty chemicals.
Some of these chemicals, for example, work to alter
the thixotropic properties of the oil to create a lower
kinematic viscosity in a process called uidication.
Others are formulated to maintain a strict hydrophiliclipophilic balance to aid in demulsication. Chemical
additives can be applied to any point in the process at
which the crudes ow slowspoints often called areas
of parasitic loss. These capabilities can enhance pump
performance and reduce downtime during both the
extraction and rening processes.

Additives have contributed to every major industry milestone during the

last 150 years, from the distillation of kerosene in the mid-1800s to the
critical streamlining of crude movement through pipelines in Algeria,
Alaska, Canada and Russia in the 70s and 80s.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


Additive technology, however, has developed more slowly.

Specialty polymers, such as Conocos LiquidPower
(now Berkshire Hathaways Lubrizol), were introduced in
the 1970s as drag reducing agents and were successfully
employed in the Alaskan pipeline. In recent years, the
organic compound known as diluted bitumen, or dilbit,
has been used for the same purpose. This solvent is
injected into extra heavy crude, such as the type found
in the Canadian tar sands, to uidify for midstream and
downstream pipeline delivery. Despite the presence of
these relative newcomers, however, hexane has remained
the principal base additive used during each stage.
Hexane-based additives, however, have several
drawbacks. They evaporate,
requiring large quantities of
solvent to oset evaporative
losses. The use of naphtha also has
indirect costs. Naphtha and other
hexane-based solvents are derived
as precipitates of the renery
stack heating process used to
convert crude to petroleum. They
begin as free assets, or byproducts
that work well as production
additives, but the process for
using these assets is complicated.
The solvents must be captured at
the renery, bottled and shipped
safely to an end use point at an
extraction well, a pipeline or a
storage facility. These logistical
tasks add considerable cost to the
use of the solvents.
Operations that use hexane
solvents also have to contend
with health and safety risks. The
substances are highly ammable
and explosive and may pose
serious health hazards, including
burns and cancer.
For these reasons, naphtha and
other low-cost or no-cost hexanebased solvents can actually be
the most expensive components
of the distillate. This condition is
compounded by the high amount
Figure 1. The image on the left illustrates how water in a flow station without production
additive remains mixed with the crude, causing process slowdowns. The image on the right
of these solvents often required
shows the same flow station treated with a low dosage (0.1 to 0.5 percent by volume) of an
typically between 10 and 20
incorporative/non-evaporative demulsifying additive that reduces the emulsified water content
percent of the crude mix.
of the crude to meet refinery standards. (Graphics courtesy of the author)

Long History with Slow Development

In the industrys infancy, professionals discovered that
the addition of hexane-based solvents, such as naphtha,
facilitated more successful and protable management
of crude. Hexanes, polymers and organic chemicals
eventually became part of an additive methodology that
included ve critical crude handling areas: production,
ow stream delivery, renery, environment and
commercial product performance enhancement.
With advances in research, computer technology,
chemistry and engineering, the processes for nding,
producing, delivering and rening crude oil have
accelerated exponentially during the last few decades.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Incorporative Additives
Despite the drawbacks of hexanes, industry professionals
continue to use them. Many alternativesbuilt on
naturally-occurring organic chemicals, condensates
like diluted bitumen and polymershave not provided a
widely accepted cost/performance balance.
In response to this shortage, chemists are using new
formulation techniques to create a class of additives
with anionic and nonionic properties. Manufacturers
claim these chemicals will provide huge performance
improvements when compared with hexane solvents and
other alternatives. They also believe these chemicals will
be lower-cost and eective in much lower quantities.
Broadly classied as incorporative/non-evaporative,
these new additives use a generic base to transport
the anionic and nonionic active agents that reduce the
kinematic viscosity of the crude oil for uidication
and drag reduction. These agents use polarity
transformation, which allows them to physically act
between the molecules in the crude and rearrange the
force of attraction to achieve better cohesion. This causes
a compact mass of crude oil that has a low American

Bolting solutions

Eliminate unsafe and time consuming bolting methods

with Superbolt tensioners. Any size tensioner can be
installed or removed with hand tools.
The simple solution to bolting problems!

*Superbolt, Inc. is part of the Nord-Lock Group

Petroleum Institute (API) degree to become more uid.

It can then ow through conduits and pipelines with less
turbulence and drag.
Hydrocarbons are the active agents in the additives
that reduce viscosity, so they do not aect the
physical properties of substances during rening.
These components are recovered separately at their
corresponding evaporation point in the distillated
fraction at the renery.
Since they do not evaporate, these new additives can be
incorporated into the crude oil, assuming its properties
while performing their intended purpose, despite changes
in pressure and temperature. Unlike hexanes, these
incorporative additives do not require operators to re-heat
or increase pressure in the ow stream. They eectively
reduce drag and turbulence, and they are used in small
amounts. Required doses are 0.1 to 0.5 percent by volume
treated rather than the 10 to 20 percent necessary for
traditional hexane solvents like naphtha.
Because these additives combine so eectively with the
crude oil mass, they are not a separate environmental
threat from the crude oil. No residual contamination
occurs if the additives are released
into the environment separately
from the crude. Although they are
not biodegradable, manufacturers
claim that the additives are
not harmful to humans or the
environment as long as the
practices outlined on their
material safety data sheets (MSDS)
are followed.
Incorporative additives also have
a dierent formulation method
from traditional solvents. Often
called the building block method,
it allows users to customize and
add features or components to
aid in wax/paran separation,
asphaltene inhibition, foam
prevention and sulfuric acid

Increases worker safety
Accurate & reusable
Reduces downtime

Brochure & case studies:


Circle 165 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Viscosity & Pump

While the impact of these new
additives may appear limited
to upstream and midstream
applications, manufacturers say


The new incorporative additives, which can be formulated to precisely

alter crude viscosity without the application of heat or pressure, provide
a means to chemically adjust for different line average temperatures
and optimize pump power requirements.
pumps used in downstream operations also stand to
benet signicantly from their use. This is primarily
because a pumps tractionits ability to eciently move
uids such as crude oilcan be profoundly impacted
by viscosity, speed, ow rate and total head, as well as
temperature changes, pressure changes and the resulting
implied shear forces imposing frictional losses on the
entire ow stream. If some or all of these factors can be
consistently and precisely controlled through the use of
additives, the result could be more ecient pump service
and less downtime.
The main factor aecting pump performance is
viscosity, a property that has traditionally been
manipulated through the application of heat. The
reduction of viscosity results in
a higher Reynolds number (the
ratio of inertia force to viscous
force), lower friction factor and,
subsequently, lower pumping
power requirements.
Because the negative eect of
viscosity is more pronounced at
lower line average temperatures,
improvements in pump power and
eciency of up to 30 percent can
be achieved simply by increasing
temperature. Consistently applying
heat at these levels on a large
scale, however, can be costly and
can pose challenges for pump
and pipeline design. The new
incorporative additives, which
can be formulated to precisely
alter crude viscosity without the
application of heat or pressure,
provide a means to chemically
adjust for dierent line average
temperatures and optimize
pump power requirements.
Manufacturers of the new additives

say this achievement of optimum viscosity can also help

reduce the frequency of pump maintenance.
In addition, many of these new additives inhibit
corrosion of the pumps and pipelines by adjusting the
water in the crude oil ow stream.

Incorporative production additives are relatively new
in the oil and gas industry marketplace. In an industry
where delays are costly and margins are often slim, new
introductions can seem like a big risk.
Manufacturers of these additives are aware of the
potential reluctance among end users to switch from
commonly used hexanes, polymers or organic compounds,

Circle 159 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





so they have supported the chemicals use with

comprehensive testing.
One manufacturer subjected its additives to rigorous
third-party evaluation before introducing them to the
market. The tests conrmed that these new formulations
oer a legitimate alternative to traditional additives.
For example, evaluation results for a demulsier
showed that the treatment eectively reduced the
emulsied water content of crude oil from 0.40 to
0.15 percent. The 62.5 percent reduction is signicant,
especially since the emulsion is formed at high
temperature and high pressure, creating conditions of
stability that are dicult to disrupt.
Similarly, testing of the companys uidier showed
a notable decrease in kinematic viscosity (24.1 percent
more than the initial content). A 44.4 percent reduction
in water content was observed. Sulfur content decreased
by 2.4 percent. Water and sediments lowered by 43.4
percent, and asphaltenes in the mass of the crude oil
decreased by 10.3 percent.

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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

As tools that help streamline the ow of crude oil,

production additives have earned their place in many
of the most critical processes. Their evolution has been
relatively silent and slow, but new advancesmost
recently in the area of incorporative/non-evaporative
formulationsprovide industry professionals promising
alternatives to the HSE risks and operational cost
challenges presented by traditional solutions.

Mark Halloran is a marketing communications

professional with Idea Werks, LLC. He has more than
15 years of experience writing on a variety of oilfieldrelated topics. Contact him at 949-701-0934,
or email wmark@ideawerksstudios.com.
For more information about the additive
technology described in this article, visit
oilfluxamericas.com, or call

Circle 168 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


API 624 Works to Reduce

Valve Fugitive Emissions
Manufacturers and end users should consider how this standard will
aect their business.

any industries are interested in reducing

fugitive emissions. Several standards and
end user eorts work toward this goal:

International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) 15848 Measurement, test and qualication
procedures for fugitive emissions
Part I Classication system and qualication
procedures for testing of valve types
Part II Production acceptance test of valves
American Petroleum Institute (API) 622 Type Testing
of Process Valve Packing for Fugitive Emissions
API 624 Type Testing of Rising Stem Valves Equipped
with Graphite Packing for Fugitive Emissions
End user dened fugitive emission reduction

Because valve emissions are a major concern in the U.S.,

API created a document called API 624 Type Testing of
Rising Stem Valves Equipped with Graphite Packing for
Fugitive Emissions. The API 624 Task Force worked for
more than two years to incorporate members views and
regulator and manufacturer requirements.
The standard applies to rising and rising-rotating stem
valvesincluding gate and globe valvesup to 24 inches
in diameter.
The standard does not apply to class 1500# valves,
because methane gas volumes could be dicult to handle
during testing.
The test medium is methane. ISO has a similar test
often used in Europe that uses helium as a test medium.
Because methane is easily available in North America and

the gases have similar properties, manufacturers and the

committee preferred methane to helium.
In total, 310 test cycles are required, three of which
are thermal cycles. The test includes 50 low-temperature
cycles followed by 50 high-temperature cycles, totaling
300 cycles. An additional 10 cycles are added based on
user preference.
The temperature application range is from -29 to 538
C. The last 10 cycles are user dened and can be as low as
-45 C. Because the test method determines the integrity
of leakage requirements, this was adapted as the standard
temperature for testing.
Gland bolts may not be tightened during testing. Once
the valve is on the test bench, no further modications
are allowed.
The valve stem test orientation is vertical. Because
gate and globe valves are large and heavy, the vertical
orientation allows users to obtain the best test results.
To comply with API 624, several valves must be tested.
Similar industry principles applied to test valves qualify
valves that are two nominal sizes smaller, one size larger
and one pressure class lower.
Allowable leakage is 100 parts per million. This
standard was chosen based on Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) regulations.
Gate and globe valves must be tested separately. Gate
valves, for example, need four tests under API 602,
eight tests under API 600 (for valves up to 20 inches in
diameter) and eight tests under API 603. Globe valves
need four separate tests under API 602.
Test valves should be production valves not specially
manufactured test valves. This was required to determine
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Table 1. Results of an anonymous survey of end users concerning their adoption of API 624 (Courtesy of FLUOR CANADA, LTD.)

End Have you

user adopted API

Are you updating

your existing
specifications by
adding API 624

Is API 624
beneficial to
your plants?

Are you
plant surveys
on valve fugitive

Are you applying

API624 to existing

How are you

applying API 624 to
your plants?

Yes, 100 percent

in the U.S. and
partially in other

Yes, for new valves


Yes, but we
may reduce
the number of
valve tests.


All valves leaking

500 ppm would be
retrofitted during
shutdown period

We are applying
API 624.

No. We will
reconsider when
and if API 624
expands to
include end users
needs outside of
the petroleum






No, but we expect

to by the end of



In planning stage

In planning stage

In planning stage

No, because we
are currently
putting together
a technical
process for API

Yes, we already
updated our valve
specifications to
comply with 100
ppm leakage rate
requirements per
API 624.

Yes, this will

be incoporated
in the testing
standard for
valves that will
be installed
in critical
service where
any leak could
cause health
and safety

Yes, our leakage

limit is 7 ppm
HRS at one
meter, and our
process contains
an average of
17 percent H2S
in hydrocarbon.
We use infrared
cameras for
our monitoring

Yes, we are
encouraged by
local authorities
and government to
implement a fugitive
emissions and leak
detection and repair
program within the
next year or two.

All valves pulled out of

service for repair are
having the packing
replaced with spool
packing from a
packing manufacturer
where the API 622
test results did not
exceed 5 ppm. We are
installing this packing
in all service.

No, we have
not yet fully
the requirement
for compliance
with API 624 into
our corporate

Yes, partially. We
have added the
requirement to our
corporate technical
standard that All
valves must achieve
a 100 ppm maximum
packing leakage to
meet EPA Method
21. We have not
yet made specific
reference to API 624.

Yes, partially.
Our U.S. plants
have an LDAR
procedure in
place to ensure
that all valves
meet maximum
leakage rates
per U.S. EPA

Our Canadian
operations currently
do not have a formal
corporate procedure.
Each of our Canadian
facilities has varying
levels of such
procedures which
are being reviewed
for consolidation to
a corporate standard

Our U.S. plant,

through our LDAR
procedure, will repair
all valves to meet EPA
maximum leakage.

Yes, all new valve

manufacturers we
consider will have
to complete this



Not sure. This

is handled by
and the individual

Not sure. This

is handled by
environmental and
the individual plants.

Not sure. This

is handled by
environmental and
the individual plants.






Not doing this



We will.



No action yet


Specification already
included the 100
ppm requirement




Currently not applying

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


that valves manufactured by standard production meet

and exceed the test requirement/s.
Since API 624 was released, testing companies have
been preparing for an increase in the number and size of
test valves. New test houses are also coming online.
Leak screening should be completed on accessible
components using a portable organic vapor analyzer in
accordance with EPA Method 21 or by using alternate
methods that provide an equivalent result. In some
cases, Method 21 has been considered too slow and labor
intensive, especially in small facilities. For these reasons,
other methods may be used.
The industry should carefully monitor the
implementation of API 624. Users should validate claims
from valve manufacturers by requesting to view test
results. Reputable test shops have noted:

The number of cycles on some valves could damage

packing, because some smaller valves do not include
grease ports to keep the stem consistently lubricated.
Failures of valve stem threads, yokes and glands can
occur during testing.

Circle 172 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Grease is sometimes trapped in the packing, causing

A few greases create volatile organic compounds and
burn-o at higher temperatures.
Testing in vertical orientation generates more heat in
the yoke area.

An experienced testing company can provide guidelines

to manufacturers about use of packing, valves, greases
and testing requirements. Table 1 shows the results of an
anonymous survey of end users concerning their adoption
of API 624.
Gobind Khiani is a professional engineer with FLUOR
CANADA LTD. He has been in the energy and power
business for more than 18 years and has worked in three
countries (the U.K., United Arab Emirates and Canada)
with more than 10 years in the Western Canadian oil and
gas industry based in Calgary, Alberta. He is a registered
professional engineer in the provinces of Alberta and
Saskatchewan. Khiani can be reached at

Circle 173 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Shredding Technology
Minimizes Midstream
Flow Challenges
Grinders reduce debris that can cause downtime and pose safety risks.

roper grinding and removal of waste and debris

from the production stream is one of the most
important steps to maintaining an ecient
and reliable oil rening operation. Debris
accumulation can cause damage to the pipeline and
pumps as well as create safety hazards for operators who
must clear the waste by hand after it clogs the pipeline.
Incorporating a waste grinder within a midstream
application, however, can help eliminate debris, maintain
proper ow rates and minimize costly downtime and
wasted energy. Specically for bitumen processing, bits
of plants and other organics extracted from the oil sands
cause a great deal of wear and tear on the production
pipelines. A proper waste grinder oers both a reduction
solution for those materials, along with elimination
of the safety concerns posed by clogged pipelines and
manual unclogging. With the proper grinding technology
at the right location, oil extraction and renery eorts
can proceed without the stress of equipment failure.
As North America continues to grow as a major
oil producer, eective waste reduction technologies
will help ensure the safety and integrity of pipelines,
protect equipment from damage and create safer work

Waste Grinders in Action

Suncor Energy in Alberta, Canada, mines and extracts
crude oil from the areas vast oil sand deposits. The need
for oil sand development is expected to increase in the
years to come as conventional fuel and energy supplies
are depleted. As petroleum production in North America
in general continues to increase to meet demand, a
completely streamlined, awless production line is crucial

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

for the overall success and future

of the industry. As the following
case study from Suncor
Energy indicates, equipping a
production line with a waste
grinder is essential to the
productivity of these midstream
Oil sand is a mixture of
bitumen, sand and water.
Because it does not ow like
conventional crude oil, it must
be mined or heated underground
before it can be processed.
Stuncors system for mining oil
sand involves extracting the
sands from an open pit mine,
transporting it to an extraction
facility and then mixing it with
hot water so the oil can separate

Figure 1. Waste grinders improve

midstream flow. (Images
courtesy of JWC Environmental)

Figure 2. Waste reduction technologies help ensure the integrity of

pipelines, protect equipment and create safer work environments.


from the sand and rise to the top of the separation

tank. Once the oil separates from the water, it creates
an extremely hot froth that is mixed with Naphtha for
better ow through the rest of the extraction process.
During each extraction phase, more raw materials
such as wood, roots and other organic matterseparate
from the oil. This material would cause the pumps at
the extraction facility to clog, resulting in unplanned
downtime throughout the production line. Workers would
continually have to unclog the equipment and pipes.
The time lost to unnecessary maintenance costs tens of
thousands of dollars in lost revenue.
Understanding the gravity of this continuing problem,
a mill wright at Suncor contacted a solids reduction
equipment provider about a solution that would eliminate
the constant clogging and allow oil to ow freely through
the production line. The pump company recommended
the largest grinder in its product lineup.
Designed for wet and dry grinding applications, the
grinder is a powerful shredder for oil and gas applications.
The two-shafted grinder with its extra-large, robust
cutting chamber was ideal for processing Suncors high
volume of solids. Suncor purchased three custom units
for the production line. Since the installation, the line has

been productive, ecient and free of clogs. Most notably,

workers havent had to unclog the lines by hand since the
installation of the three units.

The Future of Wastewater in Oil & Gas

The oil and gas industry has undergone signicant
changes, especially in the past decade. Worldwide energy
use has skyrocketed, and population growth will continue
to compound the demand for fuel. As the industry faces
increasing demand, the need for proper waste grinding
technology within midstream operations will become
even more paramount for operational success, safety
and longevity.
Kevin Bates is the global marketing director for JWC
Environmental based in Costa Mesa, California. JWC
Environmental provides solids reduction and removal for the
wastewater industry with its grinders, screening, compaction
and washing systems. Bates has more than
20 years of experience working with global
industrial leaders to solve challenging technical
problems spanning a wide range of markets
including wastewater, construction and
mining. For more information, visit jwce.com.


Jordan, Knauff & Company is a knowledgeable and

experienced provider of a comprehensive line of
investment banking services to the pump, valve and
Our lines of business include: selling companies,
raising debt and equity capital, and assistance
To learn more about Jordan, Knauff & Company,
contact any member of our Flow Control


Managing Principal

Senior Associate


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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





Steps to Successful
Precision Alignment
Follow this guide to properly align and install
vertical turbine pumps.

and mechanical seal assembly. This article will focus on

the shaft alignment of the driver, discharge head, shaft
coupling and mechanical seal housing for pumps (and
pump cans) that are installed and leveled according to
manufacturer recommendations.

For further denitions of these two pump types, please

refer to API 610 11th Edition paragraph 9.3.10 and 9.3.13.
As with any pump installation, end users should pay
close attention to the pump application and where the
pump is operating on the performance curve. A properly
sized pump can provide years of trouble-free service and
increase the mean time between failures caused by wear
and induced vibration issues. The pump manufacturer will
typically specify the preferred and allowable operating
ranges on their performance curve as well as minimum
continuous stable ows.
Pump and driver alignment is also critical for
achieving maximum life of the driver, pump bearings

The pump driver may consist of an electric motor, vertical
gear or steam turbine that incorporates a vertical solid
shaft design mounted on the pumps discharge head. The
vertical solid shaft driver must be supplied with special
shaft and base ange tolerances. API 610 11th Edition
species the tolerances in Figure 1. The maximum shaft
runout and shaft to driver face perpendicularity of 0.001
total indicated runout (TIR) are most important. The
0.005 TIR maximum axial oat may be achieved in most
cases, but some extra high thrust designs may require
greater axial oat.
The pump discharge head should be welded according to
specication requirements. If it is constructed of carbon
steel, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) process is
recommended after fabrication and prior to machining
to prevent warping after the nal machining process.
Users should give special consideration to the driver to
discharge head
female/male register t, typically referred to as the
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
driver AK dimension.
The discharge head should be designed to allow the
driver to freely move in any horizontal directionat
least 0.020 inch/inch (in/in) TIR relative to the vertical

ertical turbine pumps have multiple

components that may make alignment
complicated in American Petroleum Institute
(API) and industrial applications. Tolerances
cannot be made tight enough to ensure proper alignment
because the required tolerances cannot be achieved by
manufacturing accuracy alone. It takes skill, time and
patience to make the minor adjustments required to
ensure proper alignment. When aligning the components
of a vertical turbine pump, end users must understand
and evaluate key considerations for the following designs:
VS-1 tank mounted vertical turbine booster pump
(single casing) utilizing a vertical P-Base driver with
integral thrust bearing design
VS-6 vertical turbine booster pump with suction
barrel (double casing) utilizing a vertical P-Base driver
with integral thrust bearing design

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


axial centerline of the discharge head. Instead of tapped

holes, the discharge head should incorporate through
bolting for mounting the driver. This design element will
facilitate additional horizontal movement necessary to
achieve proper alignment. Alignment positioning screws
are required for any driver that exceeds 500 pounds per
API 610 11th Edition, section When alignmentpositioning screws are incorporated into the discharge
head design, the register t between the discharge head
and the driver must have open clearances. A register with
greater clearance is helpful because it allows the driver
to be roughly positioned. Alignment-positioning screws
for drivers under 500 pounds are also recommended to
facilitate alignment.
The driver should not be aligned using shims, especially
if the pumps are to be used with electric motors that have
variable frequency drive systems (VFDs) because this
setup will change the resonant frequency of the driver/
discharge head structure.
A rigid anged spacer coupling must be supplied with
special tolerances. API 610 11th Edition species these
tolerances in section, which requires the coupling
faces to be perpendicular to the axis within 0.0001 in/
in of face diameter or 0.0005 in/in TIR
total, whichever is greater.

The fabricated discharge head
should be relieved of stress once welding
is complete and prior to machining.
During the machining process, stresses
induced by welding can result in
runout. The runout issues can aect the
perpendicularity of the motor mounting
ange and/or the concentricity to the
seal chamber bore.
The seal chamber must be supplied
with a registered t. This registered
t must be concentric to the shaft and
have a 0.005 in/in TIR per API 610 11th
Edition section 6.8.4. The seal chamber
face should have a runout of 0.0005 in/
in of seal chamber bore TIR per API 610
11th edition section 6.8.5.
The pump and driver should
be coupled, and runout should be
inspected. The shaft runout must be
within the maximum allowed by the
seal manufacturer for that particular

mechanical seal. This value is typically 0.001 to 0.002

in TIR. Users should also check the seal register and
face runout. Documentation of the inspection should
include the pump and driver serial number along with
measurements. The AFS coupling should be tagged for use
on the specic pump and match marked. These steps will
ensure proper assembly orientation.

Cleaning all surfaces before attempting to align the pump
and driver is vital. If alignment was not performed at
the factory, the keys of the AFS couplings may need to be
deburred, and the ange faces may need to be cleaned to
remove any protective coating.
A dial indicator connected from the driver shaft
should be used to obtain a TIR within 0.005 in/in at seal
chamber register. The driver to pump coupling should
then be installed to verify that the shaft TIR does not
exceed the limits recommended by the seal manufacturer.
If the shaft runout cannot be achieved, a slight
adjustment to the driver may be required. The pump/
driver coupling may also need adjustment. Rotating
one half of the coupling may reduce perpendicularity

Figure 1. The drawing shows the critical dimensions. Ensuring the proper seal
alignment between the pump and driver is the best safeguard for prolonging seal life
and maximizing the mean time between repairs.


p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015





tolerance stack-up, which can cause problems. If the

coupling must be installed in a particular way, it should
be match marked. Once the shaft runout has been
veried, the seal chamber register should be rechecked
to conrm that it is still acceptable, and the seal chamber
face runout must also be checked. Once the alignment is
veried, the mechanical seal can be installed.

If the runout tolerances cannot be achieved, end users can
consider the following troubleshooting checks. The easiest
process to check rst is the pump to driver coupling. Each
coupling part can be checked both individually and as an
assembled unit. If this process identies a runout issue,
the coupling can be reworked or replaced.
In many cases, the seal housing can be removed without
removing the motor. Once the seal housing is removed,
the runout can be inspected and veried. If the seal
housing has an excessive runout, this component should
be reworked or replaced. If the runout issue is not found
in the seal housing, check the runout between the driver
shaft and the seal housing bore on the discharge head. If

excessive runout exists at this check, the discharge head

is the source of the issue.
Checking the shaft runout of the pump driver can be
achieved without removing it. If everything to this point
has been found to be satisfactory, the driver will need to
be removed and the shaft to the driver face checked for
perpendicularity. Pumps that do not have alignmentpositioning screws will also need to have the register
concentricity inspected with relation to the shaft. If these
items have been checked and found acceptable, the
issue is with the pumpeither the discharge head or the
pump shaft.

Steve Peck has worked in the horizontal and vertical pump

manufacturing industry for 36 years. In this time period,
he has held numerous sales and management
positions. He has been with National Pump
Company for the past 5 years. For the past 18
months, he has held the title of manager of Oil
and Gas North America. He may be reached at

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the World
of Water

Register Today!
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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s





This year, Pumps & Systems proudly continues to tell the

stories of companies that help bring clean water to those
who need it around the world.
Pumps & Systems will be on the ground reporting from
Malawi, Africa, with exclusive coverage of innovative
deep-well pumping technology.
Follow the story on Twitter @PumpsSystemsMag and
@AmeliaMessamore and on Facebook (/pumpssystems).


about providing clean water to those who need it?
Email Amelia at amessamore@cahabamedia.com
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015


Visit us at


Offshore Technology Conference

May 4-7, 2015

Exhibition Hours

NRG Park
Houston, Texas

Monday, May 4
Tuesday, May 5
Wednesday, May 6
Thursday, May 7

9 a.m.-5:30 p.m.
9 a.m.-5:30 p.m.
9 a.m.-5:30 p.m.
9 a.m.-2 p.m.

he 2015 Ofshore Technology Conference (OTC), the ofshore

energy industrys premier event, brings together the worlds top
energy professionals. he conference provides an opportunity
to network with investors and equipment customers, and it features
an innovative technical program highlighting technological advances,
project updates, and health and safety. Additionally, the conference
features the industrys largest equipment exhibition.
Special events include he Next Wave program for young professionals,
sponsored by BP, and the annual OTC dinner for Distinguished
Achievement Award recipients.

Top 5 Reasons to Attend OTC 2015

1 Networking

he conference typically has more than 90,000 professionals

from 130 countries in attendance.
2 New technologies

he exhibition features exclusive innovations in the ofshore

oil production market.
3 High-level talks

C-level executives and other industry experts will present

about the industrys most pressing issues.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

4 Cutting-edge research

he conferences University R&D Showcase ofers the newest

scientiic and engineering studies from leading colleges
around the world.
5 he next big thing

Immediately following OTC, organizers will be launching d5,

a new event designed to drive growth by promoting creativity
and inspiring innovation among leaders in the ofshore energy

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015

Circle 113 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.



Vapor Recovery Units Reduce Oilfield Emissions

Proper skid-assembly installation can guarantee reliable VRU performance.
By Glenn Webb

he most obvious positive

manifestation of the
ongoing oil and natural gas
production boom in the U.S. can
be seen at gas stations across the
nation. At the end of January 2014,
the average price nationwide for a
gallon of gasoline was $3.28. One
year later, the price for a gallon of
gas had dropped to $2.04.
While the American consumer
is the most obvious beneficiary
of the nations historically high
crude oil production, companies
that provide equipment for use in
oilfield exploration, production,
transport and storage operations
are also reaping the benefits.
Specifically, increased
production in prominent shale
fieldsincluding the Bakken
in North Dakota, Eagle Ford in
Texas, Niobrara in Colorado,
and Marcellus and Utica in New
York, Ohio, West Virginia and
Pennsylvaniahas increased
the demand for gathering,
transport and terminal systems
that can store raw crude oil and
natural gas until it can be shipped
via truck, train or pipeline for
refinement and consumption.
The increase in oilfield activity
has also meant an increase in
the amount of vapors created
and emitted during production,
transportation and storage. To
prevent the escape and loss of these
vaporswhich are both salable
assets and potentially hazardous to
Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

the environmentmany operators

are turning to the installation of
vapor recovery units (VRUs) at
their oilfield storage sites.
VRUs only operate at peak
efficiency and effectiveness if they
are correctly installed.
Proper installation of a VRU
skid assembly for in-the-field
use optimizes the performance
of the equipment and eliminates
many environmental and
maintenance concerns.

The Challenge
The amount of vapors that are a
byproduct of oilfield production
activities will continue to increase.
Additionally, regulatory agencies
will monitor the levels of vapors
emitted into the atmosphere
and whether or not they can be
harmful. Many oilfield vapors
compounds such as benzene,
toluene, ethyl-benzene and
xylenehave been classified as
hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)
or volatile organic compounds

Image 1. The use of VRUs in the oilfield is on the rise, for both economic and environmental reasons.
(Images courtesy of Blackmer)


(VOCs) by the U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA).
As a result, operators of oilfield
storage facilities must closely
monitor the amount of vapors
emitted at their sites (if any) and
meet the emission thresholds of the
Title V Operating Permit Program
of the Clean Air Act, enacted in
1990. According to Title V, regulated
pollutant thresholds for stationary
sources include 100 tons per year
(tpy) for criteria pollutants, and
from 10 tpy per year for one HAP or
25 tpy for multiple HAPs.
Additionally, oilfield storage
facility operators must be aware of
the EPAs New Source Performance
Standard 40 CFR, Part 60, Subpart
OOOO, also known as the Quad O
regulation, which became law in
2012. Quad O establishes emissions
standards and compliance schedules
for the control of VOCs and sulfur
dioxide emissions from storage
tanks that temporarily house
liquids produced during oil and
gas production.
VRUs are key to regulating this
issue in the oilfield. Made of a
system composed of a scrubber, a
compressor, a driver and controls,
VRUs recover vapors formed
inside completely sealed crude
oil or condensate storage tanks.
During the VRUs operation, the
controls detect pressure variations
inside the tank and turn the
compressor on and off as interior
pressure exceeds or falls below
predetermined settings. When the
compressor is running, it passes
the vapors through the scrubber.
Any liquid is trapped and returned
to the tank, while the vapor is
recovered and compressed into
natural gas lines.
For use in the oil field, the
components of the VRU are usually
installed on a skid assembly.
Operators can easily move and
install the skid as one complete

Image 2. In-the-field storage tanks are used to house raw crude oil and natural gas before it can be
transported for refinement. Operators must control the amount of potentially harmful vapors that
are released to the atmosphere from the tanks and are turning to VRUs as a solution.

unit. Operational problems arise

when the skid is not installed or
anchored properly to the ground.
Most issues during the operation of
a poorly installed VRU skid show up





at or near the compressor, which is

the heart of the VRU system.
All reciprocating-type
compressors produce some
shaking caused by operational



The EPAs Quad O regulation mandates that uncontrolled gas

releases from storage tanks be reduced by 95%. To maximize
vapor recovery, demand Blackmer Oil-Free Reciprocating
Gas Compressors.
Distance-piece design protects crankcase from condensate
contamination and controls vapor leakage and emissions
Ductile-iron construction reduces thermal and
mechanical shock
PEEK valves deliver superior sealing, efficiency and durability
Precision-ground crankshaft ensures
smooth, quiet operation
Contact your authorized Blackmer distributor.

Process | Energy | Military & Marine

PSG Grand Rapids

1809 Century Avenue SW
Grand Rapids, MI 49503-1530
+1 (616) 241-1611

Circle 164 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



characteristics such as speed,

height, cylinder orientation,
intake and discharge pressures,
single- or double-acting
operation, and compression ratio.
Application conditions such as gas
composition or site, placement and
environmental variations can also
affect shaking. If the movement
is not properly absorbed into the
mounting or foundation of the
operating system, compressor
vibration can occur.

The Solution
To optimize operational
performance and production
while reducing costly downtime
and maintenance, the VRU
base and skid assembly must be
installed correctly.
At one company, a number of
reciprocating compressor oilfield
VRU installations were not
operating at peak performance.
Investigation revealed that the
issues were not caused by any
individual VRU components;
instead, the skid assemblies were
not properly designed and/or
installed. Prolonged operation

with an improperly designed skid

or poor foundation can damage
the compressor and compromise
the VRUs overall operational
effectiveness and reliability.
Proper skid assembly is
paramount because reciprocating
compressors can produce
unbalanced forces when operating
at peak speeds. The following steps
can ensure proper skid assembly:
The compressor should be
anchored to a baseplate (or skid)
that is at least four times the
compressors weight.
The baseplate with the
compressor and other VRU
components should be bolted to
a concrete slab or pad.
The concrete slab or pad should
be placed on a level surface.
The pad should be prepared and
graded, if necessary.
The baseplate skid should never
be installed on non-compacted
Following these simple rules
for skid-assembly installation can
minimize the amount and severity
of the vibration that occurs during

Image 3. A key to effective VRU operation in the oilfield is the skid

on which it rests. This skid assembly must be the proper weight and
anchored correctly if it is to effectively absorb the shaking forces that are
produced by the VRUs compressor.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

compressor operation, which helps

optimize the VRUs performance
and longevity.

In the fast-growing oil and gas
industry, speed, portability and
reliability are key factors in
optimizing production times and
the bottom line. There is now
an almost constant need for the
installation of VRUs in the oil field
as production operations continue
to accelerate.
VRUs are complex, highly
engineered systems designed for
reliable performance in harsh
operating conditions. However,
the oil fields rugged terrain,
combined with the need for rapid
deployment and a reduction
in site-time preparation, can
compromise VRU installation.
Original equipment manufacturers
and system fabricators who take
the time to install the VRUs skid
assembly correctly will find that
any subsequent time and cost
incurred because of downtime,
repairs and maintenance will be
greatly reduced.

Image 4. All reciprocating-type compressors produce shaking forces. If

the compressor is not installed correctly, those shaking forces will create
vibrations that can harm the performance of the compressor and VRU.


Glenn Webb is a senior product

specialist for Blackmer, Grand
Rapids, Michigan, and can be
reached at 616-475-9354 or
glenn.webb@psgdover.com. For
more information on Blackmers full
line of rotary vane and centrifugal
pump and reciprocating compressor
technologies, visit blackmer.com or
call 616-241-1611. Blackmer is part
of PSG, a Dover company, Oakbrook
Terrace, Illinois. PSG is comprised
of several pump brands, including
Abaque, Almatec, Blackmer, Ebsray,
Griswold, Maag Industrial Pumps,
Mouvex, Neptune,
Quattroflow, RedScrew
and Wilden. For more
information, visit
Image 5. A reciprocating compressor in an oilfield application

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Smart Technology Detects Costly Leaks

at Oil & Gas Facilities
Remote monitoring software prevents damage and downtime related to sealing problems.
By Brandon Perkins

t every oil and gas facility,

the ability to detect leaks
and related problems
quickly and accurately is a top
priority. Leaking equipment can
slow production, lead to costly
damage and create unsafe working
conditions. Incorporating remote
monitoring software solutions and
accompanying technical support
is an important step in reducing
faults and failures that can
compromise the success of an oil
and gas operation.

Leaking Pump Seal

In late December, a software
monitoring solution at an oil and
gas facility detected fluctuations in
barrier fluid seal supply pressure
on a pump equipped with a
pressurized double seal. This pump
had recently been started after
several months of outage.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Values for the barrier fluid seal

supply pressure were expected
to remain at approximately 580
pounds per square inch gauge
(psig) or 41 bar. Actual values,
however, fluctuated between 520
psig (36.9 bar) and 600 psig (42.4
bar) (see Figure 1).
The end user was out of the
office at the time, so the software
providers industrial performance
and reliability team notified the
user at home about this issue.
While investigating the problem,
the user discovered that a seal
on the pump was leaking, which
was causing the rapid fluctuations
in the barrier fluid seal supply
pressure. The user was able to take
the asset offl ine and fi x the seal.
If this seal had continued to
leak and proper barrier fluid seal
pressure was not maintained,
contaminants from the process

fluid could have been introduced

into the barrier fluid. This
contaminated barrier fluid would
have resulted in instantaneous
seal failure or latent seal failures.
In addition to causing an outage
and revenue loss, a seal failure

Figure 1. Actual values (blue) and expected values (green). The

seal supply pressure is shown in the top two graphs, and the
pump discharge flow is shown in bottom graph.
(Graphics courtesy of GE Intelligent Platforms)

Circle 138 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


could have resulted in serious

environmental and safety
repercussions. Because of the
monitoring solution, the user was
able to prevent these secondary
and tertiary effects by repairing
the seal before it failed.

Leaking Seal Oil Accumulator

In mid-July, this same monitoring
solution detected a significant step
change upward in the non-drive
end seal charge supply pressure on
a water injection pump at an oil
and gas facility. Given the speed
and load on the
machine, the nondrive end seal charge
supply pressure was
expected to remain
at approximately 385
psig. Actual nondrive end seal charge
supply pressure
reached 638 psig (see
Figure 2).
The software
providers industrial
performance and
reliability center
sent a high-priority
notification to the
end user and began
tracking the issue on
weekly calls.
When they received
the high-priority
notification, the
users engineers
took action
immediately. When
Figure 2. Pump non-drive end seal charge supply pressure took a step change
they investigated the
up to around 638 psig. The user investigated the issue and discovered a leak
issue, they discovered
in one of the seal oil accumulators. The tank had to be removed for weld
repair to address the leak.
a leak in one of the

seal oil accumulators. To fi x the

leak, the user had to remove the
tank for weld repair.
The end user employed the early
notification of increased non-drive
end seal charge supply pressure to
identify a seal system issue. If the
issue had not been addressed, it
could have caused excessive seal
face loading/distortion, which
could have led to seal failure.
By showing that actual values
returned to expected values, the
software provider helped the end
user verify that the maintenance
action they took was successful.
Read more

Brandon Perkins is the product

marketing manager for Industrial
Data Intelligence at GE Intelligent
Platforms. He believes that data
is the fuel of the 21st century and
that the Industrial Internet will
transform industries and economies
by improving productivity,
stewardship and
worker safety around
the globe. He may be
reached at

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



The Basics of Lead-Lag Configurations

Bladder pressure tanks and irrigation systems are prime examples of how lead-lag systems,
complete with motor controls, can meet high demand and reduce equipment wear.
By Kurt Schreiner
Franklin Control Systems

sing multiple pumps that run in

sequencealso known as running a
lead-lag systemis a common way to
meet varying pump system demand. Cycling
of the lead pump adds reliability in the form of
redundancy and increases the lifespan of the
system. In a traditional lead-lag system, the lead
pump runs until the demand on the system is
too great for the pump to meet, at which point
the lag pump(s) initiates until demand is met.
A lead-lag system can consist of any number of
pumps, and they are often alternated to ensure
even wear. An extra pump in the system for the
purpose of redundancy is known as a standby
pump. If the pumps are alternated, however,
the system will not have a single standby pump.
Instead, each of the pumps in the run sequence
will take a turn as the standby pump.
Many applications require a lead-lag
configuration. Some configurations use
across-the-line starters, while others use
variable frequency drives (VFDs). Two general
applicationsa pressure tank and an irrigation
systemexemplify how lead-lag configurations
are used, the function of various motor
controls in these types of systems and the basic
differences between starters and VFDs in leadlag applications.

Using Lead-Lag with a Pressure Tank
Bladder pressure tanks are fairly
straightforward, consisting of a rubber bladder
within a fully enclosed, air-tight metal tank. As
water is pumped into the bladder, air pressure
builds within the tank, exerting force on the
bladder. The result of this force is a pressurized
system that can provide water for extended

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Image 1. Lead-lag alternating motor starter with control modules

(Courtesy of Franklin Control Systems)


periods of time without rapid

cycling of the pumps on and off.
Eventually, as the water is used and
the bladder is emptied, pressure in
the tank decreases and the pump
starts, fi lling the bladder up and
starting the whole cycle again.
The amount of time that the
pump can stop depends on
demand, and if demand is high
for a long period of time, one pump
may not supply enough water,
even if it is running constantly.
In a residential application, for
example, a resident might be
watering his lawn, running the
dishwater, doing laundry and
washing the car at the same time.
In this case, using two or more
pumps in a lead-lag configuration
is desirable because of the wide
range of possible demand. When

the first pump is unable to satisfy

demand, the second pump kicks
on to help.

Using Lead-Lag in an
Agricultural Irrigation System
Some areas of the country
pose limitations on pump size
(restrictions on the number of
gallons per minute a system can
pump), often requiring two wells
equipped with pumps that must
work in tandem to meet demand.
Consider the following example.
A farmer needs to irritate six fields.
He has two wells outfitted with
submersible pumps that feed into
a pipeline providing water to six
different center pivots. Each of
these center pivots must run at
60 psi to properly irrigate their

respective fields. During normal

weather conditions, the farmer
can water one or two fields at a
time, pumping from one well.
However, certain situations may
require the farmer to run all the
center pivots simultaneously.
An example of a scenario
requiring simultaneous pumping is
frost protection, when crops must
be quickly covered with water to
prevent frost damage. Running all
six pivots creates too much demand
for one pump to handle.
As the demand on the system
increases and the top range of
one pump is reached without
satisfying the predesignated
pressure setpoint, a need for
more water that is beyond the
capabilities of the lead pump
initiates the lag pump. This

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



sequence increases the farmers pumping capacity so

he can run each of the six pivots and quickly cover all
crops with water.

Accomplishing Constant Pressure

For an application with a large range of demand in
which constant pressure must be maintained, as in
the case of a lead-lag system used in a pressure tank,
using one or multiple VFDs to control two or more
pumps is an effective option.
This strategy requires a pressure transducer to
communicate a pressure reading to the VFD so
the speed can be adjusted to maintain constant
pressure. The VFDs can communicate either via a
programmable logic controller (PLC)-based control
system or a preexisting system with which the drives
are already equipped.
Because drives that are equipped with preexisting
communication systems are engineered to work
together and do not involve a third-party PLC, they
usually require minimal wiring and communicate
reliably. Some also have lead-lag functions built into
their firmware.

Circle 122 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Starter vs. VFDs

The main reason people choose VFDs over across-theline starters is their ability to vary speed. The ability
to vary speed allows a VFD to provide constant
pressure and precisely meet varying demand, which
is crucial in many lead-lag applications. VFDs can
provide significant energy savings, especially in
higher horsepower applications. Over time, a VFD
will usually pay for itself.
A VFDs ability to ramp upor start softis
also an advantage because it prevents a large current
inrush when a motor is started. In many parts of
the country, utility companies limit the amount of
inrush demand one application can produce. In such
cases, a VFD or soft-starter is necessary to limit the
inrush and meet the utility companys mandate. With
no limit, the utility company will charge more for a
higher inrush demand.
Another benefit of VFDs is that many include
advanced motor protection, while a starter may
only provide basic protection such as a thermal
overload. However, smartstarters with advanced
protection and monitoring capabilities are available.
Some of these starters are equipped with underload
protection, power monitoring, ground fault

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


Circle 154 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

protection and delay settings.

Some manufacturers may package two drives
together in one enclosure, often referred to as
a duplex lead-lag drive package. These packages
are specifically designed to meet Underwriters
Laboratories UL-508 requirements. The
programming of the drives is one advantage
of ordering a lead-lag drive package from a
manufacturer. The ordering process also may allow
for discussion about the applications for which the
drives will be used. This enables the firmware on
the drives to be preprogrammed precisely for the
specific application.
In some cases, an application may call for lead-lag
alternation. Alternating the lead and lag pumps
can greatly increase the life of a system. Because
more than one pump is doing the work, pumps will
wear evenly.
A lead-lag alternating drive package will usually
provide different alternating modes (such as fault
alternation) and lead-lag control based on input
signals from pressure transducers and the VFDs
status outputs. Adding alternation to a duplex
lead-lag drive package will increase the cost of the
unit, but, in many cases, it is a worthwhile and
necessary option.
Some manufacturers provide starter packages
designed for lead-lag applications. This option can
be less expensive than a drive package, at least in
upfront costs. In lower horsepower applications
(about 10 horsepower or lower depending on location
and application), soft starting capabilities are not
generally necessary, and the energy savings derived
from VFDs diminish at lower horsepowers. For
this reason, starters can be a good option in low- to
moderate-horsepower lead-lag applications that
do not require varying motor speeds, such as the
emptying or fi lling of a reservoir.

Kurt Schreiner is the marketing manager for

Franklin Control Systems, a division of Franklin
Electric that specializes in variable
frequency drives, starters and soft
starters. He has been with Franklin
Control Systems for five years and
holds a BS from the University of
Oregon. He can be reached at

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Rubber Expansion Joints Provide

Piping Flexibility
This component can compensate for misalignments up to 1/8 of an inch.
By Rob Coffee
FSA member

ubber expansion joints are

used in piping installations
to compensate for thermal
growth, relieve piping stress
during operation, and reduce
vibration and noise caused by
rotating equipment. While a rubber
expansion joint can compensate
for pipeline misalignment, this
compliant product has installation
and operational limitations. The
best method for installing most
piping products, including rubber
expansion joints, is to follow
standardized piping practices and
use an installation tolerance of less
than 1/8 inch (in.).

Using a rubber expansion joint

when the piping misalignment
will be more than 1/8 in., however,
requires special considerations.
One standard practice is to use a
concurrent movement calculation
to ensure that the installation of
the product does not use too much
of the joints ability to compensate
for movement.
The concurrent movement
formula established by the Fluid
Sealing Associations (FSA)
Rubber Expansion Piping Division
Edition 7.31 can help designers
determine engineering needs and
the allowable offset for piping

installers. In addition, designers

should write adequate construction
notes for piping installers.
Concurrent movement is the
combination of two or more
expansion joint movements:



Lateral or transverse


This value is expressed as the
resultant movement. Equation 1
can be used to calculate concurrent
1 C + E + L + T
Equation 1
C = change in compression
RC = rated compression
E = change in elongation
RE = rated elongation
L = change in lateral
RL = rated lateral
T = change in torsional
RT = rated torsional

Figure 1. Expansion joint with built-in offset (Courtesy of FSA)

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

The concurrent movement

formula is the sum of all the
individual movements except
for angular movement. When
evaluating concurrent movements,
angular movement is covered by
compression and elongation.


field dimensions to maintain 100

percent of the products movement
absorbing capability. While this
is a viable option, it should be
used as a last resort. Users are also
advised to have a spare custom part
on hand.
An expansion joint supplier
Sample calculation:
will need correct dimensions of
1 2 in. / 4 in. + 0 in. / 2 in. + 0.75
an offset from one side of pipe to
in. / 1 in. + 0/5
the other, including parallel, angle
1 .5 + 0 + 0.75 + 0
and hole misalignment of mating
1 1.25
fl anges. Offset rubber expansion
joints are often supplied with
In this example, the concurrent
drilling on one fl ange so the other
movement is above the allowable
fl ange can be drilled in the field
when precise measurements cannot
For offset installations with
be supplied.
piping misalignments that cannot
When standard piping system
be corrected because of limited
tolerances using
space, cost or time, a rubber
expansion joint can be fabricated to rubber expansion joints cannot
The sum of compression,
elongation, lateral and torsional
must be less than one. If not,
the joint is operating outside
the design intent and must be

be met, consider applying rubber

expansion joints using a concurrent
movement formula or having
a built-in offset to stay within
acceptable operating limits.
1. Fluid Sealing Association - Technical
Handbook Piping Systems Non-Metallic Expansion Joints 7.3 Edition

Next Month: When should the

packing be replaced?
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



The Effects of Viscosity on Sealless Pumps &

Bearing Selection in Slurry Applications
By Hydraulic Institute

How does a liquids

viscosity affect the
performance of rotary
sealless pumps?
The viscosity of a pumped
fluid affects the input power and
magnetic coupling torque required
in a rotary sealless pump. When
selecting magnetic couplings, users
should consider the maximum
pressure differential, speed and
viscosity. These factors determine
the pumps required input power
and torque. To calculate the torque
requirement of the magnetic
coupling, the torque required
to overcome viscous friction
between the inner magnet and the
containment shell must be added
to the pump input torque.
When handling high-viscosity
liquids, users must consider suction
lift, port size, friction losses
and reduced pump speeds. Users
selecting a sealless rotary pump
should also evaluate the effect
high-viscosity liquids have on the
temperature rise of the magnetic
coupling. These liquids may reduce
the amount of cooling flow, causing
increased temperature rise within
the coupling.
Starting torque for a pump that
was previously primed with viscous
pumpage can be a problem unless
consideration has been given to
coupling sizing. A soft-start device
may avoid decoupling on startup.
When pumping low-viscosity
liquids, traditional concerns
are poor lubricating qualities

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

and slippage. Users should also

consider the liquid temperature,
temperature rise and vapor
pressure when applying a rotary
sealless pump. The temperature
of the liquid in the coupling
should be below the vaporization
point of the pumped liquid. If
viscosity increases with shear or
temperature, additional torque
could be required, and increased
heat buildup in the drive section
may occur.
For more information, see the
Hydraulic Institute (HI) Standard
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)/HI 4.1-4.6 Sealless,
Magnetically Driven Rotary Pumps for
Nomenclature, Definitions, Application,
Operation, and Test.

What type of bearing is

recommended for use in
slurry pumps, and how are
these bearings sealed?
While antifriction ball or
roller bearings are used on most
slurry pumps, hydrodynamic
bearings may be used on some
large slurry units. Bearings
may be grease or oil lubricated,
and bearing housings must be
effectively sealed from leakage and
outside contamination. Labyrinth
seals, bearing isolators, lip seals
and other proprietary seals are
commonly used.
Contact seals include all designs
that have dynamic contact as a
requirement for proper function.

Figure Service class chart for slurry pump erosive wear (Courtesy of Hydraulic Institute)

Table Calculated fatigue life of bearings by slurry service class

These are recommended

for applications in which
the seal must retain a
static level or pressure
differential. Labyrinth
seals consist of a simple
gap seal with labyrinth
grooves and possibly a
gravity drain. Labyrinth
grooves help retain splash
oil lubrication, but they rely
on a simple gap for contaminant
exclusion. Bearing isolators
have a stationary and a rotating
component that act in concert
to retain lubricant and exclude
Bearings should be sized for
the calculated fatigue life that
corresponds to the slurry service
class (see Figure shown
in Table Slurry pumps

are ranked from light (Class 1)

to very heavy (Class 4) services.
The boundary lines between the
service class areas in the chart
approximate limits of constant
wear modified for practical
considerations and experience.
Calculations should be done at the
worst acceptable operating point.
For more information on slurry
pumps, see the HI Standard
ANSI/HI 12.1-12.6 Rotodynamic

(Centrifugal) Slurry Pumps

for Nomenclature, Definitions,
Applications, and Operation.
HI Pump FAQs is produced by the
Hydraulic Institute as a service to
pump users, contractors, distributors,
reps and OEMs. For more information,
visit pumps.org.




plans for 2015

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will be published as a series in Pumps & Systems, authored




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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Tips for Using Pulsation Dampeners

in Dosing or Volumetric Pump Systems
Understanding the equipments operation capabilities and how to calculate the
required size is critical.
Last of Three Parts
By Manuel Carcar-Gimeno

n circuits that require cleaning

at the end of each process,
pulsation dampeners pose an
added challenge. Every pulsation
dampener has hard-to-reach
internal corners that are difficult to
clean. One solution is to use a quick
dismantling system to extract the
bladder out of the dampener, then
clean the bladder and the interior
of the dampener body separately.
If dismantling the bladder is
impractical, users can increase the
pressure of the cleaning liquid to be
higher than the pumping pressure
of the process product. This will
cause the internal corners between
the bladder or membrane and the
inner surface of the dampener to
expand, allowing a better access to
the cleaning fluid.

Circuits with a Variable

Working Pressure
Circuits that have variable working
pressures require different
solutions. Consider a circuit that
must work at an initial pressure
of 20 bar and a final pressure of
200 bar, with the amount of liquid
flowing through the dampener
in each alternating cycle of the
pump (V) equaling 15 cubic
centimeters (cc). The maximum

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

residual pulsation is accepted at

200 bar of +/- 5 percent. At 20 bar,
the residual pulsation will be much
lower because the dampener size is
calculated for the maximum circuit
pressure. So when the circuit is
working at the minimum pressure,
the gas inside the dampener will
expand. Consequently, the residual
pulsation will decrease from the +/5 percent initially admitted.
The pump is a single-piston type,
and its capacity per stroke is 30 cc.
Equation 1 can be used to calculate
the necessary volume of a pulsation

P2 = V0 = 210 = 11.66
P0 V2 18
Equation 4
Equation 5 can calculate the
volume of a dampener for the
maximum pressure of 210 bar.
V0 =

(P2 x V)
(0.8 x 0.9 (P2 - P1))
Equation 5

V0 =

(210 x 15)
[0.8 x 0.9 x (210 - 190)]
218.75 cc (a 200 bar)
Equation 6

P2 x V2 = P0 x V0

Equation 1

P2 = maximum pressure value
accepted in the circuit
V2 = final gas volume
P0 = infl ating gas pressure of
the dampener
V0 = volume of the dampener
In the example system,
P0 = 0.9 x 20 = 18 bar

Equation 2

P2 = 200 + 5% = 210 bar

Equation 3

Figure 1. Pulsation dampeners using bladders require

special considerations. (Courtesy of HIDRACAR, S.A.)


This volume is equivalent to V2,

and consequently:
210 =
= 11.66

( )(

Equation 7
V0 = 218.75 x 11.66 = 2,550.62 cc
Equation 8
Theoretically, this is the total
dampener volume necessary for
this application. However, the ratio
of V0 / V2 cannot be higher than
four in bladder type dampeners to
prevent the bladder from wrinkling
excessively, which could tear it
prematurely. In the example, the
ratio is 2,550.62 / 218.75 = 11.65,
nearly three times higher than the
recommended value of four.
To avoid exceeding this ratio,
liquid must be introduced into
the bladder with the gas. This is
usually the same liquid moving
through the circuit, but any liquid
that will not react with the bladder
material or the circuit liquid can
serve this purpose. In the example,
this volume of liquid that must be
introduced into the bladder (VL) is
calculated using Equation 9:
( 2,550.62 x VL ) 4
( 218.75 + VL )

Equation 9

When this system is operating

VL = 558.54 cc
The total dampener volume
needed will be
2,550.62 + 558.54 = 3,109.16 cc

Dampeners at the
Suction Inlet
Volumetric pumps are used to
precisely dose a constant volume
of liquid, so the pump must be
fi lled completely with every suction

stroke piston displacement cycle. If

the pressure in the liquid inlet port
of the pump can easily overcome
the resistance of the suction valve
spring (3 bar) and the section of
the suction pipe is about twice the
discharge section of the pump, a
pulsation dampener at the suction
inlet is unnecessary.
If the static pressure of the liquid
at the pump inlet is less than 3 bar,
the suction pipe is longer than 3 to
5 meters from the suction liquid
supply tank to the pump inlet, and
the liquid has a low vapor tension
at the working temperature,
cavitation could occur.
When this happens, the pump
suctions a mix of liquid and its
vapor. When this mixture is
compressed, the pump impulsion
pressure causes the condensation
of the vapor. In turn, this reduces
volume. Cavitation, which is often
signaled by a soft explosion-like
sound, reduces the life of the
pump and prevents the pump from
providing the required dosing.
To avoid this problem, users
should ensure that the pressure
at the pump inlet port is lower
than or close to the vapor tension
of the liquid. Users should also
prevent the suction pipe liquid
column from being subjected to
accelerations and decelerations
caused by the operation of the
pump. A pulsation dampener can
prevent these changes.
The pulsation dampener at the
suction of the pump has the same
task as the one at the discharge
to keep the velocity and pressure of
the liquid as constant as possible.
If the low pressure at the suction
stays relatively constant, the liquid
is less likely to reach the vapor
tension. This greatly reduces the
main risk for cavitation.
The pulsation dampener
cannot prevent cavitation if all its

determinants are present. So when

a risk exists, a pulsation dampener
should be installed to reduce the
risk in an auxiliary centrifugal
or similar pump. Raising or
pressurizing the liquid supply tank
can increase the pressure at the
inlet port of the dosing pump, also
reducing the risk of cavitation.
For pulsation dampeners installed
to avoid cavitation, consider the
following recommendations:
The size or volume of the
dampener installed at the
suction must be approximately
twice that of the dampener
installed at the discharge.
The size of the connection port
of the dampener must be larger
than or equal to the diameter of
the suction pipe.
The dampener must be installed
with the least possible pipe
length between it and the pump
liquid inlet port.
The gas charging or infl ating
pressure must be below
atmospheric pressure.

Manuel Carcar-Gimeno graduated

in mechanical technical engineering
at the Tarrasa Industrial School and
the Anderlecht Technical School
(Brussels). In 1974, after working as a
technical salesperson for the MercierGreer Group, he founded HIDRACAR,
S.A., initially as an importer of oleopneumatic accumulators. Years later,
the company began the design and
manufacturing of oleo-pneumatic
accumulators and other derived
products, such as oleo-hydraulic
starters, oleo-pneumatic shock
absorbers and suspension cylinders,
and various pulsation
dampeners. For more
information, visit

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Remote Irrigation Monitoring Saves Farmers

Money, Time & Water
Modern technology manages water consumption and maximizes efficiency.
By Eddie DeSalle
Net Irrigate, LLC

ater pumps have been

helping people irrigate
for more than 4,000
years, since the Egyptians invented
a basic pumping device called
a shaduf. Over time, pumping
technology advanced, and gears
and motors were added. By 1959,
most modern pump designs had
been introduced and developed
into commercial products.

While not all irrigation

systems use pumps and wells,
more than 53.5 billion gallons of
groundwater from 407,923 wells
are used daily for agricultural
irrigation, according to the
National Groundwater Association.
Through decreased system losses
and managed reductions in crop
consumptive use, better water
management practices can help




Water conservation. Controlling well pumps from any

location lets farmers better monitor their irrigation
habits, potentially saving gallons of water in the process.

Energy conservation. According to the U.S.

Department of Agriculture Farm and Ranch Irrigation
Survey, farmers spent more than $2.6 billon in energy
expenses for irrigation pumps. Remote monitoring can
reduce unnecessary pump time, saving energy and
lowering costs.

Remote access. The cloud-based technology is

accessible by Web or smartphone, allowing farmers to
start and stop a pump automatically from anywhere while
receiving proactive alerts about the state of their pumps.

Saved money. Remote monitoring devices save money

by providing safety and security alerts in case of
costly events, such as copper wire theft or under- or overwatering.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

producers maximize the economic

efficiency of their irrigation
systems and the potential for water
savings. Relatively few farms,
however, use water management
best practices and focus on water
conservation while deciding
when and how much to irrigate.
Modern irrigation monitoring
technology can help farmers
manage water consumption and
maximize efficiency.

Remote Monitoring & Pumps

The worldwide growth of
electrically driven mechanized
irrigation systems since the late
1970s provided many economic
benefits for farmers. However, few
farmers were able to keep tabs on
irrigation equipment from afar
with cost effective technologies,
ensuring that time, water and
money were not wasted. Modern
remote monitoring devices add
tremendous value to irrigation
equipment by boosting efficiency
and profitability.
Equipment providers have
created remote monitoring devices
that work with single-phase,
three-phase and engine-driven
pumps. These products provide
valuable information to farmers,
saving time, money and collectively
millions of gallons of water by
detecting stoppages, flooding
and power failure. These types of


Image 1. A farmers engine pump with remote monitoring technology waits to be

activated using the farmers smartphone or desktop. (Images courtesy of Net Irrigate)

irrigation solutions allow farmers

to remotely monitor and shut down
irrigation pumps, eliminating
unnecessary pumping time and the
need for expensive underground
wires. These advanced products
provide benefits to operations
using both center pivot irrigation
and flood or furrow irrigation.

Advanced Features
Remote monitoring devices
determine if a machine is
functioning correctly and collect
actionable information about the
equipment. Farmers can streamline
maintenance issues by instituting
predictive failure analysis, which
can identify potential replacement
parts before the equipment breaks

down. This data opens up a wealth

of information and allows users
to be proactive instead of reactive.
Farmers can also analyze crop
yields against irrigation data and
weather patterns.
Modern remote monitoring
systems also incorporate machineto-machine (M2M) or Internet
of Things technology, which

enables devices to communicate

on existing wireless networks
and standard protocols without
human intervention. This form
of communication enhances the
flow of data between machines
and people, making data
collection, transmission and
assessment easily accessible.
M2M technology allows famers
to monitor and manage remote
assets in real time, aiding in
security, remote maintenance and
equipment control. Integrating
wireless communications can
improve device functionality
while facilitating more efficient
M2M technology also works
with websites and mobile apps that
help farmers monitor irrigation
systems. Smartphone apps give
instant access to equipment status,
making remote changes possible
and creating positive impact on
operational productivity. Some
remote monitoring technologies
allow farmers to be alerted by text
message, phone call or email when
technical issues such as overloads
or power failures occur. These
instant notifications allow farmers
to react immediately.
Because of the geographic
breadth, crop growth and
topography associated with
agriculture, cellular or satellite
based M2M solutions are often the
best fit, eliminating the need for

One product provider estimates that remote

monitoring technology in irrigation could save

800 billion
gallons of water in the U.S. annually.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




Mark McCormick farms approximately 5,000 acres
scattered across 22 miles of land near Floydada,
Texas. Hes a fourth-generation farmer who produces
cotton, corn and grain sorghum. This farm requires a
substantial amount of watering. The irrigation
process occurs for 24 hours per day for weeks at
a time, depending on the time of year and
environmental conditions.
The Problem
In the past, McCormick had to be present at the farm
nearly all day to ensure the pumps and pivots were
operating correctly. Common problems included power
loss or equipment malfunctionwhich can lead to
ooding that wastes hundreds of gallons of waterand
crop damage caused by over- or under-watering.
The Solution
In 2012, McCormick was introduced to products that
allow irrigators to manage pumps and pivots from the
convenience of a mobile app. The product provider
estimates that these solutions have the potential
to conserve approximately 5 percent of gravity ow
irrigation water per year, or about 800 billion gallons
of water in the U.S. Additionally, the provider predicts
that these products can reduce total energy pumping
expenditures by $96 million annually and automotive
fuel expenditures for eld travel by $22 million.
These products allow irrigators to remotely monitor,
start and shutdown irrigation pumps. When used with
center pivots, the products eliminate the need for kill
wires to associated irrigation wells. Functionalities
often include:
A virtual timer to set the pump to turn off at a
given time online or through a mobile app
The ability to remotely start and stop the pump
with a mobile app or phone call
Thermal overload and power failure notications
can be sent to up to ten recipients through a call,
text message or email

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Image 3. Mark McCormick uses remote monitoring devices

on all 22 pivot irrigation systems on his farm to ensure
proper watering.

Notications when a pump starts or stops

A global positioning system that streamlines
center pivot management systems
Copper wire theft security that allows farmers to
better protect the wire on their irrigation systems
by immediately sending alerts through phone call,
email or text message when a copper wire is cut,
which saves thousands of dollars
After initially purchasing a few of these solutions for
his pivots, McCormick has since purchased more, now
outtting all 22 pivots and 45 irrigation well pumps
with the technology. He typically accesses the mobile
apps three to four times per day during watering season
and has enjoyed spending time away from the farm
more often. He no longer drives more than 100 miles
per day to visually check pivots and pumps to ensure
that they are working properly. These products allow
McCormick to decrease labor, fuel and maintenance
costs and increase the application efciency of
irrigated water.


Because of the geographic breadth, crop growth and

topography associated with agriculture, cellular or satellite
based M2M solutions are often the best fit, eliminating
the need for line of sight restrictions.

line of sight restrictions. Farmers

are not limited to staying within a
certain distance from their pumps
to monitor or adjust them, and they
no longer have to sit at a dedicated
monitoring workstation to evaluate
equipment. Basic cell coverage
allows communication with a pump
anywhere in the world, negating
the need for a central-based station
or local area network.
Cloud-based technology
provides additional flexibility and
integration potential. New features
and updates to existing technology
can be added by simply updating
a mobile app. Wireless systems
and remote storage services
permit large amounts of data to
be collected with less hardware
and wiring, which can be subject
to localized corruption or access

Image 4. An engine-driven pump working in a farmers

flood-irrigated field

This type of communication

could prove extremely valuable for
farming communities. If thousands
of irrigation pumps are connected
within the same rural county, a
cloud-based system could allow the
electrical utility provider to make
intelligent irrigation scheduling
recommendations to farmers. This
system could also factor in weather
data, crop yields and water tables
to optimize efficiency.
Another benefit of current M2M
technology is ease of installation,
which often leads to lower labor
costs compared with the typical
expense of installing remote
monitoring devices. Some devices
have technology that interfaces
directly with hard circuitry
rather than proprietary controls,
facilitating interoperability and
making installation less time
consuming. The best devices should
take around 15 minutes for an
equipment dealership employee
to install, making it easier for
widespread adoption to occur.

Remote Monitoring ROI

The benefits of remote monitoring
technology for irrigation systems
make a compelling case for a
famer to invest, especially if the
goal is to minimize environmental
impact while increasing
production. Farmers with any
number of irrigation pumps can
use the technology. Providers offer
remote monitoring solutions at

various price points with costs

starting at $1,500.
Some solutions require
monthly or annual subscription
fees for monitoring services and
require contractor installation
costs. Others offer an up-front
investment with a one-time
purchase fee. Users should note
potential charges for necessary
technology updates and
improvements in the future.
With remote monitoring
technology in irrigation, the longterm benefits are nearly limitless
and paves the way for innovation,
increases in efficiency and greater

Eddie DeSalle is the CEO

and founder of Net Irrigate,
a manufacturer of wireless
irrigation monitoring technology
for the agriculture industry. The
companys hardware and software
solutions are designed to notify
irrigators of costly events, and
its products include WireRat,
PivotProxy and PumpProxy.
DeSalle is an alumnus of the
Kelley School of Business at
Indiana University where he
received his MBA
with a focus in new
product marketing
and management.
For more info, visit

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Response Spectrum Analysis Protects

Pumps During Seismic Occurrences
Careful planning can save equipment from damage caused by unexpected events.
By Kimmeng Seang
Sulzer Pumps

n the event of seismic

occurrences, structures and
their components often
resonate. Resonance occurs when
the structures natural frequency
coincides with the seismic activitys
frequency. For structures to
be designed to withstand such
occurrences, engineers perform
an equivalent static analysis
with forces proportional to the
structures weight.
Researchers eventually
determined that the equivalent
static analysis was only adequate
for certain structuresmainly
shorter structures with natural
frequencies that have large
separation margins from the
seismic occurrence. Taller

structures, such as long vertical

service water pumps, have natural
frequencies that coincide with
frequencies present during seismic
occurrences. Therefore, dynamic
properties of the structure or
system (mode shapes and natural
frequencies) must be considered
with the response spectrum of
the structure, which then can be
used to determine the resulting
response in the event of a seismic
occurrence. Reponses can
include displacement, velocity,
acceleration, force and moment.

Response Spectrum
Creating the plots in a response
spectrum often includes subjecting
an oscillating device with known

Figure 1. Acceleration vs. frequency (Graphics courtesy of Sulzer)

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

spring, mass and damping to the

transient loads. Personnel record
the response over time and extract
the maximum absolute amplitude.
Next, they repeat the process
through the frequency range
using the same damping. Finally,
the maximum responses are
plotted over time as a function of
frequency. Figure 1 is an example
of an acceleration response versus
frequency response spectra.

Response Extraction
A response spectrum can be
combined with the systems natural
frequencies or mode shapes to
determine the systems response.
Each mode shape of the
structure has an inherent relative
displacement, effective mass
and participation factor. The
participation factor combined with
the response spectrum value will
yield the mode coefficient. The
mode coefficient will in turn yield
the response of the mode shape.
These combined responses from
mode shapes will determine the
total response of the system. To
obtain an accurate solution of
the entire systems response, it is
necessary to combine the responses
of individual mode shapes such
that their cumulative effective
mass approaches 100 percent of the
total mass. Computationally, this
is intensive. The best practice is to


Figure 2. Mode 1:
0.93014 Hertz (Hz)

Figure 3. Mode 2:
7.12033 Hz

Figure 4.
Mode 3: 10.348 Hz

capture at least the response up to

90 percent of the total mass.
Combination methods for
these responses include absolute
summation, square root of sum
of squares (SRSS) and complete
quadratic combination (CQC). The
absolute summation method is
the most conservative, but is too
conservative for many applications.
The SRSS method is the most
popular and works well with
adequately separated frequencies.
The CQC method is the most
accurate and can account for closely
spaced frequencies.

Imagine a 40-foot vertical turbine
pump in a power plant weighing
approximately 21,000 pounds.
The owner wants to understand

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Table 1. Results from modal analysis


Frequency Participation Effective

mass (pound Displacement
mass (lbm)) (inches (in))

Spectrum Value
(inches per
second squared

















(inches (in))


response (in)

Table 2. Results from modal analysis including mode coefficients


Frequency Participation Effective

mass (lbm) Displacement (in) Value (in/sec2)



















Table 3. Results from modal analysis including mode coefficients and displacement response


Frequency Participation Effective

mass (lbm) Displacement (in) Value (in/sec2)











how much the pumps suction bell

will be displaced in the event of an
earthquake. They have provided
the acceleration versus frequency
response spectra in Figure 1 (see
page 110). To simplify the example,
this article will consider only the
first three mode shapes.
First, a modal analysis must be
performed to obtain the first three
mode shapes, participation factors,
effective masses and relative
displacements at the suction bell
(see Table 1).
Now the mode coefficients
can be calculated. The spectrum
input provided was acceleration,
therefore the mode coefficient can
be calculated by Equation 1.

response (in)












Finally, the displacement

response for the mode shapes
can be determined by multiplying
the mode coefficient with the
relative displacement.
Now that the responses have
been determined, an appropriate
combination method must
be chosen for combining the
responses. The first three mode
shapes account for approximately
75 percent of the total mass,
which means more modes need
to be analyzed to capture a more
accurate response.

The study of response spectra
analysis is complex. This article has

mode coefficient = spectrum value x participation

Equation 1

where frequency is in units of radians per second2 (see Table 2)

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s


only provided a brief overview and

deferred discussion on single degree
of free systems, multi-degree of free
systems, response spectrum regions
and zero point acceleration.
Kimmeng Seang is an engineering
design analyst for Sulzer Pumps
(U.S.). He has worked for Sulzer
Pumps for the last five years in
different roles. Prior to Sulzer
Pumps, Kimmeng functioned as a
design engineer in the automation
technology industry. He
received his bachelors degree in
mechanical engineering from the
Georgia Institute of Technology
and a masters degree in business
administration from the University
of Tennessee. Kimmeng
enjoys solving
problems. He can be
reached at kimmeng.


Diaphragm Pump Orientation Significantly

Improves Efficiency
Horizontal placement combats suction
ball problems.
By C. Daniel Urquhart
RamParts Pump, LLC

iaphragms in pumps and

valves isolate liquid from
mechanical components.
Diaphragm pumps and valves
work well in applications with
pressures that cause recirculation
in centrifugal pumps and excessive
wear in positive displacement
pumps and valves. Evidence
suggests that the orientation of
the diaphragmhorizontal or
verticalmakes a significant
difference to its effectiveness.
Diaphragms in slurries moving
at less than 150 gallons per minute
(gpm) and pumps with pressures
above 50 pounds per square inch
(psi) can have high failure rates.
If the specific gravity of the solids
is considerably greater than that
of the carrier liquid, the failure
rate increases because of the
quick settling of the slurry in the
diaphragm chambers.
Vertical double diaphragm
pumps often have high failure rates
and downtime on applications
involving slurries that consist
of solids and hard particles. The
vertically oriented diaphragms
tend to fail because of diaphragm
and suction ball problems. The
solids settle quickly in the suction
manifold and valve. They also
settle in the lower areas of the
diaphragm, clogging the valve and

Image 1. Horizontal diaphragms can solve many problems encountered by

diaphragm pump end users (Courtesy of Ramparts Pump, LLC)

rupturing the diaphragm at the

lowest point of the valve or pump.

The Horizontal
Diaphragm Difference
The configuration of a horizontal
diaphragm allows the solids to
fall away from the diaphragm
and valves (see Figures 3 and 4).
The slurry is unable to build up at
the bottom of the pump, and the
clogging and diaphragm failures
associated with vertical configured
pumps are eliminated.
The solids do not impinge on any
part of the diaphragm. Because
the diaphragm is above the solids,
they are unable to settle on it. It
is inherently protected from the
slurry. These diaphragms will
outlast vertical diaphragms and
be more reliable, especially in
applications with heavy slurries.
Single horizontal diaphragm
styles tend to be larger and operate
at lower cycle rates. Slower cycles
reduce diaphragm stresses and
extend pump life. The combination
of the lack of manifold at the
bottom of the pump and the larger
valves that can pass larger solids
eliminate clogging.

The air cylinder, air distribution

valves or regulators are above the
diaphragm, so they are not flooded
with slurry when the diaphragm
does fail. Unlike configurations
using vertical diaphragms, this
feature protects the air controls
and cylinder from contamination
by the pumpage.

With the variable capacity of one
horizontal pump, slurries can be
moved at rates ranging from 1 gpm
to 300 gpm at up to 100 psi without
recirculation or excessive slip, a
major issue with most centrifugal
and positive displacement pumps.
The horizontal diaphragm is
protected from the abrasive
characteristics of the slurry.
These pumps are reliable in
the most difficult slurries. The
diaphragm valve is protected in
the same way from slurry because
the working parts of the valve are
isolated from the liquid.
C. Daniel Urquhart is an application engineer
at RamParts Pump, LLC. He may be reached
at 616-656-2250 or danu@andronaco.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015




Pulsation Dampeners

Gas Flowmeters

Flowrox presents Flowrox

Expulse, a new pulsation
dampener, which quiets
noisy process pipes while
settling pressure peaks
and uneven low. Flowrox
Expulse is a lexible inline
pulsation dampener. he design is based on a double hose
structure with an expansive inner hose, reinforced outer
hose and compressed air between the two. Flowrox Expulse
can absorb up to 90 percent of pulsations and more in
the right process conditions. Flowrox Expulse does not
include breaking diaphragms or bladders. Flowrox Expulse
can be installed on any pulsating pump type from any
manufacturer in the market.
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KROHNE, Inc. introduces its

OPTISONIC 7300 universal ultrasonic
gas lowmeter for process gas
applications. he OPTISONIC 7300
provides an economic solution for
gas low measurement in process and
auxiliary measurements in oil and gas reineries, the
chemical and petrochemical industry and non-custody
transfer natural gas applications. It also provides beneits to
applications such as compressed air, mixed gas, steam or lue
gas. he OPTISONIC 7300 is a 2-beam ultrasonic lowmeter.
Class 1, Division 1 approved, it performs over a wide bidirectional low range of 90 feet per second with 1 percent
accuracy. It uses titanium transducers, equalizing process
luctuations and avoiding acoustic feedback.
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Diaphragm Metering Pumps

Hayward Flow Controls
new line of metering
pumps for chemical dosing
systems and corrosive
environments features one
design and footprint with
front facing controls and
tube connections for easy
and lexible installation.
Available with analog or
digital controls, the Z Series covers low rates ranging
from 1 to 14 gallons per hour in just three pump sizes,
ofers stroke rates from 120 to 300 strokes/minute
to cover all application needs, and is backed by an
exclusive 2-year warranty.
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Transfer Pumps

Meggitt Sensing Systems releases highelectromagnetic interference (EMI) resistant
vibration sensors. Meggitts high voltage
(HV) isolated sensors are designed for
vibration monitoring in high electromagnetic
environments commonly found near wind
turbines and rotating machinery. he sensing
element of the HV series is isolated from the
sensor base and casing to ofset the efect of HV and high
EMI often found in wind turbines and variable frequency
drives/silicon-controlled rectiier (SCR) controllers. Ceramic
housings and hermetic sealing provide isolation up to 6,000
volts. he compact, top-exit sensors are available in multiple
conigurations of M12 or MIL-5015 connectors, and M6,
M8 or 14-28 mounting.
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Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Moyno announces the

EZstrip Transfer Pump.
he EZstrip Transfer
Pump provides a way to
disassemble, de-rag, and
maintain a progressing cavity
pump in place, reducing maintenance time by more than
93 percent for signiicant cost savings. Distinguished by
a patented split coupling, EZstrip Transfer Pump ofers
direct access to the wear parts and rotating assemblies
without afecting the operational parameters. Full drive
train including rotor, stator, shaft, rod and seal can be
removed in minutes with no electrical disconnection
required. Pre-assembled drive train is available with a
2-year warranty to allow a faster reassembly time.
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Submersible Groundwater Pumps
Grundfos has launched an
extended range of high-eiciency
medium-sized SP submersible
groundwater pumps. Made entirely
of corrosion-resistant stainless
steel, 4-inch SP pumps are ideal
for a wide variety of applications,
such as groundwater supply to
waterworks, irrigation, pressure
boosting and in industry. he range
of large SP pumps for professional
end users has been expanded from two to three sizes and
is built in stainless steel, with three diferent material
grades available, covering liquids from drinking water to
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Drive Cables

Flame Arrester

Asahi Intecc now ofers high speed

rotation stainless steel miniature drive
cables for medical device and industrial
applications requiring diameters less
than 3 inch. he Asahi Drive Cable
is a multi-layer, multi-ilar, stranded
lexible shaft with high bi-directional torque transmission
properties with minimal backlash or lag. he shaft may
be electric drive machine (edm) cut to short lengths for a
smooth inish (1 inch) to 2 meter lengths depending on the
application, and in-house assembly and coating services
are ofered. he layers and size of wires may be customized
to the degree of lexibility, torque force and rotation speed
required by the application. Asahi Intecc Drive Cable is
available in diameters from 0.020 to about 0.216 inch.
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BS&B introduced its new

platform of lame arrester/
relief vent products and
services, which will be
sold under the name BS&B
FlameSaf Limited. FlameSaf
encompasses both pressure/
vacuum relief devices and
lame arresters, as well as a
variety of combinations, all
are third party tested and
approved. FlameSaf lame arresters are used to protect
tanks, piping and other systems in plants and reineries
against delagrations and detonations. BS&B Flame
Arresters have a compact and light-weight design.
Circle 210 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Torque and Power Monitoring System

Vibration Dampening Drive Shaft

Binsfeld Engineering,
Inc. introduced the new
TorqueTrak TPM2 torque and
power monitoring system for
rotating shafts. he all-digital
system features a RS422 fullduplex interface with system
setup and coniguration via
computer software (provided).
he TorqueTrak TPM2 does
not require shaft modiication
or machine disassembly. he
TorqueTrak TPM2 is available for shaft diameters from
0.75 to 40 inches and ideal for almost any torque and
power evaluation project.
Circle 208 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

R+W has expanded on its design

of vibration damping drive
shafts, series EZ2, with a new
miniature design, size 5. he new
size 5 shafts feature customer
speciied lengths of up to 6 meters and bore diameters,
along with fully split clamping hubs for drop-in mounting.
Speeds in excess of 5000 rpm can be achieved without any
intermediate support bearings required. hey feature a
clamping hub bore diameters from 5 millimeters to inch,
with or without keyways. It features peak torques up to 24
nanometers with an outside diameter of just 25 millimeters.
Available with elastomer Shore hardness values of 98A
or 64D, they can compensate for axial, lateral and
angular misalignment.
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To have a product considered for our Products page, please send the information to Amy Cash, acash@cahabamedia.com.

Advertiser Name

Page RS#

A.W. Chesterton Company . . . 41

Achema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Advanced Engineered
Pump, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Advanced Technical Staing 116
AIGI Environmental Inc.. . . . . 27
All-Flo Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Automationdirect.com. . . . . . . 57
American Water Works
Association (AWWA) . . . . . 86
Bal Seal Engineering, Inc. . . . 116
BJM Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Blackmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
BLACOH Fluid Control, Inc. . . BC
Blue-White Industries . . . . . . . . .9
Carver Pump Company . . . . . . 19
Cat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
ChemWorld.com . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Conhagen, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Continental Pump Company 116
Dan Bolen & Associates. . . . . 117
Electrical Apparatus Service
Association (EASA). . . . . . . 93
ElectroStatic Technology. . . . . 69


Advertiser Name

Page RS#

FLSmidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Frost & Sullivan. . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Fullo Specialties Co. . . . . . . . . 47
GE Intelligent Platforms . . 94-95
Gorman-Rupp Company . . . . . 23
Graphite Metallizing
Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Hayward Flow Control. . . . . . . 21
HIDRACAR S.A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Hydraulic Institute . . . . . . . . . 101
Hydro, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC
IFAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Inpro/Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Jordan, Knauf & Company . . 83
KTR Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Liqua Flow Pump Company . . 77
Load Controls Inc . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Load Controls Inc . . . . . . . . . . 117
LobePro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Magnatex Pumps, Inc. . . . . . . . 83
MasterBond Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Meltric Corporation . . . . . . . . 118
Milton Roy,
an Accudyne Company. . . . 31


Advertiser Name

Page RS#

Motor Protection Electronics. 55

Motor Protection Electronics. 71
National Oilwell Varco. . . . . . . 37
National Pump Company . . . . 52
NETZSCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
NOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Pinnacle-Flo, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . 66
PPC Mechanical Seals. . . . . . . . 36
Proco Products, Inc. . . . . . . . . . 67
Pumpworks 610. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
R+W Couplings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Rosedale Products, Inc. . . . . . . 81
Scenic Precise Element, Inc. . 118
Schaeler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
See Water, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SEEPEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SEPCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
SERO Pump Systems, Inc.. . . 119
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Skinner Power Systems, LLC . 40
St. Marys Foundry, Inc. . . . . . 118


Advertiser Name

Page RS#

Stancor Pumps Inc. . . . . . . . . . . 13

Summit Industrial . . . . . . . . . . 64
Summit Pump, Inc . . . . . . . . . 118
Superbolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Titan Flow Control, Inc.. . . . . . 81
Titan Manufacturing, Inc. . . . 72
Titan Manufacturing, Inc. . . 118
Topog-E Gasket Co.. . . . . . . . . 119
Toshiba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Trachte, USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Tuf-Lok International . . . . . . 117
United Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
VARNA Products . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Vaughan Company . . . . . . . . . IBC
Vertilo Pump Company . . . . 119
VescoPlastics Sales . . . . . . . . . 119
WEG Electric Corp . . . . . . . . . . 15
Westerberg and Associates . . . 78
WETEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Worldwide Electric Corp . . . . . 28
Xylem, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3


he Index of Advertisers is furnished as a

courtesy, and no responsibility is assumed
for incorrect information.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ap r il 2015



Precise insertion/removal control

Reduced system complexity
More uptime
The Bal Seal Canted Coil Spring
for critical oilfield connecting and conducting applications.
800-366-1006 sales@balseal.com
w w w. b a l s e a l . c o m

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Skingtoiy".Grr"Z vky/
Yx4"Skingtoigr"Ktmotkkx".Nkg| "Otj{yzxogr/

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A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s








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Two Component EP21SC-1



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NEMO Progressing Cavity Pumps

ask about

For your toughest pumping problems!

Smooth operation,
low pulsation,
steady ow in
direct proportion to speed
Low to high solids content, abrasive material, shear sensitive
Pressures: To 1080 psi; special designs to 3400 psi
Capacities: A few gph up to 2,200 gpm
NETZSCH Pumps North America, LLC
Viscosity: 1 mPas up to 3 million mPas
Temperatures: 5 F to 570 F
Maintenance friendly, low life-cycle cost

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Serving the Pump &

Rotating Equipment, Valve,
and Industrial Equipment
Industry since 1969
Domestic & International

Specializing in placing:
General Management Engineering
Sales & Marketing
*i\ n{n U www.tuflok.com

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9741 North 90th Place, Suite 200
Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-5065
(480) 767-9000 Fax (480) 767-0100
Email: dan@danbolenassoc.com

Sims Pump, a fast growing structural
composite pump, pump parts, and
mechanical seals manufacturer is
seeking ambitious, aggressive, and
self-motivated representatives for
both the marine and industrial
markets around the world. Sims
focuses on sales to customers with
corrosive environments, such as
marine, cruise, power generation,
public utility, wastewater facilities, oil
and gas, as well as chemical and
industrial markets. A background in
pumps, mechanical seals, or any
rotating equipment is required.
Please fax your resume to
1-201-792-4803, or email to

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Apr il 2015



Your Best Value in

Reverse Vane Impeller
ANSI Pumps



6" Rtqvgevu"htqo"gngevtkecn"jc|ctfu
6" Ukornkgu"PHRC"92G"eqornkcpeg

Model Clark 3


Green Bay, WI

800.433.7642 meltric.com

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A p r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys te m s


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dry start
problems with
Vesconite Hilube

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Increase MTBR
No swell
Low friction = reduced
electricity costs
Quick supply.
No quantity too small

Tollfree 1-866-635-7596
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Apr il 2015



Wall Street Pump & Valve Industry Watch

By Jordan, Knauff & Company
Figure 1. Stock indices from March 1, 2014, to Feb. 28, 2015

he Jordan, Knauf &

Company (JKC) Valve Stock
Index was down 14.7 percent
over the last 12 months, while the
broader S&P 500 Index was up 14.0
percent. he JKC Pump Stock Index
also decreased 14.7 percent for the
same time period.1
he Institute for Supply
Managements Purchasing
Managers Index (PMI) decreased
to 52.9 percent in February.
While a reading above 50 percent
still suggests expansion in the
manufacturing sector, this is the
lowest index reading since January
2014. he average reading for the
last 12 months is 55.7 percent.
Likely factors for the decrease
include falling energy prices, a
stronger U.S. dollar, slow demand
overseas and the issues at the West
Coast docks. he Employment index
fell 2.7 percent to 51.4 percent,
the lowest point since 2013. On a
brighter note, the backlog of orders
increased to more than 50 percent
after contracting in January.
he Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported that the unemployment
rate fell to 5.5 percent in February,
its lowest level since May 2008.
Job growth remained positive with
employers adding 295,000 jobs
during the month. With a monthly
average of 288,000 jobs added
during the past three months,

this was the 12th consecutive

month with job growth of
at least 200,000 workers.
Manufacturing added 8,000
new workers during the month,
less than the monthly average
of 17,400 since the end of 2013.
For the irst time since
June of last year, North Sea
Brent crude oil monthly
average spot prices increased
Source: Capital IQ and JKC research. Local currency converted to USD using
by $10 per barrel to reach an
historical spot rates. he JKC Pump and Valve Stock Indices include a select list of
average of $58 per barrel in
publicly-traded companies involved in the pump and valve industries weighted by
February. A reduction in capital market capitalization.
expenditures by major oil
as a result of declines in demand
companies and a decrease in U.S.
from Western Europe and Africa.
1. he S&P Return
rig counts helped push up oil prices. Propane exports to Asia, mostly
igures are provided
he number of drilling rigs in use
China and Japan, increased by
by Capital IQ.
in the U.S. fell to 1,348 in February, 95 percent in 2014 compared
down 335 from the 1,683 in use
with 2013.
in January 2015 and down 421
Jordan, Knauf
On Wall Street, the indices had
& Company is an
from the 1,769 counted in February their largest monthly gains in
investment bank
more than two years in February.
based in Chicago,
Exports of U.S. noncrude
he Dow Jones Industrial Average
Illinois, that
petroleum products increased
provides merger and
increased 5.6 percent, the S&P
acquisition advisory
for the 13th consecutive year
500 Index was up 5.5 percent,
services to the
because of increased global demand and the NASDAQ Composite was
pump, valve and
and record high U.S. reinery
up 7.1 percent. Investors were
iltration industries.
production. Exports increased in
inluenced by stabilizing oil prices,
Please visit
every region of the world except
jordanknauf.com for
an agreement on Greeces debt
further information.
the Middle East, but most products issues and strong earnings results
Jordan Knauf &
were sent to markets in Central
by technology and retail companies.
Company is a member
and South America, according
Merger news between Staples Inc.
to the U.S. Energy Information
and Oice Depot Inc., as well as
Administration. Gasoline, propane between Pizer Inc. and Hospira
and butane shipments increased,
These materials were
Inc., also had a positive impact on
prepared for informational
while distillate exports decreased
the markets.
purposes from sources that

Figure 2. U.S. energy consumption and rig counts

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration and Baker Hughes Inc.

Ap r i l 2 0 15 | Pum ps & S ys tem s

Figure 3. U.S. PMI and manufacturing shipments

Source: Institute for Supply Management Manufacturing

Report on Business and U.S. Census Bureau

are believed to be reliable

but which could change
without notice. Jordan,
Knauff & Company and
Pumps & Systems shall not
in any way be liable for
claims relating to these
materials and makes no
warranties, express or
implied, or representations
as to their accuracy or completeness or for errors or
omissions contained herein.
This information is not
intended to be construed
as tax, legal or investment
advice. These materials do
not constitute an offer to
buy or sell any financial
security or participate in
any investment offering or
deployment of capital.

Vaughans Rotamix System sets the standard for hydraulic mixing, providing the customer with
lower operating and maintenance costs, more efficient breakdown of solids and Vaughans
UNMATCHED RELIABILITY. Its perfect for digesters, sludge storage tanks, equalization basins
and other process or suspension type mixing applications.
- Over 1000 installations worldwide
- Optimizes solids contact with its unique dual rotational zone mixing pattern
- 10 Year Nozzle warranty

See videos, drawings, and details at ChopperPumps.com or call 888.249.CHOP

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