Overview of lectures in this series

Introduction and motors (Oct. 3)
2.  Motors and generators (Oct. 10)
3.  Distribution and use of electricity (Oct. 17)
4.  The wind (Oct. 24)
5.  Heat engines 1 (Oct. 31)
6.  Heat engines 2 (Nov. 7)
7.  Nuclear generation (Nov. 14)
8.  Solar power – thermal and electric (Nov. 21)
9.  Fuel cells (Dec. 5)
10.  Summary, Consumption and the future (Dec. 12)


The Wind

"In the beginning, being encouraged by one who is into aviation, I have
applied to the insects the laws of resistance for air, and I reached, with
Mr. Sainte-Lague, the conclusion that their flight is impossible.” -- Le
Vol Des Insects (Hermann and Cle, Paris, 1934) August Magnan

Wind Turbine Fundamentals, Technologies,
Application, Economics by E. Hau, Springer
  “Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation,
Cost, and Performance Trends: 2007” (EERE/DOE
Wiser and Bolinger)

then? . 21% oxygen + other trace gas   Mean velocity ~1000 mph   Collision rate: few GHz   In what sense is the air still.What is wind?   Air: 78% nitrogen.

.What is wind?   Wind is a mass flow 10 mph wind through a door frame = 18 pounds per second.

Intuition about the wind   The wind embodies energy: you can use it to turn mechanical devices which do work. it may pump water – lifting a mass through some height)   The wind can produce a force – you know this from trying to stand in a gale. . (On a farm.

A catching device .

A catching device: power Power is energy per time: Power embodied: Area A swept and velocity cubed. P ~ Watts and v ~ m/s .

A catching device: force Force induced: Area A swept. velocity squared and a drag coefficient Cd (depends on the object the wind hits) F ~ Newtons and v ~ m/s .

Hand out the window .

Drag-type windmill Can not spin faster than the wind! A 9th century Persian-style drag windmill .

A hand against the wind? Mills of La Mancha Image: wikipedia .

1-3:   A changing magnetic flux induces a voltage (Faraday’s induction) Flux = area*magnetic field (B)*cos(angle) .Generators – why not use the wind?   Connection to lec.

A modern turbine Image: wikipedia .

Lift-type windmill .

Airfoils: lift. drag and stall .

Resultant lift .

Application.Forces on the Turbine Can spin faster than the wind. Hau. Technologies. Economics E. Springer . Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) Need to yaw to wind.

A hypothetical generator: failure .

Idealized flow around a turbine The same mass of air must flow through each of these surfaces. Recall: Flow rate is Aρv Analogy: a river .

.The Betz efficiency Take ratio of extracted to input wind power (an efficiency): Energy: drives vout to zero Mass flow: likes vout Maximum efficiency at vout/vin=1/3.

The real world: turbines are big Images: wikipedia .

Bird deaths in Denmark Image: Sustainable Energy Without All the Hot Air MacKay .

Technologies. Hau.593 Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Springer . Application.Conversion Efficiency <0. Economics E.

Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Economics E. Hau. Technologies. Application.Extended momentum theory Also: tip vortices Some of the energy of incoming wind goes into a rotating wake Total efficiency depends on how fast the blades turn. Springer .

Efficiency as a function of tip speed 4th blade buys ~1-2% power Tip speed ratio: Speed at blade tip divided by incoming wind speed. A high tip speed. losses from wake. Hau. Springer . losses from airfoil drag. Technologies. Application. Economics E. Wind Turbines Fundamentals. At low tip speed ratio.

Economics E. Hau.Power control Small rotors without blade pitch control can exploit a passive stall. Springer . Application. “furling”. Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Technologies. where the angle of attach naturally reaches stall above some threshold wind speed. Can also yaw out of the wind.

Economics E. Application. Technologies.Power curve Rated Cut-out Pitch control Cut in Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Springer . Hau.

Wind speed distributions gusts Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Application. Springer . Economics E. Technologies. Hau.

The graded annual power Wind Turbines Fundamentals. Economics E. Application. Springer . Technologies. Hau.

Wind Power Installation.What is a typical turbine? Annual Report on U. Cost.S. and Performance Trends: 2007 (EERE/DOE Wiser and Bolinger) .

Wind Power Installation.S. Cost.Some statistics Annual Report on U. and Performance Trends: 2007 (EERE/DOE Wiser and Bolinger) .

32% eff. .Net energy flows 25% eff.

Something to be optimistic about NCEP .

IPCC 2001 .The potential of wind   173.000 TW to the Earth’s surface   3. da Rosa. V.000 TW incident solar power   121. 50 TW surface   2 TW sane   Of order 10 TW needed   This is highly optimistic! "Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes” A.600 TW into wind   1200 TW at < 1 km above surface   400 TW on land.

there are limits to how much power you even want to extract!   Turbines have a standard power curve   Wind speeds vary and imply a graded annual power .Conclusions   Wind is a flow of mass and embodies power ~ v3   Either drag (historical) or lift (modern) can be used   There is a fundamental (Betz) limit to the efficiency   Moreover.

My other car is a sphere: lecture 6 Image: wikipedia .