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Composição Musical serie Fibonacci

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Fibonacci Musical Composition is the process of composing musical pieces using the

Fibonacci Number Sequence, which was named after Leonardo Pisano Bigollo (who

also went by the name Fibonacci). The progressions of music are composed with the

sequence accordingly, presenting a hierarchy which gives off an illusion of momentum

build-up while also sounding pleasing to the human ear.

Contents

[hide]

o 1.1 The Mathematician

o 1.2 The Numbers

2 Fibonacci Music

o 2.1 Types of Composition

o 3.1 Mozart

5 References

The Mathematician

Fibonacci, whose real name was Leonardo Pisano Bigollo was an Italian

Mathematician that lived during the Medieval Period. His book, the Liber Abaci, first

introduced Hindu-Arabic Numbers to the western world. Although Fibonacci did not

originate or develop the sequence he would later become famous for, as the sequence

had been discussed earlier in Indian mathematics since the 6th century, he is cited as

having used it in an example within the third section of his book. In his example,

Fibonacci illustrates the growth of a group of rabbits in an ideal situation, which is

where the Fibonacci Sequence had its beginnings.

The Numbers

The Fibonacci Sequence is a special group of numbers that work in a subsequent pattern

of addition. For example:

This is how the sequence works (from 0 to 8)...

"0+1=1, 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 2+3=5, 3+5=8"

and these are the resulting numbers of the sequence (from 0 to 8)...

"0,1,2,3,5,8"

The sequence begins with 0 and 1, they are added together and the result is 1. Then 1 is

added to the next fixed number, that number being 1 again. The result is 2 and then the

previous fixed number is added to the current sum. Accordingly, the next procession in

the sequence would be 1+2, as shown above. The sequence grows exponentially from

this base of foundation using the same pattern.

Fibonacci Music

Types of Composition

Bellow is a list of three known methods used to compose Fibonacci music...

Binary Method:

When using the Binary Method a composer will create a piece consisting of a pattern

that follows a 0 and 1 system. This system relates to the Fibonacci Sequence by

allowing for a hierarchy that gets infinitely close to the golden ratio to occur. Since it is

very difficult to subdivide this system into any time signature, the simplest course of

action for an individual to take is to compose a musical build-up from a set foundation.

[1]

For example, a composer will choose the length of their smallest 0 and 1.

ex. 0 = a 32nd note, 1 = a 16th note

It is from this small increment that a composer will start to build upon by using the

Fibonacci Sequence. As the piece progresses so do the length of the notes. The 0s at

32nd notes become 16th notes and 1s at 16th notes become 8th notes. The sequence is

now underway as one can notice that the original 0 note length has grown by 2, while

the original 1 note length has grown by 3 from that of the original 0's length. Next, the 0

will have grown by 3 beats while the 1 will have grown by 5 beats. The hierarchy

continues in this fashion as the notes grow in accordance to the Fibonacci Sequence as

do their measures as well. This method also allows for a composer to make variations

with the layers at ease, thus making very melodic music possible.

Click this link Binary Music to listen to S-A-S-H-A and other Binary pieces.

Click this link Project Math 2033 Final Mix to listen to Math 2033 student Christian

Linares' original Binary piece, which is also available for FREE download.

Note to Number Method:

The Note to Number method involves creating a rhythm or melody by assigning a note

to a number on the Fibonacci Sequence through Modular Arithmetic (sometimes also

referred to as clock arithmetic). This is achievable due to the relation of Fibonacci

numbers to a musical scale. Within a musical scale there are eight notes, the fifth and

third notes of a scale create the basic foundation of all chords, which are based on the

original whole tone that is located two steps from the root note, this note being the fist

one in the scale.[2] To start, one would write out numbers on the Fibonacci Sequence at a

length of their discretion.

ex. 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21...

Then, the individual would rework the numbers using "clock arithmetic" to receive a

number on a scale from 0 to 7.

ex. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 4...

Next, the composer would pick a base or "root" note and then go up the scale from that

root to the next octave. Since there are eight notes and the fist note would be starting

from zero the results would have a note at every number up to seven.

ex.

Number | Note

0

G mid

G high

Finally, the composer would only need to plug-in notes to their designated number and

arrange note lengths at their discretion, thus resulting in a new rhythm or melody that

would sound pleasing to the human ear, so long as the Fibonacci pattern is followed.

This method involves the use of beats within a musical time frame in order to achieve a

golden ratio hierarchy through the Fibonacci Sequence. For example, one may chose to

use "4/4 time", meaning 4 beats per measure, to compose their piece. In relation to the

length of a note or "beat" an individual may have:

2 half notes per measure

4 quarter notes per measure

8 eighth notes per measure

16 sixteenth notes per measure

32 thirty-second notes per measure

64 sixty-fourth notes per measure

It is through tiers of measures and beat lengths that mimic the golden ratio, that allow

for a sequential hierarchy to take place within the composition. In the first "bar or

measure, one would have a single whole note which would mark 4 beats. The next tier

would incorporate two half notes marking the 4 beats. It is by the third measure that the

golden ratio starts to form as a result of the sequence. In the third measure two quarter

notes are used and one half note is used marking the 4 beats. The fourth measure will

contain four eighth notes and one half note marking the 4 beats. The fifth will contain

eight eighth notes marking the 4 beats. The next and final section will contain twelve

sixteenth notes and one quarter note marking the 4 beats within a measure. It can be

noted that the number of notes placed within each measure thus far has incorporated a

number in the Fibonacci Sequence.

Measure 1 = 1 note

Measure 2 = 2 notes

Measure 3 = 3 notes

Measure 4 = 5 notes

Measure 5 = 8 notes

Measure 6 = 13 notes

Once all of these measures are stacked upon each other, a musical hierarchy is reached

and Fibonacci music is successfully composed.

Mozart

It has been said that Mozart used the Fibonacci Sequence in some of his works. The

scribbling of mathematical equations have been found on the side columns of his

compositions. Although these equations have been attributed to the famous composer

weighing the outcomes of a local lottery, many believe this was the Fibonacci Sequence

at work. Sonata No. 1 in C Major is the composer's most associated composition to

Fibonacci numbers.[3]

Listen to an exert from Sonata No. 1 in C Major

Fibonacci Music

Visit: Textist Productions

- for a small 32sec. flash video that quickly and adequately describes Fibonacci

Numbers and the Golden Ratio.

Visit: The Guardian

- for an interesting look at "Strength in numbers: How Fibonacci taught us how to

swing".

Visit: Motivate Maths

- to learn about Fibonacci musical frequencies as well as compose your very own

Fibonacci Melody using "clock arithmetic".

Visit: Youtube

- and watch "Fibonacci Music", in which a college student speaks about Fibonacci

Numbers and their relation to Mozart, Popular music, and one of her own Fibonacci

Compositions. She also goes on to explain the Beat Ratio Method, which is what she

used to compose her piece.

References

1. Dr. Goodman Strauss, notes regarding binary.

2. http://www.goldennumber.net/music.htm

3. http://techcenter.davidson.k12.nc.us/group2/music.htm

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