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How is genetic variation distributed throughout a population?

Point mutations, insertion, deletion, transcription errors = chromosomal mutations.

If a mutation happens in sex cells (germ cells or gametes), the mutation can be inherited
Mutations introduce new, never before seen genetic variation into the DNA code
How does Natural Selection change in response to environmental pressure?
Natural selection operates on the phenotype of an individual organism in response to environmental
selective pressures. directional selection: stabilizing selection: Explain the statement populations
evolve; individual organisms do not evolve. What is the difference between gene flow and genetic drift?
Genetic drift results in a loss of gene flow. Natural selection can act only on the variation available
within any given gene pool. Without gene flow, the available variation is reduced. Different mutations
can occur within permanently separated gene pools, leading to different traits in each. There are several
ways for Genetic Drift to happen: Random disasters can reduce the gene pool significantly in a very
short space of time. Founder Effect: a small group that is cut off from the larger gene pool carries
limited variation from the original gene pool. That variation eventually becomes the phenotypic
expression predominant in the new settlement. Genetic Bottleneck: severely reduced population size
also reduces genetic diversity. This concept is important when we consider the effect of large-scale
environmental changes and the resulting selective pressure they exert. Sexual Selection (non-random
mating = differential reproductive selection pressures) Males compete for available females; females
choose their mates. Females generally choose males with qualities that demonstrate good health. Males
often larger than females, particularly in primates (sexual dimorphism) Handicap Principle: Males may
have showy characteristics (bright colors, antlers, risky behaviors) that display their genetic quality to
attract potential mates. Taxonomy: system of classifying all living organisms from broad categories to
closely related specific units. homologous characteristics analogous characteristics Ancestral traits
Derived traits Common Ancestor Cladogram What is the difference between a phylogenetic tree and a
cladogram? Biological species concept: based on reproductive isolation in nature Behavioral species
concept: differential mating behaviors can isolate species Habitat or activity patterns: different habitats
or activities can isolate species Notice what we are talking about is not absence of sex, but rather lack of
reproductive success (healthy, fertile offspring as the result of sex). How species are formed: speciation
(Macroevolution) General Modes: Anagenesis = change over time from one form into another as a
result of accumulated genetic mutations, natural selection and genetic drift. Associated with Gradualism
Cladogenesis = splitting from a common ancestor into two or more separate species as a result of
accumulated genetic mutations, natural selection and genetic drift. Associated with Punctuated
Equilibrium Allopatric speciation = occurs through geographic isolation: founder population becomes
reproductively isolated for a long time so long that even if descendants of the founder population are
reintroduced to the original population they are not generally accepted as mating partners. Parapatric
speciation = two or more closely related populations have limited gene flow between them at the border
areas of each population, creating limited hybrids that are absorbed into each population. Morphological
and behavioral traits are inherited and adopted by and spread throughout members of each population.
newly assimilated species can replace both or either of the old species. This idea is very important
to the understanding of human evolution over the past two million years. What is the difference
between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? Gradualism Punctuated Equilibrium
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium equation: If there is entirely random mating AND no natural selection or
genetic drift AND neither mutation nor migration, THEN genotype frequencies will remain the same
from generation to generation and NO evolution will take place. ) It can be used to demonstrate that
evolution for a particular Mendelian trait has occurred in a given population (population genetics). It
can be used to demonstrate that evolution for a particular Mendelian trait has not occurred in a given
population (population genetics). It can be used to calculate the approximate allele frequencies for a
recessive allele in a given population. Under what circumstances would altruism be expected to
outweigh the so-called selfish gene in animals? Kin Selection: Inclusive Fitness: Coefficient of
Relatedness and Altruism (Hamiltons Rule): the closer related animals are, the more they are willing to
risk their own safety for the others survival. Deme: What does the word Race mean in biological

science? In biological terms, all humans on Earth are members of one race: the Human Race. Humans
are a polytypic species. There are no biologically definable subspecies of modern humans.
In biological science, race and subspecies are used interchangeably. In order for the term race to
be applied biologically to different human populations, a subset or population of humans all must have a
particular trait that is never found in any other population of humans. Population-level phenotypic
differences do exist between people whose ancestors came from different parts of the world.
Phenotypes are reinforced by sexual reproduction within a specific region. Regional isolation can
concentrate phenotypes (genetic drift). Cultural practices assign meaning to these phenotypic
differences. As a social concept (not a biological concept), the word race is in common use. Racisim
is very much a real phenomenon, one that has real social and economic consequences. HOWEVER:
There is no scientific basis for racial or subspecies classification of modern humans.
What is meant by the statement Homo sapiens is a polytypic species. polymorphisms in a population
and processes of genetic drift contribute to concentrations of human phenotypes and regional variation.
clinal distribution map? What are some of the possible explanations for the clinal distribution of
A/B/O alleles? Regional distributions may reflect migrations or selection for resistance to various
dietary- introduced parasites. how maternal-fetal incompatibility can occur when mothers blood type
and/or Rhesus factor are different from that of the fetus. maternal-fetal incompatibility can occur when
mothers blood type and/or Rhesus factor are different from that of the fetus. Rh system:
Successful donor organ transplants depend on matching another blood system component: human
leukocyte antigen (HLA). One avenue of research on treatment of HIV is the study of the HLA system
specifically the receptor sites on white blood cells. Gene Flow and protein polymorphisms: understand
how migrations and population mixing can be tracked through the various genetic studies mentioned. A
Phylogenetic Tree shows evolutionary relationships as clusters that demonstrate closely or distantly
related groups. Populations can be traced to lineages that can be used to infer migrations or calculate
genetic mutation rates. cultural influence on the selection for lactose tolerance in some populations of
humans into adulthood. Lactose tolerant individuals (those who can digest milk and milk products
beyond childhood) are found with higher frequency in populations with a long history of
What is meant by the term heterozygous advantage? Balanced Polymorphisms
A trait that has an advantage in a population relative to other traits or variations will continue to be
selected for until it reaches a relatively high frequency in the population. A trait that is disadvantageous
(bad) in a population will be selected out relative to other traits or variations. What is the difference
between acclimatization and adaptation? Understand the human biological responses to heat, cold and
high altitude. Body response to heat (hyperthermia): vasodilation = Leads to sweating, which cools the
body through evaporation. Body response to cold (hypothermia): vasoconstriction = Results in
shivering, which generates heat. Body Size and Shape: Bergmanns Rule = Allens Rule =
Living at High Altitude: Body response to Hypoxia = Be prepared to answer questions on the
biological adaptive functions of different skin colors Darker skin color adaptive advantage = blocks or
filters harmful UV radiation from the sun Good in areas with intense solar radiation year-around. Lighter
skin color adaptive advantage in regions with less intense seasonal sunlight = lets in more UV radiation
to trigger production of Vitamin D. Darker skin color would be maladaptation in areas of the world that
have less intense sunlight because of difficulty synthesizing Vitamin D Darker skin color adaptive
advantage = protects against UV damage to folate metabolism. Lighter skin color is maladaptive in areas
with intense solar radiation Balanced skin color and environmental conditions = reproductive success:
natural selection in action! Define the anatomical traits that separate primates from other mammals. Two
major groups primate: Strepsirhines (Prosimians) and Haplorhines (Anthropoids) Anatomical Traits:
visible similarities that help define Primates. No single trait defines the primate order all primates
share all of these characteristics to greater or lesser degree. Generalized, flexible skeleton that facilitates
several different means of locomotion: Vertical clinging/leaping (VCL): prosimians (lemur, aye-aye,
tarsier, etc.) Branch-walking quadrupeds (monkeys): terrestrial (baboon, vervet monkey, etc.) arboreal
(howler monkey, capuchin, spider monkey, etc.) Knuckle-walking quadrupeds (African Great Apes:
chimpanzee, gorilla, bonobo) Brachiation (Lesser Apes and Asian Great Apes: gibbon; orangutan)

Habitual bipedalism (humans). Grasping hands, opposable thumbs and opposable big toes
(humans do not have opposable big toes) Flattened fingernails and toenails instead of claws on most
digits Binocular and stereoscopic vision (forward-facing eyes) = increased depth perception, reduced
peripher Generalized heterodontal dentition: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. Prosimians have a
dental formula of 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars ( New World Monkeys have a
dental formula of (same as prosimians) Old World Monkeys, apes and humans have a dental
formula of Life History Traits (birth to death growth and development) Usually give birth to
single offspring, occasionally twins. Triplets would not survive in most primate groups, and multiple
births are unheard of except in fertility-enhanced humans. Primate brains are very large compared to
their body sizes. Extended ontology (long developmental stages before puberty. Socialization and
dependence on learned behavior for optimal life skills. Activity patterns: diurnal (day-time active) and
nocturnal (night-time active) species. Most prosimians are nocturnal. All but one species of monkeys
and all apes are diurnal. Guide to the Non-Human Primates Note non-human primate distribution around
the world. Primates are primarily tropical creatures, with a wide variety of habitats, foods and physical
adaptations. Strepsirhines (all strepsirhines are Prosimians) Lemurs: only found on Madagascar Lorises
and galagos (bush-babies) = Central Africa; pottos = Southeast Asia Distinguishing characteristics =
VCL, moist nose (for enhanced sense of smell) Haplorhines (most, but not all haplorhines are
Anthropoids) Tarsiers are VCLs, nocturnal insectivores like prosimians, but have dry noses and often
catch and eat small prey such as lizards and frogs similar to monkeys. Tarsiers are unusual in that they
are classified as Prosimians and as Haplorhines, bridging the evolutionary gap between the two
classifications. Monkeys, Apes and Humans are all classified as Haplorhines and Anthropoids
Haplorhines are divided into two smaller group classifications: Platyrrhine and Catarrhine:
Platyrrhini (flat nose with side-facing nostrils) = New World Monkeys (NWM) Found in South America
and Central America Small body size (under 25 pounds/12 kilos) Three premolar teeth = =
dentition more similar to prosimians in this respect. Exclusively arboreal (no ground-dwelling NWMs)
Some NWMs have prehensile tails not all no Old World Monkeys (OWMs) ever have prehensile tails.
Little sexual dimorphism in NWMs NWMs include spider monkeys, howlers, marmosets and tamarins
Catarrhini (downward-facing nostrils)are divided into two classifications: Old World Monkeys
(OWM) and Hominoids Old World Monkeys (OWM) Found in Africa, Asia, limited areas of the
Middle East Generally larger than NWMs OWM dental formula = (only two premolars)
Usually sleep in trees but often come down to the ground for food and socializing. Two features found in
OWMs are ischial callosities [butt-pads] and cheek pouches. (these are not ever found in NWMs)
More sexual dimorphism than NWMs OWMs include langurs and colobus monkeys, vervets, macaques
and baboons. Hominoids: include Lesser Apes, Great Apes and Humans Defining characteristics =
brachiators, no tails Hylobatids (Lesser Apes = gibbon and siamang) Small bodies, very long arms,
curved fingers, highly adapted to life in the tree tops Primarily frugivores Very vocal, very active
Monogamous mated pairs that live in nuclear family units Pongids (Great Apes = Orangutan, Gorilla,
Chimpanzee, Bonobo) Orangutan Primary researcher = Birute Galdikas Large-bodied; adult males
twice the size of adult females Primarily frugivores, solitary within territories that reflect availability of
food Solitary females have large territories for themselves and their immature offspring; male territories
usually contain several female territories (solitary polygyny) Females are sexually mature between 1115 years old; males at around 15 years Single births, very long period of childhood attachment to
mother (up to 8 years) Females set up separate territory after reaching sexual maturity; males tend to
form bachelor gangs and take opportunistic chances at mating with solitary females.
Gorilla Primary researcher = Dian Fossey Large-bodied; adult males twice the size of adult females
Primarily folivores but will eat fruits if available (entirely vegetarian); Live in polygynous family units
of one or two males and multiple females with offspring Females are sexually mature between 11-15
years old; males at around 15 years Single births, long period of childhood attachment to mother (about
8-10 years) Females generally migrate out of natal group and may move from group to group several
times. Males tend to form bachelor groups and wait for unattached females.

Chimpanzee Primary researcher = Jane Goodall Males about 150 pounds/68 kg, with females about 10%
- 15% smaller Omnivorous eating habits Live in multi-male/multi-female fission-fusion groups.
Single births, long period of childhood attachment to mother (about 8-10 years) Females are sexually
mature at about 12 years old; males at around 15 years Females disperse out of natal group at sexual
maturity; males stay in their birth-group for life and form close alliances and coalitions. Females
generally have lower status in these male-dominated groups. Chimpanzees hunt and eat meat, make and
use tools, have politics and alliances, wage war on other groups of chimpanzees and generally behave a
lot like humans. Bonobos Primary captive-primate researcher = Susan Savage-Rumbaugh
About the same size as chimpanzees, but little sexual dimorphism Omnivorous eating habits, but
primarily frugivores Live in large multi-male/multi-female harmonious communities Single births, long
period of childhood attachment to mother (about 8-10 years) Females are sexually mature at about 12
years old; males at around 15 years Females disperse out of natal group at sexual maturity; males stay
in their birth-group for life and form close alliances and coalitions. Incoming females form close bonds
with other females through sexual activity that maintains a relatively peaceful society. Females
generally have high social status because female coalitions stop male dominance over females.
Hypersexuality describes the bonobo social habits of using a variety of sexual encounters and sex-play
to relieve tensions in the group and promote group cohesion. Note the connection between food types
(fuel) and activity levels (mileage). Understand the concepts of home range and territory. Home
ranges are usually vigorously defended because thats where the groups primary resources are found.
Predation: the size and number of creatures that hunt various primates generally correlates with the size
of the primate groups and their predation avoidance strategies (including warning and distress calls).
Male Reproductive Strategies Establish dominance relationships: pecking order challenges and fights
to determine priority access to females (sex) and group leadership. Infanticide to trigger estrus in female
Female Reproductive Strategies Females use dominance hierarchies among other females to determine
who has priority access to resources. Females chose their mates based on a number of considerations,
including health and ability to protect mother and offspring. Sexual receptivity signals
Paradox of Sociality: Availability of mates increases, but male-male competition also increases.
Population size puts a strain on limited food resources. Larger groups tend to deter predators during the
day (safety in numbers), but make attractive targets during the night.
Solitary and Monogamy A female establishes and holds her individual territory and tolerates a male in
the area. The mated pair live together with their sub-adult offspring. Very little sexual dimorphism is
displayed; harmony is emphasized. Examples: many strepsirhines (particularly nocturnal species);
gibbons and siamangs Polygyny = one or more male(s) with multiple females One-Male Polygyny Not
harems! Not necessarily Males in charge! Understand the conditions that can lead to this social
system in different primate species.Example: Male baboons, in spite of their significant sexual
dimorphism, must be accepted by their females a group of females can and do replace their male with
a younger/stronger/more savvy prospect. Female gorillas migrate whenever they want to.
This group strategy leads to the formation of multiple-male bachelor groups, as well as stable but fluid
one-male/multiple female and sub-adult offspring units.
Multi-Male Polygyny: Same general rules as one-male polygyny, but with the added dimension of male
hierarchies: the alpha male generally has first access to females. Females use a variety of strategies
to mate with their preferred partner(s) first, but generally mate with all available males in succession of
the male-established hierarchy. Sexual dimorphism is apparent, particularly in canine size and
robusticity. Testes size is also a factor in reproductive success. Male-to-male competition is often fierce.
Infanticide is a male reproductive strategy to force estrus in a female whose infant is killed.

Fission-Fusion Polygyny Temporary associations of individuals that come together and split up
repeatedly, generally within a given community. Communities live within a defined home range, but
forage over a large territory. The only stable unit of this fluid social system is the mother-offspring
bond. Foraging, hunting and perimeter enforcement groups vary in size. Sexual dimorphism is minimal:
males are about 10% - 15% larger than females, primarily because of robusticity, rather than enormous
skeletal size differences. Males often form strong alliances and political units in their dominance
hierarchies. Females may form strong social bonds to protect one another from male harassment.
Female reproductive strategies and dominance hierarchies focus on survival of offspring: access to food
resources, rather than access to mates. Examples: Chimpanzees, bonobos, spider monkeys, howlers
(not exclusively an ape social system) Polyandry = one or a few reproductive-ages female(s) and
multiple adult males Rarely found in primates: marmosets and tamarins, but also seen in a few human
populations. Males bond together to share a females reproductive access and help raise and protect any
offspring. Primate social behavior has been molded by natural selection, with the environment as
the filter. These same natural forces shaped human ancestry, human anatomy and perhaps aspects of
human behavior.