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46

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Solutions and
Colligative Properties

2.1

Introduction

2.7

Lowering of Vapour Pressure

2.2

Types of Solutions

2.8

Boiling Point Elevation

2.3

Concentration of Solutions of Solids in Liquids

2.9

Freezing Point Depression

2.4

Solubility of Gases in Liquids

2.10 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

2.5

Solid Solutions

2.11 Abnormal Molecular Masses

2.6

Colligative Properties

2.12 van't Hoff Factor

2.1 Introduction
Two-third of the earth is covered with water, the most
essential, vital component for life. Water in the sea is not
in pure form. It contains sodium chloride, magnesium
chloride, calcium salts and gases like oxygen, carbon
dioxide in dissolved state. Thus, sea water is a solution.
Solution consists of at least two components, a medium
and dissolved phase. The physical properties of solution are
mainly originated by intermolecular forces of attraction
between the solvent molecules. These intermolecular forces
of attraction are changed by the presence of dissolved
substances. The physical properties include vapour pressure,
boiling point, freezing point and osmotic pressure.

Solutions
Solutions are mixtures of two or more components.
Depending on sizes of the components, the mixtures are
classified into three types :
A coarse mixture : It is formed when the sizes of
the constituent components are relatively bigger, e.g.;
mixture of salt and sugar.
A colloidal dispersion : It is formed when the sizes
of the particles dispersed in solvent are in the range of
107 cm to 104 cm. Colloidal particles carry positive
or negative charge which stabilizes colloidal dispersion
e.g.; ferric hydroxide sol, arsenic sulphide sol, etc.
Colloidal solutions are heterogeneous and can be easily
separated.

A true solution : A true solution is formed when


soluble substances are dissolved in the solvent. The sizes
of the particles dissolved are very small of the order of
108 cm. True solutions are homogeneous and cannot
be separated into components by simple mechanical
methods.
ff
A true solution is defined as a homogeneous
mixture of two or more substances, the composition
of which is not fixed and may be varied within
certain limits.
ff
A solution is formed by two components, solvent
and one or more solutes. The component of the
solution which constitutes larger part of the solution
is called solvent and the other component that
constitutes smaller part is called solute.
Homogeneous solution : Solution is homogeneous if
its composition is uniform throughout the body of the
solution.
Heterogeneous solution : Solution is heterogeneous
when two or more phases are present in it.
Solvation : The process of interaction of solvent
molecules with solute particles to form aggregates.
When water is a solvent, the process of solvation is
called hydration or aquation.
ff
The extent to which solute dissolves in solvent to
form homogeneous solution depends on nature of
solute and solvent.
ff
The general rule is, like dissolves like i.e., polar

Solutions and Colligative Properties

47

solutes are soluble in polar solvents, (e.g.; NaCl in


water) while non-polar solutes are soluble in nonpolar solvents (e.g.; iodine in CCl4).
Water is called universal solvent, as it is polar and has
very high dielectric constant, hence, dissolves most of
the polar solutes.
Solutions containing two, three or four components
are called binary, ternary and quaternary solutions
respectively.
Solutions prepared in water are called aqueous solutions
and solutions in other solvents are called non-aqueous
solutions.
As the solute particles are very small, the components
of true solutions cannot be separated by simple physical
methods like centrifugation, filtration, etc.

2.2 Types of Solutions


Solvent Solute
Examples
Solid
Solid Alloys like brass, bronze, copper in
gold etc.
Solid
Liquid Amalgams of mercury with metals

Solid
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Gas
Gas
Gas

Gas

Hydrogen gas in palladium metal,


pumice stone
Solid Iodine in CCl4, benzoic acid in
C6H6, sugar in water
Liquid Ethanol in water
Gas Oxygen, carbon dioxide in water
Solid Iodine in air
Liquid Chloroform in nitrogen
Gas Air, mixtures of non-reacting gases

2.3 Concentration of Solutions of Solids


in Liquids
The concentration of a solution is defined as the amount
of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solvent.
Solutions containing relatively less amount of solute are
called dilute solutions and if it contains relatively more
amount of solute then the solution is called concentrated
solution.
Concentration of solutions may be expressed in different
ways as discussed below :

Name

Symbol

Percentage
by mass

%(w/W)

Mass of solute
100
Total mass of solution

Volume
percentage

%(v/V)

Mass by
volume
percentage
Strength

% (w/V)

Parts per
million

ppm

Molarity

Volume of solute in mL
dissolved in 100 mL of the
solution.
Amount of solute in grams
Mass of solute
100 dissolved in 100 mL of the
Total volume of solution in mL
solution.
Amount of solute in grams
Mass of solute in grams
present in one litre (or dm3) of
Volume of solution in L (or dm 3 )
solution.
Number of parts of solute
Mass or volume of solute
1006 present in million (106) parts
Total mass or volume of solution
of solution.

Molality

Mole
fraction

g/L (or
g/dm3)

Formula

Definition
Amount of solute in grams
present in 100 g of solution.

Volume of solute
100
Total volume of solution

Moles of solute
Volume of solution in L(or dm 3 )
Moles of solute
Mass of solvent in kg
xA =

nA
nA + nB

Number of moles of solute


dissolved in one litre (or one
dm3) of solution.
Number of moles of solute
dissolved in 1 kg of the
solvent.
Ratio of number of moles of
one component to the total
number of moles of all the
components.

Effect of
temperature
No effect
Changes with
change of
temperature.
Changes with
change of
temperature.
Changes with
change of
temperature.
No effect
Changes with
change of
temperature.
No effect
No effect

48

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Illustration : 1.23 g of sodium hydroxide (molar


mass = 40) are dissolved in water and the solution is made
to 100 cm3. Calculate the molarity of the solution.

ff

Soln.: Amount of NaOH = 1.23 g

ff

Volume of solution = 100 cm


Moles of NaOH =

Mass of NaOH
1.23
=
= 0.0307
Molar mass of NaOH 40

Moles of NaOH
1000
Molarity =
Volume of solution
0.0307
=
1000 = 0.31 M
100
Illustration : 1.8 g of glucose (molar mass = 180) are
dissolved in 60 g of water. Calculate (a) the molality
(b) mole fraction of glucose and water.
Soln.: (a) Molality of solution
=

Moles of solute
1000
Mass of solvent in g

Moles of glucose
1000
Mass of water
1.8 1000
= 0.167 m
=
180 60
(b) Mole fraction

\ Molality =

Moles of solute
=
Moles of solute + Moles of solvent

1. 8
= 0.01 ;
180
60
Moles of water = = 3.33
18
0.01
Mole fraction of glucose =
= 0.003 ;
0.01 + 3.33
Moles of glucose =

Mole fraction of water =

3.33
= 0.997
0.01 + 3.33

Illustration : 4 g of sodium chloride was dissolved in


300 g of water. Calculate percentage by mass of sodium
chloride in solution.

Solubility of a substance is its maximum amount that


can be dissolved in a specified amount of solvent at a
specified temperature.
Factors affecting solubility of a solid in a liquid :
ff
Effect of temperature :
If the dissolution process is endothermic
(DsolH > 0), the solubility increases with rise
in temperature.
If dissolution process is exothermic
(DsolH < 0) the solubility decreases with rise in
temperature.
ff
Effect of pressure : Pressure does not have any
significant effect on solubility of solids in liquids
as these are highly incompressible.

2.4 Solubility of Gases in Liquids


Gases are soluble in liquids including water. The solubility
of gases like O2, N2, etc. are much low. O2 molecules being
non-polar, have less solubility in polar solvent, water. CO2
and NH3 gases are more soluble in water as CO2 reacts
with water to form carbonic acid and NH3 reacts with
water to form ammonium hydroxide. HCl gas is polar, its
solubility is very high in water, forming hydrochloric acid.

Factors affecting solubility of a gas in a liquid :


ff
Effect of pressure : The solubility of gas increases
with the increase in external pressure.
Henrys law - It states that the solubility of a gas in
a liquid at constant temperature is proportional to
the pressure of the gas above the solution.

Soln.: Percentage by mass of sodium chloride (w/W)


=
=

mass of sodium chloride


100
mass of sodium chloride + mass of water
4g
4 g + 300 g

100 =

400
= 1.316% by mass
304

Depending upon the quantity of solute dissolved in a


liquid solvent, solutions can be of three types :
ff
Saturated solution : A solution which cannot
dissolve any further amount of solute at a given
temperature is called saturated solution.

Unsaturated solution : A solution in which more


amount of the solute can be dissolved at a given
temperature is called unsaturated solution.
Supersaturated solution : A solution in which
amount of solute is more than it can dissolve at
a particular temperature is called supersaturated
solution.

ff

S P i.e., S = KP
where S is the solubility of the gas in mol dm3,
P is the pressure of the gas in atm, K is constant of
proportionality and has the unit of mol dm3 atm1.
If P = 1 atm, then S = K. Hence, Henrys constant
K is defined as solubility of gas in mol dm3 at
1 atmospheric pressure at reference temperature.
If several gases are present then the solubility of any
gas may be evaluated by using P as partial pressure
of that gas in the mixture.
Effect of temperature : According to Charles
law, volume of a given mass of a gas increases
with increase of temperature. Therefore, volume

Solutions and Colligative Properties

ff

49

of a given mass of dissolved gas in solution also


increases with increase of temperature, so that it
becomes impossible for the solvent in solution to
accommodate gaseous solute in it and gas bubbles
out. Hence, solubility of gas in liquid decreases
with increase of temperature.
Effect of addition of soluble salt : Solubility of
dissolved gas is suppressed when a soluble salt is
added to the solution of gas.

Illustration : The solubility of nitrogen gas at


1 atm pressure at 25C is 6.8 104 mol dm3. Calculate
the solubility of N2 gas from atmosphere at 25C if
atmospheric pressure is 1 atmosphere and partial pressure
of N2 gas at this temperature and pressure is 0.78 atm.
4

Soln.: (i) S = 6.8 10 mol dm , PN2 = 1 atm


S = KPN2

6.8 104 mol dm3 = K 1 atm

K = 6.8 104 mol dm3 atm1


(ii) P = 0.78 atm, S = ?

S = 6.8 104 mol dm3 atm1 0.78 atm

= 5.304 104 mol dm3

i.e. Solubility of N2 is reduced to


4

= 5.304 10 mol dm

2.5 Solid Solutions


A solid solution of two or more metals or of a metal or
metals with one or more non-metals is called an alloy
or solid solution.
All the properties of the pure metals are improved when
they form solid solutions, i.e., alloys.
Duralumin (Al + Cu + Mg + Mn) :

Light and strong as steel.


Used in the construction of aircrafts.

Aluminium bronze (Al + Cu + Mn)


Lead alloy (Pb + 10 - 20% Sb) :

Acid resistant.
Used for bearings, bullets, shrapnel and for
manufacturing lead storage battery plates.

Babbitt metal (Sb + Sn + Cu) :


Antifriction alloy.
Used in machine bearings.

Stainless steel (Steel + Cr + Ni) :


Resistant to corrosion.
Used in cutlery.

Spiegeleisen (5-20% Mn in Iron ) and


Ferromanganeous (70 - 80% Mn + 30 - 20% Fe) :

Used for making very hard steels and to manufacture


rails, safes and heavy machinery.

Manganin (84% Cu + 12% Mn + 4% Ni) :

Has almost zero temperature coefficient of


electrical resistance.
Used for making electrical measurements.

Amalgams (Hg + metals) :

Used for extracting metals from ores.

2.6 Colligative Properties


These are the properties that depend on the number of
solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the
solute particles. These are :
Lowering of vapour pressure,
Elevation of boiling point of solvent in solution,
Depression of freezing point of solvent in solution and
Osmotic pressure.

2.7 Lowering of Vapour Pressure


Vapour pressure of liquids :
ff
The vapour pressure of a substance is defined as
the pressure exerted by the gaseous state of that
substance when it is in equilibrium with the solid
or liquid phase.
ff
Vapour pressure of a liquid, increases with the
increase of temperature.
ff
The boiling point of a liquid is a temperature at
which vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to
external pressure. If the boiling is carried out in
an open atmosphere then external pressure is the
atmospheric pressure.
Vapour pressure lowering :
ff
The vapour pressure of a liquid solvent is lowered
when a non-volatile solute is dissolved in it to
form a solution.
ff
This is due to the fact that in case of pure solvent,
its surface area is completely occupied by volatile
solvent molecules. While in case of solution of nonvolatile solute, its surface area is not completely
available for volatile solvent; partly it is occupied
by non-volatile solute.
ff
Hence, rate of evaporation of the solution will be
less as compared to that of pure solvent and vapour
pressure of solution is lower than that of the pure
solvent.
ff
If p1 is the vapour pressure of pure solvent and p is
the vapour pressure of the solution of non-volatile

50

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

solute in the same solvent, then p < p1 and the


lowering of vapour pressure is, Dp = p1 p
ff
The difference between vapour pressure of pure
solvent and the vapour pressure of solvent from
solution is called vapour pressure lowering.
ff
The ratio of vapour pressure lowering of solvent
from solution to the vapour pressure of pure solvent
is called the relative lowering of vapour pressure.
Dp p1 p
=
p1
p1

Raoults law
The law states that, the partial vapour pressure of any
volatile component of a solution is the product of
vapour pressure of that pure component and the mole
fraction of the component in the solution.
p1 = p1x1 and p2 = p2x2 where p1 and p2 are vapour
pressures of pure components 1 and 2 respectively, at
the same temperature.

Total vapour pressure, ptotal of solutions of two volatile


components is the sum of partial vapour pressures of
the two components,
ptotal = p1 + p2 = x1 p1 + x2 p2 = (x1)p1 + (1 x1) p2
= p2 + (p1 p2)x1
The solution which obeys Raoults law over the entire
range of concentration is called an ideal solution. If a
solution does not obey Raoults law, the solution is nonideal.

If y1 and y2 are the mole fractions of the components


1 and 2 respectively in the vapour phase then,
p1 = y1 ptotal and p2 = y2 ptotal

Raoults law for a solution of non-volatile


solute
Non-volatile solute does not evaporate and does not
contribute to the total vapour pressure of solution. The
vapour pressure of pure component A1 is p1 and that of
component A2 is p2 = 0.
p = p2 + (p1 p2)x1 (as p2 = 0)
p = 0 + (p1 0)x1
i.e., p = p1x1
(1)
The lowering of vapour pressure Dp is given by,
Dp = p1 p = p1 p1x1 = p1(1 x1)
But 1 x1 = x2
Hence, Dp = p1x2

(2)

L
owering of vapour pressure is the product of vapour
pressure of pure solvent and mole fraction of nonvolatile solute dissolved in volatile solvent to form a

solution. Thus the lowering of vapour pressure depends


on nature of pure solvent and concentration of solute in
mole fraction.
Now the relative lowering of vapour pressure is given
by,

p p
= 1
=
p1
p1

p1 x2

Dp

p1

= x2


Hence, relative lowering of vapour pressure = x2
Equation (2) proves that the lowering of vapour
pressure is a colligative property because it depends on
the concentration of non-volatile solute.

Molar mass of solute and relative lowering of


vapour pressure

p p
n2
W2 / M2
= 1
= x2 =
=
n1 + n2 W1 / M1 + W2 / M2
p1
p1

Dp

For dilute solutions n1 >> n2

Knowing the masses of non-volatile solute and


the solvent in dilute solutions and by determining
experimentally vapour pressure of pure solvent and
the solution it is possible to determine molar mass of a
non-volatile solute.

n W / M2 W2 M1
= 2= 2
=
p1 n1 W1 / M1 W1M2

Dp

Illustration : Calculate the weight of a non-volatile


solute (mol. wt. 40), which should be dissolved in 114 g
octane to reduce its vapour pressure to 80%.
Soln.: Given: p = (80/100)p, M2 = 40
W1 = 114 g, M1 = 114

We know,
\
\

p p W2 M1
=

p
M2 W1

p (80/100) p
p

W2 114

40 114

W2 = 18 g (weight of solute required)

2.8 Boiling Point Elevation


Boiling point is defined as the temperature at which
the vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to the
atmospheric pressure.
ff
It is a characteristic property of liquids and is a
criterion to check the purity of liquid.
ff
It increases with increase in external pressure.
ff
Liquids having greater intermolecular forces have
high boiling points.

Solutions and Colligative Properties

51

Elevation of boiling point :

Depression in freezing point and molar mass of the


solute :
Kf WB 1000
W 1000
DTf = Kf B
or M B =

DT W
M W

Solution has lower vapour pressure and hence


higher boiling point than pure solvent. The increase
in the boiling point, DTb = Tb Tb is known as
elevation of boiling point.

ff

W 1000
or DTb = Kb m = K b B
M B WA

Illustration : The freezing point of a solution containing


50 cm3 of ethylene glycol in 50 g water is found to be
34C. Assuming ideal behaviour, calculate the density
of ethylene glycol.

1000 WB K b
or M B =

DT W

Soln.: Given: Vethylene glycol = 50 cm3, W1 = 50 g

For dilute solutions, DTb m

ff

where m is molality of solution and Kb is called


boiling point elevation constant or molal elevation
constant or ebullioscopic constant, having unit
K kg mol1.
Illustration : The molal elevation constant for water is
0.51 K kg mol1. Calculate the b. pt. of solution made by
dissolving 6 g urea in 200 g water.

(Kf for H2O = 1.86 K kg mol1)


Kf

(H2O)

= 1.86 K kg mol1, M2 = 62 (glycol)

DTf = 34C, W2 = 50 d (glycol)


We know, DTf =

1000 K f W2
M2 W1

Substituting values, 34 =
\

d = 1.133 g/cm3

1000 1.86 (50 d )


62 50

Soln.: Given: W2 = 6 g, M2 = 60 (urea), W1 = 200 g,

2.10 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

We know,

Osmosis : The net spontaneous flow of the solvent


molecules from the solvent to the solution or from a less
concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution
through a semipermeable membrane.

Kb = 0.51 K kg mol

DTb =

1000 K b W2
M2 W1

1000 0.51 6
Substituting values, DTb =
= 0.255C
60 200
As elevation in b. pt. = 0.255C
\

B. pt. of solution = 100 + 0.255 = 100.255C

2.9 Freezing Point Depression


Freezing point of a liquid is the temperature at which
the vapour pressure of solid is equal to the vapour
pressure of liquid.
Depression of freezing point : The lowering of vapour
pressure of a solution causes a lowering of the freezing
point compared to that of the pure solvent. The decrease
in freezing point, DTf = Tf Tf is known as depression
in freezing point.

Freezing point depression and vapour pressure


lowering : For dilute solutions,
DTf p1 p
DTf m or DTf = Kf m
where Kf is known as freezing point depression constant
or molal depression constant or cryoscopic constant, having
unit K kg mol1.

Osmotic pressure : The minimum excess pressure that


has to be applied on the solution to prevent the entry of
the solvent into the solution through the semipermeable
membrane.
ff
Two or more solutions having same osmotic
pressure at a given temperature are called isotonic
solutions.
ff
If one solution is of lower osmotic pressure,
it is called hypotonic with respect to the more
concentrated solution. The more concentrated
solution is said to be hypertonic with respect to the
dilute solution.
ff
If a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure
is applied on the solution, the solvent will flow
from the solution into the pure solvent through
the semipermeable membrane and the process is
called reverse osmosis. It is used in desalination of
sea water.

Laws of osmotic pressure


vant HoffBoyles law : It states that, at constant
temperature the osmotic pressure (p) of a dilute solution
is directly proportional to its molar concentration or
inversely proportional to the volume of the solution.
At constant T, p C (in mol L1)

52
If n moles of solute is dissolved in V litres then,
n
C=

V
n
1
\ p or p
for constant n
V
V
p
= constant
\ pV = constant or
C
vant Hoff-Charles law : It states that, the concentration
remaining constant, the osmotic pressure of a dilute
solution is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature.
p
At constant C, p T i.e.,
= constant
T
vant Hoff general solution equation :
p = CRT
R = 8.314 J K1 mol1 if p is in N m2 and V in m3
R = 0.082 L atm K1 mol1 if p is in atm and V in dm3

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Determination of molar mass from osmotic


pressure :
n
W RT
W RT
, M2 = 2
p = 2 RT , p = 2
V
M2 V
p V
vant HoffAvogadros law : It states that, two solutions
of equal concentrations of different solutes exert same
osmotic pressure at the same temperature. It can
also be, stated as, equal volumes of isotonic solutions
contain an equal number of solute particles at the given
temperature.
For a given solution
pV = nRT
p1V1 = n1RT1 for solution 1
(i)
p2V2 = n2RT2 for solution 2
(ii)
If p1 = p2, T1 = T2 and V1 = V2 then from equations (i)
and (ii), n1 = n2
Since, number of moles are equal, number of molecules
are also equal.
Hence, osmotic pressure and temperature remaining
the same, equal volumes of solutions would contain
equal number of moles of the solute.
For isotonic solutions of equal volume, n1 = n2












multiple number of ions/particles. This results in


increase of number of solute particles in solution which
in turn results in increase of colligative properties and
increase of DTf /m value and the value of DTf /m is
approximately equal to integral multiple of Kf value.
The value of integral is equal to total number of ions
produced on dissociation as shown :
(i) HCl H+ + Cl; 2 particles;
DTf /m = 2 1.86 K mol1 kg
(ii) NH4Cl NH4+ + Cl; 2 particles;
DTf /m = 2 1.86 K mol1 kg
(iii) CoCl2 Co2+ + 2Cl; 3 particles;
DTf /m = 3 1.86 K mol1 kg
+
(iv) K2SO4 2K + SO42; 3 particles;
DTf /m = 3 1.86 K mol1 kg
(v) AlCl3 Al3+ + 3Cl; 4 particles;
DTf /m = 4 1.86 K mol1 kg
DTf /m = Kf value observed in case of solutions of
electrolytes may not be exactly two fold, three fold etc
of theoretical Kf value observed in case of solutions of
non-electrolyte solute. The value fluctuates with degree
of dissociation of solute in solution.

Association of solutes : In some non-polar solvents,


two or more molecules of solute associate to form bigger
molecules. For example, in benzene solutes like acetic
acid, benzoic acid, etc. associate to form dimers. This
association is due to the hydrogen bonding between
these molecules.
2CH3COOH = (CH3COOH)2

2C6H5COOH = (C6H5COOH)2

Hence, numbers of solute particles are reduced to


almost half. Observed molecular masses of these species
are almost twice the expected values in dilute solutions.
Due to association the total number of molecules in
solution will be almost half of the number of molecules
of the substance dissolved. Hence such solutions show
abnormally low colligative properties. The observed
molecular masses are almost double.

2.11 Abnormal Molecular Masses

2.12 vant Hoff Factor

F
or substances undergoing association or dissociation
in solution, the molecular mass determined by studying
any of the colligative properties is different than the
theoretically expected value, and the substance is said
to show abnormal molecular mass.

Th
e colligative properties of electrolytes may be
expressed in relation to colligative properties of nonelectrolytes by using vant Hoff factor i. It is defined
as the ratio of observed colligative property produced
by a given concentration of electrolyte solution to the
property observed for the same concentration of nonelectrolyte solution.

Dissociation of electrolyte solutes : Electrolytic


solutes when dissolved in solvent dissociate to produce

Solutions and Colligative Properties

53

Observed value of the colligative property

i=

or i = Theoretical molecular mass =

Theoretical vallue of the colligative property


Observed molecular mass

Mth
Mo

Total number of moles of particles

i=

after association / dissociation


Number of moles of particles before

association / dissociation

for association, i < 1; for dissociation, i > 1

vant Hoff factor (i) and degree of dissociation (a) :


i 1
a=
;
n 1

i=

M (theoretical)
= [1 + (n 1)a]
M (observed)

a=

Illustration : A decimolar solution of potassium


ferrocyanide is 50% dissociated at 300 K. Calculate the
osmotic pressure of the solution (R = 8.314 JK1 mol1).
Soln.: Initial number of moles of K4[Fe(CN)6] = 0.1,

M (theoretical) M (observed)
M (observed) (n 1)

vant Hoff factor (i) and degree of association (a) :


1i
a=
11/ n
Modified equations for colligative properties :
p1 p1 = i n2 , DTb = iKb m, DTf = iKf m, p = i n2RT/V
p1
n1

(as the solution is decimolar).

a = degree of dissociation = 50% = 1/2

Thus, we may represent the facts as below :

K4[Fe(CN)6] 4K+ + [Fe(CN)6]4 total

Initial no.
0.1
0
0
0.1
of moles
After
0.1(1 a)
0.1 (4a)
0.1 (a) 0.1(1 + 4a)
dissociation = 0.1 [1 + (4 1/2)]

vant Hoff factor,

= 0.3

Number of particles after dissociation


Actual number of partticles before dissociation
0.3
=3

=
0.1
pV = inRT
i =

inRT
= iCRT (C = n/V = molarity = 0.1 mol L1)
V
0.1 mol
or
= 100 mol m3
3 3
10 m
or, p = 3 100 8.314 300 = 74.826 104
p=

= 7.4826 105 Nm2 = 7.4826 atm

Moles

Moles

Total volume of solution in mL

Mass by volume percentage :


(W/V)% of solution =
Mass of solute

100

100

Total volume of solution

Volume Percentage :
(v/V)% of solution =
Volume of solute

Total mass of solution

Mass Percentage :
(w/W)% of solution =
Mass of solute

100

= constant
C (in mol L1 )

Strength =

Mass of solute in grams


3
Volume of solution in L (or dm )

vant Hoff general solution equation :


= CRT
vant Hoff-Avogadros law :
For isotonic solutions of equal volume,
n1 = n2.

At constant C, T = constant

vant Hoff-Charleslaw :

or

Laws of Osmotic Pressure :


vant Hoff-Boyles law :
At constant T, V = constant

pA = pAxA
pB = pBxB

Henrys Law : It states that the


solubility of a gas in a liquid at
constant temperature is proportional to
the pressure of the gas above the
solution.
S P i.e., S = KP

Tb = iKbm
Tf = iKf m
= in2RT/V

p1 p1 in2

p1
n1

Modified Equations of Colligative


Properties :

(dissociation) i 1
n 1
(association) 1 i
11/ n

vant Hoff factor :


Observed value of colligative property
i
Theoretical value of colligative property
Theoretical value of molecular mass

Observed value of molecular mass


Degree of Dissociation andAssociation :

Isotonic Solutions : Solutions having


same osmotic pressure.
Hypotonic Solutions : Solutions
having lower osmotic pressure than
the other.
Hypertonic Solutions : Solutions
having higher osmotic pressure than
the other.

within

SOLUTIONS AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

Osmosis : The spontaneous and


unidirectional flow of solvent molecules
through a semipermeable membrane,
into the solution or flow of solvent from a
solution of lower concentration to the
solution of higher concentration through
a semipermeable membrane is called
osmosis.
The excess of pressure on the side of
solution that stops the net flow of solvent
into solution through semipermeable
membrane is called osmotic pressure.

54
Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Solutions and Colligative Properties

55

Multiple Choice Questions


LEVEL - 1

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Types of Solutions

1.

9.

The mixture of salt and sugar is called a


(a) coarse mixture
(b) homogeneous mixture
(c) racemic mixture
(d) solution mixture.

2.

In a solution, the larger proportion of the component


is known as
(a) solution
(b) solute
(c) solvent
(d) mixed solution.

3.

A solution is defined as a
(a) homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
(b) heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances
(c) homogeneous mixture of liquid and solid
components only
(d) homogeneous mixture consisting water as one
of the components.

4.

The substances involved in solution are called


(a) mole
(b) atoms
(c) molecules
(d) components.

5.

The scientist who won the first Noble prize in


chemistry in the year 1901, for his work in solutions
was
(a) vant Hoff
(b) Beckmann
(c) Raoult
(d) Jean Nollet.

6.

In solution, the molecular size of particles is of the


order of
(b) 109 m
(a) 108 cm
(d) 109 cm
(c) > 109 m

7.

The new method to determine alcohol content of a


wine was discovered in 1870 by
(a) Newton
(b) Joule
(c) Raoult
(d) C.A. Wurtz.

8.

A solution having three components is called a


(a) quaternary solution
(b) binary solution
(c) single solution
(d) ternary solution.

An example of a solution having liquid in gas is


(a) moist air
(b) dry air
(c) Au-Hg
(d) C2H5OH + H2O

10. Which of the following is not a solution?


(a) Air
(b) A gold ring
(c) Smoke
(d) Salt solution
11. Solutions are of ____ types.
(a) three
(b) six
(c) nine
(d) eleven
12. Which of the following possesses physical states of
solute and solvent as liquid and solid respectively?
(a) Solution of sugar in water
(b) Zinc amalgam
(c) Solution of naphthalene in benzene
(d) Brass
13. Which of the following pairs of solutions having
different physical states of solute?
(a) Homogeneous mixture of chloroform in N2 gas,
solution of CO2 in water
(b) Brass, homogeneous mixture of camphor in
N2 gas
(c) Sodium amalgam, moist air
(d) Solution of H2 gas in Pd metal, mixture of
N2 and O2.
14. In vaporization of liquids into air, liquid dissolves
into air hence liquid is
(a) solution
(b) solute
(c) solvent
(d) mixture.
15. Sugar dissolved in water is a type of
(a) solid in solid solution
(b) solid in gas solution
(c) solid in liquid solution
(d) gas in solid solution.

2.3 Concentration of Solutions of


Solids in Liquids
16. Dissolution of calcium chloride in water is
exothermic process while that of ammonium nitrate
is endothermic process, the observation is

56

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


(a) solubility of calcium chloride decreases with
increase in temperature and that of ammonium
nitrate increases with increase in temperature
(b) solubilities of both decrease with increase in
temperature
(c) solubilities of both increase with increase in
temperature
(d) solubility of calcium chloride increases with
increase in temperature and that of ammonium
nitrate decreases with increase in temperature.

17. 22 cm3 of C2H5OH on dissolving in 200 cm3 of water


forms 220 cm3 solution of C2H5OH. What would
be the percentage by volume of C2H5OH in the
solution?
(a) 22%
(b) 11%
(c) 01%
(d) 10%
18. The volume of 2 M NaOH solution is 0.1 dm3. What
will be the volume of decimolar NaOH in dm3?
(a) 0.1
(b) 0.2
(c) 1.5
(d) 2
19. A molal solution is one that contains one mole of a
solute in
(a) 1000 g of the solvent
(b) one litre of the solvent
(c) one litre of the solution
(d) 1000 g of the solution.
20. When 10 g of caustic soda is dissolved in
250 cm3 of water, molarity of the solution is
(a) 1 M
(b) 0.5 M
(c) 0.25 M
(d) 0.1 M
21. A solution contains 0.5 mole of a solute in
400 g of water, its molality would be
(a) 1.25 m
(b) 0.125 m
(c) 2.51 m
(d) 0.025 m
22. One part of solute in one million parts of solvent is
expressed as
(a) ppm
(b) milligrams/100 cc
(c) grams/litre
(d) grams/100 cc.
23. 36 g of glucose (molar mass = 180 g/mol) is present in
500 g of water, the molarity of the solution is
(a) 0.2 M
(b) 0.4 M
(c) 0.8 M
(d) 1.0 M
24. The molality of 648 g of pure water is
(a) 36 m
(b) 55.5 m
(c) 3.6 m
(d) 5.55 m
25. An aqueous solution contains 25% ethanol and 50%
acetic acid by mass. Calculate the mole fraction of
acetic acid in this solution.

(a) 0.196
(c) 0.392

(b) 0.301
(d) 0.503

26. When 0.5 g of solute is present in 107 g of a solution,


the ppm of solute will be
(a) 0.5
(b) 0.05
(d) 107
(c) 106
27. 6 g of urea was dissolved in 500 g of water. The
percentage (by mass) of urea in the solution is
(a) 0.86%
(b) 1.186%
(c) 11.86%
(d) 0.08%
28. 58 cm3 of ethyl alcohol was dissolved in 400 cm3 of
water to form 454 cm3 of solution of ethyl alcohol.
The percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol in water is
(a) 0.12.%
(b) 1.2%
(c) 12.78%
(d) 0.01%
29. 23 g of ethyl alcohol (molar mass 46 g mol1)
is dissolved in 54 g of water (molar mass
18 g mol1). The mole fraction of ethyl alcohol and
water in solution are respectively
(a) 0.7 and 0.3
(b) 0.8571 and 0.1429
(c) 0.846 and 0.154
(d) 0.1429 and 0.8571
30. 35% (w/W) solution of ethylene glycol in water,
an antifreezer is used in cars as coolant. It lowers
freezing point of water to 17.6 C. The mole fraction
of ethylene glycol is
(a) 0.1529
(b) 0.1431
(c) 0.1343
(d) 0.1634
31. A solution of NaOH (molar mass 40 g mol1) was
prepared by dissolving 1.6 g of NaOH in 500 cm3 of
water. The molarity of solution is
(b) 0.02 mol dm3
(a) 0.2 mol dm3
3
(c) 0.08 mol dm
(d) 0.8 mol dm3
32. 11.11 g of urea was dissolved in 100 g of water.
The molality of solution is (N = 14, H = 1, C = 12,
O = 16)
(b) 1.852 mol kg1
(a) 18.52 mol kg1
1
(c) 18.52 mol g
(d) 1.852 mol g1
33. 34.2 g of sugar was dissolved in water to produce
214.2 g of sugar syrup. The molality and mole fraction
of sugar in the syrup are respectively (C = 12, H = 1,
O = 16)
(a) 0.224 m, 0.002
(b) 0.05 m, 0.02
(c) 0.556 m, 0.0099
(d) 0.05 m, 0.99
34. The molarity and molality of sulphuric acid solution
of density 1.198 g cm3 containing 27% by mass of
sulphuric acid (molar mass of H2SO4 = 98 g mol1)
are respectively

Solutions and Colligative Properties

(a) 3.301 M, 3.77 m


(c) 0.33 M, 7.3 m

57
(b) 0.03 M, 0.3 m
(d) 33.1 M, 0.7 m

35. Commercially available concentrated hydrochloric


acid is an aqueous solution containing 38% HCl gas
by mass. If its density is 1.1 g cm3, the molarity and
mole fraction of HCl solution are respectively
(a) 1.14 M and 0.768
(b) 0.114 M and 0.232
(c) 11.45 M and 0.232 (d) 11.45 M and 0.768
36. A sample of drinking water was found to be severely
contaminated with chloroform which is supposed
to be carcinogen. If the level of contamination was
15 ppm (by mass) then the molality of chloroform in
the water sample is
(b) 1.26 104 m
(a) 1.26 102 m
(d) 0.12 104 m
(c) 12.6 104 m
37. 34.2 g of glucose is dissolved in 400 g of water. What
is the percentage by mass of glucose solution?
(a) 78.7%
(b) 7.87%
(c) 87.7%
(d) 77%

(a) 2.01 m and 2.206 M (b) 1.2 m and 2.6 M


(c) 2.206 m and 2.01 M (d) 20.6 m and 20 M
44. Sulphuric acid is 95.8% by mass. What is the mole
fraction and molarity of H2SO4 solution having
density 1.91 g cm3? (H = 1, S = 32, O = 16)
(a) 0.0807 and 1.867 M (b) 0.8073 and 18.67 M
(c) 0.07 and 7.86 M
(d) 18.67 and 0.8073 M
45. Aqueous solution of NaOH is marked 10% (w/W). The
density of the solution is 1.070 g cm3. The molarity
and molality of solution are respectively (Na = 23,
H = 1, O = 16)
(a) 2.675 M and 2.77 m (b) 0.27 M and 0.26 m
(c) 0.26 M and 0.02 m (d) 20.7 M and 20.6 m
46. Battery acid is 4.22 M aqueous H2SO4 solution, and
has density of 1.21 g cm3. What is the molality of
H2SO4? (H = 1, S = 32, O = 16)
(a) 5.298 mol/g
(b) 52.98 mol/kg
(c) 5.298 mol/kg
(d) 59.98 mol/kg

38. A solution is prepared by dissolving certain amount


of solute in 500 g of water. If the percentage by mass
of a solute in solution is 2.38 then the mass of solute
will be
(a) 1.121 g
(b) 121.9 g
(c) 12.19 g
(d) 1219 g

47. A molal solution is one that contains one mole of


solute in
(a) one litre of the solvent
(b) 1000 g of the solvent
(c) one litre of the solution
(d) 22.4 litres of solution.

39. 4.6 cm3 of methyl alcohol is dissolved in 25.2 g of


water. The % by mass of methyl alcohol and mole
fraction of methyl alcohol are respectively
(Given density of methyl alcohol = 0.7952 g cm3 and
C = 12, H = 1, O = 16)
(a) 1.26% and 0.755
(b) 12.68% and 0.0755
(c) 12% and 0.0075
(d) 1.26% and 0.0755

48. Which of the following is independent


temperature?
(a) Molarity
(b) Molality
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these

40. 12.8 cm3 of benzene is dissolved in 16.8 cm3 of xylene.


What is the % by volume of benzene?
(a) 24.43%
(b) 4.324%
(c) 43.24%
(d) 0.43%
41. What is the mole fraction of HCl in aqueous
solution of HCl containing 24.8% of HCl by mass?
(H = 1, Cl = 35.5)
(a) 1.399
(b) 0.1399
(c) 0.0139
(d) 0.0013
42. What is the mole fraction of solute in its 2 molal
aqueous solution?
(a) 0.0347
(b) 3.47
(c) 0.043
(d) 0.074
43. The molality and molarity of HNO3 in a solution
containing 12.2% HNO3 are respectively
(Given density of HNO3 = 1.038 g cm3, H = 1, N = 14,
O = 16)

of

49. 20 g of NaOH (molar mass = 40 g mol1) is dissolved


in 500 cm3 of water. Molality of resulting solution is
(a) 0.1 m
(b) 0.5 m
(c) 1.5 m
(d) 1.0 m
50. Molarity of solution depends on
(a) temperature
(b) nature of solute dissolved
(c) mass of solvent
(d) pressure.
51. Density of water is 1 g/mL. The concentration of
water in mol/litre is
(a) 1000
(b) 18
(c) 0.018
(d) 55.5
52. The solutions A and B are 0.1 M and 0.2 M in a
substance. If 100 mL of A is mixed with 25 mL of B
and there is no change in volume, the final molarity
of the solution is
(a) 0.15 M
(b) 0.18 M
(c) 0.30 M
(d) 0.12 M

58

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

53. The molarity of a solution that contains 49 g H3PO4


in 2.0 L of a solution is
(a) 0.25 M
(b) 0.50 M
(c) 0.75 M
(d) 1.0 M

63. A solution of CaCl2 is 0.5 mol/litre, then the moles of


chloride ions in 500 mL will be
(a) 0.25
(b) 0.50
(c) 0.75
(d) 1.00

54. The molarity of the solution containing 7.1 g of


Na2SO4 in 100 mL of aqueous solution is
(a) 1 M
(b) 2 M
(c) 0.05 M
(d) 0.5 M

64. The sum of mole fractions of A, B and C in an aqueous


solution containing 0.2 moles of each A, B and C is
(a) 0.6
(b) 0.2
(c) 1.0
(d) 3

55. If 60 cm3 of ethyl alcohol is dissolved in 300 cm3 of


water then the percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol
is
(a) 16.66%
(b) 15.76%
(c) 17.86%
(d) 18.96%

2.4 Solubility of Gases in Liquids

56. What volume of 0.8 M solution contains 0.1 mol of


the solute?
(a) 62.5 mL
(b) 100 mL
(c) 500 mL
(d) 125 mL

66. If Henry's law constant for oxygen is


1.1 103 mol dm3 atm1 and its partial pressure is
0.20 atm, the concentration of dissolved oxygen at
NTP will be
(a) 2.2 103 mol dm3 (b) 2.2 104 mol dm3
(c) 1.1 104 mol dm3 (d) 0.22 104 mol dm3

57. 25 mL of 3.0 M HNO3 are mixed with 75 mL of 4.0 M


HNO3. If the volumes are additive, the molarity of the
final mixture would be
(a) 3.25 M
(b) 4.0 M
(c) 3.75 M
(d) 3.50 M
58. The amount of anhydrous Na2CO3 present in 250 mL
of 0.25 M solution is
(a) 6.225 g
(b) 66.25 g
(c) 6.0 g
(d) 6.625 g
59. 20 mL of HCl solution requires 19.85 mL of
0.01 M NaOH solution for complete neutralization.
The molarity of HCl solution is
(a) 0.0099 M
(b) 0.099 M
(c) 0.99 M
(d) 9.9 M
60. If 5.85 g of NaCl (molecular weight 58.5 g mol1) is
dissolved in water and the solution is made up to
0.5 litre, the molarity of the solution will be
(a) 0.2 M
(b) 0.4 M
(c) 1.0 M
(d) 0.1 M
61. If 1 M and 2.5 litre NaOH solution is mixed with
another 0.5 M and 3 litre NaOH solution, then
molarity of the resultant solution will be
(a) 1.0 M
(b) 0.73 M
(c) 0.80 M
(d) 0.50 M
62. To prepare a solution of concentration of 0.03 g/mL
of AgNO3, what amount of AgNO3 should be added
in 60 mL of solution?
(a) 1.8 g
(b) 0.8 g
(c) 0.18 g
(d) 0.108 g

65. According to Henry's law


(a) S = KP
(b) S = K/P
(c) S = P/K
(d) S = KP

67. The unit of Henry's constant is


(b) mol dm3 atm
(a) mol dm3 atm1
(d) mol1 dm3 atm1
(c) mol1 dm3 atm
68. What is the concentration of dissolved oxygen at
25C at 1 atmospheric pressure if partial pressure
of oxygen is 0.22 atm? The Henrys law constant for
oxygen is 1.3 103 mol dm3 atm1.
(a) 1.3 103 mol dm3 (b) 0.13 103 mol dm3
(c) 0.28 104 mol dm3 (d) 2.86 104 mol dm3
69. What is the Henrys law constant of dissolved O2 at
10C at 1 atmospheric pressure, if partial pressure of
oxygen is 0.24 atm? The concentration of dissolved
oxygen is 3.12 104 mol dm3.
(a) 2.5 103 mol dm3 atm1
(b) 1 104 mol dm3 atm1
(c) 1.3 103 mol dm3 atm1
(d) data insufficient.
70. Solubility of a gas in a liquid increases with
(a) increase of pressure and increase of temperature
(b) decrease of pressure and increase of temperature
(c) increase of pressure and decrease of temperature
(d) decrease of pressure and decrease of temperature.
71. Which law states that the amount of gas dissolved
in a given mass of solvent at any temperature is
directly proportional to pressure of the gas above the
solution?
(a) Raoults law
(b) Boyles law
(c) Charles law
(d) Henrys law

Solutions and Colligative Properties

59

72. Lead is hardened by the addition of


(a) 10-20% aluminium (b) 5-20% manganese
(c) 10-20% antimony (d) 20-30% iron

82. Colligative properties are applicable to


(a) ideal dilute solutions
(b) non-ideal concentrated solutions
(c) non-ideal solutions
(d) ideal concentrated solutions.

73. Babbitt metal is an alloy of


(a) bismuth with tin and copper
(b) antimony with tin and copper
(c) lead with arsenic
(d) aluminium with copper and manganese.

83. The colligative properties of a solutions depend on


(a) nature of solute particles present in it
(b) nature of solvent used
(c) number of solute particles present in it
(d) number of moles of solvent only.

74. Amalgam is
(a) a solution of gas in gas
(b) a solution of liquid in gas
(c) a solution of metals in liquid metal
(d) a solution of solid in gas.

84. Which of the following is not the colligative property?


(b) DTb
(a) DTf
(c) Kb
(d) Osmotic pressure

2.5 Solid Solutions

75. Stainless steel contains


(a) chromium
(c) both (a) and (b)

(b) nickel
(d) none of these.

76. An alloys containing zero temperature coefficient of


electrical resistance is
(a) manganin
(b) duralumin
(c) bronze
(d) spiegeleisen.
77. An alloy is
(a) a solution of solid in liquid
(b) a solution of solid in gas
(c) a solution of solid in plasma
(d) a solution of solid in solid.
78. 5 to 20% manganese in iron is
(a) ferromanganeous (b) manganin
(c) duralumin
(d) spiegeleisen.
79. An alloy manganin contains
(a) 84% Cu, 12% Mn and 4% Ni
(b) 70-80% Mn, 30-20% Fe
(c) 10-20% Sb, 90-80% Pb
(d) Al, Cu, Mg, and Mn.

2.6 Colligative Properties


80. Which of the following is not a colligative property?
(a) Osmotic pressure
(b) Elevation in boiling point
(c) Vapour pressure
(d) Depression in freezing point
81. Which of the following is a colligative property?
(a) Osmotic pressure (b) Boiling point
(c) Vapour pressure
(d) Freezing point

85. Colligative properties are used for the determination


of
(a) molar mass
(b) equivalent weight
(c) arrangement of molecules
(d) melting point and boiling point.
86. Which of the following is a colligative property?
(a) Conductance of a solution
(b) Surface tension of a solution
(c) Osmotic pressure of a solution
(d) Radioactivity of a solution
87. Which is not a colligative property?
(a) Refractive index
(b) Lowering of vapour pressure
(c) Depression of freezing point
(d) Elevation of boiling point

2.7 Lowering of Vapour Pressure


88. Which of the following is incorrect?
(a) Relative lowering of vapour pressure is
independent of the nature of the solute and the
solvent
(b) Relative lowering in vapour pressure is a
colligative property
(c) Vapour pressure of a solution is lower than the
vapour pressure of the solvent
(d) Relative lowering of vapour pressure is directly
proportional to the original pressure.
89. Which one of the following is not an expression for
Raoults law for a solution containing two volatile
components A and B? pA and pB are the partial
vapour pressures of A and B, pA and pB are the vapour
pressures of pure A and B, xA and xB are mole fractions
of A and B in solution.

60

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


(a) pA = pA xA
(c) Dp = pBxB

(b) Ptotal = pAxA + pBxB


(d) Dp = pAxA

90. Lowering of vapour pressure is a colligative property


because, it depends on the concentration of
(a) volatile solute
(b) non-volatile solute
(c) volatile solvent
(d) non-volatile solvent.
91. At 25C, the total pressure of an ideal solution
obtained by mixing 3 moles of A and 2 moles of B,
is 184 torr. What is the vapour pressure (in torr) of
pure B at the same temperature? (vapour pressure of
pure A, at 25C, is 200 torr.)
(a) 180
(b) 160
(c) 16

(d) 100

92. The relative lowering of vapour pressure is equal to


p1
(a)

(b) p p1
Dp
p1

p1 p
Dp

(d)
Dp
p1
93. The aqueous solution that has the highest value
of relative lowering of vapour pressure at a given
temperature is
(a) 0.1 molal sodium phosphate
(b) 0.1 molal barium chloride
(c) 0.1 molal sodium chloride
(d) 0.1 molal glucose.
(c)

94. For dilute solutions, Raoults law states that


(a) lowering of vapour pressure is equal to the mole
fraction of the solute
(b) relative lowering of vapour pressure is equal to
the mole fraction of the solvent
(c) relative lowering of vapour pressure of the
solvent is equal to the mole fraction of the
solute
(d) vapour pressure of the solution is equal to the
vapour pressure of the solvent.
95. Vapour pressure of dilute aqueous solution of glucose
is 750 mm of mercury at 373 K. The mole fraction of
solute is
(a) 1/76
(b) 1/7.6
(c) 1/38
(d) 1/10
96. Vapour pressure of a solution of 5 g of non-electrolyte
in 100 g of water at a particular temperature is
2985 N/m2. The vapour pressure of pure water is
3000 N/m2, the molecular weight of the solute is
(b) 200 g mol1
(a) 90 g mol1
1
(c) 180 g mol
(d) 380 g mol1

97. The vapour pressure of a solution containing


13 103 kg of solute in 0.1 kg of water at 298 K is
27.371 mm Hg. Given that the vapour pressure of
water at 298 K is 28.065 mm Hg. The molar mass of
the solute will be
(b) 95 g mol1
(a) 69 g mol1
(c) 60 g mol1
(d) 90 g mol1
98. A solution is prepared from 26.2 103 kg of an
unknown substance and 112.0 103 kg acetone at
313 K. The vapour pressure of pure acetone at this
temperature is 0.526 atm. The vapour pressure of
solution is 273.52 103 kg mol1 if the molar mass
of substance is
(a) 0.400 atm
(b) 0.600 atm
(c) 0.500 atm
(d) 0.300 atm
99. The vapour pressure of 2.1% solution of a nonelectrolyte in water at 100C is 755 mm Hg. What is
the molar mass of the solute?
(a) 58.69 kg/mol
(b) 58.69 g/mol
(c) 5.86 kg/mol
(d) 586.9 g/mol
100. The vapour pressure of water at 20C is 17 mm Hg.
What is the vapour pressure of a solution containing
2.8 g of urea (NH2CONH2) in 50 g of water? (N = 14,
C = 12, H = 1)
(a) 16.71 mm of Hg
(b) 1.671 mm of Hg
(c) 0.1671 mm of Hg (d) 0.01671 mm of Hg
101. In an experiment, 18.04 g of mannitol was dissolved
in 100 g of water. The vapour pressure of water was
lowered by 0.309 mm Hg from 17.535 mm Hg. The
molar mass of mannitol is
(a) 18.42 g/mol
(b) 18.42 kg/mol
(c) 1.842 g/mol
(d) 184.27 g/mol
102. According to the Raoults law, the relative lowering of
vapour pressure is equal to the
(a) mole fraction of solvent
(b) mole fraction of solute
(c) independent of mole fraction of solute
(d) molality of solution.
103. Partial pressure of solvent in solution of non-volatile
solute is given by equation,
(b) p1 = xp
(a) p = x2p1
(d) p1 = x1p
(c) p = x1p1
104. When partial pressure of solvent in solution of nonvolatile solute is plotted against its mole fraction,
nature of graph is
(a) a straight line passing through origin
(b) a straight line parallel to mole fraction of
solvent

Solutions and Colligative Properties

(c) a straight line parallel to vapour pressure of


solvent
(d) a straight line intersecting vapour pressure axis.
105. Relative lowering of vapour pressure of solution is a
(a) property of solute
(b) property of solute as well as solvent
(c) property of solvent
(d) colligative property.
106. Vapour pressure of solution of a non-volatile solute is
always
(a) equal to the vapour pressure of pure solvent
(b) higher than vapour pressure of pure solvent
(c) lower than vapour pressure of pure solvent
(d) constant.
107. The vapour pressure at equilibrium of a liquid in a
closed vessel depends on
(a) pressure
(b) concentration
(c) temperature
(d) volume.
108. The vapour pressure of water at 300 K in a closed
container is 0.4 atm. If the volume of the container is
doubled, its vapour pressure at 300 K will be
(a) 0.8 atm
(b) 0.2 atm
(c) 0.4 atm
(d) 0.6 atm
109. At 300 K when a solute is added to a solvent its vapour
pressure over the mercury reduces from 50 mm to
45 mm. The value of mole fraction of solute will be
(a) 0.005
(b) 0.010
(c) 0.100
(d) 0.900
110. If p1 and p are the vapour pressures of a solvent and
its solution respectively, and if x1 and x2 are the mole
fractions of the solvent and solute respectively then
(b) p = p1 x2
(a) p = p1 x1
(c) p1 = p x2
(d) p = p1 (x1/x2)
111. The vapour pressure of pure liquid A is 0.80 atm.
On mixing a non-volatile solute B to A, its vapour
pressure becomes 0.6 atm. The mole fraction of B in
the solution is
(a) 0.150
(b) 0.25
(c) 0.50
(d) 0.75
112. The vapour pressure of two liquids P and Q are 80
and 60 torr respectively. The total vapour pressure of
solution obtained by mixing 3 moles of P and 2 moles
of Q would be
(a) 140 torr
(b) 20 torr
(c) 68 torr
(d) 72 torr

61
113. 60 g of urea (mol. wt. 60) was dissolved in 9.9 moles
of water. If the vapour pressure of pure water is p1 ,
the vapour pressure of solution is
(b) 1.10 p1
(a) 0.10 p1
(d) 0.99 p1
(c) 0.90 p1
114. The vapour pressure of a solvent is decreased by
10 mm of mercury when a non-volatile solute was
added to the solvent. The mole fraction of the solute in
the solution is 0.2. What should be the mole fraction
of the solvent, if the decrease in the vapour pressure
is 20 mm of mercury?
(a) 0.8
(b) 0.6
(c) 0.4
(d) 0.2
115. The vapour pressure of a pure liquid A is 70 torr at
27C. It forms an ideal solution with another liquid
B. The mole fraction of B is 0.2 and the total vapour
pressure of the solution is 84 torr at 27C. The vapour
pressure of pure liquid B at 27C is
(a) 14 torr
(b) 56 torr
(c) 70 torr
(d) 140 torr
116. At 40C the vapour pressure of pure liquids, benzene
and toluene, are 160 mm Hg and 60 mm Hg
respectively. At the same temperature, the vapour
pressure of an equimolar solution of the two liquids,
assuming the ideal solution should be
(a) 140 mm Hg
(b) 110 mm Hg
(c) 220 mm Hg
(d) 100 mm Hg
117. One mole of sugar is dissolved in two moles of water.
The vapour pressure of the solution relative to that of
pure water is
(a) 2/3
(b) 1/3
(c) 3/2
(d) 1/2
118. The vapour pressure of benzene at 80C is lowered by
10 mm by dissolving 2 g of a non-volatile substance
in 78 g of benzene. The vapour pressure of pure
benzene at 80C is 750 mm. The molecular mass of
the substance will be
(b) 150 g mol1
(a) 15 g mol1
(c) 1500 g mol1
(d) 148 g mol1
119. Vapour pressure of CCl4 at 25C is 143 mm of Hg.
0.5 g of a non-volatile solute (mol. wt. = 65) is
dissolved in 100 mL CCl4. Find the vapour pressure
of the solution. (Density of CCl4 = 1.58 g/cm3)
(a) 141.43 mm
(b) 94.39 mm
(c) 199.34 mm
(d) 143.99 mm
120. The vapour pressure of a solution increases when
(a) the temperature is raised
(b) the volume is increased
(c) the number of moles of the solute is increased
(d) the temperature is lowered.

62
121. Pressure cooker reduces cooking time for food
because
(a) heat is more evenly distributed in the cooking
space
(b) boiling point of water involved in cooking is
increased
(c) the higher pressure inside the cooker crushed
the food material
(d) cooking involves chemical changes helped by a
rise in temperature.
122. The relative lowering of the vapour pressure is equal
to the ratio between the number of
(a) solute molecules and solvent molecules
(b) solute molecules and the total molecules in the
solution
(c) solvent molecules and the total molecules in the
solution
(d) solvent molecules and the total number of ions
of the solute.
123. The vapour pressure lowering caused by the addition
of 100 g of sucrose (molecular mass = 342) to 1000 g
of water if the vapour pressure of pure water at 25C
is 23.8 mm Hg is
(a) 1.25 mm Hg
(b) 0.125 mm Hg
(c) 1.15 mm Hg
(d) 00.12 mm Hg

2.8 Boiling Point Elevation


124. Boiling point of water is 373.11 K. What is Kb of water,
if 0.15 molal aqueous solution of a substance boils at
373.20 K?
(b) 0.6 K kg mol1
(a) 0.09 K kg mol1
(c) 6.0 K kg mol1
(d) 60 K kg mol1
125. Kb is the elevation in boiling point produced when
1 mol of solute is dissolved in
(a) one litre solvent
(b) 1000 g solvent
(c) 500 mL solvent
(d) 0.5 kg solvent.
126. If 0.15 molal solution of a substance boils at 373.23 K
the molal elevation constant of water is (Given boiling
point of water = 373.15 K)
(b) 5.3 K kg mol1
(a) 0.35 K kg mol1
1
(c) 0.53 K kg mol
(d) 0.053 K kg mol1
127. A solution of a substance on dissolving in benzene
boils at 353.71 K. If Kb for benzene is 2.53 K kg mol1
and boiling point of pure benzene is 353.35 K, then
the molality of the solution is
(a) 0.1423 m
(b) 0.4123 m
(c) 0.04 m
(d) 0.004 m

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


128. A solution is prepared by dissolving 1.9 102 kg
ammonia in 400 g of water. The elevation in boiling
point if Kb for water is 0.52 K kg mol1 (N = 14,
H = 1, O = 16) is
(a) 145C
(b) 1.45 K
(c) 14.5 K
(d) 45.1 K
129. A solution containing 1.21 g of camphor (molar mass
152 g mol1) in 26.68 g of acetone boils at 329.95 K.
If the boiling point of pure acetone is 329.45 K, the
molal elevation constant for acetone will be
(b) 1.67 K mol1
(a) 167 K kg mol1
(c) 16.76 K kg mol1
(d) 1.676 K kg mol1
130. 3.795 g of sulphur is dissolved in 100 g of CS2. This
solution boils at 319.81 K. What is the molecular
formula of sulphur in solution? The boiling point of
CS2 is 319.45 K. (Given : Kb for CS2 = 2.42 K kg mol1
and atomic mass of S = 32.)
(b) S4
(a) S2
(c) S8
(d) None of these.
131. A solution prepared by dissolving certain amount of
compound in 31.8 g of CCl4 has a boiling point of
0.392 K higher than that of pure CCl4. If the molar
mass of compound is 128 g mol1, the mass of the
solute dissolved will be
(Given Kb for CCl4 = 5.02 K kg mol1)
(a) 317 g
(b) 0.317 kg
(c) 0.317 g
(d) 31.7 g
132. Boiling point of water at 750 mm Hg is 96.63C. How
much sucrose is to be added to 500 g of water such
that it boils at 100C? Molal elevation constant for
water is 0.52 K kg mol1.
(a) 11.08 kg
(b) 1108.2 g
(c) 1108.2 kg
(d) 11.08 g
133. A solution containing 0.5126 g of naphthalene
(molar mass = 128.17 g mol1) in 50.00 g of CCl4
gives a boiling point elevation of 0.402 K. While a
solution of 0.6216 g of unknown solute in the same
mass of the solvent gives a boiling point elevation of
0.647 k. The molar mass of the unknown solute is
(Kb for CCl4 = 5.03 K kg mol1)
(a) 0.096306 kg/mol
(b) 96.31 kg/mol
(c) 0.009630 kg/mol
(d) 0.9631 kg/mol
134. The mass in grams of an impurity of molar mass
100 g mol1 which would be required to raise
the boiling point of 50 g of chloroform by 0.30 K
(Kb for chloroform = 3.63 K kg mol1) is
(a) 0.4132 g
(b) 41.32 g
(c) 43.1 g
(d) 42.3 g

Solutions and Colligative Properties

63

135. Boiling point of a solvent is 80.2C. When 0.419 g of


the solute of molar mass 252.4 g mol1 was dissolved
in 75 g of the solvent, the boiling point of the solution
was found to be 80.256C. What is the molal elevation
constant ?
(a) 25.4 K kg/mol
(b) 2.54 K g/mol
(c) 25.4 K g/mol
(d) 2.54 K kg/mol

143. An aqueous solution containing 1 g of urea boils at


100.25C. The aqueous solution containing 3 g of
glucose in the same volume will boil at (molecular
weights of urea and glucose are 60 and 180
respectively)
(a) 100.75 C
(b) 100.5 C
(c) 100.25 C
(d) 100 C

136. When NaCl is added to water


(a) freezing point is raised
(b) boiling point is depressed
(c) freezing point does not change
(d) boiling point is raised.

144. If 0.15 g of a solute dissolved in 15 g of solvent is


boiled at a temperature higher by 0.216 C than
that of the pure solvent, the molecular weight of the
substance (molal elevation of boiling point constant
for the solvent is 2.16 C) is
(a) 1.01 g mol1
(b) 10 g mol1
1
(c) 1000 g mol
(d) 100 g mol1

137. Molal elevation constant is elevation in boiling point


produced by
(a) 1 g of solute in 100 g of solvent
(b) 100 g of solute in 1000 g of solvent
(c) 1 mole of solute in one litre of solvent
(d) 1 mole of solute in one kg of solvent.
138. The determination of molar mass from elevation in
boiling point is called as
(a) cryoscopy
(b) osmometry
(c) ebullioscopy
(d) spectroscopy.
139. If mass is expressed in gram then Kb is given by
M2 DTb W2
(a)
1000 W1
W2
1000
(b)
DTb W1 M2
(c)

M2 DTb W1
1000 W2

(d)

W1
1000
DTb W2 M2

140. Unit of boiling point elevation constant (Kb) is


(b) K mol1
(a) kg mol1
(c) g mol1
(d) K kg mol1
141. The rise in the boiling point of a solution containing
1.8 g of glucose in 100 g of a solvent is 0.1C. The
molal elevation constant of the liquid is
(a) 0.01 K/m
(b) 0.1 K/m
(c) 1 K/m
(d) 10 K/m
142. The molal elevation of boiling point constant for
water is 0.513C kg mol1. When 0.1 mole of sugar is
dissolved in 200 mL of water, the solution boils under
a pressure of one atmosphere at
(a) 100.513 C
(b) 100.0513 C
(c) 100.256 C
(d) 101.025 C

145. A liquid is in equilibrium with its vapours at its


boiling point. On average, the molecules in the two
phases have equal
(a) intermolecular forces
(b) potential energy
(c) total energy
(d) kinetic energy.
146. Which of the following aqueous solutions containing
10 g of solute in each case has the highest boiling
point?
(a) NaCl solution
(b) KCl solution
(c) Sugar solution
(d) Glucose solution
147. Elevation in boiling point was 0.52C when
6 g of a compound X was dissolved in 100 g of
water. Molecular weight of X is (Kb for water is
0.52 K kg mol1).
(b) 60 g mol1
(a) 120 g mol1
1
(c) 180 g mol
(d) 600 g mol1
148. At higher altitudes the boiling point of water is lower
because
(a) atmospheric pressure is low
(b) temperature is low
(c) atmospheric pressure is high
(d) temperature is high.
149. The boiling point of C6H6, CH3OH, C6H5NH2
and C6H5NO2 are 80C, 65C, 184C and 212C
respectively. Which will show highest vapour pressure
at room temperature?
(b) CH3OH
(a) C6H6
(d) C6H5NO2
(c) C6H5NH2
150. The boiling point of 0.1 molal aqueous solution of
urea is 100.18C at 1 atm. The molal elevation constant
of water (in C kg mol1) is
(a) 1.8
(b) 0.18
(c) 18
(d) 18.6

64
151. If the solution boils at
solvent at a temperature
point is given by
(a) T1 + T2
(c) T2 T1

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


a temperature T1 and the
T2, the elevation of boiling
(b) T1 T2
(d) T1 T2

152. The molal elevation constant is the ratio of the


elevation in boiling point to
(a) molarity
(b) molality
(c) mole fraction of solute
(d) mole fraction of solvent.
153. Elevation of boiling point was 0.52C, when 6 g of
compound X was dissolved in 100 g of H2O. Molar
mass of X is (Kb of water is 5.2C per 100 g water)
(b) 60 g mol1
(a) 120 g mol1
(c) 600 g mol1
(d) 180 g mol1
154. The elevation of boiling point method is used for the
determination of molecular weight of
(a) non-volatile and soluble solute
(b) non-volatile and insoluble solute
(c) volatile and soluble solute
(d) volatile and insoluble solute.
155. When a substance is dissolved in a solvent, the vapour
pressure of the solvent is decreased. This results in
(a) an increase in the boiling point of the solution
(b) a decrease in the boiling point of the solvent
(c) the solution having a higher freezing point than
the solvent
(d) the solution having a lower osmotic pressure
than the solvent.
156. When 10 g of a non-volatile solute is dissolved in
100 g of benzene, it raises boiling point by 1C,
then molecular mass of the solute is (Kb for benzene
= 2.53 K kg mol1)
(a) 223 g
(b) 233 g
(c) 243 g
(d) 253 g
157. The value of Kb for a solvent is X K kg mol1. A 0.2 m
solution of a non-electrolyte in this solvent will boil at
(Given : boiling point of solvent = A C).
X

(a) (A + X) C
(b) A + C

10
X
X

(c) A + C
(d) A + K

5
5
158. At certain hill-station pure water boils at 99.725C.
If Kb for water is 0.513 C kg mol1, the boiling point
of 0.69 m solution of urea will be
(a) 100.079C
(b) 103C
(c) 100.359C
(d) Unpredictable

2.9 Freezing Point Depression


159. Which of the following solutions shows maximum
depression in freezing point?
(b) 1 M NaCl
(a) 0.5 M Li2SO4
(d) 0.5 M BaCl2
(c) 0.5 M Al2(SO4)3
160. The unit of freezing point depression constant is
(b) K kg1 mol1
(a) K mol1
1
(c) K kg mol
(d) K kg1
161. The freezing point of equimolal aqueous solution will
be highest for
+
(b) La(NO3)3
(a) C6H5NH3 Cl
(c) glucose
(d) Ca(NO3)2
162. A 0.5 molal solution of ethylene glycol in water is used
as coolant in a car. If Kf for water is 1.86 K kg mol1
the mixture will freeze at
(a) 0.93C
(b) 0.93C
(c) 1.86C
(d) 1.86C
163. 5.08 g of a substance dissolved in 50 g of water lowered
the freezing point by 1.2 K. If the molal depression
constant for water is 1.86 K kg mol1, the molar mass
of the substance, will be
(a) 157.48 103 g mol1 (b) 157.48 g mol1
(c) 15.7 103 g mol1 (d) 15.7 kg mol1
164. 0.440 103 kg of a substance (molar mass =
178.9 103 kg mol1) dissolved in 22.2 103 kg of
benzene lowered the freezing point of benzene by
0.567 K. The molal depression constant for benzene
is
(b) 5.12 K kg mol1
(a) 512 K kg mol1
(c) 51.2 K kg mol1
(d) none of these.
165. The observed depression in the freezing point of water
for a particular solution is 0.087 K. The molality of
the solution if molal depression constant for water is
1.86 K kg mol1 will be
(a) 0.4 m
(b) 4.67 m
(c) 0.0467 m
(d) 4 m
166. 1.02 g of urea when dissolved in 98.5 g of certain
solvent decreases its freezing point by 0.211 K.
1.60 g of unknown compound when dissolved in
86.0 g of the same solvent depresses the freezing point
by 0.34 K. The molar mass of the unknown compound
is (Urea NH2CONH2, N = 14, C = 12, O = 16, H = 1)
(b) 68 g mol1
(a) 60 g mol1
1
(c) 78 g mol
(d) 40 g mol1

Solutions and Colligative Properties

167. A solution of glucose (C6H12O6) was prepared


by dissolving certain amount of glucose in
100 g of water. The depression in freezing point was
0.0410 K. If molal depression constant for water is
1.86 K kg mol1, the mass of glucose dissolved will be
(C = 12, H = 1, O = 16)
(a) 0.396 g
(b) 0.396 kg
(c) 39.6 g
(d) 39.6 kg
168. An aqueous solution containing 12.5 103 kg of
non-volatile compound in 0.1 kg of water freezes at
272.49 K. The molar mass of the compound is
(Kf for water = 1.86 K kg mol1.
(b) 352.27 g mol1
(a) 35.27 g mol1
(c) 452.27 g mol1
(d) 45.27 g mol1
169. The freezing point of solution prepared by dissolving
4.5 g of glucose (Molar mass = 180 g mol1) in 250 g of
bromoform is (Given : Freezing point of bromoform
= 7.8C and Kf for bromoform = 14.4 K kg mol1)
(a) 6.36C
(b) 4.23C
(c) 3.66C
(d) 0.06C
170. A temperature at which the vapour pressure of a solid
is equal to the vapour pressure of liquid is called
(a) elevation of boiling point
(b) freezing point
(c) melting point
(d) depression of freezing point
171. The freezing point of 1 percent solution of lead nitrate
in water will be
(a) below 0 C
(b) 0 C
(c) 1 C
(d) 2 C

65
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

reducing viscosity
reducing specific heat
reducing freezing point
reducing boiling point.

176. The molar mass of the solute using depression of


freezing point may be calculated using
10K f W2
100K f W2

(b) M2 =
(a) M2 =
DT f m
DT f W1
K f W1
(c) M2 =

DT f W2

(d) M2 =

1000K f W2
DT f W1

177. The freezing point of 0.05 molal solution of nonelectrolyte in water is (Kb = 1.86 C kg mol1)
(a) 1.86 C
(b) 0.93 C
(c) 0.093 C
(d) 0.93 C
178. What is the molality of solution of a certain solute
in a solvent, if there is a freezing point depression of
0.184 C, and the freezing point constant is 18.4?
(a) 0.01 m
(b) 1 m
(c) 0.001 m
(d) 100 m
179. If all the following four compounds were sold at the
same price, which would be cheapest for preparing an
antifreeze solution for a car radiator?
(a) Methanol
(b) Ethanol
(c) Ethylene glycol
(d) Glycerol
180. Equimolal solutions of A and B show depression
of freezing point in the ratio of 2 : 1. A remains in
normal state. The state of B in the solution is
(a) normal
(b) dissociated
(c) associated
(d) unpredictable.

172. How much polystyrene of molecular weight 9000


would have to be dissolved in 100 grams of C6H6 to
lower its freezing point by 1.05C? (KfC6H6 = 4.9)
(a) 19.3 g
(b) 193 g
(c) 38.6 g
(d) 77.2 g

181. A solution containing 6.8 g of a non-ionic solute


in 100 g water was found to freeze at 0.93 C. The
freezing point depression constant of water is 1.86.
The molar mass of the solute is
(b) 34 g mol1
(a) 13.6 g mol1
1
(c) 68 g mol
(d) 136 g mol1

173. Relationship between Kf, m and DTf can be written


as
(b) DTf = Kfm
(a) DTf = Kf/m
(d) DTf = m
(c) DTf = Kf

182. Which of the following aqueous solutions has


minimum freezing point?
(a) 0.01 m NaCl
(b) 0.005 m C2H5OH
(d) 0.001 m MgSO4
(c) 0.005 m MgI2

174. Which will show maximum depression in freezing


point when concentration is 0.1 M?
(a) NaCl
(b) Urea
(c) Glucose
(d) K2SO4

183. When mercuric iodide is added to the aqueous


solution of potassium iodide, the
(a) freezing point is lowered
(b) freezing point is raised
(c) freezing point does not change
(d) boiling point does not change.

175. In cold countries, ethylene glycol is added to water in


the radiators of cars during winter. It results in

66

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

184. An aqueous solution freezes at 0.186C. The boiling


point of the same solution is
(Kf = 1.86 K m1, Kb = 0.512 K m1)
(a) 100.186 C
(b) 100.512 C
100.512

(d) 100.0512 C
(c)
0.186
185. An aqueous solution of a non-electrolyte boils at
100.52C. The freezing point of the solution will be
(Kf = 1.86 K m1, Kb = 0.512 K m1)
(a) 0C
(b) 1.86C
(c) 1.86C
(d) 0.52C

2.10 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

186. A solution of urea (mol. mass 56 g mol1) boils at


100.18 C at the atmospheric pressure. If Kf and Kb
for water are 1.86 and 0.512 K kg mol1 respectively
the above solution will freeze at
(a) 6.54C
(b) 6.54C
(c) 0.654C
(d) 0.654C

196. The osmotic pressure of a dilute solution is directly


proportional to the
(a) diffusion rate of the solute
(b) concentration
(c) boiling point
(d) flow of solvent from a concentrated to a dilute
solution.

187. After adding a solute freezing point of solution


decreases to 0.186. Calculate DTb if Kf = 1.86 and
Kb = 0.521.
(a) 0.521
(b) 0.0521
(c) 1.86
(d) 0.0186
188. Which of the following will have the highest freezing
point at one atmosphere?
(a) 0.1 M NaCl solution (b) 0.1 M sugar solution
(c) 0.1 M BaCl2 solution (d) 0.1 M FeCl3 solution
189. 6 g of substance x dissolved in 100 g of water freezes
at 0.93 C. The molar mass of x is (Kf = 1.86 K m1)
(b) 120 g mol1
(a) 60 g mol1
(c) 180 g mol1
(d) 140 g mol1
190. What is the molality of ethyl alcohol (mol. wt. = 46)
in aqueous solution which freezes at 10C?
(Kf for water = 1.86 K molality1)
(a) 3.540 m
(b) 4.567 m
(c) 5.376 m
(d) 6.315 m
191. If Kf value of H2O is 1.86, the value of DTf for 0.1 m
solution of non-volatile solute is
(a) 18.6
(b) 0.186
(c) 1.86
(d) 0.0186
192. 1% solution of Ca(NO3)2 has the freezing point
(a) 0C
(b) less than 0C
(c) greater than 0C
(d) 273 K
193. If a substance exists as trimer in the solution, then
which of the following alternative is possible for
depression in freezing point of m molal solution?
mK f
mK f

(b)
(a)
3
4
mK f
mK f
(c)

(d)
5
8

194. 0.6 g of a solute is dissolved in 0.1 L of a solvent which


develops an osmotic pressure of 1.23 atm at 27C. The
molecular mass of the substance is
(b) 120 g mol1
(a) 149.5 g mol1
(c) 430 g mol1
(d) 102 g mol1
195. Solutions having same osmotic pressure are known
as
(a) hypotonic
(b) hypertonic
(c) isotonic
(d) isomeric.

197. At a given temperature isotonic solutions have the


same
(a) density
(b) volume
(c) normality
(d) molar concentration.
198. The osmotic pressure is expressed in units of
(a) MeV
(b) calories
(c) cm
(d) atmosphere.
199. The scientist, who discovered the phenomenon of
osmosis in natural membranes is
(a) Raoult F. Marie
(b) E. Otto
(c) van't Hoff
(d) Abbe Nollet.
200. What happens when blood cells are placed in pure
water?
(a) The fluid in blood cells rapidly moves into
water
(b) The water molecules rapidly move into blood
cells
(c) The blood cells dissolve in water
(d) No change takes place.
201. Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution
containing 0.153 g glucose in 0.1 litre of the solution
at 298 K?
(a) 0.027 atm
(b) 0.107 atm
(c) 0.172 atm
(d) 0.207 atm
202. The osmotic pressure of 4.5 g of glucose (molar mass
= 180 g mol1) dissolved in 100 mL of water at 298 K
(R = 0.0821 L atm mol1 K1) is
(a) 5.116 atm
(b) 61.6 atm
(c) 6.116 atm
(d) 611.6 atm

Solutions and Colligative Properties

203. A solution containing 17.8 g L1 of cane sugar (molar


mass 342 g mol1) has an osmotic pressure 1.2 atm.
What is the temperature of the solution?

(R = 0.082 L atm mol1 K1).
(a) 281.4C
(b) 428.1 K
(c) 281.4 K
(d) 428.1C
204. 30 g of glucose dissolved in one litre of water has an
osmotic pressure 4.91 atm at 303 K. If the osmotic
pressure of the glucose solution is 1.5 atm at the
same temperature, what would be its concentration?
(Molar mass of glucose is 180 g mol1)
(a) 0.5 M
(b) 0.0509 M
(c) 5 M
(d) None of these
205. A solution has an osmotic pressure of 3.90 105 Nm2
at 300 K. The volume containing 1 mole of solute if
solution of same solute has an osmotic pressure of
2.82 105 Nm2 and contains 1 mole of solute in
10.5 m3 is
(b) 7.59 L
(a) 7.59 m3
3
(d) 75.9 m3
(c) 7.59 cm
206. What is the mass of sucrose in its 1 L solution
(molar mass = 342 g mol1) which is isotonic with
6.6 103 kg L1 of urea (NH2CONH2)?
(Given : atomic masses H = 1, C = 12, N = 14, O = 16
in g mol1)
(a) 37.62 kg
(b) 3.762 g
(c) 37.62 g
(d) 376.2 g
207. Osmotic pressure of a solution containing
6.8 103 kg of protein per 1 104 m3 of solution is
3.02 103 Pa at 37C. What is the molar mass of protein?
(R = 8.314 J K1 mol1)
(b) 58.06 kg mol1
(a) 55.06 kg mol1
1
(c) 68.05 kg mol
(d) 65.08 kg mol1
208. At 298 K, 1000 cm3 of a solution containing 4.34 g of
solute shows osmotic pressure of 2.55 atm. What is
the molar mass of solute?

(R = 0.0821 L atm K1 mol1)
(b) 41.46 g mol1
(a) 44.16 g mol1
(c) 41.64 g mol1
(d) 46.14 g mol1
209. What is the volume of a solution containing 34.2 g of
cane sugar (molar mass = 342 g mol1) which has an
osmotic pressure 2.42 atm at 20C?
(a) 0.9945 L
(b) 0.9945 103 L
(c) 0.09945 L
(d) 0.09945 103 L
210. A solution of particular amount of organic substance
of molar mass 196 g mol1 dissolved in 2 litres of
water gave an osmotic pressure of 0.54 atm at 12C.
The mass of the solute dissolved is

[R = 0.0821 L atm K1 mol1]

67
(a) 10.5 g
(c) 9.04 g

(b) 9.04 kg
(d) 0.9 kg

211. Which of the following 0.1 M aqueous solutions will


exert highest osmotic pressure?
(a) NaCl
(b) BaCl2
(c) MgSO4
(d) Al2(SO4)3
212. In osmosis
(a) solvent molecules pass from high concentration
of solute to low concentration.
(b) solvent molecules pass from a solution of low
concentration of solute to a solution of high
concentration of solute.
(c) solute molecules pass from low concentration
to high concentration
(d) solute molecules pass from high concentration
to low concentration.
213. A solution contains non-volatile solute of molecular
mass MB. Which of the following can be used to
calculate molecular mass of the solute in terms of
osmotic pressure? (WB = Mass of solute, V = Volume
of solution and p = Osmotic pressure)
W
W RT
(b) MB = B
(a) MB = B VRT
p
pV
W V
W
(c) MB = B

(d) MB = B pRT
p RT
V
214. A membrane which allows solvent molecules but not
the solute molecules to pass through it is called as
(a) semipermeable membrane
(b) permeable membrane
(c) filter membrane
(d) porous membrane.
215. Which inorganic precipitate acts as semipermeable
membrane?
(a) Calcium sulphate (b) Barium oxalate
(c) Nickel phosphate
(d) Copper ferrocyanide
216. The osmotic pressure of a solution increases if
(a) temperature is decreased
(b) solution constant is increased
(c) number of solute molecule is increased
(d) volume is increased.
217. The solution in which the blood cells retain their
normal form are _______ to the blood.
(a) isotonic
(b) isomotic
(c) hypertonic
(d) equinormal
218. In equimolar solutions of glucose, NaCl and BaCl2,
the order of osmotic pressure is
(a) Glucose > NaCl > BaCl2
(b) NaCl > BaCl2 > Glucose

68

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


(c) BaCl2 > NaCl > Glucose
(d) Glucose > BaCl2 > NaCl

219. A solution having a higher osmotic pressure than


another solution, is called a
(a) hypotonic solution (b) isotopic solution
(c) isotonic solution
(d) hypertonic solution.
220. Water transportation in plants takes place by the
phenomenon of
(a) diffusion
(b) osmosis
(c) reverse osmosis
(d) reverse diffusion.
221. The solution containing 4.0 g of a polyvinyl chloride
polymer in 1 litre of dioxane was found to have an
osmotic pressure 6.0 104 atmosphere at 300 K,
the value of R used is 0.082 L atm mol1 K1. The
molecular mass of the polymer was found to be
(b) 1.6 105
(a) 3.0 102
(c) 5.6 104
(d) 6.4 102

228. A 5% solution of cane sugar (mol. wt. = 342) is isotonic


with 1% solution of a substance X. The molecular
weight of X is
(a) 34.2
(b) 171.2
(c) 68.4
(d) 136.8
229. The hard shell of an egg is dissolved in acetic acid,
and then egg is placed in saturated solution of NaCl.
Choose the correct statement.
(a) The egg will shrink.
(b) The egg will become harder.
(c) The egg will swell.
(d) There will be no change in the size of egg.
230. Two solutions of KNO3 and CH3COOH are prepared
separately. Molarity of both is 0.1 M and osmotic
pressures are P1 and P2 respectively. The correct
relationship between the osmotic pressures is
(b) P2 = P1
(a) P2 > P1
P1
P2
=
(c) P1 > P2
(d)
P1 P2 P1 + P2

222. If mole fraction of the solvent in a solution decreases


then
(a) vapour pressure of solution increases
(b) boiling point decreases
(c) osmotic pressure increases
(d) none of these.

231. A plant cell shrinks when it is kept in


(a) a hypotonic solution
(b) a hypertonic solution
(c) a solution isotonic with the cell sap
(d) water.

223. The concentration in g/L of a solution of cane sugar


(molar mass = 342 g mol1) which is isotonic with
a solution containing 6 g of urea (molar mass =
60 g mol1) per litre is
(a) 3.42
(b) 34.2
(c) 5.7
(d) 19

232. 20 g of a solute was dissolved in 500 mL of water


and osmotic pressure of the solution was found to be
600 mm of Hg at 15 C. Molecular weight of the
solute is
(b) 1200 g mol1
(a) 1000 g mol1
(c) 1400 g mol1
(d) 1800 g mol1

224. The osmotic pressure of 10% solution of cane sugar at


69C in atmospheres is
(a) 724
(b) 824
(c) 8.21
(d) 7.21

233. Which statement is incorrect for osmotic pressure


(p), volume (V) and temperature (T)?
1
if T is constant
(a) p
V
(b) p V if T is constant
(c) p T if V is constant
(d) pV is constant if T is constant

225. The relationship between osmotic pressure at 273 K


when 10 g glucose (P1), 10 g urea (P2) and 10 g sucrose
(P3) are dissolved in 250 mL of water is
(b) P3 > P1 > P2
(a) P1 > P2 > P3
(c) P2 > P1 > P3
(d) P2 > P3 > P1
226. Pressure at which reverse osmosis starts is
(a) very high pressure (b) atmospheric pressure
(c) osmotic pressure
(d) vapour pressure.

234. The osmotic pressure of a decinormal solution of


BaCl2 in water is
(a) inversely proportional to its Celsius temperature
(b) inversely proportional to its absolute temperature
(c) directly proportional to its Celsius temperature
(d) directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

227. Osmotic pressure of a solution containing 3 g of


glucose in 60 g of water at 15C is (density = 1 g/mL,
molecular weight of glucose = 180 g/mol)
(a) 0.34 atm
(b) 0.65 atm
(c) 6.56 atm
(d) 5.57 atm

235. After swimming for a long time in salt water the skin of
ones finger tips wrinkles. Which one of the following
property is responsible for this observation?
(a) Osmosis
(b) Dialysis
(c) Electrodialysis
(d) Coagulation

Solutions and Colligative Properties

236. The osmotic pressure of which solution is maximum?


(consider that deci-molar solution of each is 90%
dissociated)
(a) Aluminium sulphate
(b) Barium chloride
(c) Sodium sulphate
(d) A mixture of equal volumes of (b) and (c)
237. The osmotic pressure of 0.4% urea solution is
1.66 atm and that of 3.42% solution of sugar is
2.46 atm. When both the solution are mixed, then
the osmotic pressure of the resultant solution will be
(a) 1.64 atm
(b) 2.46 atm
(c) 2.06 atm
(d) 0.82 atm
238. If a 0.1 M solution of glucose (mol. wt. 180 g mol1) and
0.1 M solution of urea (mol. wt. 60 g mol1) are placed
on the two sides of a semipermeable membrane to
equal heights, then it will be correct to say that
(a) there will be no net movement across the
membrane
(b) glucose will flow across the membrane into urea
solution
(c) urea will flow across the membrane into glucose
solution
(d) water will flow from urea solution into glucose
solution.
239. Solutions containing 1.63 g of boric acid in 450 mL
and 20 g of sucrose (molecular mass = 342) per litre
are isotonic. The molar mass of boric acid is
342 1.63
1.63 1000 342

(b)
(a)
20
20 450
1.63 342 450
20 342 450
(c)

(d)
1000 20
1000 1.63
240. The osmotic pressure of a solution at 276 K is 2.5 atm.
Its osmotic pressure at 546 K under similar conditions
will be
(a) 0.5 atm
(b) 1.0 atm
(c) 2.5 atm
(d) 5.0 atm
241. 0.5 M solution of urea is isotonic with
(a) 0.5 M NaCl solution
(b) 0.5 M sugar solution
(c) 0.5 M BaCl2 solution
(d) 0.5 M solution of benzoic acid in benzene.
242. The osmotic pressure of a solution at 0C is
4 atmospheres. What will be its osmotic pressure at
273C under similar conditions?
(a) 4 atm
(b) 2 atm
(c) 8 atm
(d) 1 atm

69
243. The molar mass (M2) of W2 g solute and the osmotic
pressure (p) of the solution prepared in V litres
by the solute at temperature T has the following
relationship
W RT
WR
(a) M2 = 2

(b) M2 = 2
pV
pT
mRT
(c) M2 =

(d) M2RT = p
p
244. If osmotic pressure of 1 M of the following in water
can be measured, which one will show the maximum
osmotic pressure?
(b) MgCl2
(a) AgNO3
(c) (NH4)3PO4
(d) Na2SO4
245. Which of the following has the highest osmotic
pressure?
(a) M/10 HCl
(b) M/10 urea
(d) M/10 glucose
(c) M/10 BaCl2
246. According to vant Hoff Avogadros law, volume
occupied by a solution is
(a) directly proportional to molar mass of solute
(b) inversely proportional to mass of solute
(c) directly proportional to number of moles of
solute
(d) inversely proportional to number of molecules
of solute.

2.11 Abnormal Molecular Masses


247. Abnormal colligative properties are observed only
when the dissolved non-volatile solute in a given
dilute solution
(a) is a non-electrolyte
(b) offers an intense colour
(c) associates or dissociates
(d) offers no colour.
248. The expression to compute molar mass of a solute from
the elevation of boiling point of a solvent is (where
the various symbols have their usual meanings)
D Tb W
K W
2
(b) M2 =
(a) M2 = b 1
K b W1
D Tb W2
(c) M2 =

K b W2

DTb W1

(d) M2 =

DTb W1
K b W2

249. Abnormal molar mass is produced by


(a) association of solute
(b) dissociation of solute
(c) both association and dissociation of solute
(d) separation by semipermeable membrane.

70
250. How many grams of KCl should be added to 1000 g
of water, so that the freezing point reduces to 10C?
(Kf for water = 1.86 C kg mol1 molar mass of KCl=
74.5 g/mole).
(a) 74.5 g
(b) 745 g
(c) 268 g
(d) 199.66 g
251. Acetic acid dissolved in benzene shows a molecular
mass of
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 120
(d) 180
252. 2C6H5COOH (C6H5COOH)2 and

2CH3COOH (CH3COOH)2 represents
(a) association
(b) polymerisation
(c) condensation
(d) evaporation.
253. The molecular mass of acetic acid dissolved in water
is 60 and when dissolved in benzene it is 120. This
difference in behaviour of CH3COOH is because
(a) water prevents association of acetic acid
(b) acetic acid does not dissolve fully in water
(c) acetic acid fully dissolves in benzene
(d) acetic acid does not ionize in benzene.

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


(a) 87%
(c) 89%

(b) 78%
(d) 98%

259. 8 g of benzoic acid when dissolved in 100 g of


benzene lowers its freezing point by 1.62 K. What is
the degree of association of benzoic acid if it, forms
dimers in benzene, Kf for Benzene is 4.9 K kg mol1
(C = 12, H = 1, O = 16)?
(a) 99.16%
(b) 9.9%
(c) 91.6%
(d) 9.16%
260. 0.6 mL of glacial acetic acid with density 1.06 g mL1
is dissolved in 1 kg water and the solution froze at
0.0205C. What is the vant Hoff factor if Kf for water
is 1.86 K kg mol1?
(a) 10.41
(b) 2.41
(c) 1.041
(d) 2
261. The vant Hoff factor i for a 0.2 molal aqueous solution
of urea is
(a) 0.2
(b) 0.1
(c) 1.2
(d) 1.0

2.12 vant Hoff Factor

262. vant Hoff factor is


(a) less than one in case of dissociation
(b) more than one in case of association
(c) always less than one
(d) less than one in case of association.

254. The vant Hoff factor i for a dilute aqueous solution of


sucrose is
(a) zero
(b) 1.0
(c) 1.5
(d) 2.0

263. Which of the following compounds has vant Hoff


factor i equal to 2 for dilute solution?
(b) NaHSO4
(a) K2SO4
(c) Sugar
(d) MgSO4

255. If pobs = observed colligative property and


pcal = theoretical colligative property assuming
normal behaviour of solute then vant Hoff factor (i)
is given by
(a) i = pobs pcal
(b) i = pobs + pcal
p
(c) i = pobs pcal
(d) i = obs
pcal
256. If a is the degree of dissociation of Na2SO4 the vant
Hoff factor (i) used for calculating molecular mass is
(a) 1 + a
(b) 1 a
(c) 1 + 2a
(d) 1 2a
257. 0.2 m aqueous solution of KCl freezes at 0.680C.
The vant Hoff factor and observed osmotic pressure
of solution at 0C (Kf = 1.86 K kg mol1) are
respectively
(a) 1.83, 8.19 atm
(b) 8.13, 9.18 atm
(c) 3.18, 19.8 atm
(d) 3.81, 89.1 atm
258. 0.01 molal aqueous solution of K3[Fe(CN)6] freezes
at 0.062C. What is the percentage dissociation of
solute, Kf for water is 1.86 K kg mol1?

264. vant Hoff factor (i) is the ratio of


(a) observed molar mass to theoretical molar mass
(b) observed value of colligative property to
theoretical value
(c) theoretical value of colligative property to
observed value
(d) none of these.
265. The vant Hoff factor will be highest for
(a) sodium chloride
(b) magnesium chloride
(c) sodium phosphate (d) urea.
266. The depression in freezing point for 1 M urea, 1 M
glucose and 1 M NaCl are in the ratio
(a) 1 : 1 : 2
(b) 3 : 2 : 2
(c) 2 : 1 : 1
(d) 1 : 1 : 1
267. The degree of dissociation (a) of a weak electrolyte
AxBy is related to vant Hoff factor (i) by the
expression
i 1
i 1
(a) a =

(b) a =
(x + y 1)
x + y +1
x + y 1
x + y +1
(c) a =

(d) a =
i 1
i 1

Solutions and Colligative Properties

71

268. The vant Hoff factor i for 0.2 m aqueous glucose


solution is
(a) 0.2
(b) 0.4
(c) 0.6
(d) 1.0
269. The vant Hoff factor calculated from association
data is always ____ than calculated from dissociation
data.
(a) less
(b) more
(c) same
(d) more or less

272. Which of the following compounds corresponds


to vant Hoff factor (i) to be equal to 2 for dilute
solution?
(b) AlCl3
(a) Na2SO4
(c) Glucose
(d) BaSO4
273. Which one of the following salt, will have the same
value of vant Hoff factor (i) as that of K4[Fe(CN)6]?
(a) Fe2(SO4)3
(b) NaNO3
(c) Ca(NO3)2
(d) K2SO4

270. If vant Hoff factor for dissolution of Ca(NO3)2 in


water is 2.5, then degree of dissociation is
(a) 25%
(b) 50%
(c) 75%
(d) 84%

274. The vant Hoff factor 0.1 M CaCl2 solution is 2.74. The
degree of dissociation is
(a) 61%
(b) 87%
(c) 100%
(d) 54%

271. The substance A when dissolved in solvent B gave


molar mass corresponding to A3. The vant Hoff factor
will be
1
(a)

(b) 1
2
1
(c) 2
(d)
3

275. What will be the ratio of any of the colligative


properties of 1.0 m aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4
and K4[Fe(CN)6] [Assume that solute completely
(100%) dissociates in the solution]
(a) 2 : 3 : 4
(b) 1 : 2 : 4
(c) 2 : 3 : 5
(d) 1 : 3 : 5

LEVEL - 2
1.

During osmosis, flow of water through a


semipermeable membrane is
(a) from solution having lower concentration only
(b) from solution having higher concentration
only
(c) from both sides of semipermeable membrane
with equal flow rates
(d) from both sides of semipermeable membrane
with unequal flow rates.

2.

Find the percentage of aqueous cane sugar solution


which will have the same freezing point as that of 3%
aqueous solution of urea (molecular weight of urea
= 60 g mol1, and molecular weight of cane sugar
= 342 g mol1).
(a) 17.1%
(b) 16.6%
(c) 77%
(d) 20%

3.

Which of the following salts has the same value of


vant Hoff factor as that of K3[Fe(CN)6]?
(b) Al(NO3)3
(a) Na2SO4
(c) Al2(SO4)3
(d) Fe3O4

4.

If equimolar solutions of CaCl2 and AlCl3 in water


have boiling point of T1 and T2 respectively then
(b) T2 > T1
(a) T1 > T2
(c) T1 = T2
(d) can't say

5.

If the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution is


7 105 Pa at 273 K then its osmotic pressure at
283 K will be
(a) 7.256 105 Nm2 (b) 7.562 104 Nm2
(c) 7.256 103 Nm2 (d) 7.652 105 Nm2

6.

The solubility of a gas in liquid increases with


(a) increase in temperature
(b) reduction of gas pressure
(c) decrease in temperature
(d) amount of liquid taken.

7.

Arrange the following aqueous solutions in the order


of their increasing boiling points
(ii) 104 M Urea
(i) 104 M NaCl
3
(iv) 102 M NaCl
(iii) 10 M MgCl2
(a) (i) < (ii) < (iv) < (iii)
(b) (ii) < (i) = (iii) < (iv)
(c) (ii) < (i) < (iii) < (iv)
(d) (iv) < (iii) < (i) = (ii).

8.

A solution containing 0.5126 g naphthalene (mol.


mass = 128) in 50 g of carbon tetrachloride yields a
boiling point elevation 0.402C while a solution of
0.6216 g of an unknown solute in the same weight
of sample solvent gives a boiling point elevation of
0.647C. The molecular mass of unknown solute is
(b) 46.25 g mol1
(a) 98.48 g mol1
(c) 96.46 g mol1
(d) 46.52 g mol1

72
9.

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


If 0.5 m solution of Ca(NO3)2 and 0.75 m solution of
KOH is taken, then the depression in freezing point
is
(a) greater in Ca(NO3)2 because number of ions are
greater
(b) greater in KOH because concentration is high
(c) equal in both and freezing point is less than 0C
because ionic concentration is same
(d) equal to 0C in both because ionic concentration
is negligible.

10. CrCl36NH3 can exist as a complex. 0.1 molal aqueous


solution of this complex shows a depression in freezing
point of 0.558C. Assuming 100% ionisation of the
complex and co-ordination number of Cr as six, the
complex will be (Kf for water = 1.86 K kg mol1)
(b) [Cr(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
(a) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3
(c) [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]Cl
(d) [Cr(NH3)3Cl3]Cl
11. A 0.0020 m aqueous solution of an ionic compound
[Co(NH3)5(NO2)]Cl freezes at 0.00732C. Number
of moles of ions which 1 mol of ionic compound
produces on being dissolved in water will be
(Kf = 1.86C/m)
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 1
(d) 2
12. Pure benzene freezes at 5.3C. A solution of
0.223 g of phenylacetic acid (C6H5CH2COOH) in
4.4 g of benzene (Kf = 5.12 K kg mol1) freezes at
4.47C. From this observation, one can conclude
that
(a) phenylacetic acid exists as such in benzene
(b) phenylacetic acid undergoes partial ionisation
in benzene
(c) phenylacetic acid undergoes complete ionisation
in benzene
(d) phenylacetic acid dimerises in benzene.
13. What is the molarity of H2SO4 solution, that has a
density 1.84 g/cc at 35C and contains 98% H2SO4 by
weight?
(a) 18.4 M
(b) 18 M
(c) 4.18 M
(d) 8.14 M
14. Which one of the following statements is false?
(a) The correct order of osmotic pressure of
0.01 M aqueous solution of each compound is
BaCl2 > KCl > CH3COOH > sucrose.
(b) The osmotic pressure (p) of a solution is given by
the equation, p = MRT, where M is the molarity
of the solution.

(c) Raoults law states that the vapour pressure of a


component over a solution is proportional to its
mole fraction.
(d) Two sucrose solutions of same molality prepared
in different solvents will have the same freezing
point depression.
15. When 2 g of a non-volatile solute was dissolved in
90 g of benzene the boiling point of benzene is raised
by 0.88 K. Which of the following may be the solute?
(Kb for benzene = 2.53 K kg mol1)
(b) C6H12O6
(a) CO(NH2)2
(c) NaCl
(d) None of these.
16. A solution containing 25.6 g of sulphur dissolved in
1000 g of naphthalene whose melting point is 80.1C
gave a freezing point lowering of 0.68C. Calculate
formula of sulphur (Kf for naphthalene = 6.8 K m1).
(b) S4
(a) S6
(c) S8
(d) S2
17. Phenol associates in benzene to a certain extent
to form dimer. A solution containing 2.0 102 kg
of phenol in 1.0 kg of benzene has its freezing point
decreased by 0.69 K. The degree of association of
phenol is (Kf for benzene = 5.12 K kg mol1)
(a) 73.4
(b) 50.1
(c) 42.3
(d) 25.1
18. The order of increasing freezing point of C2H5OH,
Ba3(PO4)2, Na2SO4, KCl and Li3PO4 is
(a) Ba3(PO4)2 < Na2SO4 < Li3PO4 < C2H5OH < KCl
(b) Ba3(PO4)2 < C2H5OH < Li3PO4 < Na2SO4 < KCl
(c) C2H5OH < KCl < Na2SO4 < Ba3(PO4)2 < Li3PO4
(d) Ba3(PO4)2 < Li3PO4 < Na2SO4 < KCl < C2H5OH
19. Calculate the weight of ethylene glycol (an effective
antifreeze) that must be added to 25 litre water to
protect its freezing at 24C. (Kf = 1.86 C m1)
(a) 20 kg
(b) 322.5 kg
(c) 200 kg
(d) 32.25 kg
20. 19.5 g of monofluoroacetic acid was dissolved in
0.5 kg of water. The freezing point of solution was
observed to be 1.0C. The vant Hoff factor, degree
of dissociation and dissociation constant of acid are
respectively (Atomic masses C = 12, H = 1, F = 19,
O = 16 and Kf = 1.86 K kg mol1)
(a) 1.076, 0.076 and 0.003126
(b) 0.076, 1.076 and 0.003126
(c) 0.003126, 0.076 and 1.076
(d) None of these.

Solutions and Colligative Properties

73

21. 10 g of monochlorobutyric acid was dissolved in


250 g of water. If dissociation constant of the acid is
1.45 103 and Kf = 1.86 K kg mol1, the depression
of the freezing point will be (C = 12, Cl = 35, H = 1,
O = 16)
(a) 0.56 K
(b) 0.65 K
(c) 0.065 K
(d) 0.056 K
22. Which of the following solutions is a 1 M solution?
(C = 12, H = 1, O = 16, Ca = 39.98, Cl = 35.5,Na = 23)
(a) 0.46 g of C2H5OH in 100 mL of solution
(b) 110.98 g of CaCl2 in 1000 mL of solution
(c) 0.23 g of CH3OH in 100 mL of solution
(d) 5.85 g of NaCl in 1000 mL of solution
23. A solution contains 25% H2O, 25% C2H5OH and 50%
CH3COOH by mass. The mole fraction of H2O would
be
(a) 0.25
(b) 2.5
(c) 0.502
(d) 5.03
24. Match the terms given in Column I with the type of
solutions given in Column II.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Column I
Soda water
Sugar solution
German silver
Air
Hydrogen gas
in palladium

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Column II
A solution of gas in solid
A solution of gas in gas
A solution of solid in liquid
A solution of solid in solid
A solution of gas in liquid

6. A solution of liquid in solid



(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A
5
5
1
1

B
6
3
2
2

C
4
4
3
3

D
2
2
4
4

E
1
1
5
6

25. Which statement is true for solution of 0.020 M


H2SO4?
(a) 2 litre of the solution contains 0.20 mole of SO42
(b) 2 litre of the solution contains 0.080 mole of H3O+
(c) 1 litre of the solution contains 0.020 mole of H3O+
(d) 1 litre of the solution contains 0.04 mole of SO42
26. The mass of a non-volatile solute (molar mass
40 g mol1) which should be dissolved in 114 g octane
to reduce its vapour pressure to 80% is
(a) 20 g
(b) 30 g
(c) 10 g
(d) 15 g
27. The partial pressure of ethane over a solution
containing 6.56 102 g of ethane is 1 bar. If the
solution contains 5.00 102 g of ethane, then what
shall be the partial pressure of the gas?

(a) 0.762 bar


(c) 0.076 bar

(b) 76.2 bar


(d) 7.6 bar

28. How many grams of sulphuric acid is to be


dissolved to prepare 200 mL aqueous solution
having concentration of [H3O+] ions 1 M at 25C
temperature?
[H = 1, O = 16, S = 32 g mol1]
(a) 4.9 g
(b) 19.6 g
(c) 9.8 g
(d) 0.98 g
29. Henrys law constant for CO2 in water is 1.67 108 Pa
at 298 K. Calculate the quantity of CO2 in 500 mL of
soda water when packed under 2.5 atm CO2 pressure
at 298 K.
(a) 1.854 kg
(b) 1.854 g
(c) 18.54 kg
(d) 18.54 g
30. How much mL of a 0.1 M HCl is required to react
completely with 1 g mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3
containing equimolar amounts of the two?
(a) 15.78 mL
(b) 157.8 L
(c) 157.8 mL
(d) 15.78 L
31. 20 g of a binary electrolyte (mol. wt. = 100) are
dissolved in 500 g of water. The depression in freezing
point of the solution is 0.74C (Kf = 1.86 K molality1).
The degree of the ionisation of the electrolyte is
(a) 0%
(b) 100%
(c) 75%
(d) 50%
32. Which of the following aqueous solutions produce
the same osmotic pressure?
(i) 0.1 M NaCl solution
(ii) 0.1 M glucose solution
(iii) 0.6 g urea in 100 mL solution
(iv) 1.0 g of a non-electrolyte solute (X) in 50 mL
solution (molar mass of X = 200)
(a) (i), (ii), (iii)
(b) (ii), (iii), (iv)
(c) (i), (ii), (iv)
(d) (i), (iii), (iv)
33. A solution containing 30 g of a non-volatile solute
exactly in 90 g water has a vapour pressure of
2.8 kPa at 298 K. Further 18 g of water is then added
to solution, the new vapour pressure becomes
2.9 kPa. The molecular mass of the solute and the
vapour pressure of water at 298 K are respectively
(a) 25 g and 253 kPa
(b) 2.5 g and 2.53 kPa
(c) 23 g and 3.53 kPa (d) 2.3 g and 355 kPa
34. Two elements A and B form compounds having
molecular formula AB2 and AB4. When dissolved in
20 g of benzene (C6H6), 1 g of AB2 lowers the freezing
point by 2.3 K whereas 1.0 g of AB4 lowers it by
1.3 K. The molar depression constant for benzene is

74

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


5.1 K kg mol1. The atomic masses of A and B are
respectively
(a) 35.29 u and 62.24 u (b) 24.84 u and 43.03 u
(c) 21.29 u and 39.49 u (d) 20 u and 40 u

35. The depression in the freezing point of water when


10 g of CH3CH2CHClCOOH is added to 250 g of
water is (Ka = 1.4 103, Kf = 1.86 K kg mol1)
(a) 0.25C
(b) 0.35C
(c) 0.55C
(d) 0.65C
36. 1 mole each of the following solutes are taken in
5 moles of water.
A. NaCl
B. K2SO4
C. Na3PO4
D. glucose
Assuming 100% ionisation of the electrolyte, relative
decrease in vapour pressure will be in the order
(a) A < B < C < D
(b) D < C < B < A
(c) D < A < B < C
(d) Equal
37. How much C2H5OH must be added to 1.0 L of H2O,
so that solution should not freeze at 4F?
[Kf(C2H5OH) = 1.86C/m]
(a) < 10.75 g
(b) > 494.5 g
(c) < 20 g
(d) 494.5 g
38. Assume that 0.1 molal solutions of sodium chloride,
barium chloride, sodium phosphate and aluminium
sulphate are all 100% dissociated. The solution having
the highest boiling point is that of
(a) NaCl
(b) BaCl2
(c) Na3PO4
(d) Al2(SO4)3
39. In a 0.2 molal aqueous solution of a weak acid HX,
the degree of ionisation is 0.3. Taking Kf for water as
1.85 K kg mol1, the freezing point of the solution will
be nearest to
(a) 0.481C
(b) 0.360C
(c) 0.260C
(d) +0.480C
40. 58.5 g of NaCl and 180 g of glucose were separately
dissolved in 1000 mL of water. Identify the correct
statement regarding the elevation of boiling point of
the resulting solutions.
(a) NaCl solution will show higher elevation of
boiling point.
(b) Glucose solution will show higher elevation of
boiling point.
(c) Both the solutions will show equal elevation of
boiling point.
(d) The boiling point elevation will be shown by
neither of the solutions.

41. Which one of the following pairs of solutions are


isotonic?
(a) 0.1 M urea and 0.1 M NaCl
(b) 0.1 M urea and 0.2 M MgCl2
(c) 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1 M Na2SO4
(d) 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2 and 0.1 M Na2SO4
42. Which of the following statements is false?
(a) The value of molal depression constant depends
on the nature of solvent.
(b) Relative lowering of vapour pressure is a
dimensionless quantity.
(c) Relative lowering of vapour pressure is equal to
mole fraction of solvent.
(d) Equimolal solutions of different non-electrolyte
solutes would elevate the boiling point to the
same extent.
43. The freezing point of equimolal aqueous solution will
be highest for _____
(b) Ca(NO3)2
(a) C6H5NH3+Cl
(c) La(NO3)3
(d) C6H12O6
44. Repeated measurements of boiling points of separate
solutions of 2.36 g of mercurous chloride in 100 g of
water produced DTb values in the range of 0.024 to
0.026 K. The atomic weights of mercury and chlorine
are 200 and 35.5 respectively. Kb = 0.5 K per mol for
water. These data suggest that mercurous chloride
functions as a/an
(a) covalent compound in aqueous medium
(b) ionic compound in aqueous medium
(c) reducing agent in aqueous medium
(d) oxidising agent in aqueous medium.
45. Solutions A, B, C and D are respectively 0.1 M glucose,
0.05 M NaCl, 0.05 M BaCl2 and 0.1 M AlCl3. Which
one of the following pairs is isotonic?
(a) A and B
(b) B and C
(c) A and D
(d) A and C
46. A solution containing 0.52 g of KCl in 100 g of water
froze at 0.25C. Calculate the percentage ionisation
of the salt. (Kf = 1.86 K m1, At. masses : K = 39.1,
Cl = 35.5)
(a) 93
(b) 83
(c) 73
(d) 63
47. The van't Hoff factor for 0.1 M Ba(NO3)2 solution
is 2.74. The degree of dissociation of the salt at this
concentration is
(a) 91.3%
(b) 87%
(c) 100%
(d) 74%

Solutions and Colligative Properties

48. The vapour pressures of two liquids P and Q are


80 and 60 torr respectively. The total vapour pressure
of the solution obtained by mixing 3 moles of P and
2 moles of Q would be
(a) 68 torr
(b) 140 torr
(c) 72 torr
(d) 20 torr
49. Ebullioscopic constant of water is 0.52 K kg mol1.
The incorrect statement is
(a) 30 g of urea in half a kg water produces 0.26 K
elevation in boiling point
(b) 60 g of urea in one kg water produces 0.52 K
elevation in boiling point
(c) 90 g of glucose in half a kg water produces
0.52 K elevation in boiling point
(d) 120 g of urea in one kg water produces 1.04 K
elevation in boiling point.
50. A sugar solution in water is expected to freeze
(a) at 273 K
(b) below 273 K
(c) above 273 K
(d) at 298 K.
51. An aqueous solution of a weak monobasic acid
containing 0.1 g in 21.7 g of water freezes at
272.813 K. If the value of Kf for water is 1.86 K/m,
what is the molecular mass of the monobasic acid?
(a) 50.0 g/mol
(b) 46.2 g/mol
(c) 55.5 g/mol
(d) 25.4 g/mol
52. Which one of the following solutions are isotonic?
(a) 3.42 g of sugar in 1000 cm3 of water and 0.18 g
of glucose in 1000 cm3 of water
(b) 3.42 g of sugar in 1000 cm3 of water and 0.18 g
of glucose in 100 cm3 of water
(c) 3.42 g of sugar in 1000 cm3 of water and 0.585 g
of NaCl in 1000 cm3 of water
(d) 3.42 g of sugar in 1000 cm3 of water and 5.85 g
of NaCl in 100 cm3 of water
53. Two solutions X and Y are separated by a
semipermeable membrane. If the solvent flows from
X to Y, then
(a) X is more concentrated than Y
(b) X is less concentrated than Y
(c) both X and Y have the same concentration
(d) both X and Y get diluted.
54. Which of the following statements is not correct?
(a) Osmotic pressure is directly proportional to
molar concentration.
(b) Hypertonic solutions have lower concentrations
with respect to reference solution.
(c) Isotonic solutions have same molar concentration.
(d) Osmotic pressure depends upon temperature.

75
55. When 5% solution of sucrose (molar mass = 342)
is isotonic with 1% solution of a compound A, the
molar mass of A is
(a) 180 g
(b) 68.4 g
(c) 18 g
(d) 32 g
56. A solution is obtained by mixing 300 g of a 25% solution
and 400 g of a 40% solution by mass. Calculate the
mass percentage of solute in the resulting solution.
(a) 33.57
(b) 66.43
(c) 87.23
(d) 19.24
57. Given Kb and Kf of water are 0.52 and 1.86 K m1.
An aqueous solution freezes at 0.186C. What is the
boiling point of the solution?
(a) 0.52C
(b) 100.52C
(c) 0.052C
(d) 100.052C
58. Pure water as well as separate equimolal and dilute
aqueous solutions of NaCl, K3[Fe(CN)6] and
K4[Fe(CN)6] represented respectively as I, II, III and
IV are available. Which of the following statements is
correct, assuming 100% dissociation of all solutes?
(a) I < II < III < IV is the increasing order of freezing
points
(b) IV < III < II < I is the increasing order of freezing
points
(c) IV < III < II < I is the increasing order of boiling
points
(d) IV < III < II is the increasing order of vant Hoff
factors.
59. Solution A contains 1 g of urea in 100 mL of water
and solution B contains 2 g of glucose in 100 mL of
water. Now,
(a) boiling point of solution A will be less than
solution B
(b) freezing point of solution A will be lower than
solution B
(c) both will have same freezing point and boiling
point
(d) osmotic pressure of solution A will be less than
solution B.
60. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Lowering of vapour pressure takes place only in
ideal solutions
(b) Lowering of vapour pressure does not depend
upon the solvent at a given concentration of the
solute.
(c) Lowering of vapour pressure depends upon the
nature of solute
(d) Relative lowering of vapour pressure does not
depend upon the solvent at a given concentration
of the solute.

76

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Competitive
Exams

2015

7.

1. If M, W and V represent molar mass of solute, mass of


solute and volume of solution in litres respectively, which
among the following equations is true?
MWR
TMR
(a) p =

(b) p =
TV
WV

Solubility of which among the following substances


in water increases slightly with rise in temperature?
(a) Potassium bromide (b) Potassium chloride
(c) Potassium nitrate (d) Sodium nitrate
(MH-CET)

8.

Consider separate solutions of 0.500 M C2H5OH(aq),


0.100 M Mg3(PO4)2(aq), 0.250 M KBr(aq) and 0.125 M
Na3PO4(aq) at 25 C. Which statement is true about
these solutions, assuming all salts to be strong
electrolytes?
(a) 0.500 M C2H5OH(aq) has the highest osmotic
pressure.
(b) They all have the same osmotic pressure.
(c) 0.100 M Mg3(PO4)2(aq) has the highest osmotic
pressure.
(d) 0.125 M Na3PO4(aq) has the highest osmotic
pressure. 
(JEE Main)

TWR
TRV

(d) p =
(MH-CET)
VM
WM
2. Molarity is defined as
(a) the number of moles of solute dissolved in one dm3
of the solution
(b) the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of
solvent
(c) the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 dm3 of
the solvent
(d) the number of moles of solute dissolved in
100 mL of the solvent.
(MH-CET)
(c) p =

3. vant Hoff factor of centimolal solution of K3[Fe(CN)6]


is 3.333. Calculate the percent dissociation of
K3[Fe(CN)6].
(a) 33.33
(b) 0.78
(c) 78
(d) 23.33
(MH-CET)
4.

What is the mole fraction of the solute in a 1.00 m


aqueous solution?
(a) 1.770
(b) 0.0354
(c) 0.0177
(d) 0.177
(AIPMT)

5. The vapour pressure of acetone at 20C is 185 torr. When


1.2 g of a non-volatile substance was dissolved in 100 g
of acetone at 20C, its vapour pressure was 183 torr. The
molar mass (g mol1) of the substance is
(a) 128
(b) 488
(c) 32
(d) 64
(JEE Main)

2014
6.

What is the molality of a solution containing


200 mg of urea (molar mass = 60 g mol1) dissolved
in 40 g of water ?
(a) 0.0825
(b) 0.825
(c) 0.498
(d) 0.0013 (MH-CET)

2012
9.

pA and pB are the vapour pressure of pure liquid


components, A and B, respectively of an ideal
binary solution. If xA represents the mole fraction of
component A, the total pressure of the solution will
be
(b) pA + xA(pA pB)
(a) pA + xA(pB pA)
(d) pB + xA(pA pB)
(c) pB + xA(pB pA)

(AIPMT)

10. Kf for water is 1.86 K kg mol1. If your automobile


radiator holds 1.0 kg of water, how many grams of
ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) must you add to get the
freezing point of the solution lowered to 2.8C?
(a) 93 g
(b) 39 g
(c) 27 g
(d) 72 g
(AIEEE)
11. The density of a solution prepared by dissolving
120 g of urea (mol. mass = 60 u) in 1000 g of water is
1.15 g/mL. The molarity of this solution is
(a) 1.78 M
(b) 1.02 M
(c) 2.05 M
(d) 0.50 M
(AIEEE)

Solutions and Colligative Properties

2011
12. An aqueous solution of urea containing 18 g urea in
1500 cm3 of the solution has a density equal to 1.052.
If the molecular weight of urea is 60, the molarity of
the solution is
(a) 0.200
(b) 0.192
(c) 0.100
(d) 1.200 (MH-CET)
13. 34.2 g of cane sugar is dissolved in 180 g of water. The
relative lowering of vapour pressure will be
(a) 0.0099
(b) 1.1597
(c) 0.840
(d) 0.9901 (MH-CET)
14. Mole fraction of the solute in a 1.00 molal aqueous
solution is
(a) 0.1770
(b) 0.0177
(c) 0.0344
(d) 1.7700 (AIPMT)
15. A 0.1 molal aqueous solution of a weak acid is 30%
ionized. If Kf for water is 1.86C/m, the freezing point
of the solution will be
(a) 0.18C
(b) 0.54C
(c) 0.36C
(d) 0.24C
(AIPMT Mains)
16. 200 mL of an aqueous solution of a protein contains
its 1.26 g. The osmotic pressure of this solution at
300 K is found to be 2.57 103 bar. The molar mass
of protein will be
(R = 0.083 L bar mol1 K1)
(b) 122044 g mol1
(a) 51022 g mol1
(c) 31011 g mol1
(d) 61038 g mol1

(AIPMT Mains)
17. The freezing point depression constant for water
is 1.86C m1. If 5.00 g Na2SO4 is dissolved in

77
45.0 g H2O, the freezing point is changed by 3.82C.
Calculate the vant Hoff factor for Na2SO4.
(a) 2.05
(b) 2.63
(c) 3.11
(d) 0.381
(AIPMT)
18. The vant Hoff factor i for a compound which
undergoes dissociation in one solvent and association
in other solvent is respectively
(a) less than one and greater than one
(b) less than one and less than one
(c) greater than one and less than one
(d) greater than one and greater than one.

(AIPMT)
19. The degree of dissociation (a) of a weak electrolyte,
AxBy is related to vant Hoff factor (i) by the
expression
i 1
i 1
(a) a =

(b) a =
(x + y 1)
(x + y + 1)
(c) a =

(x + y 1)

i 1

(d) a =

(x + y + 1)
i 1
(AIEEE)

20. Ethylene glycol is used as an antifreeze in a cold


climate. Mass of ethylene glycol which should be
added to 4 kg of water to prevent it from freezing
at 6C will be : (Kf for water = 1.86 K kg mol1, and
molar mass of ethylene glycol = 62 g mol1)
(a) 804.32 g
(b) 204.30 g
(c) 400.00 g
(d) 304.60 g (AIEEE)
21. A 5.2 molal aqueous solution of methyl alcohol,
CH3OH, is supplied. What is the mole fraction of
methyl alcohol in the solution?
(a) 0.100
(b) 0.190
(c) 0.086
(d) 0.050
(AIEEE)

78

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Hints & Explanations


Level - 1
1.

(a)

2.

(c)

3.

(a)

4.

(d)

5.

(a)

6.

(a)

7.

(c)

8.

(d)

9.

(a)

10. (c) : Smoke is an aerosol, with gas (air) as the


dispersion medium and solid (soot particles mostly)
as the dispersed phase.
11. (c)

12. (b)

13. (a) :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Mixture
Chloroform in N2 gas
CO2 in water
Brass
Camphor in N2 gas
Sodium amalgam
Moist air
H2 gas in Pd metal
Mixture of N2 and O2

14. (b)

Solute
liquid
gas
solid
solid
liquid
liquid
gas
gas

15. (c)

Solvent
gas
liquid
solid
gas
solid
gas
solid
gas

16. (a)

17. (d) : Precentage by volume of C2H5OH (v/V)


Volume of solute
=
100
Volume of solution

22
=
100 = 10%
220

18. (d) : M1V1 = M2V2
1
2 0.1 =
V2 V2 = 2 dm3
10
Moles of solute
19. (a) : Molality =
1000 g of solvent
20. (a) : M =

W2 1000

10 1000
=1M
40 250

M2 V (in cm )
n2 1000 0.5
21. (a) : m = W in g = 400 1000 = 1.25 m
1
22. (a)

W2 1000
M2 V
36 1000
Molarity =
= 0. 4 M
180 500
(Qdensity of water = 1 g/cm3)

23. (b) : Molarity =

24. (b) : Molality =


m=

Number of moles of solute


1000
Weight of solvent (in g)

648 1000

= 55.5 m
18
648

25. (b) : Moles of C2H5OH =

25
= 0.54
46

50
= 0.83
60
% of H2O = 100 (50 + 25) = 25
25
= 1.39
\ Moles of H2O =
18
Total number of moles = 2.76
0.83
Mole fraction of acetic acid =
= 0.301
2.76
0.5 106
26. (b) : ppm =
= 0.05
107
27. (b) : Percentage by mass of urea (w/W)
mass of urea
=
100
mass of urea + mass of water
6g
600
=
100 =
= 1.186% by mass
6 g + 500 g
506
Moles of CH3COOH =

28. (c) : Percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol


volume of ethyl alcohol
=
100

volume of solution
58 cm3

=
100 = 12.78% by volume
454 cm3
29. (d) : Moles of ethyl alcohol (n2)
mass of ethyl alcohol
=

molar mass of ethyl alcohol
23 g
=
= 0.5 mol
46 g mol 1

mass of water
Moles of water (n1) =
molar mass of water
54 g

= 3.0 mol
=
18 g mol 1
n2
0.5
=
Mole fraction of ethanol = x2 =
n1 + n2 3.0 + 0.5

= 0.1429
n1
3. 0
=
Mole fraction of water = x1 =
n1 + n2 3.0 + 0.5

= 0.8571
and x1 + x2 = 0.8571+ 0.1429 = 1

Solutions and Colligative Properties

79

30. (c) : 35% (w/W) solution of ethylene glycol in water


means it has 35 g of ethylene glycol and 65 g of
water.
Number of moles of ethylene glycol
35
Mass of ethylene glycol
=
=
= 0.56 moles
Molar mass of ethylene glycol 62
Mass of water
Number of moles of water =
Molar mass of water
65

= 3.61 moles
=
18
\ Mole fraction of ethylene glycol
0.56
0.56
=
=
= 0.1343
0
.
56
+
3
.
61
4.17

31. (c) : Mass of NaOH = 1.6 103 kg,
Volume of solution = 500 cm3 = 0.5 dm3,
Molar mass of NaOH = 40 103 kg mol1
Molarity of NaOH solution

mass of NaOH in kg
=
molar mass of NaOH in kg mol 1 volume of
solution in dm3

1.6 103 kg
3

40 10 kg mol

0.5 dm

= 0.08 mol dm 3

32. (b) : Molar mass of urea, NH2CONH2



= 14 + 2 + 12 + 16 + 14 + 2

= 60 g mol1
Mass of solvent = 100 g = 0.1 kg
11.11 g
= 0.1852 mol
Moles of urea =
60 g mol 1
moles of urea
Molality of solution =
mass of solvent in kg
0.1852 mol
=
= 1.852 mol kg 1

0.1 kg
33. (c) : Molar mass of sugar, C12H22O11
= (12 12) + (1 22) + (11 16)
= 342 g mol1 = 342 103 kg mol1
Mass of water in syrup
= mass of syrup mass of sugar
= 214.2 g 34.2 g = 180 g
= 180 103 kg
mass of sugar
Number of moles of sugar =
molar mass of sugar
34.2 103 kg

=
= 0.1 mol
342 103 kg mol 1
mass of water
Moles of water =
molar mass of water
180 103 kg

=
= 10 moles
18 103 kg mol 1

moles of sugar
mass of solvent in kg
0.1 mol
=
= 0.556 mol kg1
3
180 10 kg
Mole fraction of sugar in syrup
moles of sugar
=
moles of sugar + moles of water
0. 1
0. 1
=
= 0.0099
=
0.1 + 10 10.1
34. (a) : H2SO4 solution is 27% by mass
Hence, if mass of H2SO4 is 27 g
Then mass of H2O is (100 27) = 73 g
Molality of H2SO4
mass of H2SO4
=
molar mass of H2SO4 mass of solvent in kg
27 103 kg
=
= 3.77 mol kg1
3
1
3
98 10 kg mol 73 10 kg
Mass of solute
Density of solution =
Volume of solution
100 g
Therefore, volume of solution =
1.198 g cm 3
= 83.47 cm3 = 83.47 103 dm3
Molarity of solution
Mass of solute
=
Molar mass of solute Volume of solution in dm3
27 103 kg
=
98 103 kg mol 1 83.47 103 dm3
Molality =

= 3.301 mol dm3


35. (c) : HCl solution is 38% by mass.
Hence, 100 g HCl solution contains 38 g HCl and
(100 38) = 62 g water.
Volume of 100 g HCl solution
Mass of solution
100 g
=
=
Density of solution
1.1 g cm 3

= 90.91 cm3 = 90.91 103 dm3
Molarity of solution
Mass of HCl
=
Molar mass of HCl Volume of solution in dm3
38 103 kg
=
36.5 103 kg mol 1 90.91 103 dm3
= 11.45 mol dm3
Mass of HCl
Moles of HCl , n2 =
Molar mass of HCl
38 103 kg

=
36.5 103 kg mol 1

= 1.04 mol

80

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry


Moles of H2O, n1 =

Mass of H2O
Molar mass of H 2O
62 103 kg

= 3.44 mol
18 103 kg mol 1
1.04
n2
=
Mole fraction of HCl, x2 =
3
.
44
+ 1.04
n1 + n2

= 0.232
36. (b) : 15 ppm (by mass) means 15 g chloroform in
106 g of the solution.
Mass of solvent 106 g
Molar mass of CHCl3 = 12 + 1 + 3 35.5

= 119.5 g mol1
Number of moles of solute
Mass of solute
15
=
= 0.126 mol
Molar mass of solute 119.5
No. of moles of solute
\ Molality =
1000
Mass of solvent in g
0.126

=
1000 = 1.26 104 m
6
10

37. (b) : Mass of glucose = 34.2 g


Mass of water = 400 g
Percentage by mass of glucose in solution (w/W)
Mass of solute
=
100

Mass of solution
34.2
34.2
=
100 =
100
34.2 + 400
434.2

= 7.87 % by mass
38. (c) : Mass of water = 500 g
Percentage by mass of a solute in solution = 2.38
Mass of solute
Percentage by mass of solute =
100
Mass of solution
Mass of solute
100
2.38 =
Mass of solution
Let mass of solute be x.
x
\ 2.38 =
100 2.38(x + 500) = 100x
x + 500
\ 2.38x + 1190 = 100x
1190 = 100x 2.38 x
1190
= 12.19 g
\ 1190 = 97.62 x
x=
97.62
mass
39. (b) : Density =
volume
Mass of methyl alcohol = 0.7952 4.6 = 3.66 g
Percentage by mass of methyl alcohol

3.66
100 = 12.68% by mass
=
3.66 + 25.2

3.66
= 0.1144 moles
32
Number of moles of water
Mass of water
25.2
=
=
= 1.4 moles
Molar mass of water 18
0.1144
Mole fraction of methyl alcohol =
0.1144 + 1.4

= 0.0755

40. (c) : Volume of benzene = 12.8 cm3


Volume of xylene = 16.8 cm3
Volume of solute
100
% by volume of solute =
Volume of solution
12.8
100
% by volume of benzene =
12.8 + 16.8

Mass of methyl alcohol


Molar mass of methyl alcohol

= 43.24% by volume

41. (b) : Solution has 24.8% of HCl, that means 24.8 g of


HCl and 75.2 g of H2O are present.
Number of moles of HCl
Mass of HCl
24.8
=
=
= 0.6795 moles
Molar mass of HCl 36.5
Number of moles of H2O
Mass of H2O
75.2
=
= 4.1777 moles
=
Molar mass of H2O 18
Mole fraction of HCl =

no. of moles of HCl


total no. of moles

0.6795
0.6795
=
0.6795 + 4.1777 4.8572

= 0.1399
Mole fraction of HCl =

42. (a) : 2 molal aqueous solution is given.


It means 2 moles of solute are present in 1000 g of
solvent i.e., water.
Mass
1000
Number of moles of H2O =
=
18
Molar mass

= 55.56 moles
2
= 0.0347
2 + 55.56
43. (c) : 12.2% HNO3 means 12.2 g of HNO3 and 87.8 g
of solvent are present.
Mass of HNO3
12.2
=
No. of moles of HNO3 =
Molar mass of HNO3 63
= 0.1937 moles
Mole fraction of solute =

Molality of HNO3

Mass of HNO3
Molar mass of HNO3 Mass of solvent in kg
12.2 103
=
= 2.206 mol/kg
63 103 87.8 103

Number of moles of methyl alcohol


Solutions and Colligative Properties

Mass of solution
Volume of solution
100
\ Volume of solution =
= 96.34 cm3
1.038

= 96.34 103 dm3
Molarity
Mass of solute
=
Molar mass of solute Volume of solution in dm3
12.2 103
=
= 2.01 mol/dm3
3
3
63 10 96.34 10
Density of solution =

44. (b) : 95.8% by mass sulphuric acid is present.


Mass of H2SO4
Number of moles of H2SO4 =
Molar mass of H 2SO4
95.8

=
= 0.9776 mol
98
Mass of H2O = 100 95.8 = 4.2
Mass of H2O
Number of moles of H2O =
Molar mass of H 2O
4. 2
= 0.2333

=
18
0.9776
\ Mole fraction of H2SO4 =
0.9776 + 0.2333
0.9776

=
= 0.8073
1.2109
Mass of solution
Density of solution =
Volume of solution
Mass of solution
Volume of solution =
Density of solution
100

=
= 52.36 cm3
1.91

= 52.36 103 dm3
Molarity of solution
Mass of solute
=
Molar mass of solute Volume of solution in dm3
95.8
= 18.67 M
=
98 52.36 103
45. (a) : Density of solution = 1.070 g/cm3
Mass of solution
Density of solution =
Volume of solution
Mass of solution
\ Volume of solution =
Density of solution
100

=
= 93.46 cm3
1.070
\ Volume of solution = 93.46 103 dm3
Molarity of solution
Mass of solute
=
Molar mass of solute Volume of solution in dm3
10
= 2.675 M
=
40 93.46 103

81
Molality of solution

Mass of NaOH
Molar mass of NaOH Mass of solvent in kg
10
= 2.77 mol kg 1
=
3
40 90 10
46. (c) : The given aqueous solution of H2SO4 is 4.22 M
and has density of 1.21 g/cm3.
1.21 g/cm3 = 1.21 g/mL
Now, 1000 mL of solution contains 4.22 moles of
H2SO4
\ Mass of 1000 mL of H2SO4 solution = 1000 1.21

= 1210 g
1 mole of H2SO4 = 98 g of H2SO4
\ 4.22 mole of H2SO4 = 4.22 98
= 413.56 g of H2SO4
1210 g of H2SO4 solution = 413.56 g of H2SO4
So, 100 g of H2SO4 solution = 34.18 g of H2SO4
\ 100 g of H2SO4 solution contains 34.18 g of

H2SO4 and 65.82 g H2O.
\ Molality of H2SO4
Mass of H2SO4
=
Molar mass of H 2SO4 Mass of solvent in kg

34.18 103

98 103 65.82 103

47. (b)

= 5.298 mol/kg

48. (b)

49. (d) : Molality




50. (a)

=
=

Mass of solute
Molar mass of solute mass of solvent in kgg
20
40 500 103

= 1 mol/kg

51. (d) : Number of moles of H2O =

1 g/mL
18 g/mol

= 0.0555 mol/mL = 0.0555 1000 = 55.5 moles/L


52. (d) : M1 = 0.1 M, M2 = 0.2 M
V1 = 100 mL, V2 = 25 mL
M V + M2V2
Resulting Molarity = 1 1
V1 + V2
=

(0.1 100) + (0.2 25)


= 0.12 M
100 + 25

nH PO
49 1
3
4
= = 0.25 M
V in L 98 2
7.1
54. (d) : Number of moles of Na2SO4 =
= 0.05
142
53. (a) : Molarity =

82

Objective MHT-CET Chemistry

Number of moles of solute


Volume of solution in L
0.05
=
= 0. 5 M
0. 1
55. (a) : Percentage by volume
Volume of solute
60
100 =
100
=
60 + 300
Volume of solution
= 16.66%
Molarity =

56. (d) : 0.8 moles of solute are present in 1000 mL


\ 0.1 mole of solute is present in x mL
0.8 1000
1000
\
=
x=
= 125 mL
0.1
x
8
M V + M2V2
57. (c) : Resulting molarity = 1 1
V1 + V2
3 25 + 4 75 375
=
=
= 3.75 M

25 + 75
100
58. (d) : Molecular wt. of Na2CO3 = 106 g/mol
1 molar means 1000 mL Na2CO3 solution contains
106 g of Na2CO3
0.25 M means 1000 mL Na2CO3 solution contains
26.5 g of Na2CO3
250 mL of 0.25 M Na2CO3 solution contains
6.625 g of Na2CO3
59. (a) : HCl NaOH
M1V1 M2V2
MHCl 20 = 0.01 19.85
= 0.01 19.85 = 0.0099 M
MHCl
20
60. (a) : 58.5 g of NaCl in 1 litre gives 1 molar solution.
58.5 g of NaCl in 0.5 litre gives 2 molar solution.
\ 5.85 g of NaCl in 0.5 litre gives 0.2 molar
solution.
M V + M2V2 1 2.5 + 0.5 3
61. (b) : Mmix = 1 1
=
V1 + V2
2. 5 + 3. 0
2. 5 + 1. 5 4

=
=
= 0.73 M
5. 5
5. 5
62 (a) : Concentration of AgNO3 is 0.03 g/mL. i.e.,
1 mL of the solution contains 0.03 g of AgNO3.
Thus, to prepare 60 mL of the solution (0.03 60)
= 1.8 g of AgNO3 is required.
63. (b) : 0.5 moles of CaCl2 are present in
1000 mL of solution
500 mL of solution contains
0. 5
500 moles of CaCl 2
1000
= 0.25 moles of CaCl2
2+

CaCl2

Ca + 2Cl
1 mole

2 moles

\ 500 mL of solution contains


2 0.25 = 0.50 moles of Cl ions

64. (c) : xA + xB + xC
1
=
(nA + nB + nC ) = 1.0
nA + nB + nC
65. (a)
66. (b) : According to Henrys law, S = KP
S = 1.1 103 0.20
= 2.2 104 mol dm3
67. (a)
68. (d) : According to Henrys law S = KP
K = 1.3 103 mol dm3 atm1
P = 0.22 atm
Hence, S = 1.3 103 mol dm3 atm1 0.22 atm
= 2.86 104 mol dm3
69. (c) : According to Henrys law S = KP
Given S = 3.12 104 mol dm3, P = 0.24 atm
K =

S 3.12 104 mol dm 3


=
P
0.24 atm

= 13 104 mol dm3 atm1


= 1.3 103 mol dm3 atm1
70. (c)

71. (d)

72. (c)

73. (b)
74. (c) : Alloy of mercury with other metals is known as
amalgam, where mercury is in liquid state.
75. (c) : Stainless steel contains chromium and some
nickel.
76. (a)

77. (d)

78. (d)

79. (a)
80. (c) : Relative lowering of vapour pressure is a
colligative property, not the vapour pressure.
81. (a)

82. (a)

83. (c)

84. (c)

85. (a)

86. (c)

87. (a)
88. (d) : According to Raoults law, the relative lowering
in vapour pressure of a dilute solution is equal to mole
fraction of the solute present in the solution.
89. (c)

90. (b)

91. (b) : Ptotal = pA + pB = xA pA + xB pB



2
3
2
184 = 200 + pBo or, 184 = 120 + pBo
5
5
5
pB = 160 torr

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