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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Curiosity or inquisitiveness is a distinctive feature of human beings. Curiosity to
know about our self, ones institutions, ones environment, ones planet, other plants, and
the universe in horrent in us. Whenever, people encounter problems, they try to find
solutions to them. Seeking answers to questions and find solution to problems have been
the basis of human progress. A systematic search for an answer to a question or a solution
to a problem is called research.
Research is a purposive investigation. it is an organized inquiry, it is a honest,
exhaustive , intelligent searching for facts and their meaning or implications with reference
to a given problem . It is the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems
through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. The best
research is that which is reliable, verifiable, and exhaustive so that it provides information
in which we have confidence. Educational research methods can be categorized on the
basis of end results, data gathering techniques, methods of data processing approach;
source conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine
relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. (Sharma 2006)
3.2 METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
All research involves the elements of observations, description and analysis of what
happens under certain circumstances. Research use different methods in their research
activities. Usually all studies fall under one or a combination of these types.
Some important methods of research are the following;
1) Historical method
2) Surveys method
3) Experimental method

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3.2.1 Historical Method


It describes what was. The process involves investigation, recording, analyzing
and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that
are helpful in understanding the past and the present and to a limited extent in anticipating
the future.
3.2.2Survey Method
It describes what is the process involves, describing, analyzing and interpreting
conditions the exists. It involves some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to
discover relationships existing between

non-manipulated variables. Some form of

statistical analysis to describe the results of the study.


3.2.3Experimental Method
It describes what will be when certain variables are carefully controlled or
manipulated. The focus is on cause on effect relationships. As defined, a deliberate
manipulation of variables under controlled conditions is always the part of the
experimental research.
3.3 METHOD ADOPTED FOR THE PRESENT STUDY
The investigator adapted survey method to study the Intrapersonal Intelligence and
Self Confidence of IX standard students.
Survey method involves interpretation, comparison, measurement, classification,
evaluation and generalization. All directed towards a proper understanding and solution of
significant educational problems.
3.4 SURVEY METHOD
The survey method deals with large number of causes. It is a distinctive form of
research methodology that owes much of its recent development to the field of sociology.

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The survey method is an organized attempt to analyze, interpret and report the present
status of a social institution or group or areas. It suggests the course of future development.
3.4.1Nature of survey method
The nature of survey method is as follows;
i.

It deals with the present.

ii.

It is oriented towards the determination of the status of given phenomena rather


than isolating causes or factors accounting for its existence.

iii.

It is generally based on cross sectional samples.

iv.

It has a fact- finding approach.

v.

It studies significant relationship among phenomena.

3.4.2 Purpose of the survey method


The following are the main purpose of the survey method
i.

It provides necessary information which helps the administrator for making


decisions.

ii.

It provides necessary information and plan for improvement.

iii.

It interprets synthesis and integrates data and points out their implications.

iv.

It more realistic because investigation is done in this method in natural settings.

v.

It is the only method through which the researcher can obtain the opinion,
attitude and suggestions for improvements.

3.4.3 Importance of survey method


Survey method is important than the other research methods for the following reasons;
Factual information regarding existing status enables members of the profession to make
efficient plans about future courses of action.
1. It provides comprehension of understanding issues in the area of the study.
2. It focuses attention upon the needs that otherwise could remain unnoticed.
3. It provides extensive information about the nature of educational phenomena.
4. It gathers data from relatively large number of cases at a particular time.
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5. It is concerned with generalized statistic of the whole population and with the
characteristics of the individuals.
3.4.4 Steps in survey methods
As a problem selected for the present study is concerned with one of the current problems,
the investigator described to employ the survey method for the collection of the data.
According to William wiersma(1985) detailed steps in survey are as follows;
1. Planning
2. Development of application of sampling plan
3. Construction of interview schedule or questionnaire
4. Data collection
5. Translation of data
6. Analysis
7. Conclusion and reporting
Planning
The plan to action has to be drawn up on to ensure scientific and objective merits of
the study. Definition of the problem, operational definitions of variables, review of and
development of the survey design, all such items of plan should be clearly drawn out.
Development and application of sampling plan
The geographical area to be covered, the sample to be selected and detailed
sampling procedures should be defined and formulated.
Construction of interview schedule or questionnaire
The tools of investigation generally used are interview schedule or questionnaire
and the like. Specified investigation should require specified tools of inquiry. If no
readymade tool is available, a suitable one will be prepared in a systematic manner. The
tools should be tested in a pilot study before it is administered to the vast sample.

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Collection of the data


The investigator should approach the head of the institution and seek permission
for the data collection. After getting permission from the head of the institution the
investigator with the help of the teacher in charge of the class should administrating the
tool to the students the investigator should clarify the need and purpose of collecting the
data, necessary information needed

to answer the questionnaire and about the

confidentially of the data supplied by them.


Translation of the data
Depending upon the extensiveness of the survey data upon the nature of the
material collected, handling of the data usually takes initial tabulation, construction of
category systems as necessary and technical preparation for analysis.
Analysis
Analysis of data comprises various approaches designed to dissert the phenomena
in their constituent parts with a view to obtain greater insight into specified aspects. The
statistical analysis of data is principally based on counts or numbers and total, the
arithmetic means can be computed for different classes. Basic summary table can then be
compiled.
Conclusion and reporting
After collecting and analyzing the data, the researchers have to accomplish the
tasks of drawing inferences followed by reporting, it is only through interpretation that the
research can expose relations and processes that come under his findings. Research report
is considered a major component of the research study for the research task remains
incomplete till the report has been presented or written.
3.5 TOOLS USED IN THE PRESENT STUDY
As the study aims to find out the Intrapersonal Intelligence and Self-confidence of high
school students, the investigator has used the following standardized tools.
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1. Personal data sheet.


2.

Intrapersonal intelligence scale is a part of multiple intelligence scale developed by


Terry Armstrong (2000).

3. Self-confidence tool prepared and validated by Krishna Prasad and Priya. (2001).
3.5.1 Personal Data Sheet
It includes general information about the respondents regarding gender, place of
stay, locality of school, type of school, nature of school, locality of school,
residence, nature of the family, fathers education, mothers education, fathers
occupation, mothers occupation, mothers occupation mothers monthly income,
fathers monthly income.
3.5.2 Description of Intrapersonal Intelligence Questionnaire
The Intrapersonal Intelligence questionnaire tries to find out the Intrapersonal
Intelligence of IX standard students. The investigator has to validate tool which
was prepared by Terry Armstrong (2000).The tool consists of 10 items. Each item
measures the Intrapersonal intelligence of the students. The entire 10 item are
positive only each item has 3 responses. The represent has to put a tick mark in any
one of the answers.
Establishing content validity
To establish the validity, the standardized was given to some experts in St.Xaviers
College of Education. The investigator got the appraisal. According to the suggestions
given by them, some of the items were modified. Thus, the content validity has been
established.
Establishing reliability
The tool was administered adopted for establishing reliability. To randomly select
50 high school students. The students response was scored. The same tool were
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administered to the same set of students after 15 days when both sets of scores were
correlated; it was found out that the correlation coefficient was 0.68 between the two sets
of scores. Thus the reliability of the tool was established.
Scoring
The tool consists of 10 items. It is 3 point scale. The scoring of the scale is given below.
TABLE 3.1
SCORING KEY-INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
Response

Scoring

The statement does not speak about you.

The statement speaks something about 2


you.
The statement speaks fully about you

3.5.3 Description of Self-confidence questionnaire


The Self-confidence questionnaire tries to find out the Self Confidence of the high
school students. The investigator has used the validated tool which was prepared by
Krishna Prasad and Priya. (2001). each item focuses to measure the Self-confidence. The
tool consists of 50 items. Each item measure the Self-confidence of the students. The tool
consist of 50 statements, out of these 24 statements are positive and 26 statements are
negative.
Establishing Content Validity
In order to establish the validity of the tool, it has been submitted to a panel expert
in St.Xaviers College of Education (Autonomous), Palayamkottai. The experts have given
suggestions; the investigator has changed few items according to the study given by the
experts. Thus the content validity of the tool has been established.
Establishing Reliability
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Establish the reliability of the tool, the investigator followed the test and retest
method. After constructing the drafted tool, the investigator administered the tool to the 50
high school students in St.Xaviers higher secondary school, palayamkottai. After the gap
of 15 days the investigator again administered the tool to the same students. The score
obtained from the two tests were analyzed and found to be correlated to each other. The
reliability of the tool was found to be 0.635. Thus the reliability of the tool was established.
TABLE 3.2
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SELF CONFIDENCE QUESTIONNAIRE
Name of the items

Item numbers

Positive

1,2,3,6,7,8,9,11,12,17,18,31,33,35
,38,39,40,43,45,46,47,48,49,50

Negative

4,5,10,13,15,16,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27
,
28,29,30,32,34,36,37,41,42,44
TABLE 3.3
SCORING KEY SELF CONFIDENCE

Response

Some time

Never

Always

Positive statement

Negative statement

3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF THE TOOL


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The investigator approached the heads of the institution and sought permission for
the data collection. After getting permission from the heads of the institution, the
investigator herself with the help of the teacher

in charge of the class administered the

tools. Before administering the tools to the students, they were given clear instruction to
answer the items given in the inventories. The investigator clarified the need and purpose
of the collection, necessary information needed to answer the questionnaire and about the
confidentiality of the data supplied by them. Then the inventories were collected from the
respondents. They were scored with the help of the scored with the help of the scoring key
provided by the author of the inventory.
3.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLE
Population for the study
A population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or non-human
entities. In the present study, the population consisted of the high school students studying
in IX standard in Sathankulam Educational District.
Sample for the study
A small proportion of a population, selected for the observation and analysis is known as
sample. The method of sampling is based on the nature of the problem, size of the
universe, availability of finance and personnel. According to John W.Best and James V.
Kahn (1980) a sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and
analysis. The investigator has randomly selected 300 high school students from
Sathankulam Educational district for the present study.

TABLE 3.4
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SCHOOL- WISE DISTIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE


S.N

Name of the School

Number of

O
1

Percentage

students
St. Joesph Girls Higher Secondary School,

30

10

Sathankulam
2

St. Michel higher Secondary School, Mudaloor

30

10

St. Heart Boys Higher Secondary School,

30

10

30

10

30

10

10

Sathankulam
4

Henery Matriculation Higher Secondary School,


Sathankulam

S.S.N. Government Higher Secondary School,


Kombadikottai,

St.

Mary

Higher

Secondary

School,

30

Secondary

School,

30

Pothakalanveli
7

St.

Annes

Higher

Thatarmadam
8

Government

10
Higher

Secondary

School,

30

10

Higher

Secondary

School,

30

10

Ave Maria Marticulation Secondary School,

30

10

Sundancoodu
9

Government
Padukapathu

10

Sathankulam
TABLE 3.5
DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE WITH RESPECT TO BACKGROUND
VARIABLES
S.NO

BACKGROUND
VARIABLES

CATEGORY

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NO OF
STUDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Sex

Boys

Nature of school

Medium of instruction

Locality of school

Type of school

6
7

151

50.3

Girls

149

49.7

Male

30

10

Female

30

10

Both

240

80

Tamil

245

81.6

English

55

18.3

Urban

121

40.3

Rural

179

59.7

Govt

91

30.3

Aided

154

51.3

Private

55

18.3

220

73.3

Nature
accommodation

of Days scholar
Hostel

80

26.6

Nature of family

Nuclear

211

20.3

Joint

89

29.6

3.8 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED


Statistical techniques are necessary for understanding the general trends and group
characteristics from a variety of individual characters. Appropriate statistical measures like
mean and standard deviation are calculated for each variable. t test is calculated to find
out the significant difference between two means. ANOVA is calculated to find out the
significant difference among more than two variables
1) Percentage Analysis
The percentage analysis has been used to find out the percentage of students having
low, moderate and high level of Intrapersonal intelligence and Self-Confidence
Levels
High level

The Scores with above mean 1 S.D

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Moderate level

The Score between mean I S.D

Low level

The Score below mean I S.D

2) Arithmetic Mean
It is defined as the quality obtained by adding together all given items and by
dividing

this total by the number of items.

The investigator has used the following formula for calculating arithmetic mean,

M=

X
N

Where,
M = Arithmetic mean
= Sum of Scores
X = Individual score
N = Number of items

3) Standard Deviation
The investigator has used the following formula for calculating standard deviation.
1
N x 2( x)2
S.D = N

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Where,
S.D = Standard deviation
X = individual score
x2 = Sum of scores
x = Sum of scores
N = Total number of items
4) t Test
M 1 M
t=

2
1

S S 22
+
N1 N2

Where,
M1 = Mean of the first group
M2= Mean of the second group
S1 = Standard deviation of the first group
S2 = Standard deviation of the second group
N1 = Number of cases in the first group
N2 = Number of cases in the second group
5) ANOVA Test
Analysis of variance has been used to find out the difference among the variables.

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Mean square variance between the groups


Mean square variance within the groups

6) Chi- Square test


The Chi-Square analysis is employed to test the association between the variables.
The Chi-Square is calculated using the formula
(OE)2
X =
E
2

Where,
= Sum of
X2 = Chi- Square
O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency
7) Karl Pearsons Product Moment Correlation
Karl Pearsons Product Moment correlation is used to determine relationship
between two or more paired variables. The degree of relationship between Intrapersonal
intelligence and Self-Confidence is measured by the co-efficient of correlation.

Nxy (x )( y)
Nx (x ) 2 Ny 2 (y) 2
2

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Where,
N

Number of scores

Sum of the x scores

Sum of the y scores

x2

Sum of the x scores squared

y2

Sum of the y scores squared

xy

Sum of the product of x and y scores

Karl Pearsons Product Moment Correlation

Co-efficient

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