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English Tenses

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tense

Affirmative/Negative/Question

Use

Signal Words

action in the present


taking place once,
never or several
times

always,

facts

normally,

Business

actions taking place


one after another

often, seldom,

Communication

action set by a
timetable or
schedule

Countries
Animals/Sports

Simple

A:He speaks.

Present

N:He does not speak.


Q:Does he speak?

Literature

Grammar
Business-Info

Present

E-Cards

Progressive N:He is not speaking.

A: He is speaking.

Q:Is he speaking?

action taking place


in the moment of
speaking

Take On

action taking place


only for a limited
period of time

Newsletter

action arranged for


the future

Teach In
Cultural Studies

sometimes,
usually
if sentences

talk,)

Games & Riddles

Calendar 2016

never,

type I (If I

Chill Out

Chat with Egon

every,

Simple Past A: He spoke.


N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

Lessons

just, just now,


Listen!, Look!,
now, right now

action in the past


taking place once,
never or several
times

yesterday, 2

actions taking place


one after another

day, last Friday

action taking place in


the middle of

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at the moment,

minutes ago, in
1990, the other

if sentence
type II (If I

English Tenses

Past

A: He was speaking.

Progressive N: He was not speaking.


Q: Was he speaking?

another action

talked,)

action going on at a
certain time in the
past

when, while,
as long as

actions taking place


at the same time
action in the past
that is interrupted by
another action

Present

A: He has spoken.

Perfect

N: He has not spoken.

Simple

Q: Has he spoken?

putting emphasis on
the result
action that is still
going on
action that stopped
recently

already, ever,
just, never, not
yet, so far, till
now, up to now

finished action that


has an influence on
the present
action that has taken
place once, never or
several times before
the moment of
speaking
Present

A: He has been speaking.

Perfect

N: He has not been speaking.

Progressive Q: Has he been speaking?

putting emphasis on
the course or
duration (not the
result)

all day, for 4

action that recently


stopped or is still
going on

long?, the

years, since
1993, how

whole week

finished action that


influenced the
present
Past Perfect A: He had spoken.
Simple

N: He had not spoken.


Q: Had he spoken?

action taking place


before a certain time
in the past
sometimes
interchangeable
with past perfect
progressive
putting emphasis
only on the fact (not
the duration)

Past Perfect A: He had been speaking.

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action taking place


before a certain time

already, just,
never, not yet,
once, until that
day

if sentence
type III (If I had
talked,)

for, since, the

English Tenses

Progressive N: He had not been

whole day, all


in the past

speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?

sometimes
interchangeable
with past perfect
simple

day

putting emphasis on
the duration or
course of an action
Future I

A: He will speak.

Simple

N: He will not speak.


Q: Will he speak?

action in the future


that cannot be
influenced
spontaneous
decision
assumption with
regard to the future

in a year,
next,
tomorrow

If-Satz Typ I (If


you ask her,
she will help
you.)
assumption: I
think, probably,
perhaps

Future I

A: He is going to speak.

Simple

N: He is not going to speak.

(going to)

Q: Is he going to speak?

Future I

A: He will be speaking.

Progressive N: He will not be speaking.


Q: Will he be speaking?

Future II

A: He will have spoken.

Simple

N: He will not have spoken.

decision made for


the future
conclusion with
regard to the future
action that is going
on at a certain time
in the future
action that is sure to
happen in the near
future

in one year,
next week,
tomorrow

in one year,
next week,
tomorrow

action that will be


finished at a certain
time in the future

by Monday, in

action taking place


before a certain time
in the future

for, the last

a week

Q: Will he have spoken?


Future II

A: He will have been

Progressive speaking.
N: He will not have been
speaking.
Q: Will he have been

putting emphasis on
the course of an
action

couple of
hours, all day
long

speaking?
Conditional

A: He would speak.

I Simple

N: He would not speak.

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action that might


take place

if sentences
type II

English Tenses

Q: Would he speak?

(If I were you, I


would go
home.)

Conditional

A: He would be speaking.

N: He would not be speaking.

Progressive Q: Would he be speaking?

Conditional

A: He would have spoken.

II Simple

N: He would not have

action that might


take place

putting emphasis on
the course /
duration of the
action
action that might
have taken place in
the past

if sentences
type III

spoken.

(If I had seen

Q: Would he have spoken?

that, I would
have helped.)

Conditional

A: He would have been

II

speaking.

Progressive N: He would not have been


speaking.
Q: Would he have been
speaking?

Contact
About us

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action that might


have taken place in
the past
puts emphasis on
the course /
duration of the
action

Table of English Tenses


Simple tenses
THE PAST
Signal words
last ... / ... ago. / .. in 1990 /

THE PRESENT
yesterday

THE FUTURE

Signal words
every day - sometimes always - often usually seldom- never first ... then

Use
action took place in the past, mostly
connected with an expression of time
(no connection to the present)
-Complete actions in the past
-Past habits

Use
-something happens repeatedly
-how often something happens
-one action follows another
-things in general after the following verbs
(to love, to hate, to think, etc.)
future meaning: timetables, programmes

Form
Base form + -ed (regular)
Irregular: 2nd column
I worked / did / went
I didn't work / do / go
Did I work/ do / go?

Form
Base form / he/she/it + -s
I do/go / I don't do/go / Do I do/go?
He does/ goes / He doesn't do/go
Does he do/go?

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLES

I did my homework last night


Signal words
While, when, as,
all morning/evening

Use
-an action happened in the middle of
another action
-someone was doing sth. at a certain time
(in the past) - you do not know whether it
was finished or not
-Simultaneous past actions
Form
S+ was/were +base form + -ing
He was doing / They were doing
He wasn't doing / They weren't doing
Was he doing? / Were they doing?
EXAMPLES
I was doing my homework when my
friend Isabel arrived.

Signal words
Tomorrow, the day after tomorrow,
tonight, soon, next week/year,
in a week/month, in two/three
days/weeks
Use
-predictions about the future
(you think that sth. will happen)
-you decide to do sth. spontaneously at
the time of speaking, you haven't made
a decision before
-main clause in type I of the if clauses
Form
will + base form
I will work / do / go
I wont work / do / go
will I work/ do / go?
EXAMPLES

I do my homework every night

I will do the homework after school.

Signal words
Now, at the moment, at present, these days,
still, nowadays, today, tonight (except for
future use)
Look! Listen!
Use
-something is happening at the same time of
speaking or around it
-future meaning: when you have already
decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan,
date)

Form
S+ (am/are/is) + base form + -ing
I am doing
He is doing / They are doing
He isn't doing / They aren't doing
Is he doing? / Are they doing?
EXAMPLES
Sorry, I am doing my homework at the
moment. Ill call you back!

Signal words
This time next week/year/month and
other time expressions with future
reference
Use
-An action will be in progress at a certain
time in the future.
-This action has begun before the certain
time.
- An action which will definitely happen in
the future as the result of a routine or
arrangement.
Form
will + be + base form + ing
I'll be doing / He'll be doing
I wont be doing / He wont be doing
Will I be doing?
Will he be doing?
EXAMPLES
At 5 PM I will be doing my homework.

Perfect tenses
THE PAST

THE PRESENT

THE FUTURE

Signal words
Before, after, already, just, for, since, till,
until, when, by, by the time, never

Signal words
For, since, already, yet, always, just, ever,
never, so far, today, this week/month,
how long, lately, recently

Signal words

Use
-mostly when two actions in a story are
related to each other: the action which
had already happened is put into Past
Perfect, the other action into Simple Past
-the past of the Present Perfect

Use
-You say that sth. has happened or is finished
in the past and it has a connection to the
present
-Action started in the past and continues up to
the present
-An action that has recently finished
Form
have/has + past participle*
*(base form + -ed) or (irregular verbs)
I have worked/done I havent done
Have I done? She has done
EXAMPLES
Look! I have done my homework. Here it is!

Use
-sth. will already have happened before a
certain time in the future
-For an action which will be finished before
a stated future time.

Signal words
Already, just, never,For, since, how long,
before, until

Signal words
all day,for, since, how long, lately, recently, all
morning/year, the whole day

Signal words
*This tense is not used very much
by, by then, by the time, for

Use
how long something had been happening
before something else happened

Use
-action began in the past and has just stopped
-how long the action has been happening
-emphasis: length of time of an action
Form
have/has + been + base form + -ing
I have been doing I havent been doing
Have I been doing? She has been doing
EXAMPLES
Ive been doing homework all day and it is
still not finished.

Use
-sth. will already have happened before a
certain time in the future
-emphasis: length of time of an action
Form
will + have + been+ base form + ing

Form
had + past participle*
*(base form + -ed) or (irregular verbs)
I had worked/done I hadnt done
Had Iworked?
EXAMPLES
When my friend came, I had already
done my homework.

Form
had + been + base form + ing
I had been doing I hadnt been
doing - Had I been doing?
EXAMPLES
I had been waiting for half an hour
when he arrived.

Before, by, by then, by the time, until, till

Form
will + have + past participle*
*(base form + -ed) or (irregular verbs)
I'll have worked/done I wont have
done Will I have done?
EXAMPLES
I will have done my homework by 8
oclock

EXAMPLES
I will have been doing homework for
over an hour by the time my friends
arrive.

Yolanda Gimnez Ballesteros/September 2013

Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

Grammar Rules

Adjectives
Forming
adjectives
Denominal
adjectives
Comparing
adjectives
Compound
adjectives
Order of
adjectives
Lists of adjectives

Order of adjectives
How to order adjectives in English
In many languages, adjectives denoting attributes
usually occur in a specific order. Generally, the
adjective order in English is:
1. Quantity or number
2. Quality or opinion
3. Size
4. Age
5. Shape
6. Color

Examples of
adjectives

7. Proper adjective (often nationality, other place of origin,


or material)

Adjective
exercises

Verbs
Nouns
Conjunctions
Pronouns

8. Purpose or qualifier

For example:
1. I love that really big old green antique car that
always parked at the end of the street.
2. My sister adopted a beautiful big white bulldog.

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Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

Adverb
Preposition

When there are two or more adjectives that are from the
same group, the word and is placed between the two
adjectives:
1. The house is green and red.
2. The library has old and new books.

When there are three or more adjectives from the same


adjective group, place a comma between each of the
coordinate adjectives:
1. We live in the big green, white and red house at
the end of the street.
2. My friend lost a red, black and white watch.

A comma is not placed between an adjective and the


noun.

Order of adjectives examples


Determiner

Quantity

Quality

or

or

number

opinion

A
The

Size

beautiful
three

beautiful

Age

Shape

old

adjective

Italian

little

gold

heart-

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Color

Proper

red

Purpose
or

Noun

qualifier
sports

car
plates

Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

An

amazing

More examples:
1. I love that really old big green antique car that
always parked at the end of the street. [quality
age size color proper adjective]
2. My sister has a big, beautiful, tan and white,
bulldog. [size quality color color]
3. A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion age
origin]
4. A big square blue box. [dimension shape
color]
5. A disgusting pink plastic ornament. [opinion
color material]
6. Some slim new French trousers. [dimension
age origin]
7. A wonderful old Italian clock. [opinion age
origin]
8. I bought a pair of black leather shoes. [color
material]

Order of adjectives exercises

1. Choose the best answer for each sentence.


A.

The house is __________________.


large and white
white and large
large white

B.

They live in a __________________ house.


large and white
white and large
large white

Answers: A large and white B large white

2. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?


A. We took a ride on a blue, old Chinese bus.
B. We took a ride on a Chinese, old, blue bus.
C. We took a ride on an old, blue Chinese bus.

Answer: C

3. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?


A. Id like three good reasons why you dont like spinach.
B. Id like a good three reasons why you dont like
spinach.
C. Id like good reasons three why you dont like spinach.

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shaped

and
white

sofa

Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

Answer: A

4. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?


A. I like that really big red old antique tractor in the
museum.
B. I like that really big old red antique tractor in the
museum.
C. I like that old, red, really big antique tractor in the
museum.

Answer: B

5. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?


A. My brother rode a beautiful big black Friesian horse in
the parade.
B. My brother rode a beautiful Friesian big black horse in
the parade.
C. My brother rode a big, black, beautiful Friesian horse in
the parade.

Answer: A

6. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct


order of adjectives to fill in the blank.
A.

My grandmother lives in the


________________________ house on the corner
little blue, green and white
little blue and green and white
little, blue, green, and white

B.

The store carries an assortment of


_____________________ objects.
interesting new, old and antique
new, old, interesting and antique
interesting, old and new and antique

C.

We went for a two-week cruise on a


__________________________ ocean liner.
incredible brand-new, huge Italian
incredible, huge, brand-new Italian
Italian incredible, brand-new, huge

Answers: A little blue, green and white B


interesting new, old and antique C incredible,
huge, brand-new Italian

7. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct


order of adjectives to fill in the blank.
A.

I bought a pair of _________________ boots.

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Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

new, nice, red rain


nice new red rain
red nice new rain
B.

My dad was thrilled with his gift of


______________________ bowties for his clown
act.
three squirting new nice big polka-dotted
three polka-dotted nice new squirting
three nice big new polka-dotted squirting

C.

Please put the marbles into that


______________________ box.
round little old red
little old round red
little old red round

Answers: A nice new red rain B three nice big


new polka-dotted squirting C little old round red

8. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct


order of adjectives to fill in the blank:
A.

I was surprised to receive a __________________


puppy for my birthday.
little, cute, eight-week-old golden retriever
cute eight-week-old little golden retriever
cute little eight-week-old golden retriever

B.

Our work uniform consists of black pants, black


shoes, and a ________________ shirt.
yellow baggy big polo
big baggy yellow polo
baggy yellow big polo

C.

Ive been spending a lot of time in antique shops


looking for the perfect _______________ clock.
little silver Italian cuckoo
little Italian silver cuckoo
silver little Italian cuckoo

Answers: A cute little eight-week-old golden


retriever B big baggy yellow polo C little silver
Italian cuckoo

9. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?


A. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black and
white stripes.
B. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black with
white stripes.
C. Our grandparents drive a motorhome with black, white
stripes.

Answer: A

10. Which sentence uses the correct order of adjectives?

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Order of Adjectives - Rules & Examples | Ginger

A. During my college years, I wore a red, white and black


big hat to sporting events.
B. During my college years, I wore a big red, white and
black hat to sporting events.
C. During my college years, I wore a big red white and
black, hat to sporting events.

Answer: B

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