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DATA STRUCTURES USING C
Revision 4.0
1 December, 2014
L. V. NARASIMHA PRASAD
Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
E. KRISHNA RAO PATRO
Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
DUNDIGAL – 500 043, HYDERABAD
20142015
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1
1.2
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
1.11.
Introduction to Data Structures
Data structures: organizations of data
Abstract Data Type (ADT)
Selecting a data structure to match the operation
Algorithm
Practical Algorithm design issues
Performance of a program
Classification of Algorithms
Complexity of Algorithms
Rate of Growth
Analyzing Algorithms
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
CHAPTER 2 RECURSION
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
Introduction to Recursion
Differences between recursion and iteration
Factorial of a given number
The Towers of Hanoi
Fibonacci Sequence Problem
Program using recursion to calculate the NCR of a given number
Program to calculate the least common multiple of a given number
Program to calculate the greatest common divisor
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
CHAPTER 3 LINKED LISTS
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
Linked List Concepts
Types of Linked Lists
Single Linked List
3.3.1. Source Code for the Implementation of Single Linked List
3.4.
Using a header node
3.5.
Array based linked lists
3.6.
Double Linked List
3.6.1. A Complete Source Code for the Implementation of Double Linked List
3.7.
Circular Single Linked List
3.7.1. Source Code for Circular Single Linked List
3.8.
Circular Double Linked List
3.8.1. Source Code for Circular Double Linked List
3.9.
Comparison of Linked List Variations
3.10. Polynomials
3.10.1. Source code for polynomial creation with help of linked list
3.10.2. Addition of Polynomials
3.10.3. Source code for polynomial addition with help of linked list:
Exercise
Multiple Choice Questions
I
CHAPTER 4 STACK AND QUEUE
4.1.
Stack
4.1.1. Representation of Stack
4.1.2. Program to demonstrate a stack, using array
4.1.3. Program to demonstrate a stack, using linked list
4.2.
Algebraic Expressions
4.3.
Converting expressions using Stack
4.3.1. Conversion from infix to postfix
4.3.2. Program to convert an infix to postfix expression
4.3.3. Conversion from infix to prefix
4.3.4. Program to convert an infix to prefix expression
4.3.5. Conversion from postfix to infix
4.3.6. Program to convert postfix to infix expression
4.3.7. Conversion from postfix to prefix
4.3.8. Program to convert postfix to prefix expression
4.3.9. Conversion from prefix to infix
4.3.10. Program to convert prefix to infix expression
4.3.11. Conversion from prefix to postfix
4.3.12. Program to convert prefix to postfix expression
4.4.
Evaluation of postfix expression
4.5.
Applications of stacks
4.6.
Queue
4.6.1. Representation of Queue
4.6.2. Program to demonstrate a Queue using array
4.6.3. Program to demonstrate a Queue using linked list
4.7.
Applications of Queue
4.8.
Circular Queue
4.8.1. Representation of Circular Queue
4.9.
Deque
4.10. Priority Queue
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
CHAPTER 5 BINARY TREES
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.
Trees
Binary Tree
Binary Tree Traversal Techniques
5.3.1. Recursive Traversal Algorithms
5.3.2. Building Binary Tree from Traversal Pairs
5.3.3. Binary Tree Creation and Traversal Using Arrays
5.3.4. Binary Tree Creation and Traversal Using Pointers
5.3.5. Non Recursive Traversal Algorithms
Expression Trees
5.4.1. Converting expressions with expression trees
Threaded Binary Tree
Binary Search Tree
General Trees (mary tree)
5.7.1. Converting a mary tree (general tree) to a binary tree
Search and Traversal Techniques for mary trees
5.8.1. Depth first search
5.8.2. Breadth first search
Sparse Matrices
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
II
CHAPTER 6 GRAPHS
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
Introduction to Graphs
Representation of Graphs
Minimum Spanning Tree
6.3.1. Kruskal’s Algorithm
6.3.2. Prim’s Algorithm
Reachability Matrix
Traversing a Graph
6.5.1. Breadth first search and traversal
6.5.2. Depth first search and traversal
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
CHAPTER 7 SEARCHING AND SORTING
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
Linear Search
7.1.1. A nonrecursive program for Linear Search
7.1.1. A Recursive program for linear search
Binary Search
7.1.2. A nonrecursive program for binary search
7.1.3. A recursive program for binary search
Bubble Sort
7.3.1. Program for Bubble Sort
Selection Sort
7.4.1 Nonrecursive Program for selection sort
7.4.2. Recursive Program for selection sort
Quick Sort
7.5.1. Recursive program for Quick Sort
Priority Queue and Heap and Heap Sort
7.6.2. Max and Min Heap data structures
7.6.2. Representation of Heap Tree
7.6.3. Operations on heap tree
7.6.4. Merging two heap trees
7.6.5. Application of heap tree
Heap Sort
7.7.1. Program for Heap Sort
Priority queue implementation using heap tree
Exercises
Multiple Choice Questions
References and Selected Readings
Index
III
Data structures are divided into two types: • • Primitive data structures.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts The term data structure is used to describe the way data is stored. Integers. and choosing an algorithm affects the data structures we use. 1. stacks. Nonprimitive data structures are more complicated data structures and are derived from primitive data structures.1.1 shows the classification of data structures. An Algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions. Choosing a data structure affects the kind of algorithm you might use. of Information Technology . They emphasize on grouping same or different data items with relationship between each data item. Figure 1. queues and linked lists organize data in linear order. a data structure defines a way of organizing all data items that considers not only the elements stored but also their relationship to each other. Introduction to Data Structures: Data structure is a representation of logical relationship existing between individual elements of data. floating point numbers. To develop a program of an algorithm we should select an appropriate data structure for that algorithm. Arrays. A data structure is said to be non linear if its elements form a hierarchical classification where. Graphs are nothing but trees with certain restrictions removed. and the term algorithm is used to describe the way data is processed. string constants and pointers come under this category. Nonprimitive data structures. Therefore. each of which has a clear meaning and can be performed with a finite amount of effort in a finite length of time. character constants. lists and files come under this category. Primitive Data Structures are the basic data structures that directly operate upon the machine instructions. Lecture Notes 1 Dept. Data structures and algorithms are interrelated. No matter what the input values may be. data structure is represented as: Algorithm + Data structure = Program A data structure is said to be linear if its elements form a sequence or a linear list. data items appear at various levels. Tree and graph structures represents hierarchial relationship between individual data elements. They have different representations on different computers. Trees and Graphs are widely used nonlinear data structures. The term data structure is used to describe the way data is stored. In other words. an algorithm terminates after executing a finite number of instructions. The linear data structures like an array.
2 shows example of each kind. and thus has the same size. The first kind is called the array. Lecture Notes 2 Dept.L i n e ar L i st s Queues Gr a p h s T re e s F i g ur e 1. Data structures: Organization of data The collection of data you work with in a program have some kind of structure or organization.2 Contiguous and Noncontiguous structures compared Contiguous structures: Contiguous structures can be broken drawn further into two kinds: those that contain data items of all the same size. of Information Technology .2 below illustrates the difference between contiguous and noncontiguous structures. A linked list is an example of a noncontiguous data structure. No matte how complex your data structures are they can be broken down into two fundamental types: • Contiguous • NonContiguous. Figure 1. Here. In a struct. The second kind of contiguous structure is called structure. Figure 1. 1. In an array. but we linked to each other in some way. and those where the size may differ. C l a s s if ic at i o n of Da t a St r uc t ur e s 1. figure 1. In contiguous structures.3(b) shows a simple structure consisting of a person’s name and age. the nodes of the list are linked together using pointers stored in each node. 1 2 3 1 (a) Contiguous 2 3 (b) noncontiguous Figure 1. terms of data are kept together in memory (either RAM or in a file). An array is an example of a contiguous structure.3(a) shows an example of an array of numbers.2. In contrast. elements may be of different data types and thus may have different sizes.Da t a St r uc t ur e s No n. Since each element in the array is located next to one or two other elements. each element is of the same type. items in a noncontiguous structure and scattered in memory. Figure 1.Pr i mi t iv e Da t a St r uc t ur e s Pr i mi t iv e Da t a St r uc t ur e s I nt e g er F l o at C h ar P o i nt er s Arr ay s L i st s L i n e ar L i st s St ac k s File s No n.
In a tree each node has only one link that leads into the node and links can only go down the tree. of Information Technology . the single dataitem builtin types such as integer. represented as a string of characters. A linked list represents a linear.3 Examples of contiguous structures. 1 2 struct cust_data { int age. onedimension type of noncontiguous structure. float and pointers). (a) Array 21 (b) struct “bill the student” Figure 1.For example. The simplest kind of noncontiguous structure is linked list. A B C A B (a) Linked List C D A E B G C F (b) Tree D E F (c) graph G Figure 1. arrays and structs provide all the “mortar” you need to built more exotic form of data structure. a person’s age can be represented with a simple integer that occupies two bytes of memory. including the noncontiguous forms. called nodes. char name[20]. 3 cust_data bill= {21.4(c) is an example of a graph. Figure 1. may require many bytes and may even be of varying length. The most general type of noncontiguous structure. int arr[3] = {1. }. Couples with the atomic types (that is.4. where there is only the notation of backwards and forwards. But his or her name.4(b) is an example of a twodimensional noncontiguous structure. Noncontiguous structures: Noncontiguous structures are implemented as a collection of dataitems. A tree such as shown in figure 1. Examples of noncontiguous structures Lecture Notes 3 Dept. “bill the student”}. 2. called a graph has no such restrictions. there is the notion of up and down and left and right. where each node can point to one or more other nodes in the collection. Here. 3}.
N[i] holds the index to the next node in the list.5 shows how to implement a double– linked list using three parallel arrays. how the data will be interpreted actually. possibly stored a past from each other in memory. The notion of a data structure in the abstract needs to be treated differently from what ever is used to implement the structure. leads to the notion of an abstract data type. or how the items are pushed and popped. For example. So we created what is known Lecture Notes 4 Dept. 1.3. if we want to read a file. where may or may not reside at position i–1. D[i] holds the data for node i and p[i] holds the index to the node previous to i. noncontiguous structures – including lists. figure 1. You also need to plan for the way the data will be accessed and processed – that is. a stack is a typical abstract data type. we haven’t specified have items are stored on the stack. That is.Hybrid structures: If two basic types of structures are mixed then it is a hybrid form. pushing and popping. The abstract notion of a data structure is defined in terms of the operations we plan to perform on the data. We have only specified the valid operations that can be performed. Abstract Data Type (ADT): The design of a data structure involves more than just its organization. tree and graphs – can be implemented either contiguously or non. For example. Considering both the organization of data and the expected operations on the data. we may have to write the same code over and over again. Items stored in a stack can only be added and removed in certain order – the last item added is the first item removed. Like wise.arrays and structures – can also be implemented noncontiguously. A double linked list via a hybrid data structure The array D contains the data for the list. In this definition. the structures that are normally treated as contiguously .contiguously like wise. An abstract data type in a theoretical construct that consists of data as well as the operations to be performed on the data while hiding implementation. We call these operations. Then one part contiguous and another part noncontiguous. we wrote the code to read the physical file device. For example. For instance. The pointers are actually nothing more than indexes into the D array. A List Head B C (a) Conceptual Structure D P N 1 A 3 4 2 B 4 0 3 C 0 1 4 D 1 2 (b) Hybrid Implementation Figure 1.5. of Information Technology . whereas the array P and N hold the previous and next “pointers’’.
i++. where one of the main operations is delete an object from the middle of the sequence. In this case. Suppose we have an application that uses a sequence of objects. suppose the array stores larger objects. We wrote the code to read a file and placed it in a library for a programmer to use. we might choose the simple data structure of an array to represent the stack. however we can separate the logical ordering from the physical ordering and thus change one without affecting the other. int posn) // delete the item at position from an array of n elements. int posn) //delete the item at posn from a list of elements. For example. in a contiguous structure. { int i = posn. for integer elements. { if (n) { int i=posn. The code using double linked list is as follows: void delete (node * beg. we can do the deletion without moving the elements. the code to read from a keyboard is an ADT. if we store our collection of elements using a double–linked list (with previous and next pointers). } } return. of Information Technology . and then define the appropriate indexing operations to perform pushing and popping. we just modify the pointers in each node. character and set of operations that can be used to read that data structure. n. } This function shifts towards the front all elements that follow the element at position posn. However.4. The choice depends greatly on the type of operations you wish to perform. which is too costly. an abstract data type (such as stack) has to be implemented and this is where data structure comes into ply. If we choose noncontiguous representation. As another example. while (i && q) { Lecture Notes 5 Dept. while (i < n) { seq[i] = seg[i+1]. 1. int &n. For instance. It has a data structure. node *q = beg. The problem is that. This shifting involves data movement that. the overhead for moving data becomes high. Selecting a data structure to match the operation: The most important process in designing a problem involves choosing which data structure to use. and lots of them.today as an ADT. instead. such as an array the logical ordering (the ordering that we wish to interpret our elements to have) is the same as the physical ordering (the ordering that the elements actually have in memory). The code for this is as follows: void delete (int *seg. To be made useful.
In addition every algorithm must satisfy the following criteria: Input: there are zero or more quantities. and can be accomplished with some pointer manipulation as illustrated in figure below: A X 200 100 Initial List A C 300 X A Figure 1. } if (q) { /* not at end of list. } return. Our linked lists yield faster deletions. Algorithm An algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions. so detach P by making previous and next nodes point to each other */ node *p = q > prev. But is that always true? There are trade offs. if (n) n > prev = P. Lecture Notes 6 Dept. if (p) p > next = n. It may seem that linked lists are superior to arrays. Output: at least one quantity is produced. of Information Technology . which are externally supplied. the deletion using linked lists will often be faster than when arrays are used. No matter what the input values may be. q = q Æ next. each of which has a clear meaning and can be performed with a finite amount of effort in a finite length of time. node *n = q > next. but they take up more space because they require two extra pointers per element.i.6 Detaching a node from a list Since very little data is moved during this process. } The process of detecting a node from a list is independent of the type of data stored in the node. 1.5. an algorithm terminates after executing a finite number of instructions.
1. 2. Space Complexity: The space complexity of a program is the amount of memory it needs to run to completion. 3. then for all cases the algorithm will terminate after a finite number of steps.7. It is the asymptotic complexity of an algorithm. a program that saves space over a competing program is considered desirable. Effectiveness: every instruction must be sufficiently basic that it can in principle be carried out by a person using only pencil and paper. Time Complexity: The time needed by an algorithm expressed as a function of the size of a problem is called the TIME COMPLEXITY of the algorithm. Try to have face. In performance analysis we use analytical methods. The limiting behavior of the complexity as size increases is called the asymptotic time complexity. which ultimately determines the size of problems that can be solved by the algorithm. The space need by a program has the following components: Lecture Notes 7 Dept. Performance of a program: The performance of a program is the amount of computer memory and time needed to run a program. The time complexity of a program is the amount of computer time it needs to run to completion.6. We want to “save face” by preventing the program from locking up or generating reams of garbled data. Try to save space (Space complexity).Definiteness: each instruction must be clear and unambiguous. 1. so saving time is an obvious goal. There are three basic design goals that we should strive for in a program: 1. while in performance measurement we conduct experiments. We use two approaches to determine the performance of a program. which never terminates (except for system crashes) but continues in a wait loop until more jobs are entered. will look at some design issues that are broader in scope. Try to save time (Time complexity). Finiteness: if we trace out the instructions of an algorithm. A program does not necessarily satisfy the fourth condition. We represent an algorithm using pseudo language that is a combination of the constructs of a programming language together with informal English statements. Next. Practical Algorithm design issues: Choosing an efficient algorithm or data structure is just one part of the design process. In formal computer science. Like wise. one distinguishes between an algorithm. One important example of such a program for a computer is its operating system. and a program. and the other experimental. A program that runs faster is a better program. One is analytical. of Information Technology . It is not enough that each operation be definite. but it must also be feasible.
but log n does not double until n increases to n2. Whenever n doubles. the running time more than doubles. When n doubles. Log n When the running time of a program is logarithmic.. of Information Technology . solving them independently. Classification of Algorithms If ‘n’ is the number of data items to be processed or degree of polynomial or the size of the file to be sorted or searched or the number of nodes in a graph etc. n. When n is a million. it is practical for use only on relatively small problems. an algorithm that process triples of data items (perhaps in a triple– nested loop) has a cubic running time and is practical for use only on small problems. n2 When the running time of an algorithm is quadratic. the running time increases eight fold.Instruction space: Instruction space is the space needed to store the compiled version of the program instructions. n When the running time of a program is linear. Lecture Notes 8 Dept. Environment stack space: The environment stack is used to save information needed to resume execution of partially completed functions. the running time increases four fold.8. 2n Few algorithms with exponential running time are likely to be appropriate for practical use. 1 Next instructions of most programs are executed once or at most only a few times. log n is a doubled whenever n doubles. we say that its running time is a constant. Quadratic running times typically arise in algorithms that process all pairs of data items (perhaps in a double nested loop) whenever n doubles. log n increases by a constant. such algorithms arise naturally as “brute–force” solutions to problems. Instruction Space: The amount of instructions space that is needed depends on factors such as: • The compiler used to complete the program into machine code. If all the instructions of a program have this property. it is generally the case that a small amount of processing is done on each input element. the program gets slightly slower as n grows. Data space: Data space is the space needed to store all constant and variable values. log n This running time arises for algorithms but solve a problem by breaking it up into smaller subproblems. n3 Similarly. • The compiler options in effect at the time of compilation • The target computer. Whenever n doubles. 1. Space needed by dynamically allocated objects such as arrays and class instances. Data space has two components: • • Space needed by constants and simple variables in program. the running time squares. and then combining the solutions. This is the optimal situation for an algorithm that must process n inputs. cutting the size by some constant fraction. This running time commonly occurs in programs that solve a big problem by transforming it into a smaller problem.
T(n) = Θ(h(n)) (pronounced theta). says that the growth rate of T(n) is greater than or equal to (>) that of g(n) 3. is known as analysis of algorithms. 1. 3. which studies efficiency of algorithms. 2. Complexity shall refer to the running time of the algorithm. The field of computer science. says that the growth rate of T(n) is less than or equal (<) that of f(n) 2. says that the growth rate of T(n) is less than the growth rate of p(n) [if T(n) = O(p(n)) and T(n) ≠ Θ (p(n))]. Average Case : The expected value of f(n). called the size of the problem. Rate of Growth Big–Oh (O). T(n) = o(p(n)) (pronounced little oh). T(n) = Ω(g(n)) (pronounced omega). Mostly. T(n) = O(f(n)). says that the growth rate of T(n) equals (=) the growth rate of h(n) [if T(n) = O(h(n)) and T(n) = Ω (h(n)] 4. Big–Omega (Ω). the storage space required by an algorithm is simply a multiple of the data size ‘n’. of Information Technology .1.10. depends not only on the size ‘n’ of the input data but also on the particular data. Most often we shall be interested in the rate of growth of the time or space required to solve larger and larger instances of a problem. (pronounced order of or big oh).9. Best Case : The minimum possible value of f(n) is called the best case. Some Examples: 2n2 2n2 2n2 2n2 + + + + 5n 5n 5n 5n – – – – 6 6 6 6 = = = ≠ O(2n) O(n3) O(n2) O(n) 2n2 2n2 2n2 2n2 + + + + 5n 5n 5n 5n – – – – 6 6 6 6 ≠ ≠ = ≠ Θ(2n) Θ(n3) Θ(n2) Θ(n) 2n2 2n2 2n2 2n2 + + + + 5n 5n 5n 5n – – – – 6 6 6 6 ≠ ≠ = = Ω(2n) Ω(n3) Ω(n2) Ω(n) 2n2 2n2 2n2 2n2 + + + + 5n 5n 5n 5n – – – – 6 6 6 6 = = ≠ ≠ o(2n) o(n3) o(n2) o(n) Lecture Notes 9 Dept. gives the running time of an algorithm. which is a measure of the quantity of input data. Big–Theta (Θ) and Little–Oh 1. Algorithms can be evaluated by a variety of criteria. The function f(n). Worst Case : The maximum value of f(n) for any key possible input. Complexity of Algorithms The complexity of an algorithm M is the function f(n) which gives the running time and/or storage space requirement of the algorithm in terms of the size ‘n’ of the input data. The complexity function f(n) for certain cases are: 1. We will associate with the problem an integer.
Analyzing Algorithms Suppose ‘M’ is an algorithm. This is usually done by comparing f(n) with some standard functions.1. O(n. 2n. n2. O(n). O(2n). log n n2 n3 2n 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 4 8 4 3 2 4 8 16 64 16 4 3 8 24 64 512 256 5 4 16 64 256 4096 65536 Graph of log n. O(n2). It is usually the rate of increase of f(n) we want to examine. of Information Technology . To simplify the analysis. O(log2 n). Thus we throw away leading constants.No log n n n. n! and nn Numerical Comparison of Different Algorithms The execution time for six of the typical functions is given below: S. Lecture Notes 10 Dept. n! and nn O(log n) does not depend on the base of the logarithm. We will also throw away low–order terms while computing a Big–Oh running time.11. n3. log2 n). The most common computing times are: O(1). n log n. and suppose ‘n’ is the size of the input data. the answer provided is a guarantee that the program will terminate within a certain time period. The program may stop earlier than this. Since BigOh is an upper bound. the convention will not have any particular units of time. O(n3). n. but never later. Clearly the complexity f(n) of M increases as n increases.
Define worst case of an algorithm. Define algorithm. State the various steps in developing algorithms? 3. as the size of the input increases. Therefore. the program with running time 5n3 will be faster those the one with running time 100 n2. 2. 9. 4. as ‘n’ gets large. State the various methods to estimate the efficiency of an algorithm. 6. The low growth rate function’s such as O(n) or O(n log n) are always better. 8. Then. with constants by proportionality neglected. For example. Exercises 1. if the program is to be run mainly on inputs of small size. While the second taken 5n3 milliseconds.One way to compare the function f(n) with these standard function is to use the functional ‘O’ notation. which is n/20. Define time complexity of an algorithm? 7. if the first program takes 100n2 milliseconds. State the properties of algorithms. of Information Technology . Thus. 5n3 program be better than the 100n2 program. Mention the various spaces utilized by a program. So it is always better to prefer a program whose running time with the lower growth rate. Define best case of an algorithm. the ratio of the running times. 10. Define average case of an algorithm. gets arbitrarily larger. Then might not 5n3 program better than 100n2 program? As the programs can be evaluated by comparing their running time functions. suppose f(n) and g(n) are functions defined on the positive integers with the property that f(n) is bounded by some multiple g(n) for almost all ‘n’. we would indeed prefer the program whose running time was O(n3) However. Define efficiency of an algorithm? 5. the order of complexity for: • • • • Linear search is O(n) Binary search is O(log n) Bubble sort is O(n2) Quick sort is O(n log n) For example. f(n) = O(g(n)) Which is read as “f(n) is of order g(n)”. So. 5 n3/100 n2 = n/20 for inputs n < 20. the O(n3) program will take significantly more time than the O(n2) program. Lecture Notes 11 Dept.
Dynamic Programming ______ is used to define the worstcase running time of an algorithm. B. 12. Pseudocode D. Divide and Conquer D. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Algorithm B. Natural Language C. [ C ] [ A ] A. _____ is a stepbystep recipe for solving an instance of problem. Analysis Lecture Notes 12 Dept. Define space complexity of an algorithm. Complexity D.11. A. Complexity C. Space Complexity 5. Dynamic Programming C. Time Complexity D. Cannot be defined C. ______ is used to describe the algorithm. A. ______ of a program is the amount of memory used at once by the algorithm until it completes its execution. Cannot be defined B. Divide and Conquer C. Analysis [ A ] 2. None [ C ] 3. BigOh notation B. A. State the different memory spaces occupied by an algorithm. A. Space Complexity B. ______ of an algorithm is the amount of time (or the number of steps) needed by a program to complete its task. Time Complexity [ D ] 4. in less formal language. Pseudocode D. of Information Technology .
if (n == 0) return (1).Chapter 2 Recursion Recursion is deceptively simple in statement but exceptionally complicated in implementation. fact. But using it is one thing and getting involved with it is another. Recursion is the process of defining something in terms of itself. if (n == 0) Lecture Notes 13 Dept. For example. num.h> int factorial (int). #include <stdio. else result = n * factorial (n1). 2. scanf (“%d”. a function must be able to call itself. A nonrecursive or iterative version for finding the factorial is as follows: factorial (int n) { int i. } int factorial (int n) { int result. Introduction to Recursion: A function is recursive if a statement in the body of the function calls itself. result = 1. Recursive procedures work fine in many problems. of Information Technology . main() { int num. which computers the factorial of an integer. fact = factorial (num). In this unit we will look at “recursion” as a programmer who not only loves it but also wants to understand it! With a bit of involvement it is going to be an interesting reading for you. let us consider the function factr() shown below. For a computer language to be recursive. } return (result). It is because recursion is elegant to use through it is costly in terms of time and space. Many programmers prefer recursion through simpler alternatives are available. fact). &num). printf (“Enter a positive integer value: "). printf ("\n Factorial of %d =%5d\n".1.
0 ! = 1 n > 0.3. 5). Recursion causes another copy of the function and hence a considerable memory space’s occupied. Differences between recursion and iteration: • • • Both involve repetition. i<=n. i++) result = result * i. new local variables and parameters are allocated storage on the stack and the function code is executed with these new variables from the start. } return (result). Iteration normally occurs within a loop so the extra memory assigned is omitted. the recursive function will recurse forever until you run out of stack space and indicate error about lack of memory. Recursion achieves repetition through repeated function calls. If you do not have an exit condition. the old local variables and parameters are removed from the stack and execution resumes at the point of the function call inside the function. 2. of Information Technology . else { for (i=1. } The operation of the nonrecursive version is clear as it uses a loop starting at 1 and ending at the target value and progressively multiplies each number by the moving product. When writing recursive functions. Both can occur infinitely. Recursion terminates when a base case is recognized. A recursive call does not make a new copy of the function. Factorial of a given number: The operation of recursive factorial function is as follows: Start out with some natural number N (in our example. The recursive definition is: n = 0. Only the arguments and variables are new.2. It increases the processor’s operating time.return (result).1) ! Lecture Notes Base Case Recursive Case 14 Dept. you must have a exit condition somewhere to force the function to return without the recursive call being executed. n ! = n * (n . Iteration Recursion Iteration explicitly user a repetition structure. Recursion keeps producing simple versions of the original problem until the base case is reached. Both involve a termination test. As each recursive call returns. 2. Iteration terminates when the loop continuation. It reduces the processor’s operating time. or stack overflow. Iteration keeps modifying the counter until the loop continuation condition fails. When a function calls itself.
to be N * factorial (N1). FUNCTION: Does N = 0? No Function Return Value = 2 * factorial (1) At this time. that is a state when it does not recurse upon itself. All recursive functions must have an exit condition. the function factorial is called again. here is what happens: FUNCTION: Does N = 0? No Function Return Value = 5 * factorial (4) At this time. FUNCTION: Does N = 0? No Function Return Value = 3 * factorial (2) At this time. the function factorial is called again. N = 5.Recursion Factorials: 5! =5 * 4! = 5 *___ = ____ factr(5) = 5 * factr(4) = __ 4! = 4 *3! = 4 *___ = ___ factr(4) = 4 * factr(3) = __ 3! = 3 * 2! = 3 * ___ = ___ 2! = 2 * 1! = 2 * ___ = ___ factr(3) = 3 * factr(2) = __ factr(2) = 2 * factr(1) = __ 1! = 1 * 0! = 1 * __ = __ factr(1) = 1 * factr(0) = __ 0! = 1 factr(0) = __ 5! = 5*4! = 5*4*3! = 5*4*3*2! = 5*4*3*2*1! = 5*4*3*2*1*0! = 5*4*3*2*1*1 =120 We define 0! to equal 1. with N = 0. with N = 3. of Information Technology . with N = 4. with N = 2. the function factorial is called again. the function factorial is called again. Tracing of the flow of the factorial () function: When the factorial function is first called with. FUNCTION: Does N = 0? Yes Function Return Value = 1 Lecture Notes 15 Dept. FUNCTION: Does N = 0? No Function Return Value = 4 * factorial (3) At this time. with N = 1. FUNCTION: Does N = 0? No Function Return Value = 1 * factorial (0) At this time. the function factorial is called again. Our exit condition in this example is when N = 0. and we define factorial N (where N > 0). say.
5. and 3. illustrates the initial setup of towers of Hanoi. At any function level call. Figure 3. or 2 was returned. and disk 3 has diameter 3. The game starts with n disks on tower A. The disks are numbered from 1 to 3. The next higher function call.2.Now. once the final call returns 0. And since N = 5 was the first function call (hence the last one to be recalled). The rules to be followed in moving the disks from tower 1 tower 3 using tower 2 are as follows: • • • Only one disk can be moved at a time. let n is 3. All three disks start on tower A in the order 1. all function level calls above still exist! So. 3. 24. That is. Only the top disc on any tower can be moved to any other tower. 6.1. or 120 was returned. the factorial function was called six times. So. 2. 2. 2. 1. You just keep working up the chain. the function instances where N = 3. disk 2 has diameter 2. when we have N = 2.11. The objective of the game is to move all the disks in tower 1 to entire tower 3 using tower 2. I n it i a l s et u p of T o w er s of Ha n o i Lecture Notes 16 Dept. The figure 3. 3. of Information Technology . the function call where N = 1 returns 1*1. or 6 was returned. we have to trace our way back up! See. For simplicity. the value 120 is returned. 1 1. disk 1 has diameter 1 (in some unit of measure). and 5 are still waiting for their return values. 3. where N = 2. the function call where N = 1 gets retraced first. illustrates the final setup of towers of Hanoi.4. The Towers of Hanoi: In the game of Towers of Hanoi. at no time can a larger disk be placed on a smaller disk. or 1. returns 2 * 1 (1. 4. because that's what the function call where N = 1 returned). That is.11. So. or 24 was returned. T o w er 1 T o w er 2 T o w er 3 F i g. 2. 4. When When When When N N N N = = = = 2. A larger disk cannot be placed on a smaller disk. there are three towers labeled 1. and without loss of generality we may assume that the diameter of each disk is the same as its number. 2 3 4 5 * * * * 1.
T o w er 1 T o w er 2 T o w er 3 F i g 3. of Information Technology . char *b. b).&n). } void towers_of_hanoi (int n. return. 2. cnt. 1 1. "Tower 3"). char *c). n. we move the remaining n – 1 disks to tower 2 and then move the largest disk to tower 3. } } Lecture Notes 17 Dept. towers_of_hanoi (n1. int main (void) { int n. cnt. a. a. Now we have the remaining n – 1 disks to be moved to tower 3. return. To move the largest disk to the bottom of tower 3.h> #include <conio. char *b.h> void towers_of_hanoi (int n. char *a. c. ++cnt. since the disk placed on tower 3 is the largest disk and continue the same operation to place the entire disks in tower 3 in order. int cnt=0. c). c). This can be achieved by using the remaining two towers. scanf("%d". } else { towers_of_hanoi (n1. char *c) { if (n == 1) { ++cnt. F i n a l s et u p of T o w er s of Ha n o i The towers of Hanoi problem can be easily implemented using recursion. a. char *a. towers_of_hanoi (n. The program that uses recursion to produce a list of moves that shows how to accomplish the task of transferring the n disks from tower 1 to tower 3 is as follows: #include <stdio. printf ("\n%5d: Move disk %d from %s to %s". a. c). printf("Enter number of discs: "). printf ("\n%5d: Move disk 1 from %s to %s". "Tower 1". "Tower 2". b. getch(). We can also use tower 3 to place any disk on it.
13: Move disk 1 from tower 1 to tower 2. 8: Move disk 4 from tower 1 to tower 3. 11: Move disk 1 from tower 3 to tower 1. 10: Move disk 2 from tower 2 to tower 1. 14: Move disk 2 from tower 1 to tower 3. . The sequence of Fibonacci integers is given below: 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 . 7: Move disk 1 from tower 1 to tower 3.5. For example. 3: Move disk 1 from tower 2 to tower 3. . 9: Move disk 1 from tower 2 to tower 3. 12: Move disk 3 from tower 2 to tower 3. Fibonacci Sequence Problem: A Fibonacci sequence starts with the integers 0 and 1. 15: Move disk 1 from tower 2 to tower 3. 2: Move disk 2 from tower 1 to tower 3. fifth number is 1 + 2 = 3 and so on. 6: Move disk 2 from tower 3 to tower 2. 3: Move disk 1 from tower 3 to tower 2. 2: Move disk 2 from tower 1 to tower 2. of Information Technology . 6: Move disk 2 from tower 2 to tower 3. fourth number is 1 + 1= 2. . 5: Move disk 1 from tower 3 to tower 1.Output of the program: RUN 1: Enter the number of discs: 3 1: Move disk 1 from tower 1 to tower 3. 5: Move disk 1 from tower 2 to tower 1. . . 7: Move disk 1 from tower 1 to tower 2. RUN 2: Enter the number of discs: 4 1: Move disk 1 from tower 1 to tower 2. 4: Move disk 3 from tower 1 to tower 3. . . 2. Successive elements in this sequence are obtained by summing the preceding two elements in the sequence. third number in the sequence is 0 + 1 = 1. Lecture Notes 18 Dept. . 4: Move disk 3 from tower 1 to tower 2.
A recursive function to compute the Fibonacci number in the nth position is given below: main() { } fib(n) int n. int x. and fib(3). printf (“=nfib(5) is %d”. 2 times in the above calculations.A recursive definition for the Fibonacci sequence of integers may be defined as follows: Fib (n) = n if n = 0 or n = 1 Fib (n) = fib (n1) + fib (n2) for n >=2 We will now use the definition to compute fib(5): fib(5) = fib(4) + fib(3) fib(3) + fib(2) + fib(3) fib(2) + fib(1) + fib(2) + fib(3) fib(1) + fib(0) + fib(1) + fib(2) + fib(3) 1 + 0 + 1 + fib(1) + fib(0) + fib(3) 1 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 0 + fib(2) + fib(1) 1 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 0 + fib(1) + fib(0) + fib(1) 1+0 +1 +1+0 +1 +0 +1 =5 We see that fib(2) is computed 3 times. { clrscr (). x=fib(n1) + fib(n2). We save the values of fib(2) or fib(3) and reuse them whenever needed. return (x). fib(5)). if (n==0   n==1) return n. } Output: fib(5) is 5 Lecture Notes 19 Dept. of Information Technology .
printf (“Enter the limit: “). r. } float ncr (int n. status. void main() { int n.2. prime. for (i = 0.00 2. result). &n). printf (“The least common multiple is %ld”.0 / r * ncr (n1. int r) { if(r == 0) return 1. r1)).7. k < n. result = ncr(n. printf(“The NCR value is %. scanf(“%d”. int r). else return(n * 1. long int lcm(int a[]. &n. 2)). printf (“Enter the numbers : “). void main() { int a[20]. &a[i]). printf(“Enter the value of N and R :”). r). Program using recursion to calculate the NCR of a given number: #include<stdio. int prime). for (k = 0. result. } Output: Enter the value of N and R: 5 The NCR value is: 10. &r). i. lcm(a. } Lecture Notes 20 Dept. n. k++) if (a[k] != 1) return 0. } int alone (int a[]. int n). i < n. int n).3f”. { int k. of Information Technology . scanf(“%d %d”. 2 Program to calculate the least common multiple of a given number: #include<stdio. i++) scanf(“%d”. return 1.h> int alone(int a[]. n. int n.h> float ncr (int n.6.
i < n. if (allone(a. long int gcd (int a[]. } Output: Enter the limit: 6 Enter the numbers: 6 5 4 3 2 1 The least common multiple is 60 2. for (i = 0. int n. status = 0. gcd (a. n)) return 1. stat. return 0. i ++) scanf (“%d”. prime = (prime == 2) ? prime+1 : prime+2)). i++) if ((a[i] % prime) == 0) { status = 1. void main() { int a[20]. printf (“Enter the limit: “). 2)). i. prime.8. int n. n. &a[i]). n. printf (“The greatest common divisor is %ld”. &n). Program to calculate the greatest common divisor: #include<stdio. printf (“Enter the numbers: “). n. for (i = 0. i < n. int prime) { int i.h> int check_limit (int a[]. of Information Technology . else return (lcm (a. for (i = 0. } if (status == 1) return (prime * lcm(a. int prime). } int check_limit (int a[]. i++) if (prime > a[i]) return 1. prime)). n.long int lcm (int a[]. i < n. int check_all (int a[]. int n. int n. int n. } Lecture Notes 21 Dept. int prime). int prime). int prime) { int i. a[i] = a[i] / prime. scanf (“%d”. status.
int prime) { int i. n. else return (gcd (a. prime)) return 1. Note that the output for n always consists of the output for n1. for (i = 0. Write a function using Recursion to print numbers from n to 0. int n. if (check_limit(a. The function will write 2^n1 integers (where ^ is the exponentiation operation). Which method is preferable in general? a) Recursive method b) Nonrecursive method 5. return 1. int n. prime = (prime == 2) ? prime+1 : prime+2)). Write a recursive function for the mathematical function: f(n) = 1 if n = 1 f(n) = 2 * f(n1) if n >= 2 4. i < n.int check_all (int a[]. prime)) return (prime * gcd (a. followed by n itself. int prime) { int i. followed by a second copy of the output for n1. i++) if ((a[i] % prime) != 0) return 0. Write a function using Recursion to enter and display a string in reverse and state whether the string contains any spaces. } Output: Enter the limit: 5 Enter the numbers: 99 55 22 The greatest common divisor is 11 77 121 Exercises 1. i++) a[i] = a[i] / prime. n. prime)). } long int gcd (int a[]. Lecture Notes 22 Dept. n. for (i = 0. i < n. n. Here are the patterns of output for various values of n: n=1: n=2: n=3: n=4: Output Output Output Output is: is: is: is: 1 121 1213121 121312141213121 And so on. 3. of Information Technology . Don't use arrays/strings. 6. What is the importance of the stopping case in recursive functions? 2. Write a function with one positive integer parameter called n. if (check_all (a.
super_write_vertical(0) C. n (where n is the argument) D. There is no fixed maximum [ ] 3. number > 10 [ ] 4. The function should return the depth at which the space was encountered. super_write_vertical(100) D. } else if (number < 10) printf(“%d\n”. super_write_vertical (abs(number)).”).”). printf(“%d\n”. Write a function using Recursion to check if a number n is prime. number). 1 B. super_write_vertical(1023) B. super_write_vertical(1023) [ ] Lecture Notes 23 Dept. Consider the following function: void super_write_vertical(int number) { if (number < 0) { printf(“ . printf(“%d\n”. (You have to check whether n is divisible by any number below n) 8. number < 0 B. 1 B. Multiple Choice Questions 1. number % 10). 2 C. } else if (number < 10) printf(“%d\n”. number < 10 C. Write a function using Recursion to enter characters one by one until a space is encountered. else { super_write_vertical(number/10). } } Which call will result in the most recursive calls? A. what is the maximum number of statements that may be recursive calls? A. There is no fixed maximum [ ] 2. Consider the following function: void super_write_vertical (int number) { if (number < 0) { printf(“ . In a single function declaration. else { super_write_vertical(number/10). n (where n is the argument) D. super_write_vertical(abs(number)). number % 10). of Information Technology . number >= 0 && number < 10 D. What is the maximum depth of recursive calls a function may make? A.7. number). } } What values of number are directly handled by the stopping case? A. 2 C.
B. The operating system detects the infinite recursion because of the "repeated state" B.5. which information is not saved in the activation record? A. halting the program [ ] 7. The results are nondeterministic D. quiz(i / 2). Mathematical induction. Location where the function should return when done. Consider this function declaration: [ ] void quiz (int i) { if (i > 1) { quiz(i / 2). Current depth of recursion. 3 B. The program keeps running until you press CtrlC C. } printf(“ * ”). C. } How many asterisks are printed by the function call quiz(5)? A. D. What technique is often used to prove the correctness of a recursive function? A. 8 6. Parameters are all treated as value arguments C. B. There is no duplication of local variables D. D. Local variables [ ] 9. C. 7 D. Communitivity. The runtime stack overflows. In a real computer. Formal parameters. of Information Technology . When a function call is executed. Matrix Multiplication. Parameters are all treated as reference arguments B. Diagonalization. what will happen if you make a recursive call without making the problem smaller? A. None of the above [ ] 8. When the compiler compiles your program. [ ] Lecture Notes 24 Dept. 4 C. how is a recursive call treated differently than a nonrecursive function call? A.
malloc() returns NULL if it cannot fulfill the request. However. int *ip. Here is a quick review of the terminology and rules of pointers. double linked lists and lists with header nodes. queues etc. The linked list code will depend on the following functions: malloc() is a system function which allocates a block of memory in the "heap" and returns a pointer to the new block. which seems "large enough" than required. We can also use the sizeof() function to specify the number of bytes.h. Generally array's allocates the memory for all its elements in one block whereas linked lists use an entirely different strategy. but they happen to be strong where arrays are weak. The disadvantages of arrays are: • The size of the array is fixed. • Deleting an element from an array is not possible. Linked lists have their own strengths and weaknesses. the list data structure is presented.). Once the array is set up. access to any element is convenient and fast. Lecture Notes 25 Dept. This structure can be used as the basis for the implementation of other data structures (stacks. Linked lists allocate memory for each element separately and only when necessary. of Information Technology . For example. Arrays are convenient to declare and provide the easy syntax to access any element by its index number. The basic linked list can be used without modification in many programs.Chapter 3 LINKED LISTS In this chapter. Attempts to get 100 bytes and assigns the starting address to cp. This makes the programmers to allocate arrays. Linked lists and arrays are similar since they both store collections of data. char *cp. These enhancements fall into three broad categories and yield variations on linked lists that can be used in any combination: circular linked lists. Array is the most common data structure used to store collections of elements. ip = (int *) malloc (100*sizeof(int)). For example. some applications require enhancements to the linked list design. cp = (char *) malloc (100). • Inserting new elements at the front is potentially expensive because existing elements need to be shifted over to make room. The prototype of malloc() and other heap functions are in stdlib. It is defined by: void *malloc (number_of_bytes) Since a void * is returned the C standard states that this pointer can be converted to any type. Most often this size is specified at compile time.
free() is the opposite of malloc(), which deallocates memory. The argument to free()
is a pointer to a block of memory in the heap — a pointer which was obtained by a
malloc() function. The syntax is:
free (ptr);
The advantage of free() is simply memory management when we no longer need a
block.
3.1.
Linked List Concepts:
A linked list is a nonsequential collection of data items. It is a dynamic data structure.
For every data item in a linked list, there is an associated pointer that would give the
memory location of the next data item in the linked list.
The data items in the linked list are not in consecutive memory locations. They may be
anywhere, but the accessing of these data items is easier as each data item contains
the address of the next data item.
Advantages of linked lists:
Linked lists have many advantages. Some of the very important advantages are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Linked lists are dynamic data structures. i.e., they can grow or shrink during
the execution of a program.
Linked lists have efficient memory utilization. Here, memory is not preallocated. Memory is allocated whenever it is required and it is deallocated
(removed) when it is no longer needed.
Insertion and Deletions are easier and efficient. Linked lists provide flexibility
in inserting a data item at a specified position and deletion of the data item
from the given position.
Many complex applications can be easily carried out with linked lists.
Disadvantages of linked lists:
1.
2.
3.2.
It consumes more space because every node requires a additional pointer to
store address of the next node.
Searching a particular element in list is difficult and also time consuming.
Types of Linked Lists:
Basically we can put linked lists into the following four items:
1.
Single Linked List.
2.
Double Linked List.
3.
Circular Linked List.
4.
Circular Double Linked List.
A single linked list is one in which all nodes are linked together in some sequential
manner. Hence, it is also called as linear linked list.
Lecture Notes
26
Dept. of Information Technology
A double linked list is one in which all nodes are linked together by multiple links which
helps in accessing both the successor node (next node) and predecessor node
(previous node) from any arbitrary node within the list. Therefore each node in a
double linked list has two link fields (pointers) to point to the left node (previous) and
the right node (next). This helps to traverse in forward direction and backward
direction.
A circular linked list is one, which has no beginning and no end. A single linked list can
be made a circular linked list by simply storing address of the very first node in the link
field of the last node.
A circular double linked list is one, which has both the successor pointer and
predecessor pointer in the circular manner.
Comparison between array and linked list:
ARRAY
LINKED LIST
Size of an array is fixed
Size of a list is not fixed
Memory is allocated from stack
Memory is allocated from heap
It is necessary to specify the number of
elements during declaration (i.e., during
compile time).
It is not necessary to specify the
number of elements during declaration
(i.e., memory is allocated during run
time).
It occupies more memory.
It occupies less memory than a linked
list for the same number of elements.
Inserting new elements at the front is
potentially expensive because existing
elements need to be shifted over to
make room.
Deleting an element from an array is
not possible.
Inserting a new element at any position
can be carried out easily.
Deleting an element is possible.
Trade offs between linked lists and arrays:
FEATURE
ARRAYS
LINKED LISTS
Sequential access
efficient
efficient
Random access
efficient
inefficient
Resigning
inefficient
efficient
Element rearranging
inefficient
efficient
Overhead per elements
none
1 or 2 links
Lecture Notes
27
Dept. of Information Technology
Applications of linked list:
1.
Linked lists are used to represent and manipulate polynomial. Polynomials are
expression containing terms with non zero coefficient and exponents. For
example:
P(x) = a0 Xn + a1 Xn1 + …… + an1 X + an
2.
Represent very large numbers and operations of the large number such as
addition, multiplication and division.
3.
Linked lists are to implement stack, queue, trees and graphs.
4.
Implement the symbol table in compiler construction
3.3.
Single Linked List:
A linked list allocates space for each element separately in its own block of memory
called a "node". The list gets an overall structure by using pointers to connect all its
nodes together like the links in a chain. Each node contains two fields; a "data" field to
store whatever element, and a "next" field which is a pointer used to link to the next
node. Each node is allocated in the heap using malloc(), so the node memory
continues to exist until it is explicitly deallocated using free(). The front of the list is a
pointer to the “start” node.
A single linked list is shown in figure 3.2.1.
STACK
HEAP
100
start
The start
pointer holds
the address
of the first
node of the
list.
10
200
100
Each node stores
the data.
20
300
200
30
300
Stores the next
node address.
400
40
X
400
The next field of the
last node is NULL.
Figure 3.2.1. Single Linked List
The beginning of the linked list is stored in a "start" pointer which points to the first
node. The first node contains a pointer to the second node. The second node contains a
pointer to the third node, ... and so on. The last node in the list has its next field set to
NULL to mark the end of the list. Code can access any node in the list by starting at the
start and following the next pointers.
The start pointer is an ordinary local pointer variable, so it is drawn separately on the
left top to show that it is in the stack. The list nodes are drawn on the right to show
that they are allocated in the heap.
Lecture Notes
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Dept. of Information Technology
Implementation of Single Linked List:
Before writing the code to build the above list, we need to create a start node, used to
create and access other nodes in the linked list. The following structure definition will
do (see figure 3.2.2):
•
Creating a structure with one data item and a next pointer, which will be
pointing to next node of the list. This is called as selfreferential structure.
•
Initialise the start pointer to be NULL.
struct slinklist
{
int data;
struct slinklist* next;
};
node:
data
typedef struct slinklist node;
next
start
Empty list:
node *start = NULL;
NULL
Figure 3.2.2. Structure definition, single link node and empty list
The basic operations in a single linked list are:
•
Creation.
•
Insertion.
•
Deletion.
•
Traversing.
Creating a node for Single Linked List:
Creating a singly linked list starts with creating a node. Sufficient memory has to be
allocated for creating a node. The information is stored in the memory, allocated by
using the malloc() function. The function getnode(), is used for creating a node, after
allocating memory for the structure of type node, the information for the item (i.e.,
data) has to be read from the user, set next field to NULL and finally returns the
address of the node. Figure 3.2.3 illustrates the creation of a node for single linked list.
node* getnode()
{
node* newnode;
newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node));
printf("\n Enter data: ");
scanf("%d", &newnode > data);
newnode > next = NULL;
return newnode;
}
newnode
10
X
100
Figure 3.2.3. new node with a value of 10
Lecture Notes
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Dept. of Information Technology
i < n . Single Linked List with 4 nodes The function createlist().Creating a Singly Linked List with ‘n’ number of nodes: The following steps are to be followed to create ‘n’ number of nodes: • Get the new node using getnode(). } } } Lecture Notes 30 Dept. • The start pointer is made to point the new node by assigning the address of the new node.> ne xt = ne w no d e. start node) in the list by assigning the address of the first node. of Information Technology . start 100 10 100 200 20 300 200 30 400 300 40 X 400 Figure 3. no d e *t e m p . is used to create ‘n’ number of nodes: vo id c r e at e list( int n) { int i. newnode = getnode(). w hile(t e m p .4 shows 4 items in a single linked list stored at different locations in memory.e. Figure 3. • If the list is empty. follow the steps given below: • • The next field of the new node is made to point the first node (i. assign new node as start.4.> ne xt ! = N U L L) te m p = t e m p . Repeat the above steps ‘n’ times. te m p . if(st a rt = = N U L L) { sta rt = ne w no d e.2. fo r( i = 0. no d e * ne w no d e. } e ls e { te m p = st a rt.> ne xt.2. • If the list is not empty. start = newnode. i+ + ) { ne w no d e = g et no d e().
start 500 10 100 5 200 20 300 200 30 400 300 40 X 400 100 500 Figure 3. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode.2. start = newnode. • If the list is not empty.5. Figure 3. start = newnode. The new node can then be inserted at three different places namely: • Inserting a node at the beginning. • If the list is empty then start = newnode. is used for inserting a node at the beginning void insert_at_beg() { node *newnode.5 shows inserting a node into the single linked list at the beginning. newnode = getnode(). follow the steps given below: newnode > next = start. • Inserting a node at intermediate position. } } Lecture Notes 31 Dept. Inserting a node at the beginning: The following steps are to be followed to insert a new node at the beginning of the list: • Get the new node using getnode(). • Inserting a node at the end. of Information Technology .Insertion of a Node: One of the most primitive operations that can be done in a singly linked list is the insertion of a node. The data field of the new node is then stored with the information read from the user. } else { newnode > next = start. newnode = getnode(). The next field of the new node is assigned to NULL.2. Memory is to be allocated for the new node (in a similar way that is done while creating a list) before reading the data. The new node will contain empty data field and empty next field. Inserting a node at the beginning The function insert_at_beg().
*temp.2. Figure 3. • If the list is not empty follow the steps given below: temp = start. temp > next = newnode. while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. Inserting a node at the end. temp > next = newnode. } else { temp = start. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. of Information Technology .Inserting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to insert a new node at the end of the list: • Get the new node using getnode() newnode = getnode(). start 100 10 100 200 20 300 200 30 40 400 300 500 400 50 X 500 Figure 3. void insert_at_end() { node *newnode. newnode = getnode(). Lecture Notes 32 Dept. is used for inserting a node at the end. • If the list is empty then start = newnode. newnode = getnode().6. while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next.2. } } Inserting a node at intermediate position: The following steps are followed. The function insert_at_end().6 shows inserting a node into the single linked list at the end. to insert a new node in an intermediate position in the list: • Get the new node using getnode().
nodectr.2. specified position is invalid. void insert_at_mid() { node *newnode.7 shows inserting a node into the single linked list at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end. If not. ctr++. *prev. is used for inserting a node in the intermediate position. This is done by countnode() function. follow the steps given below: prev > next = newnode. The function insert_at_mid(). • Let the intermediate position be 3. Then traverse the temp pointer upto the specified position followed by prev pointer. • After reaching the specified position. Inserting a node at an intermediate position. int pos. } } Lecture Notes 33 Dept. } prev > next = newnode. of Information Technology . &pos).7. ctr = 1. } else { printf("position %d is not a middle position". newnode > next = temp. • Store the starting address (which is in start pointer) in temp and prev pointers. Figure 3. newnode > next = temp.2. scanf("%d". newnode = getnode(). start prev temp 100 10 100 200 20 500 200 30 400 300 50 500 40 X 400 300 new node Figure 3.• Ensure that the specified position is in between first node and last node. if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = prev = start. temp = temp > next. pos). printf("\n Enter the position: "). *temp. nodectr = countnode(start). while(ctr < pos) { prev = temp.
start 200 10 temp 100 200 20 300 200 30 400 300 40 X 400 Figure 3. follow the steps given below: temp = start. return .").Deletion of a node: Another primitive operation that can be done in a singly linked list is the deletion of a node. Figure 3. • Deleting a node at the beginning. of Information Technology . • Deleting a node at the end. The function delete_at_beg(). Deleting a node at the beginning. • Deleting a node at intermediate position.8. start = start > next. • If the list is not empty. free(temp). Memory is to be released for the node to be deleted. free(temp).2. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes are exist.. start = temp > next. A node can be deleted from the list from three different places namely. is used for deleting the first node in the list. printf("\n Node deleted "). Deleting a node at the beginning: The following steps are followed. void delete_at_beg() { node *temp.8 shows deleting a node at the beginning of a single linked list.2. } else { temp = start. } } Lecture Notes 34 Dept. to delete a node at the beginning of the list: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.
printf("\n Node deleted "). free(temp). if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List. prev = start. void delete_at_last() { node *temp.Deleting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to delete a node at the end of the list: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.9 shows deleting a node at the end of a single linked list. *prev."). follow the steps given below: temp = prev = start. } prev > next = NULL. Figure 3.9. } } Lecture Notes 35 Dept. temp = temp > next.2. of Information Technology .2. while(temp > next != NULL) { prev = temp. is used for deleting the last node in the list. The function delete_at_last(). return . } prev > next = NULL. temp = temp > next. • If the list is not empty. Deleting a node at the end.. start 100 10 100 200 20 300 200 X 30 300 40 X 400 Figure 3. while(temp > next != NULL) { prev = temp. free(temp). } else { temp = start.
The function delete_at_mid()."). } Lecture Notes 36 Dept. } prev > next = temp > next. node *temp. } Figure 3.10 shows deleting a node at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end from a single linked list. if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = prev = start. &pos).2. free(temp).."). pos. scanf("%d". if(pos > nodectr) { printf("\nThis node doesnot exist"). printf("\n node deleted. Deleting a node at an intermediate position. nodectr = countnode(start). void delete_at_mid() { int ctr = 1. follow the steps given below. to delete a node from an intermediate position in the list (List must contain more than two node). ctr = 1. temp = temp > next. while(ctr < pos) { prev = temp. of Information Technology . return .. *prev. ctr++.10.Deleting a node at Intermediate position: The following steps are followed. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List. • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message • If the list is not empty. is used for deleting the intermediate node in the list. start 100 10 100 300 20 300 200 30 400 300 40 X 400 Figure 3.2. } else { printf("\n Enter position of node to delete: "). nodectr.
getch(). Lecture Notes 37 Dept. free(temp). The function rev_traverse(). temp = temp > next."). temp = start. void traverse() { node *temp.if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = prev = start. } } printf("X"). } Alternatively there is another way to traverse and display the information. printf("\n Node deleted. ctr ++. The function traverse() is used for traversing and displaying the information stored in the list from left to right.. Traversing a list involves the following steps: • Assign the address of start pointer to a temp pointer."). } } } Traversal and displaying a list (Left to Right): To display the information. if(start == NULL ) printf("\n Empty List").. until the end of the list is reached. temp = temp > next. is used for traversing and displaying the information stored in the list from right to left. node by node from the first node. } else { printf("\n Invalid position. printf("\n The contents of List (Left to Right): \n"). } prev > next = temp > next. • Display the information from the data field of each node. of Information Technology . you have to traverse (move) a linked list. temp > data). while(ctr < pos) { prev = temp. else { while (temp != NULL) { printf("%d >". That is in reverse order.
1. printf("\n 7. } 3. printf("\n").Delete a node from Middle"). int co unt no d e( no d e *st) { if(st = = N U L L) r et ur n 0.3.Delete a node from beginning"). int menu() { int ch.Insert a node at middle"). } e ls e { r e v_t r a v e rs e(st . node *start = NULL. Lecture Notes 38 Dept.h> # include <conio.Delete a node from Last"). printf("\n"). printf("\n 6. printf("\n 8.vo id r e v_t r a v e rs e( no d e *st) { if(st = = N U L L) { r et ur n. } } Counting the Number of Nodes: The following code will count the number of nodes exist in the list using recursion.Traverse the list (Right to Left)"). st . clrscr().Traverse the list (Left to Right)").h> # include <stdlib. Source Code for the Implementation of Single Linked List: # include <stdio. printf("\n 3. printf("\n 1. of Information Technology .> ne xt).> d at a). printf("\n 4.> " .> ne xt)). e ls e r et ur n(1 + co unt no d e(st . struct slinklist *next. p r intf(" % d . printf("\n 9. printf("\n 2. typedef struct slinklist node.Create a list ").h> struct slinklist { int data. }. printf("\n").Insert a node at beginning "). printf("\n 5.Insert a node at end").
newnode > next = NULL.printf("\n"). } else { Lecture Notes 39 Dept. node *temp. while(ptr != NULL) { count++. return ch. printf("\n Enter data: "). } else { temp = start. printf("\n\n Enter your choice: "). &newnode > data). node *newnode. scanf("%d". } int countnode(node *ptr) { int count=0. Exit "). if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. printf("\n 11. } } } void traverse() { node *temp. printf("\n The contents of List (Left to Right): \n"). newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)). while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. ptr = ptr > next. temp > next = newnode. for(i = 0. Count nodes "). temp = start. } return (count). } void createlist(int n) { int i. printf("\n 10.&ch). return newnode. return. i++) { newnode = getnode(). of Information Technology . scanf("%d". } node* getnode() { node * newnode. i < n. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List").
newnode = getnode(). temp = temp > next. &pos). int pos.while(temp != NULL) { printf("%d>". } } void insert_at_beg() { node *newnode. } } void insert_at_end() { node *newnode. start = newnode. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. } } void insert_at_mid() { node *newnode. while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. ctr = 1. newnode = getnode(). } else { rev_traverse(start > next). nodectr. printf("\n Enter the position: "). void rev_traverse(node *start) { if(start == NULL) { return. nodectr = countnode(start). } else { temp = start. temp > next = newnode. scanf("%d". start > data). of Information Technology . Lecture Notes 40 Dept. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. printf("%d >". } } } printf(" X "). *prev. newnode = getnode(). } else { newnode > next = start. *temp. *temp. temp > data).
while(ctr < pos) { prev = temp.. } prev > next = newnode. } else { temp = start."). *prev. } } void delete_at_last() { node *temp. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes are exist. ctr++.")."). start = temp > next. return . printf("\n Node deleted ")... *prev. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List. newnode > next = temp. } prev > next = NULL. } else { temp = start. node *temp. } else printf("position %d is not a middle position". free(temp). while(temp > next != NULL) { prev = temp. temp = temp > next. Lecture Notes 41 Dept. free(temp). of Information Technology . pos. } } void delete_at_mid() { int ctr = 1. printf("\n Node deleted "). void delete_at_beg() { node *temp. temp = temp > next.} if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = prev = start. return . pos). prev = start. nodectr.
"). scanf("%d". } void main(void) { int ch. printf("\n List created. break. temp = temp > next.. clrscr(). getch(). printf("\n Node deleted. &pos). if(pos > nodectr) { printf("\nThis node doesnot exist").. } else printf("\n List is already created. } if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = prev = start. while(1) { ch = menu(). &n). n. Lecture Notes 42 Dept. case 3: insert_at_end(). ctr ++. case 2: insert_at_beg(). case 4: insert_at_mid().. break. switch(ch) { case 1: if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Number of nodes you want to create: ").} else { } } return . } else { printf("\n Invalid position. } prev > next = temp > next. break."). free(temp)."). nodectr = countnode(start). of Information Technology . scanf("%d". break.."). createlist(n). while(ctr < pos) { prev = temp. printf("\n Enter position of node to delete: ").
of Information Technology . traverse(). case 10: printf("\n No of nodes : %d ".4. break. } printf("\n The contents of List (Right to Left): \n"). node n can never be the first node in the list. case 9: } 3. printf(" X "). delete_at_last(). Similarly. For example. countnode(start)). break. rev_traverse(start). so there is no need to check for that case. 20 and 30 would be represented using a linked list without and with a header node: sta rt 100 10 200 100 20 300 200 X 30 300 Si n g l e L i n k e d L i st w it h o ut a h e a d er n o d e sta rt 400 100 400 10 200 100 20 300 200 30 X 300 Si n g l e L i n k e d L i st w it h h e a d er n o d e Note that if your linked lists do include a header node. break. case 11 : exit(0). break. the picture below shows how the list with data 10. delete_at_mid(). break. Using a header node: A header node is a special dummy node found at the front of the list. Lecture Notes 43 Dept. break. having a header node can simplify the code that adds a node before a given node n. The use of header node is an alternative to remove the first node in a list. } getch().case 5: case 6: case 7: case 8: delete_at_beg(). there is no need for the special case code given above for the remove operation.
In a standard linked list.Note that if you do decide to use a header node.6. In fact. Many applications require searching forward and backward thru nodes of a list. Each node contains three fields: • • • Left link. Lecture Notes 44 Dept. Deletion. It is also useful when information other than that found in each node of the list is needed. This helps in accessing both successor node and predecessor node from the given node position.5.1. An array based linked list 3.5. The basic operations in a double linked list are: • • • • Creation. you must remember to initialize an empty list to contain one (dummy) node. For example. imagine an application in which the number of items in a list is often calculated. of Information Technology . 3. Insertion. you must remember not to include the header node in the count of "real" nodes in the list. For example searching for a name in a telephone directory would need forward and backward scanning thru a region of the whole list. The data field stores the required data. Double Linked List: A double linked list is a twoway list in which all nodes will have two links. Traversing. Figure 3. Data. if you know the maximum size of a list a head of time. The result is a hybrid structure – an array based linked list. you can preallocate the nodes in a single array. that information can be obtained very quickly. if the current length is maintained in a header node. The left link points to the predecessor node and the right link points to the successor node. Right link. start a 100 a 200 100 b 300 200 c 300 Conceptual structure X b c d Implementation Figure 3. However. the list function to count the number of nodes has to traverse the entire list every time. It provides bidirectional traversing. Array based linked lists: Another alternative is to allocate the nodes in blocks.1 shows an example of null terminated single linked list where all the nodes are allocated contiguously in an array.5.
1.3. after allocating memory for the structure of type node. newnode > right = NULL. data right start Empty list: typedef struct dlinklist node.3.4.4. allocated by using the malloc() function. HEAP Stores the previous node address. node: left }. printf("\n Enter data: "). } newnode X 10 X 100 Figure 3. data) has to be read from the user and set left field to NULL and right field also set to NULL (see figure 3.. Double Linked List The beginning of the double linked list is stored in a "start" pointer which points to the first node.1. the information for the item (i.2). int data. newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)).2. return new node. X 10 200 100 100 20 300 200 200 Stores the data. The following code gives the structure definition: struct dlinklist { struct dlinklist *left. The information is stored in the memory. new node with a value of 10 Lecture Notes 45 Dept. The function getnode(). STACK 100 start The start pointer holds the address of the first node of the list. The right field of the last node is NULL. X 30 300 Stores the next node address.A double linked list is shown in figure 3. Sufficient memory has to be allocated for creating a node. node* getnode() { node* new node. node *start = NULL. newnode > left = NULL. Figure 3. is used for creating a node.e. &newnode > data). of Information Technology . scanf("%d".1. double link node and empty list Creating a node for Double Linked List: Creating a double linked list starts with creating a node. The first node’s left link and last node’s right link is set to NULL. Structure definition. NULL Figure 3.2. struct dlinklist *right.
i < n. of Information Technology . start 100 X 100 10 200 100 20 300 200 200 30 X 300 Figure 3. • If the list is not empty. if(st a rt = = N U L L) { sta rt = ne w no d e. no d e *t e m p . w hile(t e m p .4. Double Linked List with 3 nodes Lecture Notes 46 Dept.> r ig ht) te m p = t e m p . } } } Figure 3. is used to create ‘n’ number of nodes: vo id c r e at e list( int n) { int i. fo r( i = 0. no d e * ne w no d e.3 shows 3 items in a double linked list stored at different locations.Creating a Double Linked List with ‘n’ number of nodes: The following steps are to be followed to create ‘n’ number of nodes: • Get the new node using getnode(). ne w no d e . i+ + ) { ne w no d e = g et no d e(). • If the list is empty then start = newnode. newnode =getnode(). follow the steps given below: • • The left field of the new node is made to point the previous node.4. te m p .> r ig ht = ne w no d e.3.> r ig ht. } e ls e { te m p = st a rt.> left = t e m p . The function createlist(). Repeat the above steps ‘n’ times. • The previous nodes right field must be assigned with address of the new node.
Inserting a node at the beginning: The following steps are to be followed to insert a new node at the beginning of the list: • Get the new node using getnode(). • If the list is not empty follow the steps given below: temp = start. The function dbl_insert_beg(). while(temp > right != NULL) temp = temp > right.4 shows inserting a node into the double linked list at the beginning. Inserting a node at the beginning Inserting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to insert a new node at the end of the list: • Get the new node using getnode() newnode=getnode().4. start = newnode. is used for inserting a node at the beginning.4. The function dbl_insert_end(). • If the list is empty then start = newnode. is used for inserting a node at the end. start 400 400 10 200 100 X 40 100 20 300 200 200 30 X 300 100 400 Figure 3. newnode > left = temp. of Information Technology . newnode=getnode().4. Figure 3. start > left = newnode. Lecture Notes 47 Dept. follow the steps given below: newnode > right = start.5 shows inserting a node into the double linked list at the end.4. Figure 3. • If the list is not empty. • If the list is empty then start = newnode. temp > right = newnode.
start 100 100 400 X 10 400 40 200 400 20 300 200 100 200 30 X 300 Figure 3. is used for inserting a node in the intermediate position.6 shows inserting a node into the double linked list at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end.6.start 100 X 10 200 100 100 20 300 200 200 30 400 40 X 300 300 400 Figure 3. The function dbl_insert_mid(). temp > right > left = newnode. • After reaching the specified position. of Information Technology . This is done by countnode() function. follow the steps given below: newnode > left = temp. newnode > right = temp > right. Then traverse the temp pointer upto the specified position followed by prev pointer. • Store the starting address (which is in start pointer) in temp and prev pointers.5.4. Inserting a node at an intermediate position Lecture Notes 48 Dept. • Ensure that the specified position is in between first node and last node. Inserting a node at the end Inserting a node at an intermediate position: The following steps are followed. If not.4. newnode=getnode(). to insert a new node in an intermediate position in the list: • Get the new node using getnode().4. temp > right = newnode. specified position is invalid. Figure 3.
free(temp). • If the list is not empty.4. of Information Technology . free(temp).4.7 shows deleting a node at the end of a double linked list. is used for deleting the last node in the list. start = start > right.4. } temp > left > right = NULL.6. to delete a node at the beginning of the list: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.7. start 100 X 100 10 200 100 20 X 200 200 30 X 300 Figure 3. while(temp > right != NULL) { temp = temp > right. start > left = NULL. follow the steps given below: temp = start. Figure 3. Figure 3. The function dbl_delete_last(). Deleting a node at the end Lecture Notes 49 Dept. follow the steps given below: temp = start. start 200 X 10 200 100 X 20 200 300 200 30 X 300 Figure 3.6 shows deleting a node at the beginning of a double linked list.4.Deleting a node at the beginning: The following steps are followed. Deleting a node at beginning Deleting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to delete a node at the end of the list: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message • If the list is not empty. The function dbl_delete_beg(). is used for deleting the first node in the list.
• Then perform the following steps: if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. you have to traverse the list. If not. follow the steps given below: • Get the position of the node to delete. is used for deleting the intermediate node in the list. specified position is invalid.8 Deleting a node at an intermediate position Traversal and displaying a list (Left to Right): To display the information.4. } The function delete_at_mid(). The function traverse_left_right() is used for traversing and displaying the information stored in the list from left to right. until the end of the list is reached. • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message. while(i < pos) { temp = temp > right. The following steps are followed. • If the list is not empty. node by node from the first node. • Ensure that the specified position is in between first node and last node. to delete a node from an intermediate position in the list (List must contain more than two nodes). i++. • If the list is not empty. follow the steps given below: Lecture Notes 50 Dept. printf("\n node deleted. i = 1. Figure 3. start 100 X 100 10 300 100 20 300 200 100 30 X 300 Figure 3..Deleting a node at Intermediate position: The following steps are followed. temp > left > right = temp > right."). free(temp).8 shows deleting a node at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end from a double linked list. to traverse a list from left to right: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.4. of Information Technology . } temp > right > left = temp > left.
while(temp != NULL) { print temp > data. }. typedef struct dlinklist node. temp = temp > left. e ls e r et ur n(1 + co unt no d e(st a rt . while(temp > right != NULL) temp = temp > right. } Counting the Number of Nodes: The following code will count the number of nodes exist in the list (using recursion). node *start = NULL.5. until the end of the list is reached. A Complete Source Code for the Implementation of Double Linked List: #include <stdio. int data. } 3. follow the steps given below: temp = start.h> #include <conio. of Information Technology . struct dlinklist *right.> r ig ht )). temp = temp > right. int co unt no d e( no d e *st a rt) { if(st a rt = = N U L L) r et ur n 0. } Traversal and displaying a list (Right to Left): To display the information from right to left. • If the list is not empty. to traverse a list from right to left: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.h> struct dlinklist { struct dlinklist *left. The following steps are followed.h> #include <stdlib. Lecture Notes 51 Dept. node by node from the first node. while(temp != NULL) { print temp > data. you have to traverse the list.temp = start. The function traverse_right_left() is used for traversing and displaying the information stored in the list from right to left.
printf("\n 2. i < n. printf("\n"). printf("\n 3. printf("\n 11. else { temp = start. Traverse the list from Left to Right "). printf("\n"). scanf("%d". printf("\n Enter data: ").Create"). Insert a node at middle"). } void createlist(int n) { int i.Exit "). } int menu() { int ch. Delete a node from Middle"). printf("\n 6. of Information Technology . printf("\n 7. newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)). } } } Lecture Notes 52 Dept. Delete a node from beginning"). node *newnode. clrscr(). &newnode > data). node *temp. Insert a node at beginning "). scanf("%d". while(temp > right) temp = temp > right. } int countnode(node *start) { if(start == NULL) return 0. i++) { newnode = getnode(). Traverse the list from Right to Left ").node* getnode() { node * newnode. if(start == NULL) start = newnode. temp > right = newnode. printf("\n 5. newnode > left = NULL. newnode > left = temp. return ch. else return 1 + countnode(start > right). printf("\n 10. printf("\n\n Enter your choice: "). printf("\n 4. return newnode. newnode > right = NULL. printf("\n"). Insert a node at end"). printf("\n 1. &ch). for(i = 0.Count the Number of nodes in the list"). printf("\n 8. printf("\n"). printf("\n 9. Delete a node from Last").
temp = start. start = newnode. *temp. if(start == NULL) start = newnode. } } void dll_insert_beg() { node *newnode. temp > data). newnode > left = temp. temp = start. temp > right = newnode. printf("\n The contents of List: "). else { newnode > right = start. else { while(temp > right != NULL) temp = temp > right. if(start == NULL) printf("\n Empty List"). temp > data). } } void dll_insert_end() { node *newnode. if(start == NULL) start = newnode.void traverse_left_to_right() { node *temp. start > left = newnode. temp = temp > right. } } } void traverse_right_to_left() { node *temp. newnode = getnode(). newnode = getnode(). } while(temp != NULL) { printf("\t%d". if(start == NULL ) printf("\n Empty List"). } } Lecture Notes 53 Dept. while(temp > right != NULL) temp = temp > right. printf("\n The contents of List: "). else { while(temp != NULL) { printf("\t %d ". of Information Technology . else { temp = start. temp = temp > left.
} newnode > left = temp. newnode = getnode(). int pos. pos). } else { temp = start. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty list").. start > left = NULL. return. start = start > right.nodectr >= 2) { printf("\n Position is out of range. temp > right > left = newnode. if(pos ."). ctr = 1. while(temp > right != NULL) Lecture Notes 54 Dept.void dll_insert_mid() { node *newnode. } else { temp = start. } else printf("position %d of list is not a middle position ". scanf("%d". nodectr.1) { temp = temp > right. return . temp > right = newnode. } if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. free(temp).*temp. while(ctr < pos . if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty list"). printf("\n Enter the position: "). ctr++. of Information Technology . nodectr = countnode(start). return . &pos). getch(). } void dll_delete_beg() { node *temp. getch(). } } void dll_delete_last() { node *temp. newnode > right = temp > right.
createlist(n). Lecture Notes 55 Dept. switch( ch) { case 1 : printf("\n Enter Number of nodes to create: "). clrscr(). scanf("%d". temp > left > right = temp > right. temp = NULL. of Information Technology .. getch(). getch()."). nodectr = countnode(start).} } temp = temp > right. pos. void dll_delete_mid() { int i = 0. &n). if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Empty List"). scanf("%d". while(i < pos) { temp = temp > right. } } } void main(void) { int ch. while(1) { ch = menu()."). } else { printf("\n Enter the position of the node to delete: "). printf("\n node deleted. nodectr. free(temp).. } if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. i++. if(pos > nodectr) { printf("\nthis node does not exist"). node *temp. temp > left > right = NULL. &pos). return. n. return. i = 1. } else { printf("\n It is not a middle position. } temp > right > left = temp > left. free(temp). getch().
case 10 : printf("\n Number of nodes: %d".6..7. break. C ircular Single Linked List Lecture Notes 56 Dept.1.case 2 case 3 case 4 case 5 case 6 case 7 case 8 case 9 printf("\n List created. break. A circular single linked list is shown in figure 3. of Information Technology . break. hence all pointers contain valid address. : traverse_right_to_left(). case 11: exit(0).1. break. : dll_insert_mid(). In circular linked list no null pointers are used. break. : dll_insert_beg(). Circular Single Linked List: It is just a single linked list in which the link field of the last node points back to the address of the first node. break. : dll_delete_beg(). break. Circular linked lists are frequently used instead of ordinary linked list because many operations are much easier to implement. A circular linked list has no beginning and no end. countnode(start)). It is necessary to establish a special pointer called start pointer always pointing to the first node of the list.6. : dll_delete_last(). } 3. : dll_delete_mid(). break. } } getch(). : traverse_left_to_right(). break. break."). start 100 10 100 200 20 300 200 30 400 300 40 100 400 Figure 3. : dll_insert_end().
newnode = getnode(). Insertion. newnode = getnode(). follow the steps given below: last = start. The function createlist(). start = newnode. Traversing. newnode > next = start. start = newnode. last > next = start. while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. Creating a circular single Linked List with ‘n’ number of nodes: The following steps are to be followed to create ‘n’ number of nodes: • Get the new node using getnode(). Deletion. temp > next = newnode. • If the list is empty. assign new node as start. start = newnode. while(last > next != start) last = last > next. of Information Technology . Lecture Notes 57 Dept. follow the steps given below: temp = start. • If the list is empty. • Repeat the above steps ‘n’ times.The basic operations in a circular single linked list are: • • • • Creation. • If the list is not empty. newnode > next = start. is used to create ‘n’ number of nodes: Inserting a node at the beginning: The following steps are to be followed to insert a new node at the beginning of the circular list: • Get the new node using getnode(). assign new node as start. • newnode > next = start. • If the list is not empty.
The function cll_insert_beg().6.2 shows inserting a node into the circular single linked list at the beginning. is used for inserting a node at the beginning. Lecture Notes 58 Dept. start 100 10 100 200 20 300 200 30 40 400 300 500 400 50 100 500 Figure 3. newnode > next = start. assign new node as start. of Information Technology .6. The function cll_insert_end().3 Inserting a node at the end. • If the list is not empty follow the steps given below: temp = start. Figure 3. start = newnode. newnode > next = start. Figure 3. is used for inserting a node at the end.3 shows inserting a node into the circular single linked list at the end. start 500 10 200 100 5 20 300 200 30 40 400 300 500 400 100 500 Figure 3.6.2. while(temp > next != start) temp = temp > next. newnode = getnode(). • If the list is empty. Inserting a node at the beginning Inserting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to insert a new node at the end of the list: • Get the new node using getnode(). temp > next = newnode.6.
while(last > next != start) last = last > next. The function cll_delete_last(). • After deleting the node. display a message ‘Empty List’. Deleting a node at beginning. Deleting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to delete a node at the end of the list: • If the list is empty.4. The function cll_delete_beg().6.Deleting a node at the beginning: The following steps are followed.4 shows deleting a node at the beginning of a circular single linked list. while(temp > next != start) { prev = temp. if the list is empty then start = NULL. prev = start. • After deleting the node. if the list is empty then start = NULL. of Information Technology . Figure 3. start = start > next. follow the steps given below: last = temp = start. start 200 10 temp 200 100 20 300 200 30 40 400 300 200 400 Figure 3.6. • If the list is not empty. temp = temp > next. Lecture Notes 59 Dept. is used for deleting the last node in the list. • If the list is not empty. is used for deleting the first node in the list. } prev > next = start. display a message ‘Empty List’. to delete a node at the beginning of the list: • If the list is empty. last > next = start. follow the steps given below: temp = start.
3. return newnode. node* getnode() { node * newnode. typedef struct cslinklist node. int nodectr. newnode > next = NULL. Traversing a circular single linked list from left to right: The following steps are followed.h> # include <conio.6. Deleting a node at the end. &newnode > data). temp > data). }. temp = temp > next. struct cslinklist *next. Source Code for Circular Single Linked List: # include <stdio.Figure 3. • If the list is not empty. follow the steps given below: temp = start. } Lecture Notes 60 Dept. node *start = NULL. } while(temp != start).h> struct cslinklist { int data. printf("\n Enter data: ").5 shows deleting a node at the end of a circular single linked list.7.5. newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)). scanf("%d".h> # include <stdlib. of Information Technology .6. do { printf("%d ". start 100 10 200 100 20 300 200 30 100 300 40 100 400 Figure 3. to traverse a list from left to right: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.1.
scanf("%d". Insert a node at beginning "). i < n . temp > next = newnode. printf("\n 3. while(temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. } } Lecture Notes 61 Dept. nodectr = n. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. temp > data). printf("\n 8. printf("\n 1. node *temp. temp = start. printf("\n\n"). } else { temp = start. return ch. printf("\n 6. printf("\n 7. printf("\n\n"). printf("\n The contents of List (Left to Right): "). node *newnode. else { do { printf("\t %d ". printf("\n 5. printf("\n 9. } void createlist(int n) { int i. &ch).int menu() { int ch. i++) { newnode = getnode(). Exit"). Insert a node at middle"). if(start == NULL ) printf("\n Empty List"). } while(temp != start). Delete a node from Middle"). Create a list "). Insert a node at end"). printf("\n\n"). Delete a node from beginning"). /* last node is pointing to starting node */ } void display() { node *temp. clrscr(). of Information Technology . Display the list"). printf("\n 4. printf("\n Enter your choice: "). printf("\n 2. Delete a node from Last"). printf(" X "). printf("\n\n"). temp = temp > next. } } newnode >next = start. for(i = 0.
temp > next = newnode.").. i = 1. int i. of Information Technology . nodectr++. while(temp > next != start) temp = temp > next. *prev. newnode = getnode(). if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. newnode = getnode(). newnode = getnode(). while(i < pos) { prev = temp. start = newnode. } printf("\n Node inserted at end. i++. } void cll_insert_end() { node *newnode.void cll_insert_beg() { node *newnode. newnode > next = start. } printf("\n Node inserted at beginning. printf("\n Enter the position: "). newnode > next = start. newnode > next = start. if(start == NULL ) { start = newnode.. if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. *last. while(last > next != start) last = last > next. pos . } void cll_insert_mid() { node *newnode. } prev > next = newnode. *temp."). newnode > next = temp. prev = temp. &pos). temp = temp > next. scanf("%d". Lecture Notes 62 Dept. newnode > next = start. *temp. } else { temp = start. } else { last = start. last > next = start. nodectr++.
return . if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist. while(last > next != start) last = last > next."). getch(). while(temp > next != start) { prev = temp."). } prev > next = start. prev = start."). temp = temp > next.."). last > next = start. printf("\n Node inserted at middle.. start = start > next. of Information Technology . pos). *last.*prev. nodectr.. if(nodectr == 0) start = NULL.nodectr++. } else { temp = start.. if(nodectr == 0) start = NULL. free(temp). } } void cll_delete_last() { node *temp. } } Lecture Notes 63 Dept. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist. printf("\n Node deleted. free(temp). } void cll_delete_beg() { node *temp. } else { last = temp = start. printf("\n Node deleted. return .").. nodectr. getch(). } else { } printf("position %d of list is not a middle position ".
return. *prev. clrscr(). while(1) { ch = menu(). i++. free(temp).."). getch(). switch(ch) { case 1 : if(start == NULL) { printf("\n Enter Number of nodes to create: ").. &pos). of Information Technology . int ch. prev = start. printf("\n Node Deleted. if(pos > nodectr) { printf("\nThis node does not exist").. } } void main(void) { int result. return .").. getch(). getch(). } else { printf("\n Which node to delete: "). n. } else { printf("\n It is not a middle position. } Lecture Notes 64 Dept. pos.").void cll_delete_mid() { int i = 0. } if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist. scanf("%d". i = 0. nodectr. while(i < pos . &n)."). } prev > next = temp > next. printf("\nList created. createlist(n). node *temp. temp = temp > next . } if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp=start. scanf("%d".1) { prev = temp.
100 start 300 100 10 200 100 20 300 200 200 30 100 300 Figure 3. } getch(). } 3. break. : exit(0). C ircular Double Linked List The basic operations in a circular double linked list are: • • • • Creation. : cll_insert_mid(). In circular double linked list the right link of the right most node points back to the start node and left link of the first node points to the last node.").8. Traversing. A circular double linked list is shown in figure 3. break. break. of Information Technology ..else case 2 case 3 case 4 case 5 case 6 case 7 case 8 case 9 } printf("\n List is already Exist.8. break. : cll_delete_last(). : cll_delete_beg(). Deletion. : cll_insert_beg(). break.1. break. The objective behind considering circular double linked list is to simplify the insertion and deletion operations performed on double linked list. : cll_delete_mid(). Insertion.1. break. : display(). : cll_insert_end(). Lecture Notes 65 Dept. break. Circular Double Linked List: A circular double linked list has both successor pointer and predecessor pointer in circular manner.8.
• If the list is empty. follow the steps given below: newnode > left = start > left.8. newnode=getnode(). is used to create ‘n’ number of nodes: Inserting a node at the beginning: The following steps are to be followed to insert a new node at the beginning of the list: • Get the new node using getnode(). start > left = newnode. newnode > right = start. The function cdll_createlist(). • If the list is not empty. • If the list is not empty. newnode > left = start. start > left > right = newnode. start 400 400 100 300 40 10 200 100 20 300 200 200 30 400 300 100 400 Figure 3.Creating a Circular Double Linked List with ‘n’ number of nodes: The following steps are to be followed to create ‘n’ number of nodes: • Get the new node using getnode(). start = newnode. of Information Technology .8. newnode > right = start. Figure 3. then start = newnode. The function cdll_insert_beg(). is used for inserting a node at the beginning. • Repeat the above steps ‘n’ times. newnode = getnode(). newnode > right = start. newnode >right = start.2 shows inserting a node into the circular double linked list at the beginning. start > left>right = newnode. then do the following start = newnode.2. start > left = newnode. Inserting a node at the beginning Lecture Notes 66 Dept. follow the steps given below: newnode > left = start > left. • If the list is empty. newnode > left = start.
• After reaching the specified position. newnode=getnode(). nodectr++.8. follow the steps given below: newnode > left = temp.8. to insert a new node in an intermediate position in the list: • Get the new node using getnode(). Then traverse the temp pointer upto the specified position. then start = newnode. Figure 3. start > left = newnode.Inserting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to insert a new node at the end of the list: • Get the new node using getnode() newnode=getnode(). is used for inserting a node at the end. The function cdll_insert_end(). If not. of Information Technology . newnode > right = start. start 100 400 100 10 200 100 20 200 300 200 30 400 300 300 40 100 400 Figure 3. temp > right > left = newnode.3 shows inserting a node into the circular linked list at the end.3. Lecture Notes 67 Dept. start > left > right = newnode. • If the list is not empty follow the steps given below: newnode > left = start > left. • Store the starting address (which is in start pointer) in temp. newnode > right = start. Inserting a node at the end Inserting a node at an intermediate position: The following steps are followed. newnode > left = start. This is done by countnode() function. temp > right = newnode. • Ensure that the specified position is in between first node and last node. newnode > right = temp > right. specified position is invalid. • If the list is empty.
8. Deleting a node at beginning Deleting a node at the end: The following steps are followed to delete a node at the end of the list: • • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message If the list is not empty.5 shows deleting a node at the beginning of a circular double linked list.4 shows inserting a node into the circular double linked list at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end. The function cdll_delete_beg(). Figure 3. is used for inserting a node in the intermediate position. temp > left > right = start.8.The function cdll_insert_mid(). of Information Technology .4. follow the steps given below: Lecture Notes 68 Dept. start 200 300 10 100 200 300 20 300 200 200 30 200 300 Figure 3.8. follow the steps given below: temp = start.5. start 100 100 40 200 400 300 10 400 400 100 20 300 30 100 200 200 300 Figure 3. start > left = temp > left. Figure 3. Inserting a node at an intermediate position Deleting a node at the beginning: The following steps are followed. is used for deleting the first node in the list. • If the list is not empty.8. start = start > right. to delete a node at the beginning of the list: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message.
The function cdll_delete_last(). i = 1. while(temp > right != start) { temp = temp > right. } temp > right > left = temp > left. nodectr. while(i < pos) { temp = temp > right . follow the steps given below: • Get the position of the node to delete. If not.8. start 100 200 100 10 200 100 20 100 200 200 30 100 300 Figure 3.6. } temp > left > right = temp > right. to delete a node from an intermediate position in the list (List must contain more than two node). } The function cdll_delete_mid(). Figure 3. temp > right > left = temp > left.temp = start.. • If the list is not empty. Deleting a node at the end Deleting a node at Intermediate position: The following steps are followed. • Then perform the following steps: if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. is used for deleting the intermediate node in the list. temp > left > right = temp > right. • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message. free(temp). • Ensure that the specified position is in between first node and last node. Lecture Notes 69 Dept. printf("\n node deleted.8. i++. of Information Technology .6 shows deleting a node at the end of a circular double linked list."). is used for deleting the last node in the list. specified position is invalid.
to traverse a list from left to right: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message. Print temp > data.h> Lecture Notes 70 Dept. while(temp != start) { print temp > data. follow the steps given below: temp = start. • If the list is not empty. is used for traversing from left to right.8. Deleting a node at an intermediate position Traversing a circular double linked list from left to right: The following steps are followed. Traversing a circular double linked list from right to left: The following steps are followed. to traverse a list from right to left: • If list is empty then display ‘Empty List’ message. do { temp = temp > left.7 shows deleting a node at a specified intermediate position other than beginning and end from a circular double linked list. is used for traversing from right to left.8. The function cdll_display_right_left(). Source Code for Circular Double Linked List: # include <stdio.7. } The function cdll_display_left _right(). print temp > data. start 100 300 100 10 300 100 20 100 300 200 30 100 300 Figure 3. } while(temp != start). temp = temp > right. 3. of Information Technology . follow the steps given below: temp = start. • If the list is not empty. temp = temp > right.Figure 3.1.h> # include <conio.h> # include <stdlib.8.
*temp. printf("\n 2. }. Delete a node from End"). printf("\n\n"). printf("\n\n"). printf("\n 10. for(i = 0. int data. Display the list from Right to Left"). printf("\n\n"). Delete a node from Middle"). node *newnode. return ch. newnode = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)). newnode > right = NULL.struct cdlinklist { struct cdlinklist *left. Insert a node at End"). newnode >right = start. printf("\n 5.Exit"). printf("\n 9. } int menu() { int ch. i < n. Lecture Notes 71 Dept. printf("\n 8. printf("\n 4. printf("\n 6. of Information Technology . printf("\n 7. typedef struct cdlinklist node. struct cdlinklist *right. clrscr(). Display the list from Left to Right"). int nodectr. node* getnode() { node * newnode. if(start == NULL) { nodectr = n. Create "). printf("\n\n Enter your choice: "). } else { newnode > left = start > left. i++) { newnode = getnode(). Insert a node at Beginning"). node *start = NULL. printf("\n 3. Insert a node at Middle"). newnode > left = start. printf("\n Enter data: "). Delete a node from Beginning"). scanf("%d". } void cdll_createlist(int n) { int i. printf("\n 1. return newnode. &newnode > data). &ch). if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. scanf("%d". newnode > left = NULL.
void cdll_display_left_right() { node *temp. of Information Technology . } } } void cdll_display_right_left() { node *temp.} else } } } newnode > right = start. } } void cdll_insert_beg() { node *newnode. do { temp = temp > left. temp > data). temp = temp > right. } else { newnode > left = start > left. temp > data). start > left = newnode. if(start == NULL) printf("\n Empty List"). while(temp != start) { printf(" %d ".. start > left = newnode. else { printf("\n The contents of List: "). if(start == NULL) printf("\n Empty List"). newnode = getnode(). Lecture Notes 72 Dept."). nodectr++. printf(" %d ". newnode > right = start. start > left>right = newnode. temp > data). temp = temp > right. else { printf("\n The contents of List: "). if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. temp = start. printf("\t%d". } while(temp != start). printf("\n List already exists. newnode > right = start. start > left > right = newnode. temp = start. newnode > left = start.
*temp. "). } printf("\n Node Inserted at End"). if(pos . } void cdll_insert_mid() { node *newnode. } else printf("position %d of list is not a middle position". if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. printf("\n Node Inserted at Middle. newnode > left = start. of Information Technology . if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist.*temp. nodectr++. newnode = getnode().} start = newnode. *prev. ctr = 1.").."). } } void cdll_delete_beg() { node *temp. while(ctr < pos . newnode > right = temp > right. } void cdll_insert_end() { node *newnode. int pos.nodectr >= 2) { printf("\n Position is out of range. start > left > right = newnode. } if(pos > 1 && pos <= nodectr) { temp = start. temp > right > left = newnode. &pos). } newnode > left = temp.1) { temp = temp > right.. nodectr++. temp > right = newnode. ctr++. Lecture Notes 73 Dept. newnode > right = start. printf("\n Enter the position: "). newnode = getnode(). start > left = newnode. return. newnode > right = start.. } else { newnode > left = start > left. scanf("%d". pos).
pos. return . start > left = temp > left. temp > left > right = start. if(start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist. temp > left > right = temp > right. return. free(temp).. if(nodectr == 0) { free(start).getch(). node *temp. } printf("\n Node deleted from end "). of Information Technology . } else { temp = start. free(temp). } else { nodectr. void cdll_delete_last() { node *temp. return. } else { temp = start. if(nodectr == 0) { free(start). start = NULL."). if( start == NULL) { printf("\n No nodes exist.. } printf("\n Node deleted at Beginning. getch(). } Lecture Notes 74 Dept. temp > right > left = temp > left. start = NULL.. } else { } } nodectr. start = start > right. getch(). while(temp > right != start) temp = temp > right.")."). } } void cdll_delete_mid() { int ctr = 1.
&pos). } else { printf("\n It is not a middle position.. printf("\n node deleted. break."). clrscr(). Lecture Notes 75 Dept."). getch(). ctr++.else { printf("\n Which node to delete: ")."). while(ctr < pos) { temp = temp > right .. break. case 3 : cdll_insert_end(). case 4 : cdll_insert_mid(). } if(pos > 1 && pos < nodectr) { temp = start. printf("\n List created. cdll_createlist(n). free(temp). &n). } temp > right > left = temp > left. getch(). scanf("%d". temp > left > right = temp > right. if(pos > nodectr) { printf("\nThis node does not exist"). break.. while(1) { ch = menu(). break. nodectr. switch( ch) { case 1 : printf("\n Enter Number of nodes to create: "). of Information Technology . scanf("%d". break. case 6 : cdll_delete_last(). } } } void main(void) { int ch. break. case 5 : cdll_delete_beg(). case 2 : cdll_insert_beg().n. return.
In other words the two polynomials 1 + x and x + 1 are equivalent. of Information Technology . so a polynomial will be represented as a list of structures. a computer network might best be modeled using a circular list.10. 3. case 10: exit(0). case 8 : cdll_display_left_right(). } } getch(). the more fields that have to be maintained. The computer implementation requires implementing polynomials as a list of pairs of coefficient and exponent. break. the code to manipulate doubly linked lists needs to maintain the prev fields as well as the next fields. The major advantage of circular lists (over noncircular lists) is that they eliminate some extracase code for some operations (like deleting last node). A linked list structure that represents polynomials 5x4 – 8x3 + 2x2 + 4x1 + 9x0 illustrates in figure 3. break. the more chance there is for errors. Also. For example. Comparison of Linked List Variations: The major disadvantage of doubly linked lists (over singly linked lists) is that they require more space (every node has two pointer fields instead of one).1. case 9 : cdll_display_right_left().10. Each of these pairs will constitute a structure. ci is the coefficient of the ith term and n is the degree of the polynomial Some examples are: 5x2 + 3x + 1 12x3 – 4x 5x4 – 8x3 + 2x2 + 4x1 + 9x0 It is not necessary to write terms of the polynomials in decreasing order of degree. The major advantage of doubly linked lists is that they make some operations (like the removal of a given node. or a righttoleft traversal of the list) more efficient. Polynomials: A polynomial is of the form: n i ∑ ci x i =0 Where.9.case 7 : cdll_delete_mid(). Also. some applications lead naturally to circular list representations. break. } 3. Lecture Notes 76 Dept.
struct link *next.h> #include <stdio.*newnode.start Coefficient 500 5 4 100 500 Exponent 8 100 3 200 2 200 2 300 4 1 300 400 9 0 X 400 Figure 3. ch = getche(). typedef struct link node. printf("\n Enter Coefficient : ").h> #include <malloc. node *temp. scanf("%f". return tmp. Single Linked List for the polynomial F(x) = 5x4 – 8x 3 + 2x 2 + 4x 1 + 9x 0 3. scanf("%d". while( 1 ) { printf ("\n Do U Want polynomial node (y/n): ").&tmp>expo). } } Lecture Notes } return p. tmp =(node *) malloc( sizeof(node) ). temp>next = newnode. if(ch == 'n') break. node * getnode() { node *tmp. printf("\n Enter Exponent : "). int expo.10. else { temp = p. }. of Information Technology .1.10. while(temp>next != NULL ) temp = temp>next. fflush(stdin). fflush(stdin).1. tmp>next = NULL. Source code for polynomial creation with help of linked list: #include <conio. if( p == NULL ) p = newnode. } node * create_poly (node *p ) { char ch. newnode = getnode().&tmp>coef).h> struct link { float coef. 77 Dept.
printf("\n Enter Polynomial 2: ").2.h> #include <stdio.. printf("\n Enter Polynomial 1: ").10. When we reach at the end of one of the polynomial.h> #include <malloc. display (poly1). then remaining part of the other is copied into the sum. 3.3.*poly2 = NULL. Display the resultant polynomial. printf("X^ %d".2f". Source code for polynomial addition with help of linked list: #include <conio.void display (node *p) { node *t = p.(in ascendingorder of exponent)").(in ascendingorder of exponent)").*poly3=NULL. Addition of Polynomials: To add two polynomials we need to scan them once. Lecture Notes 78 Dept. t =t > next. struct link *next. printf("\nEnter Second Polynomial. int expo. t > coef). clrscr(). } } void main() { node *poly1 = NULL . poly1 = create_poly (poly1).10. then we add the coefficients. of Information Technology . display (poly2). If we find terms with the same exponent in the two polynomials. poly2 = create_poly (poly2). otherwise. typedef struct link node. }. To add two polynomials follow the following steps: • • • Read two polynomials.. while (t != NULL) { printf("+ %. Add them. node * getnode() { node *tmp. we copy the term of larger exponent into the sum and go on.h> struct link { float coef. } 3. getch(). clrscr(). t > expo). printf("\nEnter First Polynomial.
} void display (node *p) { node *t = p.&tmp>expo). while (t != NULL) { printf("+ %. } } return p. while(temp>next != NULL ) temp = temp>next. p1 = p1>next. if(p1>expo == p2>expo ) { printf("+ %. fflush(stdin). printf("\n Enter Exponent : "). t > coef). fflush(stdin). } } void add_poly(node *p1. return tmp.p1>coef+p2>coef. printf("\n Enter Coefficient : "). temp>next = newnode. node *temp. else { temp = p. t > expo). tmp>next = NULL. p2 = p2>next. t = t > next. while(1) { if( p1 == NULL  p2 == NULL ) break. printf("X^ %d". scanf("%f".2f". if(ch == 'n') break. newnode = getnode().2f X ^%d". } node * create_poly (node *p ) { char ch. while( 1 ) { printf ("\n Do U Want polynomial node (y/n): "). } else { if(p1>expo < p2>expo) Lecture Notes 79 Dept.tmp =(node *) malloc( sizeof(node) ). if( p == NULL ) p = newnode. of Information Technology .*newnode.&tmp>coef).node *p2) { node *newnode.p1>expo). ch = getche(). scanf("%d".
.(in ascendingorder of exponent)"). p1 = p1>next. Lecture Notes 80 Dept. l1. Write a “C” function to insert a node “t” before a node pointed to by “X” in a single linked list “L”. ln) after another ordered list M represented by a single linked list. 4. printf("\nEnter First Polynomial. display (poly3).). Write a “C” function to delete a node pointed to by “p” from a single linked list “L”. p2 = p2>next. The resultant lists would be R1 = (l0.p2>coef. …..*poly3=NULL.p2>expo). l5.. poly2). poly1 = create_poly (poly1). printf(" + %. 2. …. 3. } Exercise 1.2f X ^%d". l1. poly2 = create_poly (poly2). } while(p2 != NULL ) { } printf("+ %. p2 = p2>next. display (poly2).(in ascendingorder of exponent)"). …. getch(). add_poly(poly1.. p1 = p1>next. clrscr(). } } while(p1 != NULL ) { printf("+ %. Write a “C” functions to split a given list of integers represented by a single linked list into two lists in the following way. It is required to append the list L = (ln.2f X ^%d". l1. printf("\n Enter Polynomial 2: ")... clrscr().*poly2 = NULL.ln) is represented by a single linked list. Let the list be L = (l0. display (poly1).2f X ^%d".p1>coef. } void main() { node *poly1 = NULL .{ } else { } printf("+ %... l2.. printf("\n Enter Polynomial 1: "). l4. printf("\nEnter Second Polynomial.p2>expo).p1>coef.p1>expo). l3.) and R2 = (l1. printf( "\n Resultant Polynomial : ").2f X ^%d". ln).p2>coef. …. Suppose that an ordered list L = (l0.. ….p1>expo). of Information Technology . l0.
each row in one line of output and properly formatted. 9. The list might be empty or it might be nonempty. Write “C” functions to compute the following operations on polynomials represented as singly connected linked list of nonzero terms. The list itself is unchanged. 8. of Information Technology . NOTE: If the list is empty. 13. Postcondition: The return value is the sum of all the data components of all the nodes. Evaluation of a polynomial Multiplication of two polynomials. 2. 1. Implement the following function as a new function for the linked list toolkit. 6. Lecture Notes 81 Dept. Where all sparse matrices are to be represented by linked lists. Precondition: head_ptr points to the start of a linked list. 10. The list might be empty or it might be nonempty. Consider representing a linked list of integers using arrays. Write a “C” function to delete the ith node from the list. Implement the following function as a new function for the linked list toolkit. Write a “C” function to print a sparse matrix. The list might be empty or it might be nonempty. Write a “C” function to concatenate two circular linked lists producing another circular linked list. 11. Postcondition: The return value is the number of occurrences of 42 in the data field of a node on the linked list. 7. the function returns 0. Precondition: head_ptr points to the start of a linked list. Implement the following function as a new function for the linked list toolkit. Write a “C” function to represent a sparse matrix having “m” rows and “n” columns using linked list. with zero being printed in place of zero elements. Postcondition: The return value is true if the list has at least one occurrence of the number 42 in the data part of a node.5. Precondition: head_ptr points to the start of a linked list. Write “C” functions to: 1. Add two m X n sparse matrices and Multiply two m X n sparse matrices. 12. 2.
A. A runtime error always occurs when the program finishes. What kind of list is best to answer questions such as: "What is the item at position n?" A. *bwd. C. D. address of the next node B. all the above [ D ] 5. of Information Technology . B. The results are unpredictable. Double Linked List C. 2 D. malloc() C. Stack D. C. Delete the first element of the list D. C. The link field in a node contains: A. Lists implemented with an array. realloc() B. Which among the following is a dynamic data structure: A. D. data of previous node [ A ] 4. if it is assumed that X points to neither the first nor last element of the list? [ A ] Lecture Notes 82 Dept. 1 C. Which among the following segments of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the double linked list. data of current node [ ] [ A ] In a single linked list which operation depends on the length of the list. How many null pointer/s exist in a circular double linked list? A. 8.function. int data.Multiple Choice Questions 1. 3 B. Doublylinked or singlylinked lists are equally best. A. Doublylinked lists. Add an element before the first element of the list C. all the above [ A ] 3. Delete the last element of the list B. } Where fwd and bwd represents forward and backward links to adjacent elements of the list. Calloc() D. B. Linked List B. Stack B. 7. Queue C. Interchange the first two elements of the list [ A ] A double linked list is declared as follows: struct dllist { struct dllist *fwd. A runtime error always occurs when *p is evaluated. Suppose that p is a pointer variable that contains the NULL pointer. Memory is allocated dynamically to a data structure during execution by . data of next node D. Which among the following is a linear data structure: A. all the above [ D ] 2. 0 [ D ] 6. A syntax error always occurs at compilation time. Singlylinked lists. 9. What happens if your program tries to read or write *p? A. Queue D.
for (ctr=1. of Information Technology . for (ctr=1. X > bwd > fwd = X > bwd. if it is assumed that X points to the last element of the list and ctr is the variable which counts the number of elements in the list? A. X > bwd != NULL. for (ctr=1. X > fwd > bwd = NULL. ctr++) X = X > fwd. if it is assumed that X points to the first element of the list and start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. X > fwd != NULL. X != NULL. Which among the following segment of code counts the number of elements in the double linked list. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the double linked list. for (ctr=1. if it is assumed that X points to the first element of the list and ctr is the variable which counts the number of elements in the list? A. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd. C. X > bwd = X > fwd. ctr++) X = X > bwd. D. X != NULL. for (ctr=1. B.A. ctr++) X = X > bwd. B. ctr++) X = X > fwd. [ C ] 12. [ B ] Lecture Notes 83 Dept. X > bwd > fwd = X > bwd. X > bwd > bwd = X > bwd. ctr++) X = X > fwd. for (ctr=1. X > fwd = X > bwd B. ctr++) X = X > bwd. C. C. start = X > fwd. X > fwd != NULL. X > bwd > bwd = X > fwd. ctr++) X = X > bwd. for (ctr=1. X > bwd != NULL. start > bwd = NULL. X > fwd > fwd = X > fwd [ B ] 11. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the double linked list. X > fwd > bwd = X > fwd C. X > bwd > bwd = X > bwd. Which among the following segment of code counts the number of elements in the double linked list. D. C. X > fwd = NULL D. X > fwd > fwd = X > bwd D. X > fwd > fwd = X > fwd 10. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd B. B. [ A ] 13. if it is assumed that X points to the last element of the list? A. D. start = X > fwd. X > bwd > fwd = NULL. X != NULL. ctr++) X = X > fwd. X != NULL. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. for (ctr=1.
C. X > bwd = X > fwd. X > bwd = X > fwd. 16. Which among the following segments of inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at any position (i. B. X > bwd = temp. X > fwd > fwd = X > fwd 15. X > bwd > bwd = X > bwd. temp > fwd = X. X > bwd = last. X >fwd = x X >fwd>bwd = temp D. start = X. X > bwd = X > bwd. start = X.e neither first nor last) element of the double linked list? Assume temp pointer points to the previous position of new node. X > fwd > bwd = X > fwd C. X > fwd = start. last > fwd = X. X > fwd = last. The start and last pointer points to beginning and end of the list respectively? A. X > bwd = X > fwd. A. X > fwd = X > bwd B. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. Which among the following segments of inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the end of the double linked list. C. Lecture Notes 84 Dept. X > fwd > bwd = X. X > fwd = start. start > bwd = X. X > fwd = temp > fwd. X > fwd = X > bwd. X > fwd = X > bwd. The start pointer points to beginning of the list? [ B ] [ C ] [ D ] A. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd B. temp >fwd = X. D. Which among the following segment of code inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the beginning of the double linked list. D.14. start > bwd = X. X > bwd > fwd = X > bwd. temp > bwd = X > fwd. of Information Technology .
[ A ] [ B ] [ C ] Which among the following segments of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the single linked list. prev > next = NULL. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the single linked list. start = X > next. B. free(prev). prev > next = NULL. D. of Information Technology . A. } Where next represents links to adjacent elements of the list. C. 18. start = X. X > next = prev> next. if it is assumed that X points to neither the first nor last element of the list? prev pointer points to previous element.17. free(X). free(start). X > next = prev > next. C. free(X). A single linked list is declared as follows: struct sllist { struct sllist *next. B. 19. X = X > next. X > next = NULL. int data. free(start). start = start > next. X = start > next. free(prev). free(X). D. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the single linked list. prev > next = X > next. free(X). free(X). free(prev). free(prev). prev > next = X > next. C. if it is assumed that X points to the first element of the list and start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. if it is assumed that X points to the last element of the list and prev pointer points to last but one element? A. B. D X > next = prev. free(X). Lecture Notes 85 Dept.
D. start > next = X. D. ctr++) X = X > next. C. X > next = NULL. last > next = X. X != NULL. Which among the following segment of code counts the number of elements in the single linked list. A. last > next = X > next. ctr) X = X > next. D. prev > next = X. for (ctr=1. for (ctr=1.e neither first nor last) element of the single linked list? Assume prev pointer points to the previous position of new node. X > next = last. X = prev > next. prev > next = X > next. X > next = start. X > next != NULL. B. start = X D. Which among the following segment of code inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the beginning of the single linked list. C. X = start. of Information Technology . The start and last pointer points to beginning and end of the list respectively? A. for (ctr=1. X > next != NULL. Lecture Notes 86 Dept. for (ctr=1. X > next = prev. X > next = start. The start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. X > next = NULL. prev > next = X > next. 21. Which among the following segments of inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the end of the single linked list. C. X > next = prev > next. B. start = X > next 22. if it is assumed that X points to the first element of the list and ctr is the variable which counts the number of elements in the list? [ A ] [ B ] [ C ] [ D ] A. last > next = X.20. X > next = start > next. Which among the following segments of inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at any position (i. start = X C. ctr) X = X > next. last >next = NULL. B. X > next = start. X != NULL. 23. prev > next = X. X > next = prev > next. B. ctr++) X = X > next.
B. if it is assumed that X points to neither the first nor last element of the list? A. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the circular double linked list. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. X > fwd > fwd= X > bwd. Which among the following segment of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the circular double linked list. X > fwd > fwd = X > bwd.24. *bwd. start > bwd = X > fwd C. 25. X > bwd > fwd = start. X > fwd > fwd = X > fwd. X > bwd > bwd = X > fwd. X > bwd > bwd = X > bwd. 26. X > bwd > bwd = X > fwd. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. X > fwd > fwd = start. start = start > bwd. X > bwd > bwd = start. A circular double linked list is declared as follows: struct cdllist { struct cdllist *fwd. X > fwd > bwd = X > fwd. X > fwd > fwd = X > bwd. X > bwd > bwd = X > bwd. of Information Technology . start = start > fwd. B. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd. } Where fwd and bwd represents forward and backward links to adjacent elements of the list. start > bwd = X > bwd. start > bwd = X > bwd D. Lecture Notes 87 Dept. int data. C. [ A ] [ D ] [ B ] Which among the following segments of code deletes the element pointed to by X from the circular double linked list. if it is assumed that X points to the first element of the list and start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. B. X > bwd > fwd = X > bwd. D. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd. if it is assumed that X points to the last element of the list and start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. X > bwd > fwd = X. X > fwd > bwd= X > fwd. start > bwd = X > bwd. start = start > bwd. C. start = start > fwd. D.
start = X D. C. ctr++) X = X > bwd. X > fwd = start. of Information Technology . X > bwd = start > bwd. for (ctr=1. start > bwd = X. temp > bwd = X > fwd.27. X > bwd = start. X > bwd= start > bwd. D. C. X > bwd > fwd = X > bwd. start > bwd = X. for (ctr=1. temp > fwd = X. start > bwd > fwd = X. X> fwd = start. start > fwd = X. X = start. Which among the following segment of code inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the end of the circular double linked list. X > fwd > bwd = X. start > fwd = X. start > fwd> fwd = X. ctr++) X = X > fwd. C. B. X > fwd = start. X > bwd > fwd = X > fwd. X > fwd > bwd = temp. start > bwd = X. X > fwd = temp > fwd. start > bwd > fwd = X. A.e neither first nor last) element of the circular double linked list? Assume temp pointer points to the previous position of new node. X > fwd = X. X = start. > bwd> fwd = X. =X D. X > fwd = start > fwd. start = X [ C ] 30. B. X > bwd = start. ctr++) X = X > bwd. D. C. start > bwd> fwd = X. Which among the following segments of inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at any position (i. X > fwd = start. start > bwd = X. X > fwd = start > fwd. start > bwd > fwd = X. for (ctr=1. X > bwd != NULL. Which among the following segment of code counts the number of elements in the circular double linked list. X>fwd != start. temp > fwd = X. The start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. B. [ A ] 28. X != NULL. [ D ] Lecture Notes 88 Dept. X > fwd != NULL. X > bwd = start > bwd. The start pointer points to beginning of the list? A. X > fwd > bwd = X > fwd. start > fwd> fwd = X. X > bwd = start > bwd. start = X start = X [ B ] B. ctr++) X = X > fwd. > bwd = X. X > X > start start start bwd = start > bwd. 29. X > bwd = temp. Which among the following segment of code inserts a new node pointed by X to be inserted at the beginning of the circular double linked list. start > bwd = X. start > bwd> fwd = X. if it is assumed that X and start points to the first element of the list and ctr is the variable which counts the number of elements in the list? A. X > fwd > bwd = X > bwd. fwd = start. for (ctr=1. X > fwd = start > bwd. X > bwd = start.
Two of such data structures that are useful are: • Stack. “Push” is the term used to insert an element into a stack. first out) lists. of Information Technology . STACK: A stack is a list of elements in which an element may be inserted or deleted only at one end.1. at the end or in the middle. so the last element added to the stack will be the first element removed from the stack. 4. the last item to be added to a stack is the first item to be removed.1. The two basic operations associated with stacks are: • Push: is the term used to insert an element into a stack.e. not in the middle. If such is the case. the stack base remains fixed while the stack top changes as elements are added and removed. • Pop: is the term used to delete an element from a stack. 4. If we attempt to add new element beyond the maximum size. Linear lists and arrays allow one to insert and delete elements at any place in the list i. Stacks are sometimes known as LIFO (last in. Representation of Stack: Let us consider a stack with 6 elements capacity..1 shows the creation of a stack and addition of elements using push(). The number of elements to be added should not exceed the maximum size of the stack. Lecture Notes 89 Dept. “Pop” is the term used to delete an element from the stack. at the beginning. you cannot remove elements beyond the base of the stack. the operation is performed by push().e.1. When a stack is created. Similarly. When an element is added to a stack. we will encounter a stack overflow condition. we will reach a stack underflow condition. As the items can be added or removed only from the top i. The most accessible element is the top and the least accessible element is the bottom of the stack.Chapter 4 Stack and Queue There are certain situations in computer science that one wants to restrict insertions and deletions so that they can take place only at the beginning or the end of the list. This is called as the size of the stack. All insertions and deletions take place at the same end. called the top of the stack. Figure 4. • Queue.
printf("\n 3. Display"). the operation is performed by pop().2. Pop operations on stack 4. printf("\n … Stack operations using ARRAY. using array: # include <stdio. &ch). Quit ").h> # define MAX 6 int stack[MAX]. scanf("%d".1. Source code for stack operations.1."). Lecture Notes 90 Dept. Pop ").h> # include <stdlib.2 shows a stack initially with three elements and shows the deletion of elements using pop(). printf("\n 2. printf("\n 4..h> # include <conio. return ch. } void display() { int i. Push operations on stack When an element is taken off from the stack.. int top = 0. int menu() { int ch. of Information Technology . printf("\n Enter your choice: "). Figure 4. TOP 33 22 11 Initial Stack 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 0 TOP 22 11 1 TOP 11 0 POP 0 TOP 0 POP POP Empty Stack Figure 4. Push ").2.. clrscr(). printf("\n **********\n").4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 11 0 TOP Empty Stack 22 11 0 Insert 11 3 TOP 33 2 TOP 1 TOP 4 22 1 11 0 Insert 22 2 1 0 Insert 33 Figure 4. printf("\n 1. "). if(top == 0) { printf("\n\nStack empty.
&data). printf("\n\nElements in stack:"). stack[top]).. for(i = 0. } else { printf("\n\nEnter data: "). pop(). printf("\n\nData Pushed into the stack"). break. do { ch = menu(). exit(0)."). scanf("%d". } else printf("\n\npopped element is: %d ". if(top == MAX) { printf("\n\nStack Overflow. } getch(). display(). } void push() { int data. i < top. of Information Technology . stack[top] = data. switch(ch) { case 1: case 2: case 3: case 4: push(). void pop() { if(top == 0) { printf("\n\nStack Underflow."). return. top = top + 1.} else { } } return. } } void main() { int ch. break. } while(1). i++) printf("\t%d".. return. } Lecture Notes 91 Dept. break. stack[i]).
node* getnode() { node *temp. Linked List Implementation of Stack: We can represent a stack as a linked list."). node *top = NULL.3.h> # include <conio.1.3. top 400 data next 40 X 400 30 400 300 20 start 100 300 200 10 200 100 Figure 4.h> struct stack { int data.4. temp > next = NULL. using linked list: # include <stdio. In a stack push and pop operations are performed at one end called top. } void push(node *newnode) { node *temp.4. return. printf("\n Enter data "). Source code for stack operations.. temp=(node *) malloc( sizeof(node)) . of Information Technology . We can perform similar operations at one end of list using top pointer. The linked stack looks as shown in figure 4. node *start=NULL. }. Linked stack representation 4. &temp > data).h> # include <stdlib. return temp. typedef struct stack node. struct stack *next.3. void display(). if( newnode == NULL ) { printf("\n Stack Overflow. } Lecture Notes 92 Dept. void pop(). void push().1. scanf("%d".
top > data). free(top). while( temp > next != NULL) temp = temp > next. } void pop() { node *temp. printf("\n\n\n\t\t Elements in the stack: \n"). top = NULL. } } } Lecture Notes 93 Dept. } else { temp = start. temp > data). printf("\n\n\t Popped element is %d ". return. temp > data). top > data). top = temp. free(top). if(top == NULL) { printf("\n\n\t Stack underflow"). top = newnode.if(start == NULL) { start = newnode. while(temp != top) { temp = temp > next. } else { temp = start. } temp = start. } printf("\n\n\t Data pushed into stack"). if(top == NULL) { printf("\n\n\t\t Stack is empty "). printf("%5d ". } } void display() { node *temp. if( start > next == NULL) { printf("\n\n\t Popped element is %d ". start = NULL. top = newnode. } temp > next = NULL. temp > next = newnode. } else { while(temp > next != top) { temp = temp > next. printf("%5d ". of Information Technology .
z or a constant like 5. case '2' : pop(). break. Operand is the quantity on which a mathematical operation is performed. Operand may be a variable like x. ch = getche(). break. clrscr(). printf("\n **********\n").D) Prefix: It is the form of an arithmetic notation in which we fix (place) the arithmetic operator before (pre) its two operands. The prefix notation is called as Lecture Notes 94 Dept. Push "). ").char menu() { char ch. case '4': return.. They are infix. 4. case '3' : display(). } void main() { char ch. do { ch = menu(). Operator is a symbol which signifies a mathematical or logical operation between the operands. printf("\n 4. Example: (A + B) * (C . postfix and prefix notations: Infix: It is the form of an arithmetic expression in which we fix (place) the arithmetic operator in between the two operands. printf("\n 1. /. *. ^ etc.2. return ch. printf("\n 3. printf("\n Enter your choice: "). node *newnode. printf("\n \tStack operations using pointers. . Algebraic Expressions: An algebraic expression is a legal combination of operators and operands. break. 6 etc. } 4. Display"). Pop "). switch(ch) { case '1' : newnode = getnode(). push(newnode). printf("\n 2. } getch(). Quit "). } while( ch != '4' ). y. An algebraic expression can be represented using three different notations. of Information Technology . Examples of familiar operators include +.
. 3. of Information Technology . then place directly in the postfix expression (output). push it onto the stack. These can be done as follows: 1. Example: * + A B – C D Postfix: It is the form of an arithmetic expression in which we fix (place) the arithmetic operator after (post) its two operands. For these binary operations. Conversion from infix to postfix: Procedure to convert from infix expression to postfix expression is as follows: 1. The operands maintain the same order as in the equivalent infix expression. b) If the scanned symbol is an operand. 5. 4. 2. While evaluating the postfix expression the priority of the operators is no longer relevant.  Lowest 1 Exponentiation ($ or ↑ or ^) 4. are not needed to designate the expression un 3. 2.* The three important features of postfix expression are: 1. the following in the order of precedence (highest to lowest): OPERATOR PRECEDENCE VALUE Highest 3 *. *. 6.3. Converting expressions using Stack: Let us convert the expressions from one type to another. / and $ or ↑ (exponentiation). Scan the infix expression from left to right. 2. / Next highest 2 +. We consider five binary operations: +. Infix to postfix Infix to prefix Postfix to infix Postfix to prefix Prefix to infix Prefix to postfix 4. Lecture Notes 95 Dept.polish notation (due to the polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz in the year 1920).3.1. The parentheses ambiguously. The postfix notation is called as suffix notation and is also referred to reverse polish notation. a) If the scanned symbol is left parenthesis. Example: A B + C D .
c) If the symbol scanned is a right parenthesis. then go on removing all the operators from the stack and place them in the postfix expression. if and only if the precedence of the operator which is on the top of the stack is greater than (or greater than or equal) to the precedence of the scanned operator and push the scanned operator onto the stack otherwise. then go on popping all the items from the stack and place them in the postfix expression till we get the matching left parenthesis. push the scanned operator onto the stack. Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty. End of string Example 2: Convert a + b * c + (d * e + f) * g the infix expression into postfix form. d) If the scanned symbol is an operator. SYMBOL POSTFIX STRING a a + a + b ab + Lecture Notes STACK 96 REMARKS Dept. of Information Technology . Example 1: Convert ((A – (B + C)) * D) ↑ (E + F) infix expression to postfix form: SYMBOL POSTFIX STRING STACK ( ( ( (( REMARKS A A ((  A (( ( A ((( B AB ((( + AB (((+ C ABC (((+ ) ABC+ (( ) ABC+ ( * ABC+ (* D ABC+D (* ) ABC+D* ↑ ABC+D* ↑ ( ABC+D* ↑( E ABC+D*E ↑( + ABC+D*E ↑(+ F ABC+D*EF ↑(+ ) ABC+D*EF+ ↑ ABC+D*EF+↑ The input is now empty.
Example 3: Convert the following infix expression A + B * C – D / E * H into its equivalent postfix expression. SYMBOL POSTFIX STRING A A + A Lecture Notes STACK REMARKS + 97 Dept. Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty. ABC*+DE/H* Example 4: Convert the following infix expression A + (B * C – (D / E ↑ F) * G) * H into its equivalent postfix expression. SYMBOL POSTFIX STRING STACK A A + A + B AB + * AB +* C ABC +*  ABC*+  D ABC*+D  REMARKS / ABC*+D / E ABC*+DE / * ABC*+DE/ * H End of string ABC*+DE/H * The input is now empty.* ab +* c abc +* + abc*+ + ( abc*+ +( d abc*+d +( * abc*+d +(* e abc*+de +(* + abc*+de* +(+ f abc*+de*f +(+ ) abc*+de*f+ + * abc*+de*f+ +* g abc*+de*f+g +* End of string abc*+de*f+g*+ The input is now empty. of Information Technology . Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty.
Program to convert an infix to postfix expression: # include <string. Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty. k ++) { if(op == operators[k]) pv1 = priority_value[k].2. } for(k = 0. k < 6.3. char infix[50].1. '*'.0.( A +( B AB +( * AB +(* C ABC +(*  ABC* +( ( ABC* +(( D ABC*D +(( / ABC*D +((/ E ABC*DE +((/ ↑ ABC*DE +((/↑ F ABC*DEF +((/↑ ) ABC*DEF↑/ +( * ABC*DEF↑/ +(* G ABC*DEF↑/G +(* ) ABC*DEF↑/G* + * ABC*DEF↑/G* +* H ABC*DEF↑/G*H +* End of string ABC*DEF↑/G*H*+ The input is now empty.2. /* operator stack */ int lesspriority(char op. /* priority value of op_at_stack */ char operators[] = {'+'. if( op_at_stack == '(' ) return 0. 4. '(' }. char opstack[50]. int priority_value[] = {0. for(k = 0. k ++) { if(op_at_stack == operators[k]) pv2 = priority_value[k]. '/'. int i. j. of Information Technology . '^'.3. '%'.1. char op_at_stack) { int k. ''. /* priority value of op */ int pv2. top = 0. else return 0. } if(pv1 < pv2) return 1. } Lecture Notes 98 Dept.4}. k < 6. int pv1.h> char postfix[50].
/* pushing onto stack */ top++. of op with top of opstack if less top++. while( (ch=infix[i++]) != ‘\0’) { switch(ch) { case ' ' : break. } /* pop until '(' comes */ } void main() { char ch. case '(' : case '+' : case '' : case '*' : case '/' : case '^' : case '%' : push(ch). opstack[top1]) == 1 && top > 0) { postfix[j] = opstack[top].void push(char op) /* op . then pop the operator from stack } then push into postfix string else else push op onto stack itself */ { if(op != '(' ) { while(lesspriority(op. gets(infix). printf("\n Enter Infix Expression : "). j++. Lecture Notes /* check priority and push */ 99 Dept. clrscr(). default : postfix[j] = ch. j++. j++. j++. of Information Technology .operator */ { if(top == 0) /* before pushing the operator { 'op' into the stack check priority opstack[top] = op. break. } } opstack[top] = op. case ')' : pop(). } } while(top >= 0) { postfix[j] = opstack[top]. } } pop() { while(opstack[top] != '(' ) { postfix[j] = opstack[top]. break.
100 Dept. printf("\n Postfix Expression : %s ". Conversion from infix to prefix: The precedence rules for converting an expression from infix to prefix are identical. getch().C into prefix expression. SYMBOL PREFIX STRING STACK ) REMARKS ) D D )  D ) C CD ) ( CD * CD * ) CD *) B BCD *) + BCD *)+ A ABCD *)+ ( +AB–CD * End of string Lecture Notes *+AB–CD The input is now empty.3. Example 2: Convert the infix expression (A + B) * (C .3. Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty. The only change from postfix conversion is that traverse the expression from right to left and the operator is placed before the operands rather than after them. } 4. of Information Technology . SYMBOL PREFIX STRING STACK C C  C  B BC  + BC + A ABC + End of string +ABC REMARKS The input is now empty. Example 1: Convert the infix expression A + B .} postfix[j] = '\0'.D) into prefix expression. postfix). The prefix form of a complex expression is not the mirror image of the postfix form. printf("\n Infix Expression : %s ". Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty. infix).
REMARKS +*↑ABCD//EF+GH The input is now empty. of Information Technology . } j++. prefix[0] = ch. int j.Example 3: Convert the infix expression A ↑ B * C – D + E / F / (G + H) into prefix expression.h> char prefix[50].1]. top = 0. char infix[50]. Program to convert an infix to prefix expression: # include <conio.3. k > 0. SYMBOL PREFIX STRING STACK ) ) H H ) + H )+ G GH )+ ( +GH / +GH / F F+GH / / F+GH // E EF+GH // + //EF+GH + D D//EF+GH +  D//EF+GH + C CD//EF+GH + * CD//EF+GH +* B BCD//EF+GH +* ↑ BCD//EF+GH +*↑ A ABCD//EF+GH +*↑ End of string 4. else { for(k = j + 1. /* operator stack */ void insert_beg(char ch) { int k. } Lecture Notes 101 Dept. Pop the output symbols from the stack until it is empty.4.h> # include <string. char opstack[50]. if(j == 0) prefix[0] = ch. k) prefix[k] = prefix[k .
int pv1. */ void main() { char ch. else return 0. ')'}. '^'. clrscr(). k ++) { if(op == operators[k]) pv1 = priority_value[k]. /* priority value of op */ int pv2. 1. '*'. k < 6. } void push(char op) /* op – operator */ { if(top == 0) { opstack[top] = op. int priority_value[] = {0. i = 0. /* priority value of op_at_stack */ char operators[] = {'+'. '/'. ''. top++. int l. 0. '%'. k < 6. for(k = 0. } if(pv1 < pv2) return 1.int lesspriority(char op. /* pushing onto stack void pop() { while(opstack[top] != ')') insert_beg(opstack[top]). top++. of Information Technology . 1. Lecture Notes 102 Dept. char op_at_stack) { int k. 4}. k ++) { if( op_at_stack == operators[k] ) pv2 = priority_value[k]. opstack[top1]) == 1 && top > 0) { insert_beg(opstack[top]). } for(k = 0. if(op_at_stack == ')' ) return 0. } } } } opstack[top] = op. 2. 3. } else { if(op != ')') { /* before pushing the operator 'op' into the stack check priority of op with top of operator stack if less pop the operator from stack then push into postfix string else push op onto stack itself */ while(lesspriority(op. } */ /* pop until ')' comes. printf("\n Enter Infix Expression : ").
If the scanned symbol is an operand. l = strlen(infix). break. 4.3.5. infix). } } while( top > 0 ) { insert_beg( opstack[top] ). Repeat steps 2 and 3 till the end of the expression. 3. case ')' : case '+' : case '' : case '*' : case '/' : case '^' : case '%' : push(ch). 4. printf("\n Infix Expression : %s ". prefix). then push it onto the stack. while(l > 0) { ch = infix[l]. break. Lecture Notes 103 Dept. printf("\n Prefix Expression : %s ".} gets(infix). switch(ch) { case ' ' : break. pop two symbols from the stack and create it as a string by placing the operator in between the operands and push it onto the stack. /* check priority and push */ Conversion from postfix to infix: Procedure to convert postfix expression to infix expression is as follows: 1. Scan the postfix expression from left to right. Example: Convert the following postfix expression A B C * D E F ^ / G * . 2. If the scanned symbol is an operator.H * + into its equivalent infix expression. getch(). } prefix[j] = '\0'. j++. case '(' : pop(). default : insert_beg(ch). of Information Technology .
Symbol
Stack
Remarks
A
A
B
A
B
C
A
B
*
A
(B*C)
D
A
(B*C)
D
E
A
(B*C)
D
E
F
A
(B*C)
D
E
^
A
(B*C)
D
(E^F)
/
A
(B*C)
(D/(E^F))
G
A
(B*C)
(D/(E^F))
*
A
(B*C)
((D/(E^F))*G)

A
((B*C) – ((D/(E^F))*G))
H
A
((B*C) – ((D/(E^F))*G))
*
A
(((B*C) – ((D/(E^F))*G)) * H)
+
(A + (((B*C) – ((D/(E^F))*G)) * H))
End of
string
Push B
C
Push C
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
Push D
Push E
F
Push F
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
G
Push G
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
H
Push H
Pop two operands and place the
operator in between the operands and
push the string.
The input is now empty. The string formed is infix.
4.3.6.
#
#
#
#
Push A
Program to convert postfix to infix expression:
include <stdio.h>
include <conio.h>
include <string.h>
define MAX 100
void pop (char*);
void push(char*);
char stack[MAX] [MAX];
int top = 1;
Lecture Notes
104
Dept. of Information Technology
void main()
{
char s[MAX], str1[MAX], str2[MAX], str[MAX];
char s1[2],temp[2];
int i=0;
clrscr( ) ;
printf("\Enter the postfix expression; ");
gets(s);
while (s[i]!='\0')
{
if(s[i] == ' ' )
/*skip whitespace, if any*/
i++;
if (s[i] == '^'  s[i] == '*' s[i] == ''  s[i] == '+'  s[i] == '/')
{
pop(str1);
pop(str2);
temp[0] ='(';
temp[1] ='\0';
strcpy(str, temp);
strcat(str, str2);
temp[0] = s[i];
temp[1] = '\0';
strcat(str,temp);
strcat(str, str1);
temp[0] =')';
temp[1] ='\0';
strcat(str,temp);
push(str);
}
else
{
temp[0]=s[i];
temp[1]='\0';
strcpy(s1, temp);
push(s1);
}
i++;
}
printf("\nThe Infix expression is: %s", stack[0]);
}
void pop(char *a1)
{
strcpy(a1,stack[top]);
top;
}
void push (char*str)
{
if(top == MAX  1)
printf("\nstack is full");
else
{
top++;
strcpy(stack[top], str);
}
}
Lecture Notes
105
Dept. of Information Technology
4.3.7.
Conversion from postfix to prefix:
Procedure to convert postfix expression to prefix expression is as follows:
1.
Scan the postfix expression from left to right.
2.
If the scanned symbol is an operand, then push it onto the stack.
3.
If the scanned symbol is an operator, pop two symbols from the stack
and create it as a string by placing the operator in front of the operands
and push it onto the stack.
5.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 till the end of the expression.
Example:
Convert the following postfix expression A B C * D E F ^ / G *  H * + into its
equivalent prefix expression.
Symbol
Stack
A
A
B
A
B
C
A
B
*
A
*BC
D
A
*BC
D
E
A
*BC
D
E
F
A
*BC
D
E
^
A
*BC
D
/
A
*BC
/D^EF
G
A
*BC
/D^EF
*
A
*BC
*/D^EFG

A
 *BC*/D^EFG
H
A
 *BC*/D^EFG
*
A
* *BC*/D^EFGH
+
+A**BC*/D^EFGH
End of
string
Remarks
Push A
Push B
C
Push C
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
Push D
Push E
F
Push F
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
^EF
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
G
Push G
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
H
Push H
Pop two operands and place the operator in
front the operands and push the string.
The input is now empty. The string formed is prefix.
Lecture Notes
106
Dept. of Information Technology
4.3.8.
Program to convert postfix to prefix expression:
# include <conio.h>
# include <string.h>
#define MAX 100
void pop (char *a1);
void push(char *str);
char stack[MAX][MAX];
int top =1;
main()
{
}
char s[MAX], str1[MAX], str2[MAX], str[MAX];
char s1[2], temp[2];
int i = 0;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the postfix expression; ");
gets (s);
while(s[i]!='\0')
{
/*skip whitespace, if any */
if (s[i] == ' ')
i++;
if(s[i] == '^'  s[i] == '*'  s[i] == ''  s[i]== '+'  s[i] == '/')
{
pop (str1);
pop (str2);
temp[0] = s[i];
temp[1] = '\0';
strcpy (str, temp);
strcat(str, str2);
strcat(str, str1);
push(str);
}
else
{
temp[0] = s[i];
temp[1] = '\0';
strcpy (s1, temp);
push (s1);
}
i++;
}
printf("\n The prefix expression is: %s", stack[0]);
void pop(char*a1)
{
if(top == 1)
{
printf("\nStack is empty");
return ;
}
else
{
strcpy (a1, stack[top]);
top;
}
}
Lecture Notes
107
Dept. of Information Technology
3. strcpy(stack[top].1) printf("\nstack is full").void push (char *str) { if(top == MAX . Repeat steps 2 and 3 till the end of the expression. Conversion from prefix to infix: Procedure to convert prefix expression to infix expression is as follows: 1. 2. If the scanned symbol is an operand. Pop two operands and place the operator in front the operands and push the 108 Dept. Scan the prefix expression from right to left (reverse order). } } 4.9. str). then push it onto the stack. Symbol Stack Remarks H H G H G F H G F E H G F ^ H G (E^F) D H G (E^F) / H G (D/(E^F)) * H ((D/(E^F))*G) C H ((D/(E^F))*G) C B H ((D/(E^F))*G) C * H ((D/(E^F))*G) (B*C)  H ((B*C)((D/(E^F))*G)) Lecture Notes Push H Push G Push F E Push E Pop two operands and place the operator in between the operands and push the string. Pop two operands and place the operator in between the operands and push the string. Push C B Push B Pop two operands and place the operator in front the operands and push the string. else { top++. pop two symbols from the stack and create it as a string by placing the operator in between the operands and push it onto the stack. D Push D Pop two operands and place the operator in between the operands and push the string. 4. 3. If the scanned symbol is an operator. Example: Convert the following prefix expression + A * .* B C * / D ^ E F G H into its equivalent infix expression. of Information Technology .
char stack[MAX] [MAX]. temp[1] = '\0'. of Information Technology . strcat(str. push(s1). str2).temp). temp[1] ='\0'. temp[0] ='('. strcpy(str.string. int i=0. Lecture Notes 109 Dept. ").3. temp[0] =')'. temp). str1[MAX].h> # define MAX 100 void pop (char*). pop(str2). gets(s). char s1[2]. while (s[i]!='\0') { /*skip whitespace.temp). * (((B*C)((D/(E^F))*G))*H) A (((B*C)((D/(E^F))*G))*H) + (A+(((B*C)((D/(E^F))*G))*H)) End of string A Push A Pop two operands and place the operator in front the operands and push the string. Pop two operands and place the operator in front the operands and push the string. Program to convert prefix to infix expression: # include <string. str[MAX]. push(str). The input is now empty. if any*/ if(s[i] == ' ' ) i++. temp). str1). 4. strcpy(s1. temp[1]='\0'. clrscr( ) . strrev(s). temp[0] = s[i]. int top = 1. strcat(str. printf("\Enter the prefix expression. strcat(str. if (s[i] == '^'  s[i] == '*' s[i] == ''  s[i] == '+'  s[i] == '/') { pop(str1). temp[1] ='\0'. str2[MAX]. void main() { char s[MAX]. The string formed is infix. strcat(str.10.temp[2]. } else { temp[0]=s[i]. void push(char*).
str). void pop(char *a1) { strcpy(a1. Repeat steps 2 and 3 till the end of the expression. then push it onto the stack. stack[0]). } void push (char*str) { if(top == MAX . else { top++. 2. } } printf("\nThe infix expression is: %s".} i++. top. Conversion from prefix to postfix: Procedure to convert prefix expression to postfix expression is as follows: 1. of Information Technology . } } 4. Scan the prefix expression from right to left (reverse order). D Push D 110 Dept.11. strcpy(stack[top]. pop two symbols from the stack and create it as a string by placing the operator after the operands and push it onto the stack. Symbol Stack H H G H G F H G F E H G F ^ H G EF^ D H G EF^ Lecture Notes Remarks Push H Push G Push F E Push E Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string.* B C * / D ^ E F G H into its equivalent postfix expression. If the scanned symbol is an operand. 3.1) printf("\nstack is full"). If the scanned symbol is an operator. 4. Example: Convert the following prefix expression + A * .3.stack[top]).
temp[0] = s[i].3.h> # include <conio. int i = 0. clrscr(). char s1[2].h> #define MAX 100 void pop (char *a1). str1). strcat(str1. Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. strrev(s).str2).h> # include <string. str1[MAX]. printf("Enter the prefix expression. while(s[i]!='\0') { if (s[i] == ' ') /*skip whitespace. push(str). Program to convert prefix to postfix expression: # include <stdio. int top =1. if(s[i] == '^'  s[i] == '*'  s[i] == ''  s[i]== '+'  s[i] == '/') { pop (str1). The input is now empty.Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. of Information Technology . str[MAX]. temp[1] = '\0'. / H G * H DEF^/G* C H DEF^/G* C B H DEF^/G* C * H DEF^/G* BC*  H BC*DEF^/G* * BC*DEF^/G*H* A BC*DEF^/G*H* + ABC*DEF^/G*H*+ End of string DEF^/ Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. A Push A Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. void push(char *str). if any */ i++. temp). strcat (str1. The string formed is postfix. "). temp[2]. gets (s). Push C B Push B Pop two operands and place the operator after the operands and push the string. } Lecture Notes 111 Dept. pop (str2). strcpy(str. char stack[MAX][MAX]. 4. void main() { char s[MAX]. str2[MAX].12.
push (s1). strcpy(stack[top]. Example 1: Evaluate the postfix expression: 6 5 2 3 + 8 * + 3 + * SYMBOL OPERAND 1 OPERAND 2 VALUE STACK 6 6 5 6. is pushed Dept. temp). this is our obvious advantage. there is no need to know any precedence rules. 5. 5. } } 4. 3 + Lecture Notes 2 3 5 6. 2. temp[1] = '\0'. Evaluation of postfix expression: The postfix expression is evaluated easily by the use of a stack.else { temp[0] = s[i]. 5 112 REMARKS The first four symbols are placed on the stack. when an operator is seen. 5. str).1) printf("\nstack is full"). When an expression is given in postfix notation. Next a ‘+’ is read. return . stack[top]). the operator is applied to the two numbers that are popped from the stack and the result is pushed onto the stack. } void pop(char*a1) { if(top == 1) { printf("\nStack is empty"). } else { strcpy (a1.4. else { top++. it is pushed onto the stack. top. stack[0]). 5 2 6. of Information Technology . } printf("\nThe postfix expression is: %s". 2 3 6. When a number is seen. } } void push (char *str) { if(top == MAX . so 3 and 2 are popped from the stack and their sum 5. } i++. strcpy (s1.
h> # include <math. 7 * 1 7 7 7 2 1 7 7 7. a ‘+’ is seen. 3 + 45 3 48 6. 3 is pushed Next. the result 6 * 48 = 288 is pushed Example 2: Evaluate the following postfix expression: 6 2 3 + . 5. else return 0. 3. so 8 and 5 are popped as 8 * 5 = 40 is pushed Next. 2 / 8 2 4 1. 45 3 5 40 45 6. 40 + 5 40 45 6.4. 48 * 6 48 288 288 Next 8 is pushed Now a ‘*’ is seen. OPERAND 1 OPERAND 2 VALUE STACK 6 6 2 6. ‘+’ pops 3 and 45 and pushes 45 + 3 = 48 is pushed Finally.1. 3. 8 2 6 5 1 1. 4 + 3 4 7 1.3 8 2 / + * 2 ↑ 3 + SYMBOL 4. 2. 3. 2 3 6. 5.h> # define MAX 20 int isoperator(char ch) { if(ch == '+'  ch == ''  ch == '*'  ch == '/'  ch == '^') return 1. 3 + 2 3 5 6. 45. 8 * 5 8 40 6. } Lecture Notes 113 Dept. 2 ↑ 7 2 49 49 3 7 2 49 49. of Information Technology . 3 8 6 5 1 1. a ‘*’ is seen and 48 and 6 are popped. 5. 8. 3 + 49 3 52 52 Program to evaluate a postfix expression: # include <conio.8 2 3 5 6. so 40 and 5 are popped and 40 + 5 = 45 is pushed Now. 5  6 5 1 1 3 6 5 1 1.
switch(ch) { case '+': res = val1 + val2. case '*': res = val1 * val2. val2. brackets and braces. break. float val_stack[MAX]. break. Stack is used by compilers to check for balancing of parentheses. Stack is used to evaluate a postfix expression. break.val2. int val. Lecture Notes 114 Dept. } printf("\n Values of %s is : %f ". case '^': res = pow(val1. 2. In recursion. break. scanf("%s". val2).void main(void) { char postfix[MAX]. Stack is used to convert an infix expression into postfix/prefix form. all intermediate arguments and return values are stored on the processor’s stack. char ch. During a function call the return address and arguments are pushed onto a stack and on return they are popped off. val_stack[0] ). val1 = val_stack[top]. res. i++. of Information Technology . case '/': res = val1 / val2. top = 0. } 4. while((ch = postfix[i]) != '\0') { if(isoperator(ch) == 1) { val2 = val_stack[top].postfix. 3. postfix). getch(). clrscr(). case '': res = val1 . printf("\n Enter a postfix expression: "). } else val_stack[top] = ch48. 5. } val_stack[top] = res. /*convert character digit to integer digit */ top++.5. int i = 0. val1. 4. break. Applications of stacks: 1.
4.6.
Queue:
A queue is another special kind of list, where items are inserted at one end called the
rear and deleted at the other end called the front. Another name for a queue is a
“FIFO” or “Firstinfirstout” list.
The operations for a queue are analogues to those for a stack, the difference is that the
insertions go at the end of the list, rather than the beginning. We shall use the
following operations on queues:
•
enqueue: which inserts an element at the end of the queue.
•
dequeue: which deletes an element at the start of the queue.
4.6.1.
Representation of Queue:
Let us consider a queue, which can hold maximum of five elements. Initially the queue
is empty.
0
1
2
3
4
Q u e u e E mp t y
F RO NT = RE A R = 0
F R
Now, insert 11 to the queue. Then queue status will be:
0
1
2
3
4
RE A R = RE A R + 1 = 1
F RO NT = 0
11
F
R
Next, insert 22 to the queue. Then the queue status is:
0
1
11
22
F
2
3
4
RE A R = RE A R + 1 = 2
F RO NT = 0
R
Again insert another element 33 to the queue. The status of the queue is:
0
1
2
11
22
33
F
Lecture Notes
3
4
RE A R = RE A R + 1 = 3
F RO NT = 0
R
115
Dept. of Information Technology
Now, delete an element. The element deleted is the element at the front of the queue.
So the status of the queue is:
0
1
2
22
33
F
3
4
RE A R = 3
F RO NT = F R O NT + 1 = 1
R
Again, delete an element. The element to be deleted is always pointed to by the FRONT
pointer. So, 22 is deleted. The queue status is as follows:
0
1
2
3
4
RE A R = 3
F RO NT = F R O NT + 1 = 2
33
F
R
Now, insert new elements 44 and 55 into the queue. The queue status is:
0
1
2
33
3
4
44
55
F
RE A R = 5
F RO NT = 2
R
Next insert another element, say 66 to the queue. We cannot insert 66 to the queue as
the rear crossed the maximum size of the queue (i.e., 5). There will be queue full
signal. The queue status is as follows:
0
1
2
33
3
4
44
55
F
RE A R = 5
F RO NT = 2
R
Now it is not possible to insert an element 66 even though there are two vacant
positions in the linear queue. To over come this problem the elements of the queue are
to be shifted towards the beginning of the queue so that it creates vacant position at
the rear end. Then the FRONT and REAR are to be adjusted properly. The element 66
can be inserted at the rear end. After this operation, the queue status is as follows:
0
1
2
33
44
55
F
3
4
RE A R = 4
F RO NT = 0
66
R
This difficulty can overcome if we treat queue position with index 0 as a position that
comes after position with index 4 i.e., we treat the queue as a circular queue.
Lecture Notes
116
Dept. of Information Technology
4.6.2.
Source code for Queue operations using array:
In order to create a queue we require a one dimensional array Q(1:n) and two
variables front and rear. The conventions we shall adopt for these two variables are
that front is always 1 less than the actual front of the queue and rear always points to
the last element in the queue. Thus, front = rear if and only if there are no elements in
the queue. The initial condition then is front = rear = 0. The various queue operations
to perform creation, deletion and display the elements in a queue are as follows:
1.
insertQ(): inserts an element at the end of queue Q.
2.
deleteQ(): deletes the first element of Q.
3.
displayQ(): displays the elements in the queue.
# include <conio.h>
# define MAX 6
int Q[MAX];
int front, rear;
void insertQ()
{
int data;
if(rear == MAX)
{
printf("\n Linear Queue is full");
return;
}
else
{
printf("\n Enter data: ");
scanf("%d", &data);
Q[rear] = data;
rear++;
printf("\n Data Inserted in the Queue ");
}
}
void deleteQ()
{
if(rear == front)
{
printf("\n\n Queue is Empty..");
return;
}
else
{
printf("\n Deleted element from Queue is %d", Q[front]);
front++;
}
}
void displayQ()
{
int i;
if(front == rear)
{
printf("\n\n\t Queue is Empty");
return;
}
else
{
printf("\n Elements in Queue are: ");
for(i = front; i < rear; i++)
Lecture Notes
117
Dept. of Information Technology
{
printf("%d\t", Q[i]);
}
}
}
int menu()
{
int ch;
clrscr();
printf("\n \tQueue operations using ARRAY..");
printf("\n **********\n");
printf("\n 1. Insert ");
printf("\n 2. Delete ");
printf("\n 3. Display");
printf("\n 4. Quit ");
printf("\n Enter your choice: ");
scanf("%d", &ch);
return ch;
}
void main()
{
int ch;
do
{
ch = menu();
switch(ch)
{
case 1:
insertQ();
break;
case 2:
deleteQ();
break;
case 3:
displayQ();
break;
case 4:
return;
}
getch();
} while(1);
}
4.6.3.
Linked List Implementation of Queue:
We can represent a queue as a linked list. In a queue data is deleted from the front end
and inserted at the rear end. We can perform similar operations on the two ends of a
list. We use two pointers front and rear for our linked queue implementation.
The linked queue looks as shown in figure 4.4:
front
rear
100
400
10
100
200
20
300
200
30
400
300
40
X
400
Figure 4.4. Linked Queue representation
Lecture Notes
118
Dept. of Information Technology
free(temp). scanf("%d". } void insertQ() { node *newnode.h> # include <conio. newnode = getnode(). &temp > data). } else { rear > next = newnode. return. temp > next = NULL.h> struct queue { int data..4. } printf("\n\n\t Data Inserted into the Queue. } void deleteQ() { node *temp.4. if(newnode == NULL) { printf("\n Queue Full"). } Lecture Notes 119 Dept. rear = newnode. temp = (node *) malloc(sizeof(node)) . } temp = front.. of Information Technology . printf("\n\n\t Deleted element from queue is %d ". node* getnode() { node *temp. front = front > next. rear = newnode. typedef struct queue node. return. struct queue *next. } if(front == NULL) { front = newnode. }. temp > data)."). node *front = NULL. if(front == NULL) { printf("\n\n\t Empty Queue.6."). node *rear = NULL. Source code for queue operations using linked list: # include <stdlib. return temp. printf("\n Enter data ").
void displayQ()
{
node *temp;
if(front == NULL)
{
printf("\n\n\t\t Empty Queue ");
}
else
{
temp = front;
printf("\n\n\n\t\t Elements in the Queue are: ");
while(temp != NULL )
{
printf("%5d ", temp > data);
temp = temp > next;
}
}
}
char menu()
{
char ch;
clrscr();
printf("\n \t..Queue operations using pointers.. ");
printf("\n\t **********\n");
printf("\n 1. Insert ");
printf("\n 2. Delete ");
printf("\n 3. Display");
printf("\n 4. Quit ");
printf("\n Enter your choice: ");
ch = getche();
return ch;
}
void main()
{
char ch;
do
{
ch = menu();
switch(ch)
{
case '1' :
insertQ();
break;
case '2' :
deleteQ();
break;
case '3' :
displayQ();
break;
case '4':
return;
}
getch();
} while(ch != '4');
}
Lecture Notes
120
Dept. of Information Technology
4.7.
Applications of Queue:
1.
It is used to schedule the jobs to be processed by the CPU.
2.
When multiple users send print jobs to a printer, each printing job is kept in
the printing queue. Then the printer prints those jobs according to first in
first out (FIFO) basis.
3.
Breadth first search uses a queue data structure to find an element from a
graph.
4.8.
Circular Queue:
A more efficient queue representation is obtained by regarding the array Q[MAX] as
circular. Any number of items could be placed on the queue. This implementation of a
queue is called a circular queue because it uses its storage array as if it were a circle
instead of a linear list.
There are two problems associated with linear queue. They are:
•
Time consuming: linear time to be spent in shifting the elements to the
beginning of the queue.
•
Signaling queue full: even if the queue is having vacant position.
For example, let us consider a linear queue status as follows:
0
1
2
33
3
4
44
55
F
RE A R = 5
F RO NT = 2
R
Next insert another element, say 66 to the queue. We cannot insert 66 to the queue as
the rear crossed the maximum size of the queue (i.e., 5). There will be queue full
signal. The queue status is as follows:
0
1
2
33
F
3
4
44
55
RE A R = 5
F RO NT = 2
R
This difficulty can be overcome if we treat queue position with index zero as a position
that comes after position with index four then we treat the queue as a circular queue.
In circular queue if we reach the end for inserting elements to it, it is possible to insert
new elements if the slots at the beginning of the circular queue are empty.
Lecture Notes
121
Dept. of Information Technology
4.8.1.
Representation of Circular Queue:
Let us consider a circular queue, which can hold maximum (MAX) of six elements.
Initially the queue is empty.
F
R
0
5
Queue
MAX =
F RO NT
C O U NT
1
4
E mp t y
6
= RE A R = 0
= 0
2
3
C irc u l ar Q u e u e
Now, insert 11 to the circular queue. Then circular queue status will be:
F
0
5
R
11
F RO NT = 0
RE A R = ( RE A R + 1) % 6 = 1
C O U NT = 1
1
4
2
3
C irc u l ar Q u e u e
Insert new elements 22, 33, 44 and 55 into the circular queue. The circular queue
status is:
F
R
0
5
11
4
22
55
44
1
FRONT = 0
REAR = (REAR + 1) % 6 = 5
COUNT = 5
33
3
2
Circular Queue
Lecture Notes
122
Dept. of Information Technology
Now, delete an element. The element deleted is the element at the front of the circular
queue. So, 11 is deleted. The circular queue status is as follows:
R
0
5
F
4
22
55
44
F RO NT = (F R O NT + 1) % 6 = 1
RE A R = 5
C O U NT = C O U NT  1 = 4
1
33
2
3
C irc u l ar Q u e u e
Again, delete an element. The element to be deleted is always pointed to by the FRONT
pointer. So, 22 is deleted. The circular queue status is as follows:
R
0
5
4
F RO NT = (F R O NT + 1) % 6 = 2
RE A R = 5
C O U NT = C O U NT  1 = 3
1
55
44
33
F
2
3
C irc u l ar Q u e u e
Again, insert another element 66 to the circular queue. The status of the circular queue
is:
R
0
5
66
4
1
55
44
3
F RO NT = 2
RE A R = ( RE A R + 1) % 6 = 0
C O U NT = C O U NT + 1 = 4
33
2
F
C irc u l ar Q u e u e
Lecture Notes
123
Dept. of Information Technology
if we insert an element to the circular queue.. 4. front = (front + 1) % MAX. CQ[rear] = data. &data). rear = 0. CQ[front]). void insertCQ() { int data. scanf("%d"."). the circular queue is full. rear = (rear + 1) % MAX. } else { printf("\n Deleted element from Circular Queue is %d ". as COUNT = MAX we cannot add the element to circular queue. RE A R = 2 RE A R = RE A R % 6 = 2 C O U NT = 6 33 2 R F C irc u l ar Q u e u e Now. using array: # include <stdio.h> # include <conio. if(count == MAX) { printf("\n Circular Queue is Full"). of Information Technology .Now. count = 0. insert new elements 77 and 88 into the circular queue. So.h> # define MAX 6 int int int int CQ[MAX]. Source code for Circular Queue operations. } } Lecture Notes 124 Dept.8.2. } else { printf("\n Enter data: "). front = 0. } } void deleteCQ() { if(count == 0) { printf("\n\nCircular Queue is Empty. The circular queue status is: 0 5 66 4 77 88 55 44 3 1 F RO NT = 2. count ++. count . printf("\n Data Inserted in the Circular Queue ").
of Information Technology . 125 Dept. switch(ch) { case 1: case 2: case 3: case 4: default: } } getch(). printf("\n \t Circular Queue Operations using ARRAY. j != 0.. clrscr(). Display"). return. printf("\n 2. j. displayCQ(). CQ[i]). j = count. scanf("%d". Lecture Notes insertCQ(). } while(1). i = (i + 1) % MAX. } } } int menu() { int ch. } else { printf("\n Elements in Circular Queue are: "). printf("\n Invalid Choice "). break."). if(count == 0) { printf("\n\n\t Circular Queue is Empty "). for(i = front. return ch. &ch). } void main() { int ch. printf("\n 4. printf("\n **********\n").void displayCQ() { int i. Insert "). Quit "). printf("\n 3. j) { printf("%d\t". break. printf("\n Enter Your Choice: "). deleteCQ(). break. do { ch = menu(). Delete "). printf("\n 1.
which allows insertions at one end but allows deletions at both ends of the list.5 shows the representation of a deque. An output restricted deque is a deque. This data structure is a deque. • dequeue_rear: delete element at rear. 11 22 enqueue_front(33) 33 11 22 enqueue_rear(44) 33 11 22 44 dequeue_front(33) 55 11 22 enqueue_front(55) 11 22 dequeue_rear(44) 11 22 44 Figure 4. Basic operations on deque There are two variations of deque. Figure 4. They are: • Input restricted deque (IRD) • Output restricted deque (ORD) An Input restricted deque is a deque. Lecture Notes 126 Dept. which provides a means to insert and remove items at both ends of the queue.5.6 shows the basic operations on a deque. The word deque is an acronym derived from doubleended queue.4. A deque provides four operations. which allows deletions at one end but allows insertions at both ends of the list. • enqueue_front: insert an element at front.9. Figure 4. • enqueue_rear: insert element at rear. In this section we examine an extension of the queue. Representation of a deque. Deque: In the preceding section we saw that a queue in which we insert items at one end and from which we remove items at the other end.6. Deletion 36 16 56 62 Insertion 19 Insertion Deletion front rear Figure 4. of Information Technology . • dequeue_front: delete an element at front.
4. A number: B. 9. . . A division sign: Lecture Notes 127 Dept. two elements with same priority are processed which they were added to the queue. Exercises 1. and programs with the same priority form a standard queue. 6. ↑. Is it possible to have two designs for the same data structure that provide the same functionality but are implemented differently? 3. Transform the following infix expressions to reverse polish notation: a) A ↑ B * C – D + E / F / (G + H) b) ((A + B) * C – (D – E)) ↑ (F + G) c) A – B / (C * D ↑ E) d) (a + b ↑ c ↑ d) * (e + f / d)) f) 3 – 6 * 7 + 2 / 4 * 5 – 8 g) (A – B) / ((D + E) * F) h) ((A + B) / D) ↑ ((E – F) * G) 5. *. *. 5. 4. 2. *. A left parenthesis: C. +. 2. Draw the stack for the case where the 11th symbol is: A. Consider the usual algorithm to convert an infix expression to a postfix expression. A minus sign: E. 2. suppose that you read and process the 11th symbol of the input.  6. according to the order in A prototype of a priority queue is time sharing system: programs of high priority are processed first. Evaluate the following postfix expressions: a) P1: 5. What is a linear data structure? Give two examples of linear data structures. 4. +. Priority Queue: A priority queue is a collection of elements such that each element has been assigned a priority and such that the order in which elements are deleted and processed comes from the following rules: 1. 2. What is the difference between the logical representation of a data structure and the physical representation? 4. 1. . 6. of Information Technology . b) P2: 3.10. An efficient implementation for the Priority Queue is to use heap. + c) P3 : 3. which in turn can be used for sorting purpose called heap sort. 2. 1. ↑. 4. 2. 5. Suppose that you have read 10 input characters during a conversion and that the stack now contains these symbols: bottom + ( * Now. 3. +. 7. An element of higher priority is processed before any element of lower priority. 7. A right parenthesis: D. +. /. .
12. Can a queue be represented by a circular linked list with only one pointer pointing to the tail of the queue? Write “C” functions for the “add” and “delete” operations on such a queue 16. of Information Technology . Write a “C” function to test whether a string of opening and closing parenthesis is well formed or not.* 6 3 – 4 1 c) + + 2 6 + . Evaluate the following prefix expressions: a) + * 2 + / 14 2 5 1 b) .E)) ↑ (F + G) e) A – B / (C * D ↑ E) 10. Represent N queues in a single onedimensional array. “rear” and MAXQUEUESIZE? Write a “C” function to delete the Kth element from the “front” of a circular queue. Write a “C” function for your algorithm.7. Write functions for “push”. 8. 15.13 2 4 9. 14. “delete” functions on the queue. Lecture Notes 128 Dept. Write an algorithm to construct a fully parenthesized infix expression from its postfix equivalent. In a circular queue represented by an array. Explain what modifications would be needed to make the parenthesis matching algorithm check expressions with different kinds of parentheses such as (). How can one convert a postfix expression to its prefix equivalent and viceversa? 13. [] and {}'s. Represent a stack and queue in a single onedimensional array. b) The stack is implemented using linked list. how can one specify the number of elements in the queue in terms of “front”. “pop” operations on the stack and “add”. A doubleended queue (deque) is a linear list where additions and deletions can be performed at either end. 17. Represent a deque using an array to store the elements of the list and write the “C” functions for additions and deletions. 11. Write functions for “add” and “delete” operations on the ith queue 18. Write a program using stack for parenthesis matching. Convert the following infix expressions to prefix notation: a) ((A + 2) * (B + 4)) 1 b) Z – ((((X + 1) * 2) – 5) / Y) c) ((C * 2) + 1) / (A + B) d) ((A + B) * C – (D . Write a “C” function to copy one stack to another assuming a) The stack is implemented using array.
Which among the following is a Dynamic data structure: A.* E / [ D ] 7./ E B. A. none of the above 129 Dept. Evaluate the following prefix expression: * . none of the above [ C ] 10. Which among the following is a linear data structure: A.+ D. / * .+ 4 3 5 / + 2 4 3 [ A ] 3. 3 B. front and rear B. of Information Technology . Linked List D. none of the above [ B ] 11. none of the above [ D ] 12. . both A and B B.B / (C * D) A. / * + 1 2 C A B + B. all the above [ D ] 2. A B C D * / D. rear and front C. Queue is also known as: A. 1 D. none of the above [ A ] [ A ] 4. Stack C./ * A B C D [ B ] 8. Transform the following infix expression to postfix form: A . First in first out list [ B ] Lecture Notes C. First in first out list D. Last in first out list C. A stack is a data structure in which all insertions and deletions of entries are made at: A. 4 B.Multiple Choice Questions 1. A B C * C D / . One end C. At any position [ A ] 5. 8 C. Last in first out list B.+ X 1 2 5 Y B. Stack B. Transform the following infix expression to prefix form: ((C * 2) + 1) / (A + B) A. In the middle D.* + X 1 2 5 Y C. Y 5 2 1 X + * . all the above Stack is referred as: A. 2 D.D C * B A B. Transform the following infix expression to prefix form: Z – ((((X + 1) * 2) – 5) / Y) A. 8 C. both A and B D. A B + C D * . / ./ C. A B + C D . / . none of the above 9. Queue B. rear and rear [ A ] 6. A B + 1 2 C * + / C. A B * C + D / C. Transform the following infix expression to postfix form: (A + B) * (C – D) / E A./ D. Both the ends B. Double Linked List C. front and front D. Evaluate the following postfix expression: 1 4 18 6 / 3 + + 5 / + A. Queue D. A B * C D . / + * C 2 1 + A B D. A queue is a data structure in which all insertions and deletions are made respectively at: A.
None of these operations. with ten items in the queue stored at data[2] through data[11]. which operations require linear time for their worstcase behavior? A. queues use only one. At the head B. In the linked list implementation of the queue class. push D. Both change. Neither changes C. [ ] 19. front C. Only rear_ptr changes. The get_front function would require linear time. After all other entries that are greater than the new entry. In the linkedlist version of the queue class. in what order will they be removed? A. front C. Consider the implementation of the queue using a circular array. data[1] C. B. B. 'C'. 'B'. If the characters 'D'. push D. C. The CAPACITY is 42.13. D. Only rear_ptr changes. where does the push member function place the new entry on the linked list? A. Which of these pointers will change during an insertion into a NONEMPTY queue? A. Neither changes C. DCAB B. Only front_ptr changes. To implement the queue with a linked list. [ B ] 17. [ C ] 14. A. Queues use two ends of the structure. To implement the queue with a linked list. data[11] B. empty B. The constructor would require linear time. The is_empty function would require linear time. [ ] 20. keeping track of a front pointer and a rear pointer. One difference between a queue and a stack is: A. Stacks use two ends of the structure. After all other entries that are smaller than the new entry. B. [ D ] Lecture Notes 130 Dept. DCBA [ D ] 15. At the tail C. which operations require linear time for their worstcase behavior? A. ABCD C. None of these. In the circular array version of the queue class (with a fixedsized array). and then removed one at a time. Only front_ptr changes. Stacks require dynamic memory. D. Where does the push member function place the new entry in the array? A. [ B ] 21. data[12] [ D ] 16. but queues do not. Which of these pointers will change during an insertion into an EMPTY queue? A. ABDC D. Queues require dynamic memory. D. [ A ] 18. B. D. Suppose we have a circular array implementation of the queue class. data[2] D. Both change. stacks use only one. The insert function would require linear time. 'A' are placed in a queue (in that order). of Information Technology . D. empty B. keeping track of a front pointer and a rear pointer. but stacks do not. What goes wrong if we try to keep all the items at the front of a partiallyfilled array (so that data[0] is always the front). C.
Here is an infix expression: 4 + 3 * (6 * 3 . If the expression ((2 + 3) * 4 + 5 * (6 + 7) * 8) + 9 is evaluated with * having precedence over +. 25 D. insert B. Keeping track of local variables at run time. Suppose that we are using the usual stack algorithm to convert the expression from infix to postfix notation. append D. push [ D ] 25. The entries must be stored in a linked list. The operation for adding an entry to a stack is traditionally called: A. What is the value of the postfix expression 6 3 2 4 + . There is a first entry. Evaluate the following prefix expression: + * 2 + / 14 2 5 1 A. push B. add C. What is the meaning of this statement? A. B. The operation for removing an entry from a stack is traditionally called: A. pop B. remove Which of the following stack operations could result in stack underflow? A. The implementation gets to choose either one. Two or more of the above answers [ C ] [ A ] 26.* A. Syntax analyzer for a compiler. 2 D. 3 B. [ D ] 24. Something between 5 and 15 C. This can never happen (violates the precondition) [ B ] 23. Which of the following applications may use a stack? A. The one which was inserted most recently. A collection of stacks can be sorted. delete C. pop D. 27.22. C. 50 C. peek D. is_empty C. + + * + 2 3 4 * * 5 + 6 7 8 9 C. * + + + 2 3 4 * * 5 + 6 7 8 9 B. + * + + 2 3 4 * * 5 + 6 7 8 9 D. [ D ] 28. All of the above. Suppose top is called on a priority queue that has exactly two entries with equal priority. D. then the value obtained is same as the value of which of the following prefix expressions? A. 15 [ B ] Lecture Notes 131 Dept. B. A parentheses balancing program. Something between 15 and 100 B. 4 [ D ] 29. + * + + 2 3 4 + + 5 * 6 7 8 9 [ A ] 31. D. of Information Technology . Something between 5 and 15 E. Something between 5 and 5 D. 1 C. C. Stack entries may be compared with the '<' operation. What is the maximum number of symbols that will appear on the stack AT ONE TIME during the conversion of this expression? A. The one which was inserted first.12). How is the return value of top selected? A. a second entry. and so on. C. D. Something between 15 and 100 [ A ] 30. B. 40 B. Entries in a stack are "ordered".
None of the above [ A ] 35. Queue [ D Lecture Notes 132 ] Dept. Circular Queue D. Stack B. Which among the following types of expressions does not require precedence rules for evaluation: A. True C. None of the above [ A ] 33 A postfix expression is merely the reverse of the prefix expression: A. Cannot be expected B. both A and B D. Stack C. None of the above [ B ] 34 Which among the following data structure may give overflow error. none of the above [ C ] 36. Fully parenthesized infix expression B.32 Parenthesis are never needed prefix or postfix expression: A. Simple Queue C. False D. False D. of Information Technology . Conversion of infix arithmetic expression to postfix expression uses: A. Cannot be expected B. linked list B. circular queue D. is less than its size: A. True C. even though the current number of elements in it. Prefix expression C.
The root node has no parent.1 shows a tree and a nontree. and cycles may be present in the graph. One of the nodes. data items appear at various levels. Each child node is itself the root of a subtree. known as the root. In a graph. Ordered trees are by far the commonest form of tree data structure.1. which are easy to maintain in the computer. we will explain special type of trees known as binary trees. Tree and graph structures represents hierarchial relationship between individual data elements. Trees and Graphs are widely used nonlinear data structures. is at the top of the hierarchy. Each node can have at most one link coming into it.. which have no children. a a b d c e b f c d A Tree e Not a Tree Figure 5. At the bottom of the tree are leaf nodes. there is no restrictions on the number of links that can enter or leave a node. In this chapter in particular. queues and linked lists organize data in linear order.e. 5. The figure 5.1 A Tree and a not a tree In a tree data structure. none is the "first child" or "last child".Chapter 5 Binary Trees A data structure is said to be linear if its elements form a sequence or a linear list. The node where the link originates is called the parent node. A tree in which such distinctions are made is called an ordered tree. Graphs are nothing but trees with certain restrictions removed. TREES: A tree is hierarchical collection of nodes. Trees are recursive structures. stacks. The links leaving a node (any number of links are allowed) point to child nodes. A data structure is said to be non linear if its elements form a hierarchical classification where. there is no distinction between the various children of a node i. Lecture Notes 133 Dept. of Information Technology . and data structures built on them are called ordered tree data structures. Trees represent a special case of more general structures known as graphs.1. Previous linear data structures that we have studied like an array.1.
A tree with no nodes is called as a null tree. of Information Technology . The length of a path is 1 less than the number of nodes on the path.. Ancestor and Descendent If there is a path from node A to node B. F and G are the siblings of the parent node C and H and I are the siblings of the parent node D. . each node can have at most two children. Because of this characteristic.2.. B. I. Thus there is a path of length zero from a node to itself. such that ni is the parent of ni + 1 for i = 1. A node which is not a leaf is called an internal node.1. fixed number of child links. BINARY TREE: In general. nk. A binary tree is shown in figure 5. For the tree shown in figure 5. k .1.2. .1. Lecture Notes 134 Dept.. Tree Terminology: Leaf node A node with no children is called a leaf (or external node). A binary tree is either empty or consists of a node called the root together with two binary trees called the left subtree and the right subtree. the path between A and I is A. Binary Tree Binary trees are easy to implement because they have a small. Subtree Any node of a tree.2. binary trees are the most common types of trees and form the basis of many important data structures.2. n2.1. D. In a binary tree. A left child B H F E D left subtree C right child right subtree G I Figure 5. .1.5. Siblings The children of the same parent are called siblings. . with all of its descendants is a subtree. 2. then A is called an ancestor of B and B is called a descendent of A. .2. tree nodes can have any number of children. Path A sequence of nodes n1. For the tree shown in figure 5.
The root of the tree has level O.1 is 3. Maximum number of leaves = 2h b. left to right.1 2.2. The maximum number of nodes at any level is 2n. 3. If h = height of a binary tree.2.1 node F is at level 2 and node H is at level 3. it can contain at most 2l node at level l. Level 0 1 4 8 Level 1 3 2 5 6 Level 2 7 Level 3 9 Figure 5. If a binary tree contains m nodes at level l. Since a binary tree can contain at most one node at level 0 (the root). The nodes of a complete binary tree can be numbered so that the root is assigned the number 1.2. The total number of edges in a full binary tree with n node is n .2.2. see Figure 5.Level The level of the node refers to its distance from the root. Lecture Notes 135 Dept. in the binary tree of Figure 5. The height of a node in a tree is the length of a longest path from the node to a leaf. level by level. Level by level numbering of binary tree Properties of binary trees: Some of the important properties of a binary tree are as follows: 1. For example. The height of the tree of Figure 5.2. Height The maximum level in a tree determines its height. For instance.2. 4. of Information Technology . Maximum number of nodes = 2h + 1 .1. it contains at most 2m nodes at level l + 1. and a right child is assigned one more than twice the number assigned its parent. Assigning level numbers and Numbering of nodes for a binary tree: The nodes of a binary tree can be numbered in a natural way. node ‘C’ in figure 5. For example. Depth The depth of a node is the number of nodes along the path from the root to that node. The term depth is also used to denote height of the tree.1 has a depth of 1. then a. a left child is assigned twice the number assigned its parent. and the level of any other node in the tree is one more than the level of its parent.
Figure 5. A full binary tree with height h has 2h + 1 .1 nonleaf nodes.2.Strictly Binary tree: If every nonleaf node in a binary tree has nonempty left and right subtrees. 1 1 Strict Binary Tree (a) 2 6 12 7 4 13 8 9 7 Strictly Complete binary tree (b) 1 2 2 3 5 6 5 9 8 1 4 3 2 3 6 4 7 8 10 Complete binary tree 3 5 9 10 6 11 12 7 13 Full binary tree (c) 14 15 (d) Figure 5. and the level h is filled from left to right. a full binary tree of height 3 contains 23+1 – 1 = 15 nodes.3(a) is strictly binary.1 nodes. A complete binary tree of height h looks like a full binary tree down to level h1.4 shows examples of complete and incomplete binary trees. Figure 5. Examples of binary trees Complete Binary tree: A binary tree with n nodes is said to be complete if it contains all the first n nodes of the above numbering scheme. l =0 For example. A strictly binary tree with n leaves always contains 2n . total number of nodes ( tn) = ∑ 2 l = 2 h + 1 − 1 . Lecture Notes 136 Dept. the tree is termed as strictly binary tree.3.2. h Thus by induction. 2h .2. Alternatively. All non leaf nodes of a full binary tree have two children. Thus the tree of figure 5. Full Binary tree: A full binary tree of height h has all its leaves at level h.2. A full binary tree of height h contains 2h leaves and. of Information Technology . A full binary tree of height h is a strictly binary tree all of whose leaves are at level h. and the leaf nodes have no children.1 nodes.3(d) illustrates the full binary tree containing 15 nodes and of height 3.
Arrays. Pointerbased. The square node version is sometimes called an extended binary tree. Figure 5. 3. 1 1 3 2 4 5 1 2 6 3 4 Complete Binary Tree but not strict (a) 5 2 7 4 Not C omplete and not strict (b) Not C omplete and not strict (c) Figure 5. An external node doesn’t exist. this method wastes no space. 5 5 3 Figure 5. 4. A binary tree with n internal nodes has n+1 external nodes. and if the tree is a complete binary tree.2. c. especially suited for complete and full binary trees. We draw internal nodes using circles. Examples of complete and incomplete binary trees Internal and external nodes: We define two terms: Internal nodes and external nodes.A complete binary tree with n leaves that is not strictly binary has 2n nodes.3(c) is a complete binary tree having 5 leaves and 10 nodes. Internal and external nodes Data Structures for Binary Trees: 1. its children are found at indices 2i+1 and 2i+2. if a node has an index i. It is some times convenient to have another types of nodes. Lecture Notes 137 Dept. while its parent (if any) is found at index floor((i1)/2) (assuming the root of the tree stored in the array at an index zero). d External Nodes: 1. of Information Technology . the tree of Figure 5. with letters as labels.2. called an external node. 2. External nodes are denoted by squares. 2. In this compact arrangement.6 shows a sample tree illustrating both internal and external nodes. Arraybased Implementation: Binary trees can also be stored in arrays. but serves as a conceptual place holder for nodes to be inserted. c a d b 1 2 4 Internal Nodes: a.2. For example. and pretend that all null child links point to such a node.6.2. b. An internal node is a tree node having at least one–key and possibly some children.4.
of Information Technology . In linked representation each node in a binary has three fields. it is difficult to determine its parent node. To overcome this difficulty we represent the binary tree in linked representation. node representation empty binary tree is shown in figure 5. If any subtree is empty then the corresponding pointer’s LeftChild and RightChild will store a NULL value. Structure definition.This method benefits from more compact storage and better locality of reference. particularly during a preorder traversal. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Linked Representation (Pointer based): Array representation is good for complete binary tree. node: LeftC hild Empty Tree: typedef struct binarytree node. which have no subtrees. expensive to grow and wastes space proportional to 2h . struct binarytree *RightChild. data RightChild root NULL node *root = NULL.2.6. However. }.6 and the linked representation of binary tree using this node structure is given in figure 5. The advantage of using linked representation of binary tree is that: • Insertion and deletion involve no data movement and no movement of nodes except the rearrangement of pointers.n for a tree of height h with n nodes. struct binarytree { struct binarytree *LeftChild. If the tree itself is empty the root pointer will store a NULL value. • Memory spaces are wasted for storing NULL pointers for the nodes. node representation and empty tree Lecture Notes 138 Dept. Figure 5. The structure definition.7. as it requires the moment of potentially many nodes to reflect the change in level number of this node. int data. The disadvantages of linked representation of binary tree includes: • Given a node structure. but it is wasteful for many other binary trees. data field denoted as data and the right child field denoted as RightChild.2. The representation suffers from insertion and deletion of node from the middle of the tree. it requires contiguous memory.2. the left child field denoted as LeftChild.
5. you may wish to print the contents of the nodes. Visit the root.3. Preorder 2. Linked representation for the binary tree 5. By visit. The difference among them comes from the difference in the time at which a root node is visited. the left subtree of a node is traversed before the right subtree.1. Lecture Notes 139 Dept. Recursive Traversal Algorithms: Inorder Traversal: In the case of inorder traversal. Visit the left subtree. we mean that some type of operation is performed. using inorder. Level order In the first three traversal methods.7.3. For example. The algorithm for inorder traversal is as follows: void inorder(node *root) { if(root != NULL) { inorder(root>lchild). 3.2.A root B D C E F A G B H C I D X H X X I X E X X F X X G X X Figure 5. Postorder 4. 2. Visit the right subtree. using inorder. the root of each subtree is visited after its left subtree has been traversed but before the traversal of its right subtree begins. Binary Tree Traversal Techniques: A tree traversal is a method of visiting every node in the tree. of Information Technology . Inorder 3. The steps for traversing a binary tree in inorder traversal are: 1. There are four common ways to traverse a binary tree: 1.
using postorder. postorder (root > rchild). The level order traversal requires a queue data structure. print (root > data). Visit the right subtree. Visit the root. Visit the right subtree. } Preorder Traversal: In a preorder traversal. Visit the root. Visit the left subtree. the nodes are visited level by level starting from the root. The algorithm for postorder traversal is as follows: void postorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { postorder (root > lchild). 2. } } Level order Traversal: In a level order traversal. preorder (root > rchild). So. Preorder search is also called backtracking. The algorithm for preorder traversal is as follows: void preorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { print root > data. of Information Technology . 2. each root is visited after its left and right subtrees have been traversed. using postorder 3.} print root > data. preorder (root > lchild). The steps for traversing a binary tree in postorder traversal are: 1. The steps for traversing a binary tree in preorder traversal are: 1. This is nothing but a breadth first search technique. 3. and going from left to right. using preorder. Visit the left subtree. each root node is visited before its left and right subtrees are traversed. using preorder. it is not possible to develop a recursive procedure to traverse the binary tree in level order. inorder(root>rchild). } } Postorder Traversal: In a postorder traversal. Lecture Notes 140 Dept.
A . P. W . H. H . C . B. D. S. G . T. D. F . } } Example 1: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. Z. F . T. I F H G I Bi n a ry T r e e Pr e. W . F . Y. C . for(j = 0. B . G . P o st . I n or d er a n d l ev e l or d er T r av er s i n g 141 Dept. Y. F . R. Y. Z. G . F .The algorithm for level order traversal is as follows: void levelorder() { int j. Z • L e v e l o r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: P. inorder and level order. A B C E D • P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: A . T. R. W Y T Z W Bi n a ry T r e e • Pr e. G . I • L e v e l o r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: A . Y. H . I. P • Ino r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: B. R. Z • Po sto r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: B. E . E . G . F . inorder and level order. E . B . I • Po sto r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: D. I n or d er a n d l ev e l or d er T r av er s i n g Example 2: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. post. P F B S H R G Lecture Notes P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: P. B . C . S. H. S. F . j++) { if(tree[j] != NULL) print tree[j] > data. H . of Information Technology . B. H . E . G . G . W . S. G . R. C . T. F . A • Ino r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: D. j < ctr. post. H. B . H. P o st .
G . M . K . Lecture Notes 142 Dept. E . C . L . 4 • Po sto r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: 2. 7 . 2 • Ino r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: 2. B . H . L . P o st . Once the root node is identified. 7 . E . inorder and level order. 11 . I n or d er a n d l ev e l or d er T r av er s i n g Building Binary Tree from Traversal Pairs: Sometimes it is required to construct a binary tree if its traversals are known. B . 5 . 6 . 2 7 2 5 6 P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: 2. M . Same technique can be applied repeatedly to form subtrees. However any of the two traversals are given then the corresponding tree can be drawn uniquely: • • • Inorder and preorder Inorder and postorder Inorder and level order The basic principle for formulation is as follows: If the preorder traversal is given. D. G . P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: A . then the first node is the root node. 5 .3. 6 . D. 2 . 9 . 4 . D. If the postorder traversal is given then the last node is the root node. H . 5 . 5 . E . 7 . I n or d er a n d l ev e l or d er T r av er s i n g Example 4: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. 5 . 4 . post. 2 . post. A • Ino r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: K . 9 . From a single traversal it is not possible to construct unique binary tree. H . C . G . C . H . 9 • L e v e l o r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: 2. P o st . 9 . D. C • L e v e l o r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: A . 11 . 11 . 5 . all the nodes in the left subtrees and right subtrees of the root node can be identified using inorder. 5 . A . of Information Technology . A B C H K L M Bi n a ry T r e e 5. E • Po sto r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: K . L . M . 4 9 11 5 • 4 Bi n a ry T r e e Pr e. B . 5 . 2 . B . 6 .2. M E D G • Pr e. 7 . G . inorder and level order. 6 . 11 .Example 3: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. L . K .
left and right sub trees for D G: From the preorder sequence D G. the root of the tree is: D From the inorder sequence D G. we get the left and right sub trees: Left sub tree is: D G B Right sub tree is: H E I C F The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A D G B H E I C F To find the root. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B H E I C F D G To find the root. of Information Technology . alternatively. for the purpose mentioned. we can find that there is no left node to D and G is at the right of D. binary tree cannot be obtained uniquely. the root is: A From Inorder sequence D G B A H E I C F.It can be noted that. Lecture Notes 143 Dept. left and right sub trees for D G B: From the preorder sequence B D G. the root of tree is: B From the inorder sequence D G B. two traversal are essential out of which one should be inorder traversal and another preorder or postorder. given preorder and postorder traversals. we can find that D and G are to the left of B. Example 1: Construct a binary tree from a given preorder and inorder sequence: Preorder: A B D G C E H I F Inorder: D G B A H E I C F Solution: From Preorder sequence A B D G C E H I F.
we can find that H E I are at the left of C and F is at the right of C. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B C E D G H F I Example 2: Construct a binary tree from a given postorder and inorder sequence: Inorder: D G B A H E I C F Postorder: G D B H I E F C A Lecture Notes 144 Dept. the root of the tree is: E From the inorder sequence H E I. the root of the left sub tree is: C From the inorder sequence H E I C F. left and right sub trees for H E I C F: From the preorder sequence C E H I F. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B C D F H E I G To find the root. left and right sub trees for H E I: From the preorder sequence E H I. of Information Technology .The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B H E I C F D G To find the root. we can find that H is at the left of E and I is at the right of E.
we can find that is no left subtree for D and G is to the right of D. we get the left and right sub trees: Left sub tree is: D G B Right sub tree is: H E I C F The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A D G B H E I C F To find the root. we can find that H E I are to the left of C and F is the right subtree for C. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B H E I C F D G To find the root. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B H E I C F D G To find the root. the root of the left sub tree is: C From the inorder sequence H E I C F. Lecture Notes 145 Dept. left and right sub trees for D G: From the postorder sequence G D. of Information Technology . the root of the tree is: D From the inorder sequence D G. the root of tree is: B From the inorder sequence D G B. we can find that D G are to the left of B and there is no right subtree for B.Solution: From Postorder sequence G D B H I E F C A. left and right sub trees for H E I C F: From the postorder sequence H I E F C. the root is: A From Inorder sequence D G B A H E I C F. left and right sub trees for D G B: From the postorder sequence G D B.
the root is: n6 From Inorder sequence n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9. left and right sub trees for H E I: From the postorder sequence H I E.The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A C B D F H E I G To find the root. we get the left and right sub trees: Left sub tree is: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 Right sub tree is: n7 n8 n9 The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 Lecture Notes n7 n8 n9 146 Dept. the root of the tree is: E From the inorder sequence H E I. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: A B C D F E G H I Example 3: Construct a binary tree from a given preorder and inorder sequence: Inorder: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 Preorder: n6 n2 n1 n4 n3 n5 n9 n7 n8 Solution: From Preorder sequence n6 n2 n1 n4 n3 n5 n9 n7 n8. we can find that H is left subtree for E and I is to the right of E. of Information Technology .
The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 n7 n8 n9 n3 n4 n5 To find the root. left and right sub trees for n7 n8 n9: From the preorder sequence n9 n7 n8. the root of the left sub tree is: n9 From the inorder sequence n7 n8 n9. we can find that n7 and n8 are at the left of n9 and no right subtree of n9. the root of the tree is: n4 From the inorder sequence n3 n4 n5. left and right sub trees for n1 n2 n3 n4 n5: From the preorder sequence n2 n1 n4 n3 n5. the root of the tree is: n7 Lecture Notes 147 Dept.To find the root. the root of tree is: n2 From the inorder sequence n1 n2 n3 n4 n5. we can find that n3 is to the left of n4 and n5 is at the right of n4. left and right sub trees for n7 n8: From the preorder sequence n7 n8. we can find that n1 is to the left of n2 and n3 n4 n5 are to the right of n2. of Information Technology . The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 n7 n8 n9 n4 n3 n5 To find the root. left and right sub trees for n3 n4 n5: From the preorder sequence n4 n3 n5. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n9 n2 n4 n1 n3 n7 n8 n5 To find the root.
the root is: n6 From Inorder sequence n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9. we get the left and right sub trees: Left sub tree is: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 Right sub tree is: n7 n8 n9 The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n7 n8 n9 To find the root. we can find that n1 is to the left of n2 and n3 n4 n5 are to the right of n2.From the inorder sequence n7 n8. of Information Technology . The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 Lecture Notes n7 n8 n9 n3 n4 n5 148 Dept. we can find that is no left subtree for n7 and n8 is at the right of n7. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n9 n2 n4 n1 n3 n7 n5 n8 Example 4: Construct a binary tree from a given postorder and inorder sequence: Inorder: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 Postorder: n1 n3 n5 n4 n2 n8 n7 n9 n6 Solution: From Postorder sequence n1 n3 n5 n4 n2 n8 n7 n9 n6. left and right sub trees for n1 n2 n3 n4 n5: From the postorder sequence n1 n3 n5 n4 n2. the root of tree is: n2 From the inorder sequence n1 n2 n3 n4 n5.
To find the root. left and right sub trees for n7 n8 and n9: From the postorder sequence n8 n7 n9. left and right sub trees for n3 n4 n5: From the postorder sequence n3 n5 n4. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 n9 n7 n8 n4 n3 n5 To find the root. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 n7 n4 n3 Lecture Notes n9 n5 n8 149 Dept. of Information Technology . the root of the tree is: n7 From the inorder sequence n7 n8. the root of the left sub tree is: n9 From the inorder sequence n7 n8 n9. we can find that n3 is to the left of n4 and n5 is to the right of n4. left and right sub trees for n7 and n8: From the postorder sequence n8 n7. the root of the tree is: n4 From the inorder sequence n3 n4 n5. we can find that there is no left subtree for n7 and n8 is to the right of n7. The Binary tree upto this point looks like: n6 n2 n1 n7 n8 n9 n4 n3 n5 To find the root. we can find that n7 and n8 are to the left of n9 and no right subtree for n9.
tree[0] = getnode(). j. scanf("%d". of Information Technology .3.h> # include <stdlib. } Lecture Notes 150 /* left child */ /* right child */ Dept. temp>rchild = NULL. } if( j > 0 ) { tree[i * 2 + 2] = getnode(). tree[i]>lchild = tree[i * 2 + 1]. j = ctr. int ctr. } while( j > 0). temp = (node*) malloc(sizeof(node)). typedef struct tree node. scanf("%s".temp>data). 7. } void create_fbinarytree() { int j. return temp. Binary Tree Creation and Traversal Using Arrays: This program performs the following operations: 1. do { if( j > 0 ) { tree[ i * 2 + 1 ] = getnode().3. }. j. node* getnode() { node *temp . tree[i]>rchild = tree[i * 2 + 2]. char data[10]. i=0. struct tree* rchild. printf("\n How many nodes you want: "). 3. 2. } i++. 5. node *tree[100]. j.h> struct tree { struct tree* lchild. temp>lchild = NULL.5.&ctr). 6. 4. Creates a complete Binary Tree Inorder traversal Preorder traversal Postorder traversal Level order traversal Prints leaf nodes Finds height of the tree created # include <stdio. printf("\n Enter Data: ").
} } void levelorder() { int j. of Information Technology . printf("%3s".tree[j]>data). j++) { if(tree[j] != NULL) printf("%3s". j < ctr.root>data).root>data). } } void print_leaf(node *root) { if(root != NULL) { if(root>lchild == NULL && root>rchild == NULL) printf("%3s ". printf("%3s". inorder(root>rchild). } Lecture Notes 151 Dept.root>data). preorder(root>lchild). print_leaf(root>lchild). print_leaf(root>rchild).void inorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { inorder(root>lchild). preorder(root>rchild). for(j = 0. } } void postorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { postorder(root>lchild). postorder(root>rchild).root>data). } } int height(node *root) { if(root == NULL) { return 0. } } void preorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { printf("%3s".
temp>data). printf("\n Postorder Traversal: "). 8.h> # include <stdlib. preorder(tree[0]). printf("\n Leaf Nodes: "). struct tree* rchild. typedef struct tree node. printf("\n Height of Tree: %d ". Creates a complete Binary Tree Inorder traversal Preorder traversal Postorder traversal Level order traversal Prints leaf nodes Finds height of the tree created Deletes last node Finds height of the tree created # include <stdio. height(tree[0])). temp = (node*) malloc(sizeof(node)). of Information Technology . levelorder().h> struct tree { struct tree* lchild. print_leaf(tree[0]). fflush(stdin). printf("\n Level Order Traversal: "). printf("\n Preorder Traversal: "). postorder(tree[0]). temp>lchild = NULL. } void main() { int i. char data[10]. else return (1 + max(height(root>lchild). printf("\n Inorder Traversal: "). node *Q[50]. } Lecture Notes 152 Dept. inorder(tree[0]). Binary Tree Creation and Traversal Using Pointers: This program performs the following operations: 1. }. 9. 2. 6. 7. return temp. 5. 4. height(root>rchild))). temp>rchild = NULL. 3. node* getnode() { node *temp . int node_ctr.3.if(root>lchild == NULL && root>rchild == NULL) return 0.4. scanf("%s". create_fbinarytree(). printf("\n Enter Data: "). } 5.
index = node_ctr1.&option). node_ctr++. if( 2* parent + 1 == index ) Q[parent]>lchild = NULL. of Information Technology . fflush(stdin). } } printf("\n Node %s has Right SubTree(Y/N) ". else { node_ctr = 0. create_binarytree(root>rchild). if( option=='Y'  option == 'y') { root>rchild = getnode().0). create_binarytree(root>lchild).int parent) { if(root != NULL) { node_ctr++. Q[parent] = root. make_Queue(root>rchild.root>data).void create_binarytree(node *root) { char option. make_Queue(root>lchild. fflush(stdin). if( root != NULL ) { printf("\n Node %s has Left SubTree(Y/N)". node_ctr++. } } void make_Queue(node *root. } else { root>lchild = NULL. } else { root>rchild = NULL. scanf("%c".root>data). int parent) { int index = 0. scanf("%c". create_binarytree(root>lchild). } } delete_node(node *root. parent = (index1) /2. Lecture Notes 153 Dept. if(root == NULL) printf("\n Empty TREE "). make_Queue(root. if( option=='Y'  option == 'y') { root>lchild = getnode(). Q[index] = NULL.&option). create_binarytree(root>rchild). node_ctr = 1.parent*2+2).parent*2+1).
else return (1 + max(height(root>lchild).else } Q[parent]>rchild = NULL. printf("\n"). inorder(root>rchild). print_leaf(root>lchild).. } } void print_leaf(node *root) { if(root != NULL) { if(root>lchild == NULL && root>rchild == NULL) printf("%3s ". printf("%3s".i++) Lecture Notes 154 Dept. preorder(root>rchild). int line) { int i.line+1). of Information Technology . } printf("\n Node Deleted . if(root != NULL) { print_tree(root>rchild. } } void preorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { printf("%3s".root>data).i<line. root>data).root>data). printf("%3s". print_leaf(root>rchild).root>data). } } void postorder(node *root) { if( root != NULL ) { postorder(root>lchild). height(root>rchild))). for(i=0. preorder(root>lchild). void inorder(node *root) { if(root != NULL) { inorder(root>lchild). } void print_tree(node *root."). postorder(root>rchild). } } int height(node *root) { if(root == NULL) return 1.
&ch). } break. for( i = 0.int ctr) { int i. printf("\n 6. clrscr(). node *root = NULL. print_tree(root>lchild.Q[i]>data). void level_order(node *Q[]. printf("\n 9. printf("\n 5. printf("\n Enter Your choice: "). root>data). inorder(root). i < ctr . Print Height of Tree "). i++) { if( Q[i] != NULL ) printf("%5s". of Information Technology . switch( ch) { case 1 : if( root == NULL ) { root = getnode(). break. Preorder Traversal "). Create Binary Tree "). return ch. printf("\n 8. printf("%s". do { ch = menu()."). printf("\n 3. case 2 : printf("\n Inorder Traversal: "). Delete a node "). preorder(root).} } printf(" "). Print Binary Tree "). break. printf("\n 4. printf("\n 2.. case 3 : printf("\n Preorder Traversal: "). printf("\n 10.ch. Quit "). create_binarytree(root). Inorder Traversal "). scanf("%d". } } int menu() { int ch. printf("\n 1.line+1). Level Order Traversal"). Leaf Node "). } void main() { int i. } else { printf("\n Tree is already Created . Postorder Traversal "). Lecture Notes 155 Dept. printf("\n 7.
0). } getch(). Algorithm inorder() { stack[1] = 0 vertex = root top: while(vertex ≠ 0) { push the vertex into the stack vertex = leftson(vertex) Lecture Notes 156 Dept.case 4 : printf("\n Postorder Traversal: "). case 8 : printf("\n Print Tree \n"). But the flat versions are not necessarily better."). case 7 : printf("\n Height of Tree: %d ".0). pushing each vertex onto the stack and stop when there is no left son of vertex. of Information Technology . then set right son of vertex as current vertex and return to step one. postorder(root). which may negate the savings we gain from storing only node pointers. Inorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. break. break. If a vertex with right son exists. } 5. break.. case 10 : exit(0). print_leaf(root).3. case 9 : delete_node(root. break. }while(1). level_order(Q. Non Recursive Traversal Algorithms: At first glance. 2. For instance. some overhead is associated with the use of an explicit stack. it appears that we would always want to use the flat traversal functions since they use less stack space. case 6 : printf("\n Leaf Nodes: "). Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. 0). break. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex. Pop and process the nodes on stack if zero is popped then exit. print_tree(root. make_Queue(root. case 5: printf("\n Level Order Traversal . break.node_ctr). height(root)).5. Use of the implicit function call stack may actually be faster due to special machine instructions that can be used.
2. if vertex ≠ 0 then return to step one otherwise exit. while(vertex ≠ 0) { print vertex node if(rightson(vertex) ≠ 0) push the right son of vertex into the stack. If zero is popped then exit. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex. Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1.} pop the element from the stack and make it as vertex while(vertex ≠ 0) { print the vertex node if(rightson(vertex) ≠ 0) { vertex = rightson(vertex) goto top } pop the element from the stack and made it as vertex } } Preorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. 2. At each vertex of path push vertex on to stack and if vertex has a right son push –(right son of vertex) onto stack. Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. Pop the vertex from stack. then ignore the sign and return to step one. If a negative node is popped. if(leftson(vertex) ≠ 0) vertex = leftson(vertex) else pop the element from the stack and made it as vertex } } Postorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. Pop and process the positive nodes (left nodes). of Information Technology . Algorithm preorder( ) { stack[1] = 0 vertex = root. if any and process each vertex. The traversing ends after a vertex with no left child exists. Lecture Notes 157 Dept. Proceed down the left most path by pushing the right son of vertex onto stack.
E . C Pr e. H . A C B E D G K H L M Bi n a ry T r e e • P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: A . Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. H . of Information Technology . L . P o st a n d I n or d er T r av er s i n g Inorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. then set right son of vertex as current vertex and return to step one.(vertex) goto top } } Example 1: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. pushing each vertex onto the stack and stop when there is no left son of vertex. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex. E . H . A . M . Pop and process the nodes on stack if zero is popped then exit. E • Po sto r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: K . B . M . D. C . 2. G .Algorithm postorder( ) { stack[1] = 0 vertex = root top: while(vertex ≠ 0) { push vertex onto stack if(rightson(vertex) ≠ 0) push – (vertex) onto stack vertex = leftson(vertex) } pop from stack and make it as vertex while(vertex > 0) { print the vertex node pop from stack and make it as vertex } if(vertex < 0) { vertex = . K . L . M . C . A • Ino r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: K . D. D. G . B . If a vertex with right son exists. G . B . L . post and inorder using nonrecursive traversing algorithm. Lecture Notes 158 Dept.
Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. of Information Technology .CURRENT VERTEX STACK A 0 PUSH 0 0ABDGK PUSH the left most path of A PROCESSED NODES REMARKS K 0ABDG K POP K G 0ABD KG POP G since K has no right son D 0AB KGD POP D since G has no right son H 0AB KGD Make the right son of D as vertex 0ABHL KGD PUSH the leftmost path of H L 0ABH KGDL POP L H 0AB KGDLH POP H since L has no right son M 0AB KGDLH Make the right son of H as vertex 0ABM KGDLH PUSH the left most path of M M 0AB KGDLHM POP M B 0A KGDLHMB POP B since M has no right son A 0 KGDLHMBA Make the right son of A as vertex C 0CE KGDLHMBA PUSH the left most path of C E 0C KGDLHMBAE POP E C 0 KGDLHMBAEC Stop since stack is empty Postorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. At each vertex of path push vertex on to stack and if vertex has a right son push –(right son of vertex) onto stack. 2. Pop and process the positive nodes (left nodes). then ignore the sign and return to step one. If a negative node is popped. If zero is popped then exit. CURRENT VERTEX STACK A 0 PUSH 0 0 A –C B D –H G K PUSH the left most path of A with a ve for right sons H Lecture Notes PROCESSED NODES REMARKS 0 A –C B D –H KG POP all +ve nodes K and G 0 A –C B D KG Pop H 159 Dept. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex.
Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. C has no right son on the left most path 0 ABDGKHLMCE Stop since stack is empty Lecture Notes 160 Dept. 2. C and A 0 KGLMHDBECA Stop since stack is empty C Preorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. The traversing ends after a vertex with no left child exists. if vertex ≠ 0 then return to step one otherwise exit. Proceed down the left most path by pushing the right son of vertex onto stack. Pop the vertex from stack. H. M has no left path 0 ABDGKHLM Pop C 0 ABDGKHLMCE PUSH the right son of each vertex onto stack and process each vertex in the left most path.0 A –C B D H –M L KG PUSH the left most path of H with a ve for right sons L 0 A –C B D H –M KGL POP all +ve nodes L M 0 A –C B D H KGL Pop M 0 A –C B D H M KGL PUSH the left most path of M with a ve for right sons 0 A –C KGLMHDB POP all +ve nodes M. D and B 0A KGLMHDB Pop C 0ACE KGLMHDB PUSH the left most path of C with a ve for right sons 0 KGLMHDBECA POP all +ve nodes E. of Information Technology . CURRENT VERTEX STACK A 0 H M C PROCESSED NODES REMARKS PUSH 0 0CH ABDGK PUSH the right son of each vertex onto stack and process each vertex in the left most path 0C ABDGK POP H 0CM ABDGKHL PUSH the right son of each vertex onto stack and process each vertex in the left most path 0C ABDGKHL POP M 0C ABDGKHLM PUSH the right son of each vertex onto stack and process each vertex in the left most path. if any and process each vertex.
P o st a n d I n or d er T r av er s i n g Inorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. pushing each vertex onto the stack and stop when there is no left son of vertex. 6 . 5 . Pop and process the nodes on stack if zero is popped then exit. 2 . 11 . 11 .Example 2: Traverse the following binary tree in pre. 7 . of Information Technology . 6 . 2 • Ino r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: 2. CURRENT VERTEX STACK 2 0 PROCESSED NODES REMARKS 0272 2 027 2 7 02 27 6 0265 27 5 026 275 6 02 2756 11 0 2 11 2756 11 02 2 7 5 6 11 2 0 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 05 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 0 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 9 094 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 4 09 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 4 9 0 2 7 5 6 11 2 5 4 9 Lecture Notes 161 Stop since stack is empty Dept. then set right son of vertex as current vertex and return to step one. 2. 9 . 5 . 4 . 9 5 6 5 • 9 11 4 Bi n a ry T r e e Pr e. 5 . If a vertex with right son exists. 4 . 5 . 7 . 6 . 5 . post and inorder using nonrecursive traversing algorithm. 11 . 7 . 9 . Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. 2 7 2 P r eo r d e r t r a v e rs a l y ie lds: 2. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex. 4 • Po sto r d e r t r a v a rs a l y ie lds: 2. 5 . 2 .
2. Proceed down the left most path by pushing the right son of vertex onto stack.Postorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. if any and process each vertex. At each vertex of path push vertex on to stack and if vertex has a right son push –(right son of vertex) onto stack. 2. Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. if vertex ≠ 0 then return to step one otherwise exit. of Information Technology . Then repeat the following steps until the stack is empty: 1. Pop the vertex from stack. Pop and process the positive nodes (left nodes). then ignore the sign and return to step one. CURRENT VERTEX STACK 2 0 PROCESSED NODES REMARKS 0 2 –5 7 –6 2 2 0 2 –5 7 –6 2 6 0 2 –5 7 2 0 2 –5 7 6 –11 5 2 5 0 2 –5 7 6 –11 25 11 0 2 –5 7 6 11 25 0 2 –5 2 5 11 6 7 5 0 2 5 –9 2 5 11 6 7 9 02594 2 5 11 6 7 0 2 5 11 6 7 4 9 5 2 Stop since stack is empty Preorder Traversal: Initially push zero onto stack and then set root as vertex. Proceed down the left most path rooted at vertex. If zero is popped then exit. CURRENT VERTEX STACK 2 0 PROCESSED NODES 056 272 6 0 5 11 27265 11 05 2 7 2 6 5 11 05 2 7 2 6 5 11 5 09 2 7 2 6 5 11 5 9 0 2 7 2 6 5 11 5 9 4 0 2 7 2 6 5 11 5 9 4 Lecture Notes 162 REMARKS Stop since stack is empty Dept. The traversing ends after a vertex with no left child exists. If a negative node is popped.
2. Lecture Notes 163 Dept.1 shows some more expression trees that represent arithmetic expressions given in infix form.5. + + + a / b d + c d + (a) (a + b) + (c / d) c a (b) ((a + b) + c) + d b / + *  + a x + y * b c a (c) ((a) + (x + y)) / ((+b) * (c * a)) Figure 5. we pop pointers to two trees T1 and T2 from the stack (T1 is popped first) and form a new tree whose root is the operator and whose left and right children point to T2 and T1 respectively. because all of the operations are binary. 3. The leaves of an expression tree are operands.4. If the symbol is an operator. and the other (non leaf) nodes contain operators. It is also possible for a node to have only one child. A pointer to this new tree is then pushed onto the stack. as is the case with the unary minus operator. Once an expression tree is constructed we can traverse it in three ways: • • • Inorder Traversal Preorder Traversal Postorder Traversal Figure 5. we create a onenode tree and push a pointer to it onto a stack. such as constants or variable names. If the symbol is an operand.1 Expression Trees An expression tree can be generated for the infix and postfix expressions. of Information Technology . Read the expression one symbol at a time.4.4. Expression Trees: Expression tree is a binary tree. An algorithm to convert a postfix expression into an expression tree is as follows: 1.
a new tree is formed. and a pointer to it is pushed onto the stack. of Information Technology . so two pointers to trees are popped. and e are read. so we create onenode trees and push pointers to them onto a stack. a b Next. a ‘+’ is read. and for each one–node tree is created and a pointer to the corresponding tree is pushed onto the stack. d.Example 1: Construct an expression tree for the postfix expression: a b + c d e + * * Solution: The first two symbols are operands. c. + a b Next. + c + a Lecture Notes + bb d 164 e Dept. so two trees are merged. + a b c d e Now a ‘+’ is read.
so we create onenode trees and pointers to three nodes pushed onto the stack. the last symbol is read. + * * + a b c + d e e For the above tree: Inorder form of the expression: a + b * c * d + e Preorder form of the expression: * + a b * c + d e Postorder form of the expression: a b + c d e + * * Example 2: Construct an expression tree for the arithmetic expression: (A + B * C) – ((D * E + F) / G) Solution: First convert the infix expression into postfix notation. two trees are merged.Continuing. and a pointer to the final tree is left on the stack. Postfix notation of the arithmetic expression is: A B C * + D E * F + G / The first three symbols are operands. so we pop two tree pointers and form a new tree with a ‘*’ as root. of Information Technology . a ‘*’ is read. + + a * b c + d ee Finally. Lecture Notes 165 Dept.
so we pop two tree pointers and form a new tree with a ‘*’ as root. and for each one–node tree is created and a pointer to the corresponding tree is pushed onto the stack.A B C Next. so two pointers to trees are popped. D and E are read. and a pointer to it is pushed onto the stack. + A D * B Lecture Notes * E C 166 Dept. a ‘*’ is read. of Information Technology . a new tree is formed. A * C B Next. a ‘*’ is read. a ‘+’ is read. and a pointer to it is pushed onto the stack. D + A E * B C Continuing. + A * B C Next. a new tree is formed. so two pointers to trees are popped.
1. of Information Technology . Lecture Notes 167 Dept. Create the expression tree from the postfix expression B. 3. A. finally.4. Postfix to infix Postfix to prefix Prefix to infix Prefix to postfix Postfix to Infix: The following algorithm works for the expressions whose infix form does not require parenthesis to override conventional precedence of operators. the expression tree is as follows: + + A / + * B C 5. when the last symbol is read.Proceeding similar to the previous steps. Create the expression tree from the postfix expression B. 4. 2. Postfix to Prefix: The following algorithm works for the expressions to convert postfix to prefix: A. Run preorder traversal on the tree. 3. These can be as follows: 1. Run inorder traversal on the tree. A. 1. Run inorder traversal on the tree. 2. Create the expression tree from the prefix expression B. Prefix to Infix: The following algorithm works for the expressions whose infix form does not require parenthesis to override conventional precedence of operators. F * D G E Converting expressions with expression trees: Let us convert the following expressions from one type to another.
If we traverse T in inorder the nodes will be visited in the order H D I B E A F C G. Create the expression tree from the prefix expression B. In memory representation Threads and normal pointers are distinguished between as by adding two extra one bit fields LBIT and RBIT. For example. there are n+1 null links. If there are 2n total links. we will replace it by a pointer to the node which would be printed after P when traversing the tree in inorder. Threaded Binary Tree: The linked representation of any binary tree has more null links than actual pointers. Prefix to postfix: The following algorithm works for the expressions to convert postfix to prefix: A.J. 5. node ‘E’ has a predecessor Thread which points to ‘B’ and a successor Thread which points to ‘A’. For example. If the RCHILD(p) is normally equal to zero. Their idea is to replace the null links by pointers called Threads to other nodes in the tree. Run postorder traversal on the tree.4. LBIT(P) = 1 LBIT(P) = 0 if LCHILD(P) is a normal pointer if LCHILD(P) is a Thread RBIT(P) = 1 RBIT(P) = 0 if RCHILD(P) is a normal pointer if RCHILD(P) is a Thread Lecture Notes 168 Dept. A clever way to make use of these null links has been devised by A.5. Perlis and C. A null LCHILD link at node P is replaced by a pointer to the node which immediately precedes node P in inorder. Thornton. Let us consider the tree: A C B E D G F I H The Threaded Tree corresponding to the above tree is: A B F E D H C G I The tree has 9 nodes and 10 null links which have been replaced by Threads. of Information Technology .
The tree T is the left subtree of the head node. 4. Examples of binary search trees Lecture Notes 169 Dept.2. 2.5(b) is not a binary search tree. of Information Technology . If it is not empty then it satisfies the following properties: 1. B D H A 1 1 1 1 0 0 1  E 0 I 0 0 F C 0 1 0 G 0 0 Binary Search Tree: A binary search tree is a binary tree. Every element has a key and no two elements have the same key.5(a) is a binary search tree.5. In order to have no loose Threads we will assume a head node for all threaded binary trees. Figure 5.2. 3. The left and right subtrees are also binary search trees. 16 16 12 11 20 14 12 19 11 13 14 13 Binary Search Tree 20 19 17 17 Not a Binary Search Tree (a) (b) Figure 5. The keys in the right subtree are larger than the key in the root. The Complete memory representation for the tree is as follows.2.In the above figure two threads have been left dangling in LCHILD(H) and RCHILD(G).6. The keys in the left subtree are smaller than the key in the root. It may be empty. whereas figure 5. LBIT LCHILD DATA RCHILD RBIT 1 1 1 1 0 5.
For m = 2. The subtrees of each element in a binary tree are ordered (i. Differences between trees and binary trees: TREE BINARY TREE Each element in a tree can have any number of subtrees. and the right son is the node to the immediate right of the given node on the same horizontal line. The subtrees in a tree are unordered. Each element in a binary tree has at most two subtrees. the tree is called general tree.7. 5. which is situated at the same level. General Trees (mary tree): If in a tree. Conversion from general tree to binary can be done in two stages. the outdegree of every node is less than or equal to m. So.7.1. Furthermore.5. 170 Dept. Stage 1: • As a first step. If the outdegree of every node is exactly equal to m or zero then the tree is called a full or complete mary tree. we choose its left and right sons in the following manner: • Lecture Notes The left son is the node. the trees are called binary and full binary trees. • We draw edges from a node to the node on the right. every tree can be uniquely represented by a binary tree. The general tree is also called as an mary tree.e. Converting a mary tree (general tree) to a binary tree: There is a onetoone mapping between general ordered trees and binary trees. if any. we distinguish between left and right subtrees). which is immediately below the given node. Stage 2: • Once this is done then for any particular node. a forest can also be represented by a binary tree. of Information Technology . we delete all the branches originating in every node except the left most branch. Such a binary tree will not have a right subtree.
Example 1: Convert the following ordered tree into a binary tree: 1 2 3 6 7 4 8 5 9 10 11 Solution: Stage 1 tree by using the above mentioned procedure is as follows: 1 2 6 3 7 4 8 5 9 10 11 Stage 2 tree by using the above mentioned procedure is as follows: 1 2 6 3 7 8 4 5 9 10 11 Example 2: Construct a unique binary tree from the given forest. of Information Technology . 1 2 4 Lecture Notes 5 7 3 8 6 11 171 9 10 12 13 0 Dept.
3. Compare them with the preorder and postorder traversals obtained for T’ with the general tree T. Find the preorder traversal and the postorder traversal of T. 2. Find the preorder. of Information Technology . 4. inorder and postorder traversals of T’. A B C D F E J G H Ge n e r a l t r e e T Lecture Notes 172 K L M P N Q Dept. Find the corresponding binary tree T’.Solution: Stage 1 tree by using the above mentioned procedure is as follows: 1 2 4 5 7 3 8 9 6 11 10 12 13 Stage 2 tree by using the above mentioned procedure is as follows (binary tree representation of forest): 1 2 7 3 4 5 8 6 11 9 9 10 12 13 Example 3: For the general tree shown below: 1.
G and H. The The tree T has the root A and subtrees T1. M. T2. D and E. Lecture Notes 173 Dept. P and Q. Suppose T is a general tree with root R and subtrees T1. N. TM in preorder. T2 consists of nodes F. L. Stage 1: The tree by using the abovementioned procedure is as follows: A B C F D E G J H B 5 K L M P N Q Stage 2: The binary tree by using the abovementioned procedure is as follows: A B C F D G 1E0 J H K L Bi n a rt t r e e T ’ M P N Q 2. TM. C. T2. T3 consists of nodes J. TM in postorder. 2) Traverse the subtree T1. ………. ……. K.Solution: 1. Postorder: 1) Traverse the subtree T1. T2. 2) Process the root R... preorder traversal and the postorder traversal of T are: Preorder: 1) Process the root R. of Information Technology .. T2 and T3 such that: T1 consists of nodes B. …….
E. The inorder traversal of the binary tree T’ is identical to the postorder traversal of the general tree T. and may or may not result into a visit to all nodes. J. (ii) Traverse T1 in preorder: Process nodes B. D. The preorder. The postorder traversal of T is as follows: C. G. P. D. A Postorder: E. inorder and postorder traversals of the binary tree T’ are as follows: 4. F. M. When the search necessarily involved the examination of every vertex in the tree. E. Q. H. C. G. (iv) Traverse T3 in preorder: Process nodes J. B. 5. C. F. Depth first search or traversal. P.A. B. The postorder traversal of T consists of the following steps: (i) Traverse T1 in postorder: Process nodes C. K. H. Q. J. L. (iii) Traverse T3 in postorder: Process nodes K. (ii) Traverse T2 in postorder: Process nodes G. F.8. Q. F. F. G. The preorder traversal of T consists of the following steps: (i) Process root A. L. D. L. G. 1. (iii) Traverse T2 in preorder: Process nodes F. G. N. H. N. H. Search and Traversal Techniques for mary trees: Search involves visiting nodes in a tree in a systematic manner. J. P. E. K. B. K. H. D. B. Q. E. F. J. (iv) Process root A. J. L. Q. B. P. it is called the traversal. of Information Technology . Traversing of a tree can be done in two ways. E. M. N. C. N. The preorder traversal of T is as follows: A. D. D. C. Q. M. J. D. N B. M. 2. P. N Inorder: C. L. H. P. Breadth first search or traversal. N. H. E. Q. K. M. A Comparing the preorder and postorder traversals of T’ with the general tree T: We can observer that the preorder of the binary tree T’ is identical to the preorder of the general T. M. Preorder: A. K. L. A 3. P. Lecture Notes 174 Dept. B. There is no natural traversal of the general tree T which corresponds to the postorder traversal of its corresponding binary tree T’. K. M. G.
we begin with root as a start state. so we back up to A again. Disadvantages: 1. but can get struck in an infinite loop on graphs. To eliminate this keep a list of states previously visited. H and G and the states considered were in order S.2. B. If depth first search reaches a state S without successors. then some successor of the start state. E.1. And that’s G. But D has no successors. trying to reach a goal state. and never permit search to return to any of them. then A. One simple way to implement depth first search is to use a stack data structure consisting of root node as a start state. This is because depth first search can travel around a cycle in the graph forever. C. then some successor of that state. A. Depth first search: In Depth first search. Breadthfirst search discovers vertices in increasing order of distance. of Information Technology . To illustrate this let us consider the tree shown below. then it “backs up” that means it goes to the immediately previous state or predecessor formally. D. Breadthfirst search is named because it visits vertices across the entire breadth. then D. F.8. We cannot come up with shortest solution to the problem. But this doesn’t have any successors either. Breadth first search: Breadthfirst search starts at root node S and “discovers" which vertices are reachable from S. 5. But now we have tried all the successors of A and haven’t found the goal state G so we must back to ‘S’. It works very fine when search graphs are trees or lattices. so we back up to S again and choose its third successor. So the solution path to the goal is S. B. the only goal state. C. The first successor of F is H. 2. Depth first search will first visit S. C has one successor. F.5. the state whose successor was ‘S’ originally. D A E ST A RT J B S H C F G GOAL K I Suppose S is the start and G is the only goal state.8. then some successor of that and so on. so we must back up to A and try its second successor. F. E. J doesn’t have any successors. J. Lecture Notes 175 Dept. and the first of H is J. or if all the successors of a state S have been chosen (visited) and a goal state has not get been found. Now ‘S’ has a second successor. G. But B has no successors. so we back up to H and try its second successor. C. H.
B. Sparse Matrices: A sparse matrix is a two–dimensional array having the value of majority elements as null. sparse matrices are involved. H and I at level 3. For example. 1) 1 (2. 2) 2 S= (3. Then all the immediate successors of these. E. The matrix A produces: (3. 4) 5 The printed output lists the nonzero elements of S. Breadth first search does not have the danger of infinite loops as we consider states in order of increasing number of branches (level) from the start state. So breadth first search. One approach is to use the linked list. e and F at level 2. storing of null elements is nothing but wastage of memory. and so on until we find a goal node. D. So we should devise technique such that only nonnull elements will be stored. One simple way to implement breadth first search is to use a queue data structure consisting of just a start state. The elements are sorted by columns.To illustrate this let us consider the following tree: D A E ST A RT J B S H C F G GOAL K I Breadth first search finds states level by level. Suppose S is the start state and G is the goal state. I.9. then all the immediate successors of these. 3) 4 (1. C. will consider in order S. A. of Information Technology . J and G and then stop because it has reached the goal node. B and C are at level 1. start state S is at level 0. In the figure. Lecture Notes 176 Dept. A. H. D. Here we first check all the immediate successors of the start state. The density of the matrix is the number of nonzero elements divided by the total number of matrix elements. The matrices with very low density are often good for use of the sparse format. 2) 3 (4. 5. F. and J. G and K at level 4. In large number of applications. together with their row and column indices. reflecting the internal data structure. A = ⎛0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜1 ⎜⎜ ⎝0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 4 5⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟⎠ As far as the storage of a sparse matrix is concerned.
j < n . i < m . printf("\n Enter Number of rows and columns: "). m. j++) { scanf("%d". printf("\n The Representaion of Sparse Matrix is: \n"). printf("\n Row \t Col \t Value "). j++) { if( matrix[i][j] != 0) { printf("\n %d \t %d \t %d". i < m .").. } Lecture Notes 177 Dept. n.matrix[i][j]). i++) { for( j = 0.h> main() { int matrix[20][20]. total_elements. of Information Technology . scanf("%d %d". &n). for(i = 0.h> # include <conio. for(i = 0. i++) { for( j = 0.&m. if so then print in alternative form for storage. */ # include <stdio.j. i. j < n . total_elements = m * n.."). clrscr(). } } } } else printf("\n Given Matrix is Not a Sparse Matrix. &matrix[i][j]). j. } } } if(total_zeros > total_elements/2 ) { printf("\n Given Matrix is Sparse Matrix. printf("\n Enter data for sparse matrix: "). total_zeros = 0.The program to represent sparse matrix: /* Check whether the given matrix is sparse matrix or not.i. if( matrix[i][j] == 0) { total_zeros++.
13. 59 and 47? h. Write a “C” function to reconstruct a binary tree from its postorder and inorder traversal sequences. Lecture Notes 178 Dept. 12. 10. 77. 7. and 3? 2. 4. Write a “C” function to determine the height of a binary tree. Prove that every node in a tree except the root node has a unique parent. 9. Show how the (original) tree would look after the insertion of nodes containing 63. Write a “C” function to reconstruct a binary tree from its preorder and inorder traversal sequences. Write a “C” function to compute the internal path length of a binary tree. Prove that the inorder and postorder traversal sequences of a binary tree uniquely characterize the binary tree. 9 and 10 (in that order). 2. Write a “C” function to compute the maximum number of nodes in any level of a binary tree. b. Write a “C” function to compute the external path length of a binary tree. 76. 6. e. How many different binary trees can be made from three nodes that contain the key value 1. An inorder traversal of the tree A postorder traversal of the tree A preorder traversal of the tree 3.EXCERCISES 1. 11. a. 8. Draw the binary search tree whose elements are inserted in the following order: 50 72 96 94 107 26 12 11 9 2 10 25 51 16 17 95 b. The maximum number of nodes in any level of a binary tree is also called the width of the tree. Show what would be printed by each of the following. c. Show how the tree would look after the deletion of 29. 5. Write a “C” function to count the number of leaf nodes in a binary tree. 48. What is the height of the tree? What nodes are on level? Which levels have the maximum number of nodes that they could contain? What is the maximum height of a binary search tree containing these nodes? Draw such a tree? What is the minimum height of a binary search tree containing these nodes? Draw such a tree? g. Write a “C” function to swap a binary tree. Draw all the possible binary trees that have four leaves and all the nonleaf nodes have no children. d. Construct two binary trees so that their postorder traversal sequences are the same. f. a. of Information Technology .
14. Inorder: Preorder: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 n6 n2 n1 n4 n3 n5 n9 n7 n8 B. Build the binary tree from the given traversal techniques: A. 16. Inorder: Level order: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 n6 n2 n9 n1 n4 n7 n3 n5 n8 Build the binary tree for the given inorder and preorder traversals: Inorder: Preorder: 17. 15. Inorder: Preorder: gdhbeiafjc abdgheicfj B. Inorder: Level order: gdhbeiafjc abcdefghij Build the binary tree from the given traversal techniques: A. Inorder: Postorder: gdhbeiafjc ghdiebjfca C. of Information Technology . EACKFHDBG FAEKCDHGB Convert the following general tree represented as a binary tree: 3 1 12 7 15 5 10 13 14 11 4 9 2 16 Lecture Notes 179 8 6 17 Dept. Inorder: Postorder: n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 n1 n3 n5 n4 n2 n8 n7 n9 n6 C.
1. n – 1 C. The node that has no children is referred as: A. Root node D. Adjacency list C. the preorder traversal sequence is: A. A B C D E F G H I J K C. A B D H I E C F G J K [ D ] 9. Strictly binary tree B. 1. consists of________ edges.Multiple Choice Questions 1. n . Sibblings B. adjacent node C. For the Binary tree shown in fig. Complete binary tree C. A B D H I E C F G J K [ C ] 8. 1. A binary tree in which all the leaves are on the same level is called as: A. of Information Technology . Incidence matrix D. H D I B E A F C J G K B. H I D E B F J K G C A D. H I D E B F J K G C A D. H D I B E A F C J G K B. Adjacency matrix B. A. 2n [ B ] A B D H C E I FI G UR E 1 F G J K 7. nonleaf node D. n + 1 B. H D I B E A F C J G K B. Full binary tree D. A B C D E F G H I J K C. All of the above [ C ] 4. A B D H I E C F G J K [ B ] Lecture Notes 180 Dept. A tree with n vertices. the postorder traversal sequence is: A. 2n D. For the Binary tree shown in fig. log n [ A ] 6. A B C D E F G H I J K C. the inorder traversal sequence is: A. leaf node [ C ] 5. Binary search tree [ B ] 3. For the Binary tree shown in fig. Parent node C.2 D. The children of a same parent node are called as: A. n C. How can the graphs be represented? A. The maximum number of nodes at any level is: A. Leaf node B. Sibblings [ C ] 2. H I D E B F J K G C A D. n B.
23 28 B 9 D 25 A 15 4 1 36 C Node 20 A E 16 3 F G 17 Adjacency List BCD B ADE C ADF D ABCEFG E BDG F CDG G FDE FIGURE 2 and its adjacency list 10. 8 [ A 14. For the figure 3. [ A ] Lecture Notes 181 Dept. F) then (D. (A. D) then (E. D. how many of the nodes have at least one sibling? A. (A. E) then (C. B. both A and B D. 6 B. which statement is correct? A. 68 D. how many leaves does it have? A. 7 B. 57 C. 2 D. 8 [ B ] 16. 2 C. For the figure 3. 4 D. C) then (A. of Information Technology ] . B) then (A. 0 C. For the figure 3. For the figure 3. 2 C. Which is the correct order for Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree algorithm to add edges to the minimum spanning tree for the figure 2 shown above: A. 3 D. C. The tree is both full and complete. 32 [ A ] 14 2 1 FIGURE 3 11 3 10 7 30 40 12. C) C. 4 B. D) then (D. The tree is complete but not full. G) then (B. G) B. 8 [ D ] 15. The tree is neither complete nor full. the cost of the minimal spanning tree is: A. D) then (D. none of the above [ B ] 11. 4 B. The tree is full but not complete. 48 B. How many descendants does the root have? A. 6 D. For the figure 3. E) then (F. For the figure 2 shown above. what is the depth of the tree? A. 8 [ B ] 13. G) then (A. 5 C.
Select the one true statement. What is the minimum possible depth of T? A. Every complete binary tree is also a full binary tree. B. data[2*i + 1] B. data[i+2] D. What is the minimum number of nodes in a full binary tree with depth 3? A. Every binary tree is either complete or full. 1 3 2 7 10 40 30 11 14 3 14 7 10 11 40 30 D. [ C ] 22. Consider the node of a complete binary tree whose value is stored in data[i] for an array implementation. There is a tree in the box at the top of this section. 15 [ D ] 21. 0 C. 1 3 2 7 10 40 30 11 14 B. There nodes A. data[2*i + 2] [ C ] 14 2 16 1 Figure 4 5 4 Lecture Notes 182 Dept. [ A ] 24. Every full binary tree is also a complete binary tree. 4 D. 1 2 3 14 7 10 11 40 30 D. A. Every nonempty tree has exactly one root node. There nodes A. D. 1 3 2 7 10 40 30 11 14 3 14 7 10 11 40 30 D. data[i+1] C. 14 2 1 3 11 10 7 30 40 [ ] 18. If this node has a right child. 5 [ B ] 23. What is the order of visited using an inorder traversal? 3 7 10 11 14 30 40 C. 1 2 B. 1 2 B. 1 2 3 7 10 11 14 30 40 C. where will the right child's value be stored? A. C. What is the order of visited using a postorder traversal? 3 7 10 11 14 30 40 C. B. C. Every nonroot node has exactly one parent. Suppose T is a binary tree with 14 nodes. 3 D. 14 2 1 3 11 10 7 30 40 [ ] 20. of Information Technology . Select the one FALSE statement about binary trees: A. 1 2 is a tree in the box at the top of this section. Every node has at most two children. 4 B. D. 1 2 is a tree in the box at the top of this section. 8 B.17. 14 2 1 3 11 10 7 30 40 [ ] 19. What is the order of nodes visited using a preorder traversal? A. No binary tree is both complete and full. Every binary tree has at least one node. 3 C.
2 E. Which traversals of tree 1 and tree 2. Which among the following is not a binary search tree? [ C ] A. 1 D. Inorder [ C ] 27.25. 16 C. Postorder. 4 [ D ] A B G C Tr e e 2 D E G F E F I H J I Tr e e 1 C D H A B J 26. C. Suppose we remove the root. 5 B. Postorder. of Information Technology . Inorder B. 3 7 3 6 D. Postorder C. will produce the same sequence of node names? A. Inorder. 5 7 5 14 2 2 16 6 1 5 4 Lecture Notes 183 Dept. Preorder. What will be the new root? A. replacing it with something from the left subtree. Postorder D. 5 3 7 2 4 6 B. For the binary search tree shown in figure 4.
of Information Technology . The data structure used by level order traversal of binary tree is: A. C. G. For the binary search tree shown in figure 5. 2k A. H. B. F. 2n [ C ] 32. none of the above [ A ] 30. G. 27 B. F. linked list B. A. Stack D. H. H. B. 2 . 11 → 7 B.1 [ B ] [ B ] 31. log n C. after deleting 23 from the binary search tree what node will be at the root? A. E D. n2 D. H. If the inorder and preorder traversal of a binary tree are D. 2d k D. G. B. C. D. A C. F. E. A. A B. F. B. H. E. C. C.23 11 27 7 6 17 9 25 FI G UR E 5 14 28. Queue C. D. B. 14 [ ] 29. D. F. H. B. 7 → 9 The number of nodes in a complete binary tree of depth d is: C. C and A. 11 C. after deleting 23 from the binary search tree what parent → child pair does not occur in the tree? A. 27 → 11 D. 25 D. D. E. For the binary search tree shown in figure 5. The depth of a complete binary tree with n nodes is: A. Lecture Notes 184 Dept. ⎣ log2 n ⎦ + 1 B. G. G. A [ A ] 33. 25 → 27 C. G. the postorder traversal of that tree is: A. C respectively then. E. E. D. none of the above B. F.
B D A C E E G C (a) v4 v3 v4 (e) v2 (b) v1 v2 v4 D F v1 (d) v1 B A v3 v1 v1 v2 v4 (f) v3 v2 v2 v3 (c) v3 (g) v4 v5 v6 v7 Figure 6. The graph in figure 6. or strongly connected. if for each pair (u.. in which the vertices are represented by circles and the edges by lines. E). G is said to be unilaterally connected if for any pair (u. A graph G is connected if and only if there is a simple path between any two nodes in G.1 Various Graphs We can assign weight function to the edges: wG(e) is a weight of edge e ∈ E.5. Figure 6.1(b) is a directed graph. v) of nodes in G there is a path from u to v or a path from v to u. On the other hand. A graph is generally displayed as figure 6. Lecture Notes 185 Dept. For example. while an edge with no orientation is our undirected edge. A directed graph G is said to be connected. If all the edges are directed.1.e. of Information Technology . then the graph is an undirected graph. A directed graph is also called as digraph.5.(d) are complete graphs.1 (e) is strongly connected.5. The graph of figure 6. arrow head) is a directed edge.1(a) is an undirected graph.1.1. An edge with an orientation (i. e = E. If all the edges in a graph are undirected.5.(a) and figure 6. v) for nodes in G there is a path from u to v and also a path from v to u. where V is a finite set of vertices and E is a finite set of edges.Chapter 6 Graphs 6.5. then the graph is a directed graph. Introduction to Graphs: Graph G is a pair (V. We will often denote n = V.1. A complete graph with n nodes will have n(n1)/2 edges. A graph G is said to be complete if every node a in G is adjacent to every other node v in G. The graph which has such function assigned is called weighted graph. For example.5. the digraph shown in figure 6.5.
A spanning tree of a graph G = (V. .5. For example. .1 (f) and figure 6. A single graph can have multiple spanning trees. Then 1. where for all i. . . E) iff V’ ⊆ V and E’ ⊆ E.1(d). A P B T1 C D E Q X Y R Z F T2 T3 A Forest F A graph that has either self loop or parallel edges or both is called multigraph. 4. Any two vertices in T are connected by a unique simple path.1(c) and figure 6.1(a).5. A path is simple if all vertices in the path are distinct. indegree(v1) = 2 outdegree(v1) = 1 indegree(v2) = 2 outdegree(v2) = 0 A path is a sequence of vertices (v1. If we remove the root node of a given tree then it becomes forest. . (vi.5. let us consider the digraph shown in figure 6. then the new graph will contain a cycle. If there is a path containing one or more edges which starts from a vertex Vi and terminates into the same vertex then the path is known as a cycle. of Information Technology . If any edge is removed from T. T2 and T3. there is a cycle in figure 6. Tree is a connected acyclic graph (there aren’t any sequences of edges that go around in a loop).1(f).1 (g) are acyclic graphs. The following figure shows a forest F that consists of three trees T1. The number of outgoing edges from a vertex is called outdegree (denote outdeg(v)). then T becomes disconnected. For example. If a graph (digraph) does not have any cycle then it is called acyclic graph. 2. E) is a tree that contains all vertices of V and is a subgraph of G. 3. For example.The number of incoming edges to a vertex v is called in–degree of the vertex (denote indeg(v)). If we add any edge into T. vi+1) ε E. vk). A Forest is a set of disjoint trees. the graphs of figure 6.5. Lecture Notes 186 Dept. . E’) is a subgraph of graph G = (V. v2.5.5. Let T be a spanning tree of a graph G. A graph G’ = (V’. Number of edges in T is n1. figure 6.
5. • Adjacency List.3(a). say A = (ai. a i. of Information Technology . In case of multigraph representation. They are: • Adjacency matrix.5. • Incidence matrix.5.j).2(b) shows the adjacency matrix representation of the graph G1 shown in figure 6. The adjacency matrix is also useful to store multigraph as well as weighted graph. In case of weighted graph.5. Figure 6. the entries are weights of the edges between the vertices. while it may be asymmetric if the graph is directed. instead of entry 0 or 1. the entry will be between number of edges between two vertices. where ⎧ 1 if there is an edge from v i to v j = ⎨ ⎩ 0 otherwise The matrix is symmetric in case of undirected graph. This matrix is also called as Boolean matrix or bit matrix.6.2. Adjacency matrix: In this representation.2(a). The adjacency matrix for a weighted graph is called as cost adjacency matrix.5.5. Representation of Graphs: There are two ways of representing digraphs.3 Weighted graph and its Cost adjacency matrix Lecture Notes 187 Dept. j 1 2 G1: 3 4 (a) 5 (b) 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 5 1 1 0 0 0 Figure 6. G2: 4 B 3 1 2 A 6 (a) D C 2 4 2 E 2 4 1 1 F G (b) A B C D E F G A 0 3 6 ∝ ∝ ∝ ∝ B 3 0 2 4 ∝ ∝ ∝ C 6 2 0 1 4 2 ∝ D ∝ 4 1 0 2 ∝ 4 E ∝ ∝ 4 2 0 2 1 F ∝ ∝ 2 ∝ 2 0 1 G ∝ ∝ ∝ 4 1 1 0 Figure 6. A graph and its Adjacency matrix Figure 6. the adjacency matrix of a graph G is a two dimensional n x n matrix.2.3(b) shows the cost adjacency matrix representation of the graph G2 shown in figure 6.
. n] of pointers where for 1 < v < n.5. if G is a graph with n vertices.4(a).4(b) shows the incidence matrix representation of the graph G1 shown in figure 6. 2. j ⎧ 1 if there is an edge j incident to v i = ⎨ ⎩ 0 otherwise Here. For the graph G in figure 6.Adjacency List: In this representation. If the edges have weights then these weights may also be stored in the linked list elements.4 (b). the adjacency list in shown in figure 6. c B a d b A g (a) D C f e h k E j i G l F (b) A B C D E F G a 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 b 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 c 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 d 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 f 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 g 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 h 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 i 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 j 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 k 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Figure 6. where a i.4(a). of Information Technology . Adj[v] points to a linked list containing the vertices which are adjacent to v (i. . . say A = (ai.e. the n rows of the adjacency matrix are represented as n linked lists. then incidence matrix A is defined as an n by e matrix.5.5. Lecture Notes 188 Dept.j). An array Adj[1.5. e edges and no self loops.5. Such a matrix is called as vertexedge incidence matrix or simply incidence matrix. . n rows correspond to n vertices and e columns correspond to e edges.4 Adjacency matrix and adjacency list Incidence Matrix: In this representation. 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 0 3 2 (a) Adjacency Matrix 2 3 (b) Adjacency List Figure 6.4 Graph and its incidence matrix Figure 6. .5. the vertices that can be reached from v by a single edge).
6. Although MST cannot do anything about the distance from one connection to another. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST): A spanning tree for a connected graph is a tree whose vertex set is the same as the vertex set of the given graph. Lecture Notes 189 Dept. Kruskal’s algorithm and 2. and Prim’s algorithm uses vertex connections in determining the MST.3.. thereby connecting everyone at a minimum cost.e. and the edges would represent routes between the cities. Both algorithms differ in their methodology. can be constructed using any of the following two algorithms: 1. For instance. In Prim’s algorithm at any instance of output it represents tree whereas in Kruskal’s algorithm at any instance of output it may represent tree or not. who are separated by varying distances. The vertices of the graph would represent cities. but both eventually end up with the MST. and whose edge set is a subset of the edge set of the given graph. Example: G: A gr a p h G: T hr e e ( of ma n y p o s s i b l e) s p a n n i n g t r e e s f r o m gr a p h G: 2 2 4 G: 3 3 5 6 1 1 A w e i g ht e d gr a p h G: T h e mi n i m a l s p a n n i n g t r e e f r o m w e i g ht e d gr a p h G: Let's consider a couple of realworld examples on minimum spanning tree: • One practical application of a MST would be in the design of a network. Prim’s algorithm. • Another useful application of MST would be finding airline routes. Minimum spanning tree. Minimum spanning tree (MST) is a spanning tree with the smallest possible weight. i. any connected graph will have a spanning tree. a group of individuals. Kruskal's algorithm uses edges. it can be used to determine the least cost paths with no cycles in this network. Weight of a spanning tree w(T) is the sum of weights of all edges in T. wish to be connected together in a telephone network. MST can be applied to optimize airline routes by finding the least costly paths with no cycles. of Information Technology .
picking an edge with the least weight in a MST).3. 5) (1. A greedy algorithm chooses some local optimum (i. If (v. in this case. proceed to step 6. 5) (2. but they will all have the same total cost. while avoiding the creation of cycles. 5) (2. Kruskal's algorithm works as follows: Take a graph with 'n' vertices. 6) Lecture Notes 190 Dept. 5. Kruskal’s Algorithm This is a greedy algorithm. Kruskal’s Algorithm for minimal spanning tree is as follows: 1.1 edges then print no spanning tree.1) edges have been added. 2) (3. 3) (5. 3. keep on adding the shortest (least cost) edge. The order in which the edges are chosen. Different MST’s may result.1. w) from E of lowest cost.e.6. If T contains fewer than n . which will always be the minimum cost. 6) (1. 6) (2. until (n . Delete (v. Sometimes two or more edges may have the same cost. w) 6. 2. Repeat the steps 3. w) does not create a cycle in T then Add (v. Choose an edge (v. 6) (4. Make the tree T empty. of Information Technology . w) to T else discard (v. Example 1: Construct the minimal spanning tree for the graph shown below: 10 1 50 2 45 40 30 3 35 25 4 5 55 20 15 6 Arrange all the edges in the increasing order of their costs: Cost 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Edge (1. does not matter. 4) (3. w) from E.1 edges and E is not empty otherwise. 4. 4 and 5 as long as T contains less than n .
6) 25 1 The edge between vertices 2 and 6 is considered next and included in the tree. 2 3 4 5 6 (1. 6) 20 1 The edge between vertices 4 and 6 is next included in the tree. 6 Lecture Notes 191 Dept. 6) 15 1 Next. It is included in the spanning tree. This completes the tree. 5) 35 The edge between the vertices 1 and 4 is discarded as its inclusion creates a cycle. of Information Technology . the edge between vertices 3 and 5 is considered and included in the tree built.The stages in Kruskal’s algorithm for minimal spanning tree is as follows: EDGE COST (1. 2 3 4 5 6 (2. Reject 1 2 4 Finally. the edge between vertices 3 and 6 is selected and included in the tree. 3 5 The cost of the minimal spanning tree is 105. 2 3 4 5 6 (4. 2) 10 STAGES IN KRUSKAL’S ALGORITHM 1 The edge between vertices 1 and 2 is the first edge selected. 4) 30 (3. 2 3 4 REMARKS 5 6 (3.
Example 2: Construct the minimal spanning tree for the graph shown below: 28 1 10 2 14 6 24 25 16 7 3 18 5 22 12 4 Solution: Arrange all the edges in the increasing order of their costs: Cost 10 12 14 16 18 22 24 25 28 Edge (1. It is included in the spanning tree. 6) 10 STAGES IN KRUSKAL’S ALGORITHM 1 REMARKS The edge between vertices 1 and 6 is the first edge selected. 7) (2. 4) 1 12 Next. 3) (4. 7) 1 14 The edge between vertices 2 and 7 is next included in the tree. 2 6 3 7 5 4 (3. 6) (3. 2) The stages in Kruskal’s algorithm for minimal spanning tree is as follows: EDGE COST (1. 4) (2. 7) (5. 2 6 3 7 5 4 (2. 7) (4. 6) (1. 2 6 3 7 5 4 Lecture Notes 192 Dept. the edge between vertices 3 and 4 is selected and included in the tree. of Information Technology . 5) (5.
Prim's algorithm is an example of a greedy algorithm. From these many spanning trees. the edge between vertices 5 and 6 is considered and included in the tree built. 5) 22 The edge between the vertices 4 and 7 is discarded as its inclusion creates a cycle. Minimal cost spanning tree is a spanning tree for which the sum of the edge labels is as small as possible The slight modification of the spanning tree algorithm yields a very simple algorithm for finding an MST. Reject 1 The edge between vertices 4 and 7 is considered next and included in the tree. Minimal cost spanning tree is a connected undirected graph G in which each edge is labeled with a number (edge labels may signify lengths. of Information Technology . In the spanning tree algorithm. To find a Minimal cost spanning tree. 5 4 6.(2. 2 6 3 7 The cost of the minimal spanning tree is 99. weights other than costs). 2 6 3 7 5 4 (5. 6) 25 The edge between the vertices 5 and 7 is discarded as its inclusion creates a cycle. 7) 24 (5. we have to select a cheapest one. This tree is called as minimal cost spanning tree. any vertex not in the tree but connected to it by an edge can be added. Lecture Notes 193 Dept.we must always add a new vertex for which the cost of the new edge is as small as possible. This completes the tree. we must be selective .3. This simple modified algorithm of spanning tree is called prim's algorithm for finding an Minimal cost spanning tree. 3) 1 16 The edge between vertices 2 and 3 is next included in the tree.2. MINIMUMCOST SPANNING TREES: PRIM'S ALGORITHM A given graph can have many spanning trees. 2 6 3 7 5 4 (4. Reject 1 Finally. 7) 18 (4.
A minimum spanning tree is computed and stored as a set of edges in the array t [1:n1. The final cost is returned. 1] := j. 2]) is an edge in the minimumcost spanning tree. l] < cost [i. else near [i] := k. near [j]]. 1:n] is the cost adjacency matrix of an n vertex graph such that cost [i. j) exists. t) { Let (k. mincost := mincost + cost [j. (t [i. t [1. near [k]] > cost [k. mincost := cost [k. 2] := l. if ((near [k] ≠ 0) and (cost [k. cost. 4 B 3 2 D 1 2 E 4 A 6 C 4 1 2 2 G F 1 Solution: ⎛0 ⎜ ⎜3 ⎜6 ⎜ The cost adjacency matrix is ⎜ ∞ ⎜ ⎜∞ ⎜∞ ⎜⎜ ⎝∞ Lecture Notes 3 6 ∞ ∞ ∞ 0 2 4 ∞ ∞ 2 0 1 4 2 4 1 0 2 ∞ ∞ 4 2 0 2 ∞ 2 ∞ 2 0 ∞ ∞ 4 1 1 194 ∞⎞ ⎟ ∞⎟ ∞⎟ ⎟ 4⎟ ⎟ 1⎟ 1⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟⎠ Dept. for i:=2 to n . l]. near [k] :=near [l] := 0.1 do // Find n . 2] := near [j]. k]) then near [i] := l. of Information Technology . 1:2]. 1] := k. t [i. n. j] is either a positive real number or ∝ if no edge (i. } return mincost. j])) then near [k] := j. 1]. near [j] := 0 for k:= 1 to n do // Update near[]. Algorithm Prim (E. for i :=1 to n do // Initialize near if (cost [i. t [i. } EXAMPLE: Use Prim’s Algorithm to find a minimal spanning tree for the graph shown below starting with the vertex A. l) be an edge of minimum cost in E. near [j]] is minimum.2 additional edges for t.Prim’s Algorithm: E is the set of edges in G. { Let j be an index such that near [j] ≠ 0 and cost [j. t [i. cost [1:n. t [1.
Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 0 2 B D 0 1 C E 1 2 D F 1 2 C G 1 4 D Vertex Status Dist. of Information Technology .The stepwise progress of the prim’s algorithm is as follows: Step 1: B A 3 ∝ D ∝ E ∝ F 6 0 C ∝ G Vertex Status Dist. Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 1 2 B D 1 4 B E 1 ∝ A F 1 ∝ A G 1 ∝ A Vertex Status Dist. Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 0 2 B D 1 1 C E 1 4 C F 1 2 C G 1 ∝ A Vertex Status Dist. Next A 0 0 * B 1 3 A C 1 6 A D 1 ∝ A E 1 ∝ A F 1 ∝ A G 1 ∝ A Vertex Status Dist. Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 0 2 B D 0 1 C E 1 2 D F 0 2 C G 1 1 E Step 2: B 3 A 0 2 C 44 D ∝ E ∝ F 1 D 4 E ∝ G Step 3: B 3 A 0 ∝ 2 C 2 F 1 D 2 E 2 F 1 D 2 E 2 F G Step 4: A 0 2 C 4 G Step 5: B A 0 3 2 1 G C Lecture Notes 195 Dept.
A one entry in the matrix Ai will correspond to the existence of i–paths and zero entry will correspond to nonexistence. Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 0 2 B D 0 1 C E 0 2 D F 1 1 G G 0 1 E G Vertex Status Dist. contains the desired connectivity information. the final matrix An. . which are connected and zero entry indicates a pair. . . Next A 0 0 * B 0 3 A C 0 2 B D 0 1 C E 0 2 D F 0 1 G G 0 1 E D 1 E 1 F Step 7: B A 0 3 2 C 6. 1 D 2 E 1 F 1 Reachability Matrix (Warshall’s Algorithm): Warshall’s algorithm requires knowing which edges exist and which does not. producing matrices called A1. In warshall’s algorithm the matrix Ai contains information about the existence of i–paths.Step 6: B A 1 3 0 2 2 C G Vertex Status Dist. y]) Lecture Notes 196  (1) Dept. of Information Technology . A one entry indicates a pair of vertices. It doesn’t need to know the lengths of the edges in the given directed graph. It is also called the transitive closure of the original adjacency matrix. This matrix is called a reachability matrix or path matrix for the graph. . . . This information is conveniently displayed by adjacency matrix for the graph. The update rule for computing Ai from Ai1 in warshall’s algorithm is: Ai [x. in which a ‘1’ indicates the existence of an edge and ‘0’ indicates nonexistence. y] = Ai1 [x. which are not. Thus when the algorithm stops. which is called A0.4. and then updates the matrix ‘n’ times. y] ۷ (Ai1 [x. An and then stops. i] ٨ Ai1 [i. A d j ac e nc y M at r i x W a r s h a l l’ s A l g or it h m A l l P a ir s Rec h a b i l it y M at r i x It begins with the adjacency matrix for the given graph. A2.
1] = A0[2. 3] ۷ (A0[3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A1[2. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2] = A1[2. 2] ۷ (A1[2. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A2[3. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 A1[3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A2[2. 2] = A0[2. 2] = A1[3. 4] = A0[3. 4] ۷ (A1[1. 4] = A0[1. A2 must be calculated from A1. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2] ۷ (A1[3. Since these are only nine zero entries in A0. of Information Technology . 1] ۷ (A0[2. we notice that only one entry in A0 must remain one in A1. 1] = A0[3. 1] ۷ (A0[3. A2[1. 3]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 A1[3. 1] ۷ (A1[1. but again we need to update the 0 entries. 2] ٨ A1[2. 2] ٨ A1[2. 1] ۷ (A1[2. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 Lecture Notes 197 Dept. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2] ٨ A1[2. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 A1[3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A2[3. 4] ۷ (A0[1. 1] ۷ (A1[3. 4] ۷ (A0[4. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A1[2. 1] ٨ A0[1. 2] = A0[3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 0) = 0 A2[1. 2] ۷ (A0[2. 2] ٨ A1[2. since in Boolean algebra 1 + (anything) = 1. there are only nine entries in A0 that need to be updated. 4] ۷ (A0[3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 1) = 1 A2[2. 3] = A0[3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 0) = 0 1 ⎛0 ⎜ 2 ⎜0 A1 = ⎜ 3 0 ⎜ 4 ⎜⎝1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0⎞ ⎟ 1⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟⎠ Next. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A1[1. 2] ٨ A1[2. 1] = A1[1. 1] ٨ A0[1. 1] = A1[3. 1] ٨ A0[1. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A1[3.Example 1: Use warshall’s algorithm to calculate the reachability matrix for the graph: 4 1 4 5 6 7 11 1 2 3 7 We begin with the adjacency matrix of the graph ‘A0’ 1 ⎛0 ⎜ 2 ⎜0 A0 = ⎜ 3 0 ⎜ 4 ⎜⎝1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0⎞ ⎟ 1⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟⎠ The first step is to compute ‘A1’ matrix. A1[1. Before doing so. 4]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A1[4. 4] = A0[4. 2] ٨ A1[2. 1] ۷ (A0[1. 1] ٨ A0[1. 1] = A0[1. To do so we will use the updating rule – (1). 4] = A1[1. 1] = A1[2. 2] ۷ (A0[3.
1] ۷ (A3 [1. 1] = A2[3. Lecture Notes 198 Dept. 4] ٨ A3 [4. of Information Technology . 2] = A3 [3. 4] ٨ A3 [4. there is no path from vertex 3 back to itself. 4] ٨ A3 [4. 3] = A3 [3. 4] ٨ A3 [4. 3]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 0 = 0 A4[3. This matrix is the reachability matrix for the graph. we use the update rule to calculate A4 and stop. 2] ٨ A1[2. 3] = A1[3. and so to compute A3. 1] = A3 [3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 A2[4. 4] ٨ A3 [4. 4] ٨ A3 [4. 2] ۷ (A3 [2. 3] ۷ (A3 [3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[2. 3] ٨ A2[3. 2] ۷ (A3 [3. 3] ٨ A2[3. 2] = A2[3. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 0 = 0 A4[3. 2]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 1 = 1 A4[3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 1 ⎛0 ⎜ 2 ⎜0 A3 = ⎜ 3 0 ⎜ 4 ⎜⎝1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1⎞ ⎟ 1⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 1 ⎟⎠ Once A3 is calculated. This is because as can be seen in the graph. 2] = A2[2. 1] ۷ (A2[2. 4] = A1[3. 4] = A1[4. 2] = A3 [2. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 0 = 0 A4[3. 4] ۷ (A3 [3. A4[1. 3] ٨ A2[3. we need to do only seven computations. 1] = A2[1. 3] ٨ A2[3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[3. 2] ۷ (A2[2. 1] ۷ (A2[1. 3] ٨ A2[3. 1] ۷ (A3 [2.A2[3. 3] ۷ (A1[3. 2]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[3. 4] = A2[3. 4] = A3 [3. 2] ٨ A1[2. 3] ۷ (A2[3. 4] ٨ A3 [4. 3] ٨ A2[3. 1] = A3 [1. 4] ۷ (A2[3. 3] ٨ A2[3. 4] ۷ (A1[3. 3] = A2[3. 3]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 A2[3. 1] = A2[2. 2]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[3. 1]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 1 = 1 A4[2. 4]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 1) = 1 1 ⎛0 ⎜ 2 ⎜0 A2 = ⎜ 3 0 ⎜ 4 ⎜⎝1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1⎞ ⎟ 1⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 1⎟⎠ This matrix has only seven 0 entries. 2] ٨ A1[2. 1]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 1 = 1 A4[2. 1] ۷ (A2[3. 4]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 1) = 0 ۷ 0 = 0 1 ⎛1 ⎜ 2 ⎜1 A4 = ⎜ 3 0 ⎜ 4 ⎜⎝1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1⎞ ⎟ 1⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 1⎟⎠ Note that according to the algorithm vertex 3 is not reachable from itself 1. A3[1. 1] = A3 [2. 1]) = 0 ۷ (1 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[2. 4] ۷ (A1[4. 2] ۷ (A2[3. 1] ۷ (A3 [3. 3]) = 0 ۷ (0 ٨ 0) = 0 A3[3.
each node N of G will be in one of three states. as follows: 1.1. we can compute a spanning tree in a graph. Breadth first traversal algorithm on graph G is as follows: This algorithm executes a BFT on graph G beginning at a starting node A. Lecture Notes a. Add to the rear of QUEUE all the neighbors of N that are in the ready state (STATUS = 1). We need to keep track of the neighbors of a node. They are: • Breadth first traversal (BFT) • Depth first traversal (DFT) The BFT will use a queue as an auxiliary structure to hold nodes for future processing and the DFT will use a STACK. 2. Then we examine all the neighbors of A. Repeat the following steps until QUEUE is empty: 3. Traversing a Graph Many graph algorithms require one to systematically examine the nodes and edges of a graph G. Initialize all nodes to the ready state (STATUS = 1). waiting to be processed. Put the starting node A in QUEUE and change its status to the waiting state (STATUS = 2). Exit.6. and by using a field STATUS that tells us the current status of any node. And so on. The computed spanning tree is not a minimum spanning tree. b. STATUS = 2 (Waiting state): The node N is on the QUEUE or STACK. 6. The spanning trees obtained using depth first search are called depth first spanning trees. There are two standard ways to do this. of Information Technology . and we need to guarantee that no node is processed more than once. 3. During the execution of these algorithms. 2. First we examine the starting node A. STATUS = 1 (Ready state): The initial state of the node N. Process N and change the status of N to the processed state (STATUS = 3). Remove the front node N of QUEUE. 199 Dept. Both BFS and DFS impose a tree (the BFS/DFS tree) on the structure of graph. called the status of N.5. So. This is accomplished by using a QUEUE to hold nodes that are waiting to be processed. 1. Breadth first search and traversal: The general idea behind a breadth first traversal beginning at a starting node A is as follows. and change their status to the waiting state (STATUS = 2). The spanning trees obtained using BFS are called Breadth first spanning trees. Then we examine all the neighbors of neighbors of A.5. STATUS = 3 (Processed state): The node N has been processed. The spanning trees obtained using breadth first search are called Breadth first spanning trees.
4. DFT algorithm is similar to BFT except now use a STACK instead of the QUEUE. Again field STATUS is used to tell us the current status of a node. C. This algorithm executes a DFT on graph G beginning at a starting node A.2. G D C.6. we back up to the last vertex visited. B. of Information Technology . F. D. C. Repeat the following steps until STACK is empty: a. E. Initialize all nodes to the ready state (STATUS = 1). K J D. The search terminates when no unvisited vertex can be reached from any of the visited ones. Depth first search and traversal: Depth first search of undirected graph proceeds as follows: First we examine the starting node V. G C A. 2. J E C. which has an unvisited vertex 'W' adjacent to it and initiate a depth first search from W. C. This algorithm is similar to the inorder traversal of binary tree. F. The algorithm for depth first traversal on a graph G is as follows. D. J. C. Pop the top node N from STACK. B B A. 3. K K E. G. A F C D B E J G K A Gr a p h G Node Adjacency List A F. E.5. J Adjacency list for graph G Lecture Notes 200 Dept. When a vertex 'U' is reached such that all its adjacent vertices have been visited. b. Traverse the graph shown below in breadth first order and depth first order. Push all the neighbors of N that are in the ready state (STATUS = 1). Exit. Push the starting node A into STACK and change its status to the waiting state (STATUS = 2). D G B. K F A. E. and change their status to the waiting state (STATUS = 2). Next an unvisited vertex 'W' adjacent to 'V' is selected and a depth first search from 'W' is initiated. Process N and change the status of N to the processed state (STATUS = 3). E. G. Example 1: Consider the graph shown below. 1.
Depthfirst search and traversal: The steps involved in depth first traversal are as follows: Current Node Stack Processed Nodes A Status A B C D E F G J K 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A BCF A 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 F BCD AF 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 D BCEJ AFD 3 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 J BCEK AFDJ 3 2 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 K BCEG AFDJK 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 G BCE AFDJKG 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 E BC AFDJKGE 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 C B AFDJKGEC 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 B EMPTY AFDJKGECB 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 For the above graph the depth first traversal sequence is: A F D J K G E C B.Breadthfirst search and traversal: The steps involved in breadth first traversal are as follows: Current Node QUEUE Processed Nodes A Status A B C D E F G J K 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A FCB A 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 F CBD AF 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 C BDEG AFC 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 B DEG AFCB 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 D EGJ AFCBD 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 E GJK AFCBDE 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 G JK AFCBDEG 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 J K AFCBDEGJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 K EMPTY AFCBDEGJK 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 For the above graph the breadth first traversal sequence is: A F C B D E G J K. Lecture Notes 201 Dept. of Information Technology .
L. C. E. F F A. E. B. I I H J G. F E G. The breadth first spanning tree is shown in the figure given below: A F E B C D G L H J M I K Breadth first traversal Lecture Notes 202 Dept. H. K. of Information Technology . D. then the vertices of graph G are visited in the order: A F B C G E D L H J M I K.Example 2: Traverse the graph shown below in breadth first order. G D E. D G A. depth first order and construct the breadth first and depth first spanning trees. M K J L G. C H G. The depth first spanning tree is shown in the figure given below: A F B E G L H J I K D C M Depth first Traversal If the breadth first traversal is initiated from vertex A. J. M L. A B C H I J K L M Node Adjacency List A F. then the vertices of graph G are visited in the order: A F E G L J K M H I C D B. list J for the graph G TheM adjacency G D E F The G ra ph G If the depth first traversal is initiated from vertex A. J. L. G B A C A.
6. then the vertices of graph G are visited in the order: 1. depth first order and construct the breadth first and depth first spanning trees. The depth first spanning tree is as follows: 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 8 Depth First Spanning Tree Lecture Notes 203 Dept. 7. 3.Example 3: Traverse the graph shown below in breadth first order. 4. 5. 2. 8. of Information Technology . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Graph G He ad Node s 1 2 3 2 1 4 5 3 1 6 7 4 2 8 5 2 8 6 3 8 7 3 8 8 4 5 6 7 A d j a c e n c y l is t f o r g r a p h G Depth first search and traversal: If the depth first is initiated from vertex 1.
of Information Technology . Explain how existence of a cycle in an undirected graph may be detected by traversing the graph in a depth first manner. How many edges are contained in a complete graph of “n” vertices. Rewrite the algorithms “BFSearch” and “DFSearch” so that it works on adjacency matrix representation of graphs. Construct a weighted graph for which the minimal spanning trees produced by Kruskal’s algorithm and Prim’s algorithm are different. 7. 3. 10. 8. 3. 4. Give an example of a connected directed graph so that a depth first traversal of that graph yields a forest and not a spanning tree of the graph. Write a “C” function to generate the incidence matrix of a graph from its adjacency matrix. Write a “C” function to delete an existing edge from a graph represented by an adjacency list. 5. Show that the number of vertices of odd degree in a finite graph is even. 9. The breadth first spanning tree is as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Breadth First Spanning Tree EXCERCISES 1. 6. 7. Prove that the edges explored by a breadth first or depth first traversal of a connected graph from a tree. to compute the transitive closure matrix of a graph) 11. 4. 8.Breadth first search and traversal: If the breadth first search is initiated from vertex 1. Write a “C” function to find out whether there is a path between any two vertices in a graph (i. 2. Show that the number of spanning trees in a complete graph of “n” vertices is 2n1 – 1. Lecture Notes 204 Dept.e. 2. Show that the sum of degrees of all vertices in an undirected graph is twice the number of edges. 6. then the vertices of G are visited in the order: 1. 12. 5.
5 1 6 2 4 8 3 7 Lecture Notes 205 Dept. h) Depth first spanning tree. e) Minimal spanning tree using Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms. d) Breadth first spanning tree. Find the minimum spanning tree T of the graph shown below.13. 7 3 8 6 For the graph given below find the following: k) Linked representation of the graph. 4 1 2 5 16. o) Minimal spanning tree using Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms. of Information Technology . l) Adjacency list. b) Adjacency list. Describe the algorithm to find a minimum spanning tree T of a weighted graph G. n) Breadth first spanning tree. 6 5 A B C 1 8 4 2 D E 3 14. c) Depth first spanning tree. For the graph given below find the following: a) Linked representation of the graph. m) Depth first spanning tree. i) Breadth first spanning tree. 8 6 1 1 5 7 2 4 6 2 7 9 3 3 8 10 4 10 15. 9 5 For the graph given below find the following: f) Linked representation of the graph. j) Minimal spanning tree using Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms. g) Adjacency list.
Inorder C.Multiple Choice Questions 1. E) then (C. The maximum number of nodes at any level is: A. A B C D E F G C. For the figure 1 shown above. (A. The depthfirst traversal in graph is analogous to tree traversal: A. Sibblings B. D) then (D. A B D C F G E D. A B C D E F G B. both A and B D. none of the above [ B ] 8. 32 [ A ] Lecture Notes 206 B ] Dept. All of the above [ D ] 2. n . of Information Technology . D) then (E. Adjacency list D. C) then (A. none of the above [ 9. n(n1)/2 B. adjacent node C. 2n [ B ] 20 A 23 C 28 36 D 25 9 E 16 3 F 7. Level order [ C ] 3. Which is the correct order for Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree algorithm to add edges to the minimum spanning tree for the figure 1 shown above: A.1 C. Directed graph D. Acyclic graph B. n/2 D. A. none of the above [ C ] 6. E) then (F. C) C. G) then (B. A B D C F G E C. Incidence matrix B. (A. the depth first spanning tree visiting sequence is: A. 2n D. 48 B. n + 1 B. Subgraph C. (n – 1)/2 [ C ] 5. nonleaf node D. F) then (D. 68 D. Complete graphs with n nodes will have__________ edges. the cost of the minimal spanning tree is: A. leaf node [ C ] 4. How can the graphs be represented? A. A B C D E F G D. G) then (A. A B C D E F G B. 15 4 1 Node B 17 G Adjacency List A BCD B ADE C ADF D ABCEFG E BDG F CDG G FDE FIGURE 1 and its adjacency list For the figure 1 shown above. G) B. The children of a same parent node are called as: A. For the figure 1 shown above. Preorder B. A graph with no cycle is called as: A. n C. B) then (A. the breadth first spanning tree visiting sequence is: A. none of the above [ B ] 10. 57 C. D) then (D. Adjacency matrix C. Postorder D.
O(n²) [ A ] [ B ] 19. If G is an directed graph with 20 vertices. C. starting at vertex A. which is a correct order for Prim’s minimum spanning tree algorithm to add edges to the minimum spanning tree? Lecture Notes 207 Dept. O(m) C. A cyclefinding algorithm. Edge lists. 40 D. It must have at least one vertex. 20 C.) A. [ D ] 12. Depth first search. none of the above [ B ] 17. A simple graph has no loops. O(m) C. O(m²) B. of Information Technology . Breadth first search. 200 B. D. B. O(n) D. Which graph representation allows the most efficient determination of the existence of a particular edge in a graph? A. D. D. Depthfirst search. What other property must a simple graph have? A. What algorithm might be used to find the best sequence of connections from one city to another? A. none of the above [ B ] 15. 3 A 1 2 B 3 1 C D 5 5 4 G 4 E 6 3 D ] FIGURE 3 1 F For the figure 3. O(n²) [ D ] 18. Breadthfirst search. D. What is the expected number of operations needed to loop through all the edges terminating at a particular vertex given an adjacency list representation of the graph? (Assume n vertices are in the graph and m edges terminate at the desired node.) A. Suppose you have a directed graph representing all the flights that an airline flies. An adjacency matrix. C. A shortestpath algorithm. C Level order search B. It must be undirected. how many boolean values will be needed to represent G using an adjacency matrix? A. D.11. O(n) D. Depthfirst search. none of the above [ A ] 16. It must have no multiple edges. 400 [ 14. [ D ] 13. What is the expected number of operations needed to loop through all the edges terminating at a particular vertex given an adjacency matrix representation of the graph? (Assume n vertices are in the graph and m edges terminate at the desired node. Breadthfirst search. What graph traversal algorithm uses a stack to keep track of vertices which need to be processed? A. Incidence matrix B. O(m²) B. What graph traversal algorithm uses a queue to keep track of vertices which need to be processed? A. It must be directed. C Level order search B. B. C.
Nodes C.A. G) then (G. D) then (C. The set of all edges generated by DFS tree starting at node B is: A. Parallel edges [ D ] A B Node D G F C ] Adjacency List A D B AC C GDF D  E E C CD F EA G B FIGURE 4 and its adjacency list 24. D) then (A. F) then (F. B) then (B. F) then (F. E) D. B) then (A. An adjacency matrix representation of a graph cannot contain information of: A. G) then (B. D. F) then (A. which is a correct order for Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree algorithm to add edges to the minimum spanning tree? A. D) B. G) then (A. E) C. Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm B. F) then (D. C) then (A. (A. For the figure 4. (A. C) then (C. (A. G) then (A. G) then (A. F) 20. (A. F) [ 21. B A D C G F E C. C) then (E. F) then (F. B) then (C. Cannot be generated [ C ] Lecture Notes 208 Dept. E) then (E. B) then (C. Edges D. Kruskal’s Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm D. B A D C G F E C. (A. F) then (D. F) then (A. D) then (C. Cannot be generated [ A ] 26. (A. The DepthFirst Search Trace Algorithm [ ] 22. A D D. B) then (B. D) then (A. E) then (E. (A. B. C) then (A. C) then (C. F → E C. G) then (G. C → F [ B ] 25. D) then (C. of Information Technology . C → G B. For the figure 3. The set of all edges generated by BFS tree starting at node B is: A. G) then (B. D) then (C. B) then (A. B A C D G F E B. (A. C. E) D. B A C D G F E B. B) then (C. D) B. G) then (A. Prim’s Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm C. F) then (F. which edge does not occur in the depth first spanning tree resulting from depth first search starting at node B: A. C) then (E. [ ] 23. C) then (A. E) C. The worstcase running time of Kruskal’s minimumcost spanning tree algorithm on a graph with n vertices and m edges is: A. Which algorithm does not construct an intree as part of its processing? A. B) then (C. C) then (A. E → C D. Direction of edges B. A D D.
After developing programming techniques to represent information. This chapter introduces this important aspect of problem solving. External sorting If all the elements to be sorted are present in the main memory then such sorting is called internal sorting on the other hand. a dictionary in which words is arranged in alphabetical order and telephone director in which the subscriber names are listed in alphabetical order. Quick sort 3.Chapter 7 Searching and Sorting There are basically two aspects of computer programming. it is logical to proceed to manipulate it. There are two types of search techniques. Selection sort and 4. Searching is used to find the location where an element is available. Lecture Notes 209 Dept. If the desired element is found in the list then the search is successful otherwise unsuccessful. In this technique. Linear or sequential search 2. it is called external sorting. One is data organization also commonly called as data structures. an ordered or unordered list will be searched one by one from the beginning until the desired element is found. The other part of computer programming involves choosing the appropriate algorithm to solve the problem. Linear Search: This is the simplest of all searching techniques. Here we study only internal sorting techniques. They are: 1. For example. Bubble sort 2.1. Internal sorting 2. of Information Technology . Binary search Sorting allows an efficient arrangement of elements within a given data structure. if some of the elements to be sorted are kept on the secondary storage. Data structures and algorithms are linked each other. 1. 7. It is a way in which the elements are organized systematically for some purpose. Till now we have seen about data structures and the techniques and algorithms used to access them. There are many sorting techniques out of which we study the following. Heap sort There are two types of sorting techniques: 1.
On an average you need [(n+1)/2] comparison’s to search an element. 24. of Information Technology . If it is the first element. x) { index = 0. Algorithm: Let array a[n] stores n elements. 39. If search is not successful. we’ll look at 10 elements before success 9. 16. if it is second element two comparisons are necessary and so on. The number of comparisons required to retrieve an element from the list. } if(flag == 1) printf(“Data found at %d position“. 38. 77. Lecture Notes 210 Dept. we’ll look at 2 elements before success 8. 9. we’ll look at 3 elements before success 54. flag = 0. The time complexity of linear search is O(n). break. we’ll look at 12 elements before success For any element not in the list. we’ll look at 1 element before success 39. } Example 1: Suppose we have the following unsorted list: 45. else printf(“data not found”). index). 8. you would need ’n’ comparisons. we’ll look at 9 elements before success 7. } index ++. we’ll look at 7 elements before success 16. we’ll look at 11 elements before success 20. 7. 20 If we are searching for: 45. 54. linsrch(a[n]. we’ll look at 8 elements before success 4. we’ll look at 5 elements before success 38 we’ll look at 6 elements before success 24. purely depends on where the element is stored in the list. we’ll look at 12 elements before failure. Determine whether element ‘x’ is present or not. one comparison will do. we’ll look at 4 elements before success 77.Suppose there are ‘n’ elements organized sequentially on a List. 4. while (index < n) do { if (x == a[index]) { flag = 1.
i. flag = 0. data. of Information Technology . A nonrecursive program for Linear Search: # include <stdio. n. &data).1.2.h> void linear_search(int a[].1. scanf("%d". scanf("%d".1. i++) scanf("%d". Searching for x = 7 Search successful. data not found.h> main() { int number[25]. 3. } } if(flag == 1) printf("\n Data found at location: %d". &n). 7. 2. printf("\n Enter the number of elements: "). Searching for x = 82 Search successful. i+1). int data.h> # include <conio. for( i = 0. else printf("\n Data not found "). A Recursive program for linear search: # include <stdio. i < n. Searching for x = 42 Search unsuccessful.h> # include <conio. i++) { if(number[i] == data) { flag = 1. clrscr(). int n) { if(position < n) Lecture Notes 211 Dept. &number[i]). data found at 3rd position. } 7.Example 2: Let us illustrate linear search on the following 9 elements: Index Elements 0 15 1 6 2 0 3 7 4 9 5 23 6 54 7 82 8 101 Searching different elements is as follows: 1. break. printf("\n Enter the element to be Searched: "). data found at 7th position. printf("\n Enter the elements: "). int position. for(i = 0. i < n.
the worst case complexity of Binary search is about log2n. printf("\n Enter the number of elements: "). } else printf("\n Data not found"). BINARY SEARCH If we have ‘n’ records which have been ordered by keys so that x1 < x2 < … < xn . } 7. i < n. for(i = 0. position). set j such that x = a[j] else return 0. i. else linear_search(a. When we are given a element ‘x’. &data). } void main() { int a[25]. where we find key a[mid]. if a[mid] > x.2. n. position + 1. In Binary search we jump into the middle of the file. data. Similarly. printf("\n Enter the elements: "). we have to determine a value ‘j’ such that a[j] = x (successful search). 0. and since an array of length ‘n’ can be halved only about log2n times before reaching a trivial length. &a[i]). If x = a[mid] then the desired record has been found. data. If x < a[mid] then ‘x’ must be in that portion of the file that precedes a[mid]. scanf("%d". data. clrscr(). In case ‘x’ is present. scanf("%d". n ≥ 0. then further search is only necessary in that part of the file which follows a[mid]. determine whether ‘x’ is present. } printf("\n Enter the element to be seached: "). getch(). n). and if so. linear_search(a. Algorithm: Let array a[n] of elements in increasing order. n). If we use recursive procedure of finding the middle key a[mid] of the unsearched portion of a file.{ if(a[position] == data) printf("\n Data Found at %d ". and compare ‘x’ with a[mid]. i++) { scanf("%d". then every unsuccessful comparison of ‘x’ with a[mid] will eliminate roughly half the unsearched portion from consideration. &n). If ‘x’ is not in the list then j is to set to zero (un successful search). Lecture Notes 212 Dept. Since the array size is roughly halved after each comparison between ‘x’ and a[mid]. binary search is used to find the corresponding element from the list. of Information Technology .
} low and high are integer variables such that each time through the loop either ‘x’ is found or low is increased by at least one or high is decreased by at least one. mid = 13/2 = 6. high = 5. found If we are searching for x = 20: (This needs 1 comparison) low = 1. check 16. Example 1: Let us illustrate binary search on the following 12 elements: Index Elements 1 4 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 16 6 20 7 24 8 38 9 39 10 45 11 54 12 77 If we are searching for x = 4: (This needs 3 comparisons) low = 1. mid = 6/2 = 3. found If we are searching for x = 7: (This needs 4 comparisons) low = 1. high = 12. else if (x > a[mid]) low = mid + 1. check 20 low = 1. else return mid. mid = 6/2 = 3. mid = 13/2 = 6. check 8 low = 1. check 4. high = 12. high = 5. check 20 low = 1. mid = 13/2 = 6. mid = 10/2 = 5. check 9. high = 2. high = 12. high = 2. mid = 6/2 = 3. mid = 13/2 = 6. check 8 low = 4. check 9 low = 5. found If we are searching for x = 16: (This needs 4 comparisons) low = 1. found If we are searching for x = 8: (This needs 2 comparisons) low = 1. } return 0. mid = 6/2 = 3.binsrch(a[]. Thus we have two sequences of integers approaching each other and eventually low will become greater than high causing termination in a finite number of steps if ‘x’ is not present. mid = 13/2 = 6. mid = 6/2 = 3. high = 5. high = 12. mid = 13/2 = 6. high = 5. check 20 low = 1. mid = 3/2 = 1. check 7. check 20. mid = 9/2 = 4. high = 5. check 8. n. found Lecture Notes 213 Dept. check 20 low = 1. high = 5. mid = 4/2 = 2. check 20 low = 1. high = 12. mid = 3/2 = 1. check 4 low = 2. while (low < high) do { mid = ⎣ (low + high)/2 ⎦ if (x < a[mid]) high = mid – 1. high = n. check 8 low = 1. of Information Technology . high = 12. high = 5. check 8 low = 4. mid = 9/2 = 4. x) { low = 1. found If we are searching for x = 9: (This needs 3 comparisons) low = 1. high = 2. high = 5.
high = 12. 38. yielding 37/12 or approximately 3. mid = 22/2 = 11. check 20 low = 7. found If we are searching for x = 45: (This needs 4 comparisons) low = 1. check 20 low = 7. found If we are searching for x = 77: (This needs 4 comparisons) low = 1. mid = 20/2 = 10. check 54. check 38. 77 – requires 4 comparisons Summing the comparisons. check 54 low = 12. high = 12. mid = 13/2 = 6. 8 and 39 – requires 2 comparisons. found The number of comparisons necessary by search element: 20 – requires 1 comparison. check 24. high = 12. high = 10. mid = 15/2 = 7. high = 12. high = 8. check 39. high = 12. check 39 low = 10. check 20 low = 7. 16. mid = 19/2 = 9. mid = 13/2 = 6. mid = 15/2 = 7. 24. 9. check 20 low = 7. check 24 low = 8. check 39 low = 10.If we are searching for x = 24: (This needs 3 comparisons) low = 1. high = 12. found If we are searching for x = 54: (This needs 3 comparisons) low = 1. 45. high = 8.08 comparisons per successful search on the average. needed to find all twelve items and dividing by 12. check 39 low = 7. high = 12. check 54 low = 10. found If we are searching for x = 39: (This needs 2 comparisons) low = 1. mid = 22/2 = 11. high = 12. check 39 low = 10. mid = 19/2 = 9. mid = 16/2 = 8. check 77. check 45. high = 12. mid = 19/2 = 9. mid = 13/2 = 6. check 39 low = 7. mid = 19/2 = 9. 4. high = 12. mid = 19/2 = 9. mid = 19/2 = 9. mid = 13/2 = 6. mid = 22/2 = 11. check 20 low = 7. high = 12. high = 12. high = 12. high = 12. high = 12. mid = 24/2 = 12. high = 8. 54 – requires 3 comparisons and 7. high = 12. mid = 13/2 = 6. found If we are searching for x = 38: (This needs 4 comparisons) low = 1. of Information Technology . Example 2: Let us illustrate binary search on the following 9 elements: Index Elements 0 15 1 6 2 0 3 7 4 9 5 23 6 54 7 82 8 101 Solution: The number of comparisons required for searching different elements is as follows: Lecture Notes 214 Dept. mid = 13/2 = 6. check 20 low = 7.
yielding 25/9 or approximately 2. a(5) < x < a(6).4 Time Complexity: The time complexity of binary search in a successful search is O(log n) and for an unsuccessful search is O(log n). of Information Technology . a(2) < x < a(3). Lecture Notes 215 Dept. For all of the remaining possibilities BINSRCH requires 4 element comparisons. Searching for x = 14: (Number of comparisons = 3) low high mid 1 9 5 1 4 2 1 1 1 2 1 not found Continuing in this manner the number of element comparisons needed to find each of nine elements is: Index Elements Comparisons 1 15 3 2 6 2 3 0 3 4 7 4 5 9 1 6 23 3 7 54 2 8 82 3 9 101 4 No element requires more than 4 comparisons to be found. Summing the comparisons needed to find all nine items and dividing by 9. If x < a(1). Searching for x = 82: (Number of comparisons = 3) low high mid 1 9 5 6 9 7 8 9 8 found 3.77 comparisons per successful search on the average. If we are searching for x = 101: (Number of comparisons = 4) low high mid 1 9 5 6 9 7 8 9 8 9 9 9 found 2. Thus the average number of element comparisons for an unsuccessful search is: (3 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 4) / 10 = 34/10 = 3. Searching for x = 42: (Number of comparisons = 4) low high mid 1 9 5 6 9 7 6 6 6 7 6 not found 4. There are ten possible ways that an unsuccessful search may terminate depending upon the value of x. a(1) < x < a(2).1. a(6) < x < a(7) or a(7) < x < a(8) the algorithm requires 3 element comparisons to determine that ‘x’ is not present.
A recursive program for binary search: # include <stdio. mid + 1). &data).1. high. scanf("%d". printf("\n Enter the elements in ascending order: ").h> # include <conio. data. &number[i]). low = 0. else { if(data < a[mid]) bin_search(a.1. scanf("%d".2. mid1).h> main() { int number[25]. mid + 1). clrscr(). A nonrecursive program for binary search: # include <stdio. &n). if(a[mid] == data) printf("\n Element found at location: %d ".7. i < n. of Information Technology . n. if(number[mid] == data) { flag = 1. while(low <= high) { mid = (low + high)/2. high = n1. mid. else printf("\n Data Not Found "). i. if( low <= high) { mid = (low + high)/2.h> # include <conio. } } if(flag == 1) printf("\n Data found at location: %d". break. printf("\n Enter the number of elements: "). flag = 0. } 7.2. for(i = 0. int high) { int mid . else low = mid + 1.2. } else { if(data < number[mid]) high = mid . low. low. data.h> void bin_search(int a[]. i++) scanf("%d". printf("\n Enter the element to be searched: "). int low. else Lecture Notes 216 Dept. int data.
bin_search(a. } 7. Then we pass through the array 5 times as described below: Pass 1: (first element is compared with all other elements). data. Bubble Sort: The bubble sort is easy to understand and program. X[i] with X[i+1] and interchange two element when they are not in proper order. data.e. data. 1.. In each pass. printf("\n Enter the elements in ascending order: "). &n). The process is shown below: X[0] X[1] X[2] X[3] X[4] X[5] 33 44 22 11 66 55 22 44 11 44 44 33 22 11 Remarks 44 66 55 66 55 66 The biggest number 66 is moved to (bubbled up) the right most position in the array. for(i = 0. i++) scanf("%d". &a[i]). and interchange X[i] and X[i+1] if X[i] > X[i+1]. We compare X[i] and X[i+1] for i = 0. 2. high). 0. The basic idea of bubble sort is to pass through the file sequentially several times. we compare each element in the file with its successor i. Bubble sort is also called as exchange sort. n. printf("\n Enter the element to be searched: "). n1). printf("\n Enter the number of elements: "). We will illustrate this sorting technique by taking a specific example. i. } else } printf("\n Element not found").3. mid+1. Lecture Notes 217 Dept. i < n. of Information Technology . Example: Consider the array x[n] which is stored in memory as shown below: X[0] X[1] X[2] X[3] X[4] X[5] 33 44 22 11 66 55 Suppose we want our array to be stored in ascending order.bin_search(a. scanf("%d". 3. getch(). } void main() { int a[25]. clrscr(). and 4. scanf("%d". &data).
i. We repeat the same process. We repeat the process leaving X[3]. We repeat the same process. By doing this.. X[0] X[1] X[2] X[3] 22 11 33 44 11 22 22 11 Remarks 33 22 33 44 33 44 Pass 4: (fourth element is compared). 2. of Information Technology . we move the third biggest number 44 to X[3]. and X[5]. For an array of size n. By doing this. we compare X[i] with X[i+1] for i=0. X[4]. We repeat the process leaving X[2]. we move the fourth biggest number 33 to X[2]. we will have the smallest number 11 in X[0]. and X[5]. At this time. Thus. we see that we can sort the array of size 6 in 5 passes. we move the fifth biggest number 22 to X[1].e. X[0] X[1] X[2] 11 22 33 11 22 22 Remarks 33 Pass 5: (fifth element is compared).Pass 2: (second element is compared). we required (n1) passes. and 3 and interchange X[i] and X[i+1] if X[i] > X[i+1]. The process is shown below: X[0] X[1] X[2] X[3] X[4] 33 22 11 44 55 22 33 11 33 33 22 Remarks 11 44 33 44 55 44 55 The second biggest number 55 is moved now to X[4]. Pass 3: (third element is compared). but this time we don’t include X[5] into our comparisons. X[3]. Lecture Notes 218 Dept. X[4]. 1. but this time we leave both X[4] and X[5]. By doing this.
h> #include <conio.7. Selection Sort: Selection sort will not require no more than n1 interchanges. The array is passed through (n1) times and the smallest element is placed in its respective position in the array as detailed below: Lecture Notes 219 Dept. j++) { if (x[j] > x[j+1]) { temp = x[j]. x[j+1] = temp. Thus the total number of comparisons is (n1) * (n1) = n2 – 2n + 1.1. i < n . i++) scanf("%d". bubblesort(x. j. for (i = 0. } Time Complexity: The bubble sort method of sorting an array of size n requires (n1) passes and (n1) comparisons on each pass. &x[i]). of Information Technology . x[i]). scanf("%d". printf("\n Enter the number of elements: "). It simply continues this procedure until it places the biggest element in the last position of the array. i < n. } } } } main() { int i. n). int n) { int i.h> void bubblesort(int x[]. The selection sort algorithm first selects the smallest element in the array x and place it at array position 0. for (i = 0. temp. x[25]. then it selects the next smallest element in the array x and place it at array position 1. Program for Bubble Sort: #include <stdio.4. printf("\n Enter Data:"). j < n–i1 . Therefore bubble sort is very inefficient when there are more elements to sorting. n. i < n. &n). which is O(n2). i++) printf ("%5d". 7. clrscr(). x[j] = x[j+1].3. Suppose x is an array of size n stored in memory. printf ("\n Array Elements after sorting: "). i++) { for (j = 0. for(i = 0.
Then x[0]. . x[1] are sorted. . . Time Complexity: In general we prefer selection sort in case where the insertion sort or the bubble sort requires exclusive swapping. x[n2] are sorted. its efficiency is also O(n2) for n data items. . . . x[1]. Example: Let us consider the following example with 9 elements to analyze selection Sort: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Remarks 65 70 75 80 50 60 55 85 45 find the first smallest element j swap a[i] & a[j] 65 find the second smallest element i 45 70 75 80 i 45 50 50 60 55 j 75 80 70 swap a[i] and a[j] 60 55 i 45 50 55 50 55 85 80 70 60 60 75 85 50 55 60 80 65 80 50 55 60 65 70 75 75 75 i 45 45 50 50 Lecture Notes 55 55 60 60 65 65 70 70 Find the fourth smallest element swap a[i] and a[j] 85 85 i 45 65 j 70 Find the third smallest element swap a[i] and a[j] i 45 65 j i 45 85 85 65 Find the fifth smallest element j swap a[i] and a[j] 70 Find the sixth smallest element j swap a[i] and a[j] 80 Find the seventh smallest element j 75 75 swap a[i] and a[j] 85 80 Find the eighth smallest element i J swap a[i] and a[j] 80 85 The outer loop ends. x[1]. . Then x[0]. . x[n1]. x[n1]. . x[2]. Pass (n1): Find the location j of the smaller of the elements x[n2] and x[n1]. x[n1]. Pass 2: Leave the first element and find the location j of the smallest element in the subarray x[1]. . . Then x[0] is sorted. Of course. In spite of superiority of the selection sort over bubble sort and the insertion sort (there is significant decrease in run time). x[3]. . . of Information Technology . x[1]. . 220 Dept. during this pass x[n1] will be the biggest element and so the entire array is sorted. and then interchange x[j] and x[n2].Pass 1: Find the location j of the smallest element in the array x [0]. Then x[0]. and then interchange x[1] with x[j]. and then interchange x[j] with x[0]. and then interchange x[2] with x[j]. . Pass 3: Leave the first two elements and find the location j of the smallest element in the subarray x[2]. . x[2] are sorted.
minindex. for( i=low. j++ ) { if( a[j] < a[minindex] ) minindex = j. num .7. temp=0. 33. printf( "\nThe elements after sorting are: " ). printf( "\nEnter the elements:\n" ).4.1. scanf("%d".1 ).h> # include<conio. n = 0. clrscr(). main() { int i. a[i] = a[minindex]. i++) scanf( "%d". i< num.2. i++ ) printf( "%d ".4. i <= high. for( i=0. &a[i] ). int main() { int num.h> void selectionSort( int low. selectionSort( 0. return 0. int high ). i < num. i<5. a[i] ). printf( "Enter the number of elements: " ). 44. of Information Technology . &num). clrscr(). a[minindex] = temp. j=0. int a[25]. printf (" Array Elements before sorting: "). 11. i++ ) { minindex = i. j <= high. } void selectionSort( int low.h> int x[6] = {77.h> #include<conio. Recursive Program for selection sort: #include <stdio. for (i=0. selectionSort(int). for(i=0. 66}. } temp = a[i]. for( j=i+1. int high ) { int i=0. } } 7. Nonrecursive Program for selection sort: # include<stdio. i= 0. i++) Lecture Notes 221 Dept.
if (n== 4) return (1). Lecture Notes 222 Dept. n++ . interchange a[down] with a[up] 4. If down > up. } } temp = x[n]. Quick Sort: The quick sort was invented by Prof. } selectionSort( int n) { int k. i<5. k++) { if (x[k] <min) { min = x[k]. If ‘up’ pointer crosses ‘down’ pointer. and the second group contains those elements greater than or equal to the chosen value. A. temp. i++) printf ("%d ". It was one of the first most efficient sorting algorithms. x[p] = temp.printf ("%d ". for (k = n+1.5. Repeatedly increase the pointer ‘up’ until a[up] >= pivot. 3. k<5. 2. /* interchange x[n] and x[p] */ x[n] = x[p]. The first group contains those elements less than some arbitrary chosen value taken from the set. It is an example of a class of algorithms that work by “divide and conquer” technique. The function partition() makes use of two pointers up and down which are moved toward each other in the following fashion: 1. R. Once the array has been rearranged in this way with respect to the pivot. p = k. of Information Technology . C. When all the subsets have been partitioned and rearranged. the original array is sorted. p. p = n. Repeat the steps 1. Repeatedly decrease the pointer ‘down’ until a[down] <= pivot. x[i]). for (i=0. The quick sort algorithm partitions the original array by rearranging it into two groups. the same partitioning procedure is recursively applied to each of the two subsets. selectionSort(n). min = x[n]. } 7. min. selectionSort(n). 2 and 3 till the ‘up’ pointer crosses the ‘down’ pointer. /* call selection sort */ printf ("\n Array Elements after sorting: "). Hoare in the early 1960’s. the position for pivot is found and place pivot element in ‘down’ pointer position. The chosen value is known as the pivot element. x[i]).
. . m. return (down). x[low+1]. call quicksort(j + 1 . q) { if ( p < q ) then { call j = PARTITION(a. . . q+1). . 2. . The algorithm of quick sort function sorts all elements in an array ‘a’ between positions ‘low’ and ‘high’. q). x[high]. } while (up > down). . down = p. So. of Information Technology . Here we choose the first element as the ‘pivot’. a[m] = a[down]. until (a[up] > v). } } partition(a. a[n + 1] = + ∝ quicksort (p. down). p. x[low+1]. pivot = x[low].The program uses a recursive function quicksort(). x[high] between positions j+1 and high. . . It terminates when the condition low >= high is satisfied. . p) { v = a[m]. Now it calls the partition function to find the proper position j of the element x[low] i. x[j+2]. until (a[down] < v). . call quicksort(p.a[q] which reside in the global array a[n] into ascending order. . do { repeat up = up + 1. up = m. The a[n + 1] is considered to be defined and must be greater than all elements in a[n]. . . . . . . . Algorithm Sorts the elements a[p]. Then we will have two subarrays x[low]. . The time complexity of quick sort algorithm is of O(n log n). 4. . j – 1). It calls itself recursively to sort the left subarray x[low]. x[j+2]. . It calls itself recursively to sort the right subarray x[j+1]. a[down] = v. // j is the position of the partitioning element // a[m] is the partition element repeat down = down – 1. if (up < down) then call interchange(a.e. . pivot. x[j1] between positions low and j1 (where j is returned by the partition function). } Lecture Notes 223 Dept. . 3. x[j1] and x[j+1]. up. This condition will be satisfied only when the array is completely sorted. 1.
up 16 pivot. down. the elements are swapped. down 02 08 16 06 04) down up 02) 38 (56 down up swap up & down swap pivot & down 57 58 79 70 45) 24 swap pivot & down (08 16 pivot up pivot 04 pivot 04) pivot down (04) swap up & down swap pivot & down up (06 Remarks 06 04) swap up & down down 16 down Up 08 (16) swap pivot & down up swap pivot & down 06 04 pivot. up. Move the ‘down’ pointer from right to left in search of an element smaller than pivot. If ‘up’ pointer crosses ‘down’ pointer. If such elements are found.interchange(a. down. down) { p = a[up]. } Example: Select first element as the pivot element. up (02 04 Lecture Notes 06 08 16 24) 38 224 Dept. a[up] = a[down]. a[down] = p. of Information Technology . Let us consider the following example with 13 elements to analyze quick sort: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 38 08 16 06 79 57 24 56 02 58 04 70 45 pivot up down pivot 04 79 pivot up down pivot 02 57 pivot (24 08 16 06 04 pivot (02 pivot. the position for pivot is found and interchange pivot and element at ‘down’ position. This process continues till the ‘up’ pointer crosses the ‘down’ pointer. Move ‘up’ pointer from left to right in search of an element larger than pivot.
scanf( "%d". down. for(i=0. i++) scanf( "%d". &num). printf( "Enter the elements: " ). int partition(int. i < num. int). of Information Technology . 06 08 16 24 38 (45 56 57 58 70 79) 45 56 57 58 70 79 Recursive program for Quick Sort: # include<stdio. int). down.1. num 1). up 02 04 7. printf( "Enter the number of elements: " ). i = 0.h> # include<conio.5. up up swap pivot & down 79 pivot. up (58 56 79 70 45) swap up & down swap pivot & down 79 70 57) swap pivot & down (58 pivot (57) 79 up 57 70 57) swap up & down down 79 down up 58 (70 79) (70 pivot. int array[25]. printf( "\nThe elements after sorting are: " ). int main() { int num. &array[i] ). quicksort(0.h> void quicksort(int. Lecture Notes 225 Dept. void interchange(int. int). clrscr(). down.(56 57 58 pivot up down pivot 45 57 pivot down up (45) 45 pivot. down 70 79) swap pivot & down 57 pivot.
i < num. } void quicksort(int low. array[i] = array[j]. quicksort(low. array[j] = temp.for(i=0.1. if(up < down) interchange(up. int up = low. } } int partition(int low. } Lecture Notes 226 Dept. array[i]). if( low < high ) { pivotpos = partition(low. return down. return 0. quicksort(pivotpos + 1. do { do up = up + 1. int j) { int temp.1). while(array[down] > pivot). do down = down . high). down). down = high. high + 1). array[down] = pivot. pivotpos . while(array[up] < pivot ). } } while(up < down). void interchange(int i. array[low] = array[down]. of Information Technology . int high) { int pivot = array[low]. temp = array[i]. i++) printf("%d ". int high) { int pivotpos.
which provides these two operations.1. 7. Priority Queue. • The parent of an element stored at location i can be found at location floor(i/2). A heap tree represented using a single array looks as follows: X[1] X[2] X[3] X[4] X[5] X[6] X[7] X[8] 65 45 60 40 25 50 55 30 x[ 1] x[ 2] x[ 4] x[ 8] Lecture Notes 30 65 x[ 3] 60 45 x[ 7] x[ 6] 40 x[ 5] 2 5 50 55 He a p T r e e 227 Dept. This provides a very convenient way of figuring out where children belong to.2.7. Heap and Heap Sort: Heap is a data structure. 95 15 85 75 55 45 25 65 45 35 15 55 85 Max heap 25 65 35 75 Min heap 95 A min heap is an almost complete binary tree such that the value of each node is less than or equal to those in its children. a heap tree can be efficiently represented using one dimensional array.6.6. is called a priority queue. Representation of Heap Tree: Since heap is a complete binary tree. The elements of the array can be thought of as lying in a tree structure. 7. Max and Min Heap data structures: A max heap is an almost complete binary tree such that the value of each node is greater than or equal to those in its children. which permits one to insert elements into a set and also to find the largest element efficiently.6. • The right child of an element stored at location i can be found in location 2*i+1. • The left child of an element stored at location i can be found in location 2*i. • The root of the tree is in location 1. of Information Technology . A data structure.
80. when 90 is compared with 40 it requires interchange. i = n. n) { //inserts the value in a[n] into the heap which is stored at a[1] to a[n1] int i. For illustration. while ( (i > 1) and (a[ ⎣ i/2 ⎦ ] < item ) do { a[i] = a[ ⎣ i/2 ⎦ ] . Merging. // move the parent down i = ⎣ i/2 ⎦ . Deletion and 3. let us consider the case of insertion 90 into the resultant heap tree. Using repeated insertions of data. Insertion into a heap tree: This operation is used to insert a node into an existing heap tree satisfying the properties of heap tree. return true . Insertion. Let us consider the heap (max) tree. 2. 50. } a[i] = item . 1. 90 will be added as left child of 40. 35 is added as the right child of 80. Now. if the value is greater than that at parent then interchange the values. as 90 is now in root node. another interchange takes place. first we have to adjoin the data in the complete binary tree. } Example: Form a heap using the above algorithm for the data: 40. one can build up a heap tree. starting from an empty heap tree. we have to compare it with the data in its parent. and to be a max heap. The algorithm Max_heap_insert to insert a data into a max heap tree is as follows: Max_heap_insert (a. 90. n. of Information Technology . Insert 40: 40 Lecture Notes 228 Dept. 70. The principle of insertion is that. Next. 35. Its value is compared with its parent’s value. The path on which these comparisons and interchanges have taken places are shown by dashed line. 90 is compared with 80. Operations on heap tree: The major operations required to be performed on a heap tree: 1. Next. First. hence interchange as well as further comparisons are no more required. our process stops here.6.3. item = a[n].7. 45. parent’s value greater than child’s value is satisfied. This will continue between two nodes on path from the newly inserted node to the root node till we get a parent whose value is greater than its child or we reached the root. As another illustration.
90 50 35 50 45 80 50 35 40 45 35 Insert 70: 90 90 70 80 50 70 80 50 40 Lecture Notes 45 35 70 40 229 45 35 50 Dept. 35 Insert 90: 90 80 80 90 90 40 35 80 35 40 40 90 5. Insert 45: 90 80 40 6. of Information Technology . Insert 80: 80 40 40 80 80 3.2. 35 45 Insert 50: 90 80 40 7. 40 Insert 35: 80 40 4.
while (j < n) do { if ((j < n) and (a (j) < a (j + 1)) then j Å j + 1. } x = a[1]. they are interchanged. n1). • Make X as the current node. adjust (a. 1 < i < n. deleting the root node has some special importance. if the current node is not an empty node. So. The principle of deletion is as follows: • Read the root node into a temporary storage say. Interchange the value of X with the value of the current node. No node has an address greater than n or less than 1. The last node is 26. return false. • Continue reheap. } adjust (a.Deletion of a node from heap tree: Any node can be deleted from a heap tree. // compare left and right child and let j be the larger child if (item > a (j)) then break. return true. ITEM. x) // delete the maximum from the heap a[n] and store it in x { if (n = 0) then { write (“heap is empty”). 1. Lecture Notes 230 Dept. // a position for item is found else a[ ⎣ j / 2 ⎦ ] = a[j] // move the larger child up a level j = 2 * j. But from the application point of view. item = a[i] . 99 is replaced by 26 and this node with data 26 is removed from the tree. Now. // { j = 2 *i . of Information Technology . Then reheap the tree as stated below: • Let newly modified root node be the current node. n) // The complete binary trees with roots a(2*i) and a(2*i + 1) are combined with a(i) to form a single heap. Compare its value with the value of its two child. i. a[1] = a[n]. Next 26 at root node is compared with its two child 45 and 63. it is in the level 3. } Here the root node is 99. Let X be the child whose value is the largest. • Replace the root node by the last node in the heap tree. } a [ ⎣ j / 2 ⎦ ] = item. n. As 63 is greater. The algorithm for the above is as follows: delmax (a.
Insert the node x into H1 satisfying the property of H1. Priority queue implementation.6. Sorting (Heap sort) and 2. so they are interchanged. Now. Merging the tree H2 with H1 means to include all the node from H2 to H1. 2. Delete the root node. 26 63 99 26 45 63 57 63 45 57 26 35 27 29 12 24 57 42 35 26 27 De l e t i n g t h e n o d e w it h d at a 9 9 7. Lecture Notes 231 Dept.4. 26 appears as the leave node. as 57 is greater.5. Merging operation consists of two steps: Continue steps 1 and 2 while H2 is not empty: 1. 29 12 26 42 24 Af t er De l e t i o n of n o d e w it h d at a 9 9 Merging two heap trees: Consider. 92 13 59 38 67 19 45 92 H1: max heap 80 93 96 H2: min heap + 96 93 67 80 38 7. 92 59 45 13 92 19 Resultant max heap after merging H1 and H2 Application of heap tree: They are two main applications of heap trees known are: 1. H2 may be min heap or max heap and the resultant tree will be min heap if H1 is min heap else it will be max heap. from H2.26 is compared with its children. hence reheap is completed. say x. Reheap H2.6. 57 and 42. of Information Technology . two heap trees H1 and H2. namely.
n) //Readjust the elements in a[n] to form a heap. n). First transform the elements into a heap. { for i Å ⎣ n/2 ⎦ to 1 by – 1 do adjust (a. of Information Technology . Algorithm: This algorithm sorts the elements a[n]. while (j < n) do { if ((j < n) and (a (j) < a (j + 1)) then j Å j + 1. It does this with the following steps: 1. item = a[i] . 3. i – 1). 2.7. Continue step 2 until the heap tree is empty. i. // compare left and right child and let j be the larger child if (item > a (j)) then break. adjust (a. i. } } heapify (a. } Lecture Notes 232 Dept. n) { heapify(a. 1 < i < n. for i = n to 2 by – 1 do { temp = a[i]. Heap sort rearranges them inplace in nondecreasing order. // { j = 2 *i . No node has an address greater than n or less than 1. 1. n) // The complete binary trees with roots a(2*i) and a(2*i + 1) are combined with a(i) to form a single heap. Build a heap tree with the given set of data. Any kind of data can be sorted either in ascending order or in descending order using heap tree.7. a[1] = temp. a. b. c. // a position for item is found else a[ ⎣ j / 2 ⎦ ] = a[j] // move the larger child up a level j = 2 * j. heapsort(a. n). a[i] = a[1]. Reheapify the complete binary tree. HEAP SORT: A heap sort algorithm works by first organizing the data to be sorted into a special type of binary tree called a heap. } a [ ⎣ j / 2 ⎦ ] = item. Remove the top most item (the largest) and replace it with the last element in the heap. } adjust (a. Place the deleted node in the output.
50. Solution: First form a heap tree from the given set of data and then sort by repeated deletion operation: 40 40 80 35 90 45 80 50 70 90 70 45 90 70 45 35 40 40 80 50 50 70 90 35 80 45 50 35 90 70 80 40 Lecture Notes 45 50 35 233 Dept. 80. 35.Time Complexity: Each ‘n’ insertion operations takes O(log k). where ‘k’ is the number of elements in the heap at the time. Since we always have k ≤ n. 45. each such operation runs in O(log n) time in the worst case. Example 1: Form a heap from the set of elements (40. so the priority queue sorting algorithm runs in O(n log n) time when we use a heap to implement the priority queue. Likewise. Thus. for ‘n’ elements it takes O(n log n) time. 70) and sort the data using heap sort. of Information Technology . where ‘k’ is the number of elements in the heap at the time. each of the ‘n’ remove operations also runs in time O(log k). 90.
1. 70 70 80 90 40 70 90 35 80 90 Exchange root 50 with the last element 40 of the array and reheapify 45 40 45 40 45 50 5. 35 80 50 45 40 90 50 35 80 Exchange root 70 with the last element 35 of the array and reheapify 50 35 50 35 45 50 45 40 4. 45 70 80 35 90 50 45 70 80 90 Exchange root 40 with the last element 35 of the array and reheapify 35 40 50 45 70 80 90 The sorted tree Lecture Notes 234 Dept. Exchange root 80 with the last element 50 of the array and reheapify 70 70 50 45 40 3. 35 70 80 40 90 50 35 70 80 90 Exchange root 45 with the last element 35 of the array and reheapify 40 35 40 35 40 50 6. of Information Technology . Exchange root 90 with the last element 35 of the array and reheapify 80 35 80 45 35 80 70 40 45 45 50 90 40 70 35 50 90 35 2.
1. a[i] = a[1]. item. Program for Heap Sort: void adjust(int i. a[1] = temp. i++) scanf("%d". if(item >= a[j]) break. for(i = n. else { a[j/2] = a[j]. i > 0. for(i = n/2. a[i]). i<=n. int n. printf("\n How many element you want: "). while(j <= n) { if((j < n) && (a[j] < a[j+1])) j++. i) { temp = a[i]. } void heapify(int n. a). i) adjust(i. } Lecture Notes 235 Dept. heapsort(n. i. a[20]. int a[]) { int j. clrscr(). for (i=1. j = 2*j. &n). int a[]) { int i. n.7. n. i<=n. heapify(n. scanf("%d". i > 0. } } a[j/2] = item.7. printf("\n The sorted elements are: \n"). i++) printf("%5d". adjust(1. a). i . item = a[i]. j = 2 * i. of Information Technology .int a[]) { int temp. getch(). a). n). &a[i]). printf("Enter %d elements: ". } } void main() { int i. a). } void heapsort(int n. for (i=1.1.
An array contains “n” elements of numbers. Write a recursive “C” function to implement binary search and compute its time complexity. 7. The program is to be run on a personal computer with limited memory. 3. 5. 6. 1. The top priority element that has to be processed first is at the root. 7. 1. As heap trees allow the duplicity of data in it. The several elements of this array may contain the same number “x”. 9. Which sort would be a better choice: Heap sort or Quick sort? Why? 6. 10. 4. 4. Assume that a process having higher priority value will be serviced first. 1. 8. the heap. 3. 2. 5. into an initially empty binary heap. linked list etc. Elements associated with their priority values are to be stored in from of heap tree.8. 6. and so on. one at a time. say. so it can be deleted and heap can be rebuilt to get the next element to be processed. Which of these elements could be the pivot? (There may be more than one possibility!) 8. Lecture Notes 236 Dept. Show the result of inserting 10. Exercises 1. The heap tree can be formed considering the process priority values. 5. 8. 2. 2. 9. Here is an array of ten integers: 5 3 8 9 1 7 0 2 6 4 Suppose we partition this array using quicksort's partition function and using 5 for the pivot.7. Write an algorithm to find the total number of elements which are equal to “x” and also indicate the position of the first such element in the array. Draw the resulting array after the partition finishes. 15. 7. 0. 12. Assume that the matrix is represented by a two dimensional array. 5 using insertion sort. Find the expected number of passes. of Information Technology . A very large array of elements is to be sorted. 11. 5. 14. 5. 3. 4. 9. The order of servicing the process is successive deletion of roots from the heap. 13. 4. can be represented using an array. consider the following processes with their priorities: Process P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 Priority 5 4 3 4 5 5 3 2 1 5 These processes enter the system in the order as listed above at time 0. As an illustration. 6. Compare these results with the actual number of operations when the given sequence is as follows: 7. comparisons and exchanges for bubble sort when the number of elements is equal to “10”. Sort the sequence 3. Priority queue implementation using heap tree: Priority queue can be implemented using circular array. which can be formed based on their priority values. 9. 2. 8. however. Here is an array which has just been partitioned by the first step of quicksort: 3. 6. Another simplified implementation is possible using heap tree. and 2. This implementation is therefore free from the complexities of circular array and linked list but getting the advantages of simplicities of array. When a “C” function to sort a matrix rowwise and columnwise. 9. 4.
Logarithmic time B. 9. n log n B. Average time is quadratic [ B ] 8. 543. B.10. 1. The array has only a few items out of place C. Quadratic time D. When is insertion sort a good choice for sorting an array? A. 242. 65. 111. 5. 1 D. 5. Binary search B. 434. Each component of the array requires a large amount of memory B. n . 123. 1. Each component of the array requires a small amount of memory D. 5 using quick sort with medianofthree partitioning and a cutoff of 3. 4. n2 [ B ] 7. Show how heap sort processes the input 142.1 A. Quadratic time D. Constant time C. Suppose that a selection sort of 100 items has completed 42 iterations of the main loop. Divideandconquer sorts B. 102. The processor speed is fast [ B ] Lecture Notes 237 B ] Dept. D. so that binary search may be used to locate an entry? A. 811. What is the worstcase time for binary search finding a single item in an array? A. none [ 5. 572. The array elements must form a heap. What is this category? A. 43 [ C ] 9. The array must have at least 2 entries C. In a selection sort of n elements. 21 C. Which searching can be performed recursively ? A. What is the worstcase time for serial search finding a single item in an array? A. Which searching can be performed iteratively ? A. 453. 41 D. 879. Linear time [ B ] 3. Multiple Choice Questions 1. 42 B. What additional requirement is placed on an array. The array must be sorted. none [ B ] 6. O(n log n) sorts C. Selection sort and quick sort both fall into the same category of sorting algorithms. Logarithmic time B. linear search C. How many items are now guaranteed to be in their final spot (never to be moved again)? A. The array's size must be a power of two. 2. of Information Technology . Linear time [ D ] 2. 11. Sort 3. how many times is the swap function called in the complete execution of the algorithm? C. Constant time C. [ C ] 4. both D. Interchange sorts D. Binary search B. 6. linear search C. both D. 3.
none [ C ] 21. first element of list C. Linear search C. leaf C. Which among the following is fastest sorting technique (for unordered data) A. Quick sort is also known as A. Running time of Heap sort algorithm is . of Information Technology . O(n log n) B. A. 2 B. Divide and conqueror C. O(n²) [D ] 11. The pivot could be either the 7 or the 9. greedy D. n [ A ] 15. but it is not the 9. Which design algorithm technique is used for quick sort . A. In the quick sort method . 5 or 6 [B ] 14. O( log2 n) B. What is the worstcase time for quick sort to sort an array of n elements? A. O(n) D. bubble sort [ D ] 18. O(log n) C. B. In which searching technique elements are eliminated by half in each pass . and we have just finished the first partitioning with the array looking like this: 2 5 1 7 9 12 11 10 Which statement is correct? A. O(n) D. C. O(n log n) B. 3 or 4 D. Selection Sort D. O( n log2 n) D. The pivot is not the 7. root D. Time complexity of inserting an element to a heap of n elements is of the order of C. What is the worstcase time for heap sort to sort an array of n elements? A.10. Bubble sort [ C ] 20. and we have just finished one of the reheapifications downward. A min heap is the tree structure where smallest element is available at the A. O(n) A. backtrack B. merge sort B. heap sort D. 1 C. n log2n A. O(log n) C. any element of list [C ] 17. O(n²) [ 13. C. Binary search B. none 238 C ] Dept. The pivot could be the 7. Neither the 7 nor the 9 is the pivot [ A ] 12. Suppose we are sorting an array of eight integers using quick sort. dynamic programming [ A ] 19. The array now looks like this: 6 4 5 1 2 7 8 How many reheapifications downward have been performed so far? A. A. median of list B. Heap sort C. a desirable choice for the portioning element will be A. last element of list D. intermediate parent B. any where [B ] 16. both D. D. log2 n B. O(n2) [ B ] Lecture Notes C. Quick Sort B. Suppose we are sorting an array of eight integers using heap sort. but it could be the 9. n2 D.
19. linear queue B. A. none [C ] 28.80. O(n2) [ D ] 23. Running time of Selection sort algorithm is . both D. none [ 25.15 C. Deque D. Quick sort D. 12 D.9. linked list C. Running time of Bubble sort algorithm is .10.15. Bubble sort B. A.30. O(n) B. O(n2) [D ] 24.10.30. 11 C. O( n log2 n) D. Heap is a good data structure to implement A.60.55. O( log2 n) C. 80. none [ A 30. A.80. O(n) A.5. O( n log2 n) D.60. 13 B.10.31. Full Binary tree D.7. none 239 ] Dept.22. priority Queue C. O(n) B. O(n2) [ C ] 27. The number of swappings needed to sort the numbers 8.15. O( log2 n) B. O( n log2 n) D. Time complexity of insertion sort algorithm in best case is C. The Max heap constructed from the list of numbers 30.13 in ascending order using bubble sort is A. O( log2 n) C. complete Binary tree B. Selection Sort [ 29.55.60.30 B. A. Which is a stable sort ? A.15 D. array B.55 is A. none C ] D ] A ] C. 14 [ D ] 26. 80. Binary Search Tree [ Lecture Notes C.22.10. 60. Binary search algorithm performs efficiently on a A. of Information Technology . Always Heap is a A. A.55.
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