Você está na página 1de 95

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE

FACULTAD DE FILOSOFA Y HUMANIDADES


DEPARTAMENTO DE LINGSTICA

INGLS III
Prof. Javiera Adaros

UNIT 1: FASHION
Before

you read:
What comes to your mind when you think of fashion?
What can you tell about someone if you look at the clothes he/she is wearing?
Have you discriminated against someone because of the way he/she looks?
Have you been/felt discriminated?

Look at the picture and the clothes these people are wearing.

What can you tell about these people?


Do any of these clothes seem unusual to you? Which one(s)? Why/why not?
Would you wear any of these outfits? Which one? What for?
Now turn to next page and read a text about fashion. First check the vocabulary spot.
Vocabulary Spot
Fitting in: being a member of a group
Skirt:
Backpack:
Alike: similar
Judge: to make a decision based on evidence
Dress code: a set of rule specifying the type of clothing that a group of people have to wear
Teasing: disturbing

Have you been to a shopping mall and looked at the way teenagers look? Many of them wear

the same clothes. As an adult, you might think, Why do they want to look identical?

Wearing the right clothes is very important for young teenagers, especially girls, says

Kathleen Jackson from Delmar Hunt School in Lincoln, Nebraska. Looking right means fitting in. It's a
sign of normal children development because young teenagers are starting to separate from their
parents, and they want to fit in with their friends. Dressing alike is one way to do that.
Dr. Adams Robb, a psychiatrist at Emory University, calls this peer group identity. Before

forming their own identity, teenagers become part of a group to feel accepted and secure. He says,

Teenagers judge each other all the time. In many schools, one of the ways you fit in is to look like
everyone else-- you wear the right skirt or pants or carry the right backpack.

Fashion can be a lot of fun, but it has another side, too. Sometimes the pressure of dressing in
a certain way creates problems, especially in families with no money for expensive clothes. Some

schools have found a solution to this problem, though: they have a dress code or make students wear
uniforms. Some students laughed at others if they didn't have the right clothes. That's not a good
atmosphere for learning, so we started a dress code. That ended the fashion race, Mrs. Jackson says.
It really stopped the teasing and conflicts.

1. Who tend to wear similar clothes?


____________________________________________________________
2. Why do they do that?
____________________________________________________________
3. What is the problem with this trend?
____________________________________________________________
4. What are some measures that some schools have implemented?
____________________________________________________________

Did you experience this problem when you were younger?


Which measure do you think it's better for students: wearing uniforms/having a dress code or
wearing the clothes students like? Why?
Does fashion also influence adults? In which ways?
Is fashion's influence on people mostly positive or negative? Why?

Grammar Spot
Giving opinions
Expressing likes and dislikes
Agreeing and disagreeing
When we want to say what we like and/or dislike about something, we have a number of expressions
that we can use:
Likes
I really enjoy (+ v-ing/ noun)...
One of the nicest things about ... is...
I love (+ v-ing/ noun)...
I'm very fond of (+ v-ing/ noun)...

Dislikes
I can't stand (+ v-ing/ noun)...
One of my least favorite things is...
I don't particularly like (+ v-ing/ noun)...
I'm not really fond of (+ v-ing/ noun)...

And when we give an opinion, we have to use certain expressions such as:
I think/believe/feel...
Personally, I think...
To me, X is...
I truly believe that...

Personally speaking, I think...


From my perspective, ...
It seems to me that...
I'm absolutely convinced that....

When we give our opinion about a topic, it is important to use clear ideas to support it and always
emphasize that this is an opinion and not a fact. Look at this example:
I'm not really fond of fashion because I think it's a little shallow and very expensive. Personally, I
believe that people who follow fashion trends care too much about the way people look and tend to
forget about what they feel or think. From my perspective, judging someone based on the way he or
she looks is shallow. Also, you need a lot of money to buy new clothes every season because fashion
changes all the time. To me, these are irrelevant things; I truly believe that we should care about
other subjects such as politics or changes in society that greatly affect people.
When we want to say that we agree or disagree with someone's opinion, we need to use certain
expressions and make sure our answer is polite enough:
Agree
I (completely) agree with the idea that...
I couldn't agree more with you...
Yes, I certainly think that...
I absolutely agree with you because...

Disagree
I'm not sure I agree with that because...
I'm afraid I think...
Well, I don't know for sure...
I'm afraid I can't agree with you on that because...

Example: I'm afraid I think differently because, to me, some people use fashion to make a statement
more than just as a way of looking good. Although it is true that it looks very shallow when someone
changes outfits depending on the fashion trends, it is also true that you can use a specific fashion trend
to make a statement and express what you feel. Take the case of punk or grunge. Even though fashion
changes, some people continue wearing those kinds of clothes because they believe it shows what they
feel. I think that making a statement by using the clothes you wear can be a way of engaging in politics
and social problems.
*Be careful: we say I agree and not I am agree; I disagree and not I'm disagree.

Exercises
Discuss these questions with a classmate.
i. Does society put a lot of pressure on young girls to look good? What about boys?
ii. Why don't magazines use bigger models?
iii. Some people believe that being overweight is a sign of laziness. Do you agree with them? Why?

Peer pressure is pressure put on you by people your own age to do something, or a feeling that you
should do something because a lot of people your age are doing it.
Read this text about a fashion trend and then answer the questions.
Young smokers

Today many teenagers take up smoking because of peer pressure. Most of them start smoking
when they are around 12 years old and by the age of 19, they identify themselves as regular smokers.
This trend has increased over the years despite the efforts of governments and public health services.

What's more, many teenagers don't realize that smoking damages their health because they don't
seem to be able to fully understand what health problems they might face in the future.
Some of the factors that can influence young smokers are:

Parents or siblings are also smokers

They think smoking makes them look cool and mature

Their friends are doing it

Other people their age put pressure on them to smoke

They smoke to deal with the stress of school

What other factors can you think of?


What are some solutions for this problem?
What do you think about this problem? Write a short paragraph giving your opinion. Remember to include
specific expressions for this and arguments to support what you think.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Peer Group Pressure


Pre-reading activity
How important was your friend's opinion when you were younger? Did you try to fit in? How?
Has that changed now that you are a university student?
Read this text about peer group pressure and then answer the questions. Check the words in bold first.
Vocabulary Spot
Grow older: to grow up, become older
Get along with: to have a good relationship with someone
Argue: to have a violent discussion/ an argument
Seek: to look for, search
Willing: in favor of doing something

Along with: together with


Be likely to: tend to
Youngsters: young people
Relying: trusting

As children grow older, they become increasingly involved with their peer group, a group

whose members are about the same age and have similar interests. The peer group-- along with the
family and the school-- is one of the three main socializing agents. However, the peer group is very
different from the family and the school. Whereas parents and teachers have more power than
children and students, the peer group is made up of equals.
The adolescent peer group teaches its members several important things. First, it teaches

them to be independent from adult authorities. Sometimes this can mean that a peer group can teach

its members to go against authorities and adults-- to ignore home and school rules and even to
break the law. Most teenagers, though, rebel only by making fun of older people in a harmless way.

Second, it teaches social skills-- how to get along with other people. Third, the peer group teaches its
members the values of friendship among equals.

Peer groups often develop distinctive subcultures with their own values, language, music,
dress, and heroes. Adolescents, in particular, tend to believe in the same things as their friends, talk

the same way, dress the same way, listen to the same music, and like and dislike the same TV stars
and other celebrities. There may be a considerable difference between these interests, behaviors, and
values and those of their parents and teachers.

Adolescent peer groups frequently differ from parents and teachers in what they value. While
parents and teachers tend to place great importance on school achievement, peer groups are likely to
think that popularity, social leadership, and athletic achievement are more important. These

differences do not necessarily mean that parents and teenagers will fight and argue. In fact, most
youngsters are friendly with their mothers and fathers. They simply engage in different types of

activities-- work and task activities with parents but play and recreation with peers. They are inclined
to seek advice from parents on financial, educational, career, and other serious matters. With their

peers they are more likely to discuss social activities such as which boy or girl to date and what clubs
to join.

Peer group members look to each other for approval instead of relying on their own personal

beliefs. Doing what everyone else is doing is more important than being independent and individual.

Early adolescents are most willing to accept this conformity and so they are most deeply involved with
peer groups. As young people grow into middle and late adolescence, their involvement with peers

gradually declines because of their growing independence. When they reach the final year of high
school, they tend to adopt adult values, such as wanting to get good grades and good jobs.

1. According to the text, what are the three socializing agents?


_________________________________________________________________________
2. Name one important thing the adolescent peer group teaches young people.
_________________________________________________________________________
3. Name three ways in which adolescents show membership of their peer group.
_________________________________________________________________________
4. The word those in paragraph 3 refers to
a) adolescents
b) parents
c) teachers
d) interests
5. The word They in paragraph 4 refers to
a) youngsters
b) parents
c) teachers
d) activities
6. Name two topics that adolescents are likely to discuss with their parents.
_________________________________________________________________________
7. Name two things that they are likely to discuss with their peers.
_________________________________________________________________________

Grammar Spot
Review: Linking Words

Go back to the text and classify the underlined words according to their function in the text.
Addition
Contrast
Reason, result
Example
Sequencing

Linking words join ideas in a sentence or in two different sentences:


Adolescents change their minds when/as soon as they finish high school.
Adolescents continue thinking the same way until they finish high school. Then, their interests change.

They have a specific function so using the correct linking word is very important:
Peer groups are important for teenagers because they treat them as equals.
Peer groups are important for teenagers but they treat them as equals. nonsense!

These are common linking words:


Function

Between sentences

Within sentences

Comparing, contrasting,
concession

However, nevertheless, on the


one/other hand, though,
alternatively, instead, after all,
in any case, in contrast, by
constrast, otherwise, even so

Although, though, even though,


while, yet, whereas

Causes, reasons, purposes,


results

Therefore, consequently, hence, Because, since, as, so, in order


as a consequence, in
to, so that
consequence, thus, as a result, so

Adding ideas

In addition, furthermore, too, as


well, likewise, similarly,
moreover, what's more, also

And, as well as

Sequencing events

Meanwhile, then, afterwards,


after that, before that, soon, at
the same time

After, before, as soon as, since,


while, as, when, whenever

*Be careful: some linking words/ phrases have the same function but are used in a different way.

Although, though, and even though take a clause (subject + verb):


Although the weather was nice, we couldn't go to the beach.
(subject) (verb)
In spite of and despite take a noun or noun phrase:
We couldn't go to the beach in spite of the nice weather.
(noun phrase)
The same happens with because and because of/ due to:
We had to stay home because it was raining.
(clause)
We had to stay home because of/ due to the weather.
(noun phrase)
The only way in which you can use in spite of, despite, because of and due to with a clause is by using
the fact that:
We couldn't go to the beach in spite of the fact that the weather was nice.
(clause)
Exercises
Choose the correct ending for each sentence.
1. It was a fantastic evening despite
a) the horrible food.

b) we had a great time.

2. I hurt my knee quite badly so


a) I didn't have the right running shoes.

b) I had to go to hospital.

3. Humans like to form social groups. Likewise,


a) many other mammals live independently of each other.
b) many other mammals live together in small communities.

4. While many people use e-mails to communicate,


a) some still prefer to write letters.
b) some think it is the fastest way to communicate with others.

5. We had to wait for hours and


a) the service was excellent.

b) we didn't have the chance to see Mike.

6. We went to school today even though


a) it was snowing heavily.

b) we watched a movie in the evening.

7. Since I was feeling tired,


a) I went to the gym.

b) I went home early.

8. I believe traveling can help us to understand other cultures. Furthermore,


a) it can be a lonely experience at times.

b) it can help you to become more independent.

9. There are delays in all trains due to the fact that


a) passengers have to wait a lot.

b) the drivers are on strike.

10. She worked very hard. Therefore,


a) she deserves the promotion.

b) she should be fired.

Peer Group Pressure


Listening Activity

Before you listen:

Read the following paragraph and answer the questions below.

As individuals in society, each of us belongs to several different groups. For example, we are
members of our own families, we have groups of friends, and we associate with groups at work and
school. On a larger scale, we belong to a nation and maybe a religious group. Each of these groups has
its own culture, or set of rules that governs the behavior of people in that group. For example, it is
common for peersthat is, people of the same age or people in the same situationto behave in similar
ways or to share similar expectations. The groups we belong to influence our opinions about the world,
our interactions with others, and the decisions we make. We may think that we behave as individuals,
but in fact there are always group pressures that are influencing us to act in certain ways.

1. List six groups that an individual can belong to.


2. In what ways does belonging to a group influence our behavior?
3. Do you belong to any groups other than the ones mentioned in the passage?
4. Can you think of a time when group pressure made you act in a certain way?

Activity #1

Read the questions about pressure situations below and say what you would do in each situation
and explain why you would do it.

a) You have been invited to the wedding of a family member you don't like. Everyone else in your
family is going. Would you go to the wedding?
b) Your friends are planning to see a popular movie this weekend and have asked you to go with
them. You have read reviews that say it is a really bad movie. Would you go with your friends
anyway?
c) All your friends have started to wear a new style of shoes. When you first see the shoes, you
think they look ugly. Would you consider buying them anyway?
d) Your parents have been invited to their friends' house in the country for the weekend. They want
you to go with them but you need to study. Would you go away with your parents for the
weekend?

Now listen to two college students, Rebecca and Jim. What do they say they would do in these
situations?

Do Rebecca and/or Jim's answers surprise you? Why why/not?

Activity #2
Imagine you are a parent and have teenage children. What would you let them do? Look at the following
examples and tick the corresponding option.
Yes

No

Wear baggy pants


Dye their hair
Talk on the phone for a long time
Smoke cigarettes
Take drugs
Drink alcohol
Play video games
Now read the following advice that is commonly given to parents with teenage children. As you listen,
tick the ones you hear from the recording.
Advice to Parents on How to Deal with Teenage Children
1. Be a good role model. Show them how to behave well by behaving well yourself.
2. Let them make their own decisions about fashion when they are ready.
3. Monitor their behavior.
4. Give them freedom to experiment and have fun, as long as their behavior is safe and legal.
5. Set clear limits. Be clear about what they can and cannot do.
6. Listen to the way you talk to them. Try to avoid the annoying language that your own parents
used with you.

Do you agree with these pieces of advice? Why/why not?

Is there any other piece of advice you would follow that is not listed here?

UNIT 2: GENDERS
Before you read: True or False
Read the statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F).
i.

_____ Society is changing fast and more and more women are working away from home.

ii. _____ However, for some men it is difficult to accept these changes.
iii. _____ Even though many men think women should be treated equally, some feel threatened by
women.
iv. _____ Today some men still think they should be the breadwinners.

Now read a text about a controversial topic. Check the words in bold first.
Vocabulary Spot
Fulfill: to satisfy
Harassment: to repeatedly make a person feel uncomfortable or threatened
Toward: in the direction of
Bills: a piece of paper that states how much money you owe for specific services (e.g. water bill)
Regarded: considered
Income: money earned by work or investment

The male gender role is a complex one to fulfill. It is true that males are likely to enjoy many
advantages. For example, they generally have a more positive self-concept, greater confidence in
themselves, and a greater status than women. They are also less likely than women to experience
discrimination and harassment because of their gender. In general, both males and females see more
advantages in being male than being female. However, men do experience some disadvantages throughout
their lifetimes.
A.

Just as the woman is more often pushed toward the role of wife and mother, the man is pushed

toward the world of employment to pay the basic bills of the family. He has little choice-- his wife, children,
parents, in-laws, and peers expect it. Because our culture expects a man to earn money, he may feel that his
salary is connected to his self-esteem. Additionally, the amount of money earned is equated with success.
Our society makes us think that the man who makes $50,000 a year is more of a man than the one who
makes $10,000. In other words, a male in our society must earn money to feel good about himself.
B.

Likewise, the pressure to make money may interfere with the development of other roles and skills.

Since mothers are usually the ones who care for their children, most men may expect similar care from
their wives. Some men have never learned to cook, wash clothes, or take care of a home. Because of this,
they feel dependent on a woman for their domestic needs.
C.

Another problem is what happens with identity. It seems that men's identity lies in his work. In

studies of unemployment during the Great Depression, job loss was regarded as a greater shock to men
than to women, although the loss of income affected both. It is no different today-- losing one's job can

still be a nightmare to a man's self-esteem. Also, many men get too caught up in their jobs and do not allow
time for their families. This can negatively affect their relationship with their wives and children.
D.

There is a new equality in relationships between men and women. Women have changed and men

must adapt to these changes. The new equality can be seen in attitudes to higher education, for example. A
young married couple do not expect only one of them to go to grad school; now both can study and make
plans based on this. Men also have to deal with the fact that modern women are more likely to challenge
their opinions and attitudes, so they feel they should be more careful and expect a reaction to what they say
and do.
1. Matching: these are the main ideas for paragraphs A-D. Match the numbers (i-v) to the
paragraphs. Note that there are more main ideas than paragraphs.
i.

Identity equals job

ii. Adapting to the modern woman


iii. Emotional stereotypes
iv. Inadequate development of other skills
v. Required to make money
2. What is the best title for the text?
a) It's not so easy being male
b) Being male and female today
c) Changes in the modern woman
d) Changes in the modern couple

What changes are taking place in your society?

Are they mostly good or bad? Why?

Grammar Spot
Review: Present simple & present continuous
Keep this in mind:
Present simple

Examples:

They generally have a more positive self-concept.


They feel dependent on a woman for their domestic needs.

When do you use present simple?

Present continuous

Examples:

Society is changing fast and more and more women are working away from home.

When do you use present continuous?

* There are some verbs that we can't use in present continuous:


like love want know understand remember depend prefer hate need mean believe forget

Exercises
1. Complete the story with present simple or present continuous depending on the case.
Charlie Foster _______________ (work) at a bakery. He _______________ (always/get up) very early
because he _______________ (start) working at four o'clock every morning. He _______________ (have)
a wife and two children. His wife, Sheila, _______________ (not work) but she _______________ (look
for) a job right now. She _______________ (want) to work again because she _______________ (be) tired
of being at home all day.
However, Charlie _______________ (not want) her to leave home. He _______________ (say) women
should raise the children while men work. They _______________ (usually/argue) about this. Today they
_______________

(argue)

again.

Sheila

_______________

(get)

tired

of

this

and

says

she

_______________ (leaving) home if Charlie _______________ (not change) his mind.

2. Look at the pictures and write 4 sentences comparing the actions. Use adverbs such as usually,
always, etc.

i.

____________________________________________________________

ii.

____________________________________________________________

iii. ____________________________________________________________
iv. ____________________________________________________________

Learning Gender Lessons at School


Before you read:
The graph shows the difference in points between women's and men's average scores on standardized
tests given to high school students in the US in 1993.

In which areas do women perform better than men? Why do you think this happens?

This graph is from 1993. Do you think the numbers have changed? How?

What is the reality in your country?

Now read a text about this topic.


Fifty years ago, many schools in the United States still segregated courses on the basis of gender.
Secretarial courses and cooking were for girls; business and mechanical courses for boys. High school
teachers were not likely to encourage girls to go on to college, because they were expected to get married
and stay home to raise children. If a girl was going to college, teachers advised her to choose a traditionally
feminine major such as teaching, nursing, or social work.
These things do not happen now. In the United States, schools generally offer the same courses to
all students and expect both boys and girls to have careers after they graduate. However, some gender-role
differences have not changed. Various studies have shown, for example, that from preschool through high
school, teachers tend to pay less attention to girls than to boys. They usually ask boys to do things more
often, and offer them more helpful criticism. Furthermore, they tend to allow boys to shout out answers,
but scold girls for doing the same, especially in math and science classes. Studies also show that because
girls receive less attention from teachers, they suffer a further drop in self-esteem when they reach high
school. At age 9 the majority of girls are confident, assertive, and positive about themselves; by age 14 less

than one-third feel that way. This may explain why high school girls score lower in most subjects on
standardized tests than boys.
The structure of the school also sends out a message about gender role differences. In most
elementary and secondary schools in the United States, men hold positions of authority as principals and
head teachers of departments. While approximately three-quarters of teachers are female, over two-thirds
of all school principals are male. This male-dominated atmosphere can lead children to believe that women
need the leadership of men because, even though the teacher is usually a woman, a man runs the school.
It must be said, however, that in recent years the evidence for boys and girls' performance is
conflicting. In many cases, girls are beginning to do much better than boys academically. One reason for
this is that some boys consider that it is not cool to do well in school. Also, in the United States and some
other countries, boys and young men have more social problems than girls and young women, both at
school and after school. In Australia, for example, young men commit suicide at five times the rate of young
women. They are also more likely to drop out of high school, and more likely to end up in prison than young
women.
One conclusion from these findings is that schools should be encouraging boys to express their
feelings. Some Australian schools are trying to address this issue with special programs. One of these helps
boys with their communication and social skills. Another encourages boys in subjects that allow them to
express their feelings, such as art, public speaking, drama, and even dance. Other programs help teachers
and parents understand boy's needs better, and give them positive messages about education and
achievement.

I)

Find the words in the left column in the text and try to figure out their meanings. Match each
one to a word or phrase with a similar meaning in the right column.
_____ 1. segregated (paragraph 1)

a. confidence

_____ 2. scold (p. 2)

b. forceful

_____ 3. self-esteem (p. 2)

c. leave school before graduating

_____ 4. assertive (p. 2)

d. not always in agreement

_____ 5. conflicting (p. 4)

e. find fault with, criticize

_____ 6. shifting (p. 4)

f. moving, changing

_____ 7. commit suicide (p. 4)

g. separated

_____ 8. drop out (p. 4)

h. kill yourself

II) Choose the best ending to complete a one-sentence summary of the text.
The text Learning Gender Lessons at School describes
a) the many different ways that boys receive more attention than girls in schools.
b) the ways schools give messages to boys and girls about gender roles and some recent concerns
about boys.
c) the many different ways that schools these days give messages to boys and girls about gender
roles.
d) how the past structure of schools told children about the different status of men and women
in society.

How was your experience in school? Do you remember any case of segregation based on gender?

How do you think this situation has evolved in schools?

What about universities?

Grammar Spot
Review: Present perfect & past simple

We use present perfect for:


an action which happened at an unstated time in the past
Various studies have shown that from preschool through high school, teachers tend to pay less
attention to girls than to boys.
an action which started in the past and is still continuing in the present
However, some gender-role differences have not changed.
* Some time expressions that we use with this tense are: for, since, already, just, recently, ever, yet,
lately, so far, today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year/etc.

We use past simple for:


an action which happened at a stated time in the past
Fifty years ago, many schools in the United States still segregated courses on the basis of
gender.
an action which started and finished in the past
High school teachers were not likely to encourage girls to go on to college.

Exercises
Complete this letter with the verbs in brackets using present perfect or past simple.

Dear Margaret,
Thank you very much for your letter. I ______________ (get) it last week. I ______________ (be)
really happy to hear from you after all this time. How _______ you _______ (be)?
I have a lot of news to tell you about myself. I ______________ (get) a new job nine months ago. I
work as a reporter for our local TV station now. I ______________ (have) many interesting experiences
so far. When I first ______________ (start) working here, my boss ______________ (ask) me to interview
our old school principal. He ______________ (be) so surprised to see me with a microphone in my hand!
I'm sure he ______________ (not expect) me to get a college degree and a good job.
Last month, a fire ______________ (break out) in a big factory in the area. I ______________ (be)
the only reporter who ______________ (manage) to talk to the owner! That ______________ (make) me feel
very proud. She ______________ (be) one of the first women in town who ______________ (study) Business
and Administration and ______________ (start) her own business.
As you can see, I enjoy my job very much. I ______________ (meet) a lot of important people and
I ______________ (have) the opportunity to visit many places. I ______________ (buy, recently) a new car
because my old one ______________ (break down) a couple of weeks ago.
Now I'm working on a new project for the TV station and I have lots of things to do. I
______________ (do) a lot research for this and I feel a bit tired. But I'm positive that it's going to work.
The last project, a talk show, ______________ (be) a complete failure. The host ______________ (not
research) the stories behind the people he ______________ (interview) so he ______________ (end up)
asking things that everybody ______________ (know). He now works in another area and he won't be
given another program in a long time.
I hope everything is great with you. Keep in touch!
Love,
Karen.

Fairy-tale Lessons for Girls


Pre-reading activity
Look at this picture:

What type of people do you think the characters in the picture are? (e.g. good, bad, weak,
strong, etc)

Do you remember some typical characteristics that characters in fairy tales used to have? What
were some of them?

These words are frequently found in children's stories:


heroine magician fairy brave hero witch godmother slay handsome beast stepmother
tower prince wicked evil cottage princess forest rescue castle dragon monster cruel
Match these words to the corresponding headings in the columns:
People

Words to describe
people

Nonhuman
creatures

Places

Actions

Now turn to next page and read a text about fairy tales and their influence on girls. Answer the
questions after you read.

Can you guess how this story ends? Most of us read many stories like the one above when we were
children, and we know how they will end. In these stories, the female heroines are usually very beautiful.
Because the heroines are beautiful, they marry the handsome prince at the end of the story. Their beauty is
presented in a way that links goodness with the way women look. Good girls and good women are beautiful;
bad girls and bad women are ugly, but they are also powerful and strong.
The female characters share other features. The beautiful heroines are also usually very quiet and
passive. They do not say very much. If they do, they usually answer questions. They rarely take action and
make decisions. They spend a lot of their time indoors cooking and cleaning for the males in the story.
While they are doing this, the males are having a very exciting time, such as having great adventures and
facing danger. In one analysis of gender roles in children's books, males outnumbered females by a ratio of
11 to 1. This study also found that women who were not wives and mothers were imaginary creatures such
as witches or fairy godmothers. No woman in the books analyzed had an occupation outside the home. By
contrast, men were depicted in a large range of roles as fighters, policemen, judges, kings, and so on.
Although recent studies have shown an improvement in this situation, males still appear more frequently in
central roles, titles, and pictures.
The portrayal of females as quiet and passive reflects the view of good women at the time when
many of the stories were written, in the early 19 th century. However, many people continue reading these
stories. Many feminists have argued that these fairy-tale stereotypes of women are damaging for the little
girls who read them today. The stories make girls want to be beautiful instead of being strong, powerful,
and clever. Other disagree. They argue that female roles in fairy tales may be viewed in more positive ways.
Cinderella, for example, can be seen as clever. After all, she manages to gain freedom from the kitchen and

housework.
Many children's authors today are creating fairy stories in which the heroines are more aggressive
than the stereotypical fairy-tale heroine. For example, in Cinder Edna (1994) by Ellen B. Jackson,
Cinderella's practical neighbor wears comfortable shoes and takes the bus to the ball.

1. According to the text, what are some of the characteristics of good girls or women in
traditional fairy tales?

_________________________________________________________________________________
2. What types of roles (or occupations) do women have in children's stories? What are the roles that
men have?

_________________________________________________________________________________
3. Why do some people say that these traditional stereotypes are bad for little girls?

_________________________________________________________________________________
4. What types of heroines have appeared lately?

_________________________________________________________________________________

Do you believe that images like the stereotypes in fairy tales are harmful for young people?
Why/why not?

Grammar Spot
Narrative tenses:
Past simple
Past continuous
Past perfect

Read the beginning of this story and underline all tenses in it.
Once upon a time, there was a young woman who lived with her father, her step-mother and
two step-sisters. Her mother had died when she was a child and her father had married another woman
to raise her child. But the step-mother was evil and made Cinderella work very hard at home. One day,
when she was cooking, an invitation arrived...

When do you use past simple?

When do you use past continuous?

When do you use past perfect?

We often use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the
middle of something else. The action in past simple is more important than the one in past continuous:
One day, when she was cooking, an invitation arrived.
interrupted action
important action
We use past perfect when we talk about two actions that happened in the past, but not at the same
time. One of them started and finished much earlier than the other action:
Her mother had died when she was a child and her father had married another woman to raise her child.

first action

third action

second action

All these actions happened in the past (e.g. they started and finished in the past), so you can't use
present perfect.

Exercises
1. Match column A with column B to make correct sentences. Which is the first action in each pair?
Column A

Column B

1) By the time he reached the airport

a. his wife had forgotten his birthday.

2) John was angry because

b. after we had bought the tickets.

3) The bank robbers had escaped

c. the plane had already taken off.

4) We went to the theater

d. after she had won the award.

5) The actress gave an interview

e. before the police arrived.

2. Complete these sentences using past simple, past continuous, and past perfect.
i.

He _________________ (watch) TV when he _________________ (hear) a noise. Then he


_________________ (remember) his children _________________ (go) out earlier; they
_________________ (arrive) home.

ii. The fairy godmother _________________ (appear) when Cinderella _________________ (cry). She
_________________ (want) to go to the party but her step-mother _________________ (not
allow) her.
iii. I _________________ (finish, already) my homework when the match _________________ (begin)
so I could watch it.

A Politically Correct Fairy Tale: Cinderella

Political correctness is a term that refers to language, ideas, or policies that focus on perceived or
actual discrimination against politically, socially or economically disadvantaged groups. Though it is a
controversial concept and many have criticized it, it has been used by a number of so-called minority
groups. These groups most prominently include those defined by gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual
orientation and disability.
Examples
Do not say: mentally retarded

Do say: intellectually disabled

Do not say: Black or Negro in the US.

Do say: African American

Do not say: Indian to refer to US' original inhabitants.

Do say: Native American

Do not say: Indian to refer to Canada's original inhabitants.

Do say: First Nations

Do not say: fireman or firewoman

Do say: firefighter

Do not say: policeman or policewoman

Do say: police officer

Do not say: blind

Do say: visually impaired

Do not say: deaf

Do say: hearing impaired

Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Tales for Our Life and Times is a book by James Finn
Garner, published in 1994, in which he satirizes the trend toward political correctness and censorship of
children's literature, with an emphasis on humour and parody. The book consists of fairy tales such as
Little Red Riding Hood, the Three Little Pigs and Snow White, rewritten so that they supposedly represent
what a "politically correct" adult would consider a good and moral tale for children.
The revisions include extensive usage of politically correct words, deliberately stiff moralizing
dialogue and narration, inclusion of modern concepts and objects (such as health spas, mineral water, and
automobiles), and often feature a plot twist that reverses the roles of the heroes and villains of the story. For
example, the woodsman in Little Red Riding Hood is seen by Red Riding Hood not as a heroic saviour but
as a "sexist" and "speciesist" intruder.

What examples of this trend can you find in your own language?
According to this trend, what are some of the changes that you can find in the old version of
Cinderella?

Turn to next page to find out. First check all the words in bold and look them up in a dictionary.

Cinderella
Once upon a time, there lived a young wommon named Cinderella, whose natural birthmother had died
when Cinderella was a child. A few years after, her father married a widow with two older daughters. Cinderella's
mother-of-step treated her very cruelly, and her sisters-of-step made her work very hard, as if she were their own
personal unpaid laborer.
One day an invitation arrived at their house. The prince was celebrating his exploitation of the
dispossessed and marginalized peasantry by throwing a fancy dress ball. Cinderella's sisters-of-step were very
excited to be invited to the palace. They began to plan the expensive clothes they would use to alter and enslave
their natural body images to emulate an unrealistic standard of feminine beauty. (It was especially unrealistic in
their case, as they were differently-visaged enough to stop a clock.) Her mother-of-step also planned to go to the
ball, so Cinderella was working harder than a dog (an appropriate yet unfortunately speciesist metaphor).
When the day of the ball arrived, Cinderella helped her mother- and sisters-of-step into their ball
gowns. A formidable task: it was like trying to force ten pounds of processed nonhuman animal carcasses into a
five-pound skin. Next came immense cosmetic augmentation, which would be best not to describe at all. As
evening fell, her mother- and sisters-of-step left Cinderella at home to finish her housework. Cinderella was sad
but she contented herself with her Joan Baez records.
Suddenly there was a flash of light, and in front of Cinderella stood a man. He said: "Hello, Cinderella, I
am your fairy godperson, or individual deity proxy, if you prefer. So, you want to go to the ball, eh? And bind
yourself into the male concept of beauty? Squeeze into some tight-fitting dress that will cut off your circulation?
Jam your feet into high-heeled shoes that will ruin your bone structure? Paint your face with chemicals and
make-up that have been tested on nonhuman animals?"
"Oh yes, definitely!," she said in an instant. Her fairy godperson heaved a great sigh and, with his
magic, he enveloped her in a beautiful, bright light and sent her to the palace.
Many, many carriages were lined up outside the palace that night; apparently, no one had ever thought
of carpooling. Soon, in a heavy, luxurious carriage painfully pulled by a team of horse-slaves, Cinderella
arrived. She was dressed in a gown made of silk stolen from distracted silkworms. Her hair was decorated with
pearls plundered from hard-working, defenseless oysters. And on her feet, dangerous though it may seem, she
wore slippers made of finely cut crystal.
Every head in the ballroom turned as Cinderella entered. The men stared at her and immediately
lusted after this wommon who had captured perfectly their Barbie-doll ideas of feminine desirability. The
womyn, trained at an early age to hate their own bodies, looked at Cinderella with envy. Cinderella's own
mother- and sisters-of-step, consumed with jealousy, failed to recognize her.
Cinderella soon caught the eye of the prince, who was busy discussing jousting and bear-baiting with
his cronies. As soon as the prince saw her, he became speechless as well as the majority of the population.
"Here," he thought, "is a wommon that I could make my princess and impregnate with the progeny of our
perfect genes, and thus make myself the envy of every other prince for miles around. And she's blonde too!"

The prince began to cross the ballroom toward his intended prey. His cronies also began to walk toward
Cinderella. So did every other male in the ballroom who was younger than 70 and not serving drinks.
Cinderella was proud of the commotion she was causing. She walked with head high and carried herself
like a wommon of eminent social standing. But soon it became clear that the commotion was turning into
something ugly, or at least socially dysfunctional.
The prince had made it clear to his friends that he wanted to possess the young wommon. But the
princes resoluteness angered his pals, for they too lusted after her and wanted to own her. The men began to
shout out and push each other. The princes best friend, who was a large and not-particularly-smart duke,
stopped him halfway across the dance floor and insisted that he was going to have Cinderella. The princes
response was a unexpected kick to the groin, which left the duke temporarily inactive. But the prince was
quickly caught by other sex-crazed males, and he disappeared into a pile of human animals.
The womyn were appalled by this vicious display of testosterone, and though they tried, they were
unable to separate the combatants. To the other womyn, it seemed that Cinderella was the cause of all the
trouble, so they encircled her and began to display very unsisterly hostility. She tried to escape, but her
impractical glass slippers made it nearly impossible. Fortunately for her, none of the other womyn could move
any faster since their feet were also trapped in impractical shoes.
The noise grew so loud that no one heard the clock in the tower at midnight. When the bell rang the
twelfth time, Cinderellas beautiful gown and slippers disappeared, and she was dressed once again in her
peasants rags. Her mother- and sisters-of-step recognized her now, but kept it quiet to avoid embarrassment.
The womyn became speechless at this magical transformation. When Cinderella felt free from the
confinements of her gown and slippers, she sighed and stretched and scratched her ribs. She smiled, closed her
eyes and said: Kill me now if you want, sisters, but at least Ill die in comfort.
The womyn around her again grew envious, but this time they took a different approach: instead of
demanding vengeance, they stripped off their bodices, corsets, shoes, and every other confining garment. They
danced and jumped and sang in absolute joy, comfortable at last in their underwear and bare feet.
The men, who were too busy with their macho dance of destruction, did not realize that there were many
desirable womyn in front of them, but they never ceased pounding, punching, kicking, and clawing each
other until, to the last man, they were dead.
The womyn sighed at the scene but felt no remorse. The palace and realm were theirs now. The first
official act was to dress the men in their discarded dresses and tell the media that the fight started when someone
threatened to expose the cross-dressing tendencies of the prince and his cronies. Their second official act was to
set up a clothing co-op that produced only comfortable, practical clothes for womyn. Then they hung a sign on
the castle advertising CinderWear, and through self-determination and clever marketing, they all-- even the
mother- and sisters-of-step-- lived happily ever after.

Underline all the verbs in past and identify their tense (past simple, past continuous, etc.)

UNIT 3: CRIME
Deviance and Crime
Before you read: Vocabulary
Match the crimes on the left with the definitions on the right.
______ 1 Homicide

a Spying

______ 2 Burglary

b Sexual attack on a person

______ 3 Robbery

c Murder or killing

______ 4 Hijacking

d A violent attack

______ 5 Espionage

e The deliberate burning of property

______ 6 Assault

f Breaking into a building to steal

______ 7 Arson

g Dealing in or selling drugs

______ 8 Prostitution

h Using force to steal

______ 9 Drug trafficking

i Forcing someone to give you control of a vehicle

______ 10 Rape

j Having sexual relation in exchange for money

Now read a text about this topic. First check the words in bold in the vocabulary spot.
Vocabulary Spot
Minor: someone too young to be legally considered an adult; punishments for minors are usually different than those for
adults
Rates: a measurement of the number of times something happens or exists during a particular period
Carried out: did or completed a task
Rage: a feeling of violent anger that is difficult to control

Have you ever...


crossed the street against the traffic light?
driven through a stop sign without stopping?
drunk or bought alcohol as a minor?
cheated on a test?
If so, you have broken a socially accepted norm or practice, and you could therefore be
considered deviant. Deviant behavior is behavior that is considered to be unacceptable, or outside
the norms for that society.
There are, of course, degrees of deviance and not every member of a society will agree on
what is deviant behavior and what is normal behavior. For example, while many people believe
that prostitution is deviant, others see it as a legitimate way for people to earn a living. Also, what
is seen as deviant behavior will change over time and vary from place to place. Drinking alcohol,

for example, has been regarded as deviant or as acceptable in the United States at different times
in the past. In fact, in the 1920s, alcohol was considered to be so unacceptable in the U.S. that it
was illegal to sell, buy, or consume it. Now drinking in moderation is accepted by the majority of
the population as normal social behavior for adults.
What is considered to be deviant may also vary from culture to culture. In most cultures,
but certainly not in all, it is regarded as deviant for a man to have more than a wife at the same
time. However, there are some religious groups and cultures where polygamy is an accepted
practice.
Some acts of deviance may simply result in a person being regarded as odd or unusual,
while other deviant behaviors actually break the law. These behaviors are seen as crimes. Crimes
can be grouped into different categories. One category is violent crime. This includes murder,
rape, robbery, and assault. Another is property crime, such as theft, arson, or burglary. There is
also a category of victimless crime, which are crimes that do not involve harm to people other
than the criminals themselves. Examples of victimless crimes include gambling, prostitution, and
drug abuse. Another category is white-collar crime, which includes tax evasion and embezzlement.
In 2000, there were 11.6 million reported crimes (excluding traffic offenses) in the United
States. According to a report by the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), in 2000 the following
crimes occurred at the rates shown:
Robbery: 46.5 per hour
Burglary: 234 per hour
Violent crime: 163 per hour
Rape: 10.3 per hour
Murder: 1.8 per hour
Vehicle theft: 133 per hour
It should be noted, however, that these figures are based only on crimes that are reported.
Actual crime rates may be two or three times higher than the official figures.
Murder, or homicide, is the most serious crime, and reports on the crime show that it is
also mostly a personal crime. That is, homicide is far more likely to be committed against
acquaintances, friends, or relatives than against strangers. It also occurs most frequently during
weekend evenings, particularly Saturday night. As a crime of passion, homicide is usually carried
out under overwhelming pressure and uncontrollable rage.
While the public perception may be that the crime rate, especially for violent crime, is
continuing to rise, there has in fact been a decline over the past decade. In 1991, there were 1.9
million violent crimes reported in the United States. By 1998, this figure had dropped to 1.5
million. Murder rates in the same period dropped from 24,700 to 16,914.

1. What influences the categorization of deviant behavior?


a) people
b) cultures
c) people and cultures

2. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to


a) people
b) prostitution
c) deviant behavior
3. The word regarded in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
a) seen
b) hidden
c) greeted
4. Why is alcohol mentioned in the text?
a) To illustrate how people's perceptions about deviant behavior change over time.
b) To illustrate people's perceptions about deviant behavior.
c) To illustrate people's attitudes in the United States.
5. According to the text, what is the difference between deviant behavior and crime?
a) Crimes are more dangerous than deviant behavior.
b) Deviant behavior breaks the law.
c) Deviant behavior becomes crime when it breakes the law.
6. Based on the text, why is white-collar crime called that way?
___________________________________________________________________________

How safe do you feel in your city/country?


Have you ever been victim of a crime?
What is the most frequent type of crime in your city/country?

Grammar Spot
Subject pronouns
Object pronouns
Reflexive pronoun
Subject pronouns identify who or what is the focus of the sentence.
Object pronouns identify who or what is affected by the action done by the subject.
Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject does an action that goes back to it.

Subject and object pronouns

Object pronouns are also used after a preposition (for/about/after/by):


This letter is not for me. It's for her.

I can't find my glasses. Please, help me look for them.

Reflexive pronouns
We also use reflexive pronouns when we want to emphasize
that we did the action alone or without help:
Who repaired your bicycle for you? Nobody. I did it
myself.
I live by myself.
* Be careful:

we do not use reflexive pronouns after concentrate, feel, relax, and meet.
we normally use wash, shave, and dress without reflexive pronouns.

Exercises
1. Complete the sentences with subject or object pronouns depending on the context.

2. Complete the sentences with subject or object pronouns depending on the context.
1. A: I haven't met Mark yet. Is ______ here?
B: That's ______ over there.
2. A: I've had enough of this party.
B: ______ too.
3. A: Languages are very interesting for ______.
B: Really? I thought you hated ______.
4. A: I tried to contact Julie and Paul but I couldn't reach ______.
B: Don't ______ know? ______ are on vacation.
3. Complete the sentences with a verb and a reflexive pronoun.
blame
i.

burn cut

enjoy express

hurt

put

George ________________________ while he was shaving this morning.

ii. Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn't ________________________ badly.
iii. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't ________________________.
iv. Please try and understand how I feel. ________________________ in my position.
v. They had a great time. They really ________________________.
vi. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don't ________________________.
vii. Sometimes I can't say exactly what I mean. I wish I could ________________________ better.

Crime in Society Today


Before you listen:
Look at the two pie charts below that lcassify arrests in the United States today. The chart on the left
classifies arrests by age group. The chart on the right classifies arrests by gender. Work with a partner
and fill in the chart legends with your guesses about the age and gender of people arrested.

After checking the correct answers with the class, does any of the information surprise you? How can
these pie charts compare to what happens in your country?
Now you are going to listen to an interview with two people, Evelina and Arpad. Read the statements
first and check the vocabulary spot. Then, as you listen, decide if they are true (T) or false (F).
Vocabulary Spot
Bothered: disturbed, troubled, worried
Availability: access to something
Shot: injured or killed with a bullet*
Blames: thinks or says that somebody/something is responsible for something bad
*Bullet: small metal object fired from a gun

_______ 1. Evelina is concerned about the crime news that she sees on TV.
_______ 2. Arpad is not bothered by loud groups of teenagers on the street.
_______ 3. Evelina is not worried about the availability of guns.
_______ 4. Arpad says that someone was recently shot in a local restaurant.
_______ 5. Evelina says that parents need to have more contact with their children.
_______ 6. Arpad blames the high levels of crimes on the availability of guns.
_______ 7. Arpad thinks that teachers have the main responsibility for teaching values to children.
_______ 8. Arpad supports gun control by the government.

Now you are going to listen to two other people, Gail and Tom, talk about their experiences. First check
the words below to have a better understanding of what you are going to hear.
Vocabulary Spot
Mugged: attacked and robbed
Prosecuting: being charged with a crime and taken to court
Ransacked: broken into, searched, and left in a messy condition
Violation: invasion
Pickpockets: thieves who steal things out of pockets or bags, especially in crowds

Gail: she often works late at night. Once she was robbed by some young men.
1. What happened to Gail?
_______________________________________________________________
2. Where was she?
_______________________________________________________________
3. What was stolen?
_______________________________________________________________
4. How did she feel about being victim of a crime?
_______________________________________________________________
5. Did she report the incident? Why?
_______________________________________________________________
Tom: he talks about being the victim of burglars and pickpockets.
6. What was stolen from Tom?
_______________________________________________________________
7. Where was he?
_______________________________________________________________
8. How did the events take place?
_______________________________________________________________
9. How did he feel about being victim of a crime?
_______________________________________________________________
10. Did he report the incident? Why?
_______________________________________________________________

Now imagine that you are in situations similar to those of the people you listened to. What would you
do? Circle the options that could apply to you and then compare them with your classmates' answers.

1. You are alone in a city and it is late. You need to get home. Would you...
a) take the bus or train, even if you have to wait a long time?
b) walk home quickly but without being very concerned?
c) decide not to go home, but to stay with some friends nearby?
2. If a stranger approached you, would you...
a) act calmly and talk to the stranger?
b) run away as fast as you could?
c) ignore the person and keep on walking?
3. If someone told you to hand over your money, would you...
a) agree to give the person your money?
b) say nothing and pretend not to hear?
c) refuse to give them the money?
4. If a person stole a small amount of money from you, would you...
a) be very hurt and afraid?
b) feel sorry fo the criminal?
c) feel angry about what happened?
5. If your apartment were broken into, would you...
a) expect the police to help?
b) expect the police to do nothing?
c) feel very violated.

Juvenile Crime
Before you read
Look at the cartoon below. What does it refer to?

With the rate of crime by juveniles on the rise, people have been forced to take a careful look at the
causes and to try to create effective ways to stop this trend. Below you will read about three solutions
some cities have tried in order to control juvenile delinquency. What do you think about them?

Teen Court
At most teen courts, teenagers who have been accused of minor crimes, ranging from traffic
violations to attempted burglary, agree to admit to the crime. A jury made up of their peers
that is, other people their agedecides on the penalty or punishment.

Curfews
Curfews are time limits that require a certain population of people to be off the streets by a
specific time. For example, in some cities, anyone under 18 years of age mus be indoors by 8
p.m. on school nights and 11 p.m. on Fridays and Saturdays.

Parental Punishment
Some towns have put a law into effect that makes parents responsible for the behavior of their
teenage children. When teens commit a minor crime, the law allows judges to make parents pay
up to $1,000 and take parent effectiveness classes.

Now you're going to read about these three methods and their results. First check the vocabulary spot.
Vocabulary Spot
Defendant:a person in a law case who is accused of having done something illegal
Offenders: lawbreakers
Penalties: punishments
Plead guilty: admit to the crime
Hand down: give
To fine: to punish financially
Law-abiding: non-criminal
Overzealous verdicts: severe judgements

What method of punishment works better? Cities and towns across the United states have
come up with some unusual solutions to juvenile crime. Here's your chance to pass judgment on
three of them.
Teen Court
The 16-year-old defendant has already admitted shoplifting a tube of lipstick from a
department-store counter. Slouching in the witness stand, absent-mindedly twirling her hair, she
looks as if her day in court is boring her. And in teen courtwhere the judge, lawyers, and jury
are all teenagersbad attitude is a serious offense.
She didn't show the court any respect, says Philip Dela Rosa, the director of the Family
YMCA Teen Court in Houston, texas. Here, dissing the jury is a very big mistake.
Nationally, however, teen courts are gaining respect and attention, with at least 185
operating in 24 states. At most of these courts, teens charged with misdemeanorsminor crimes
ranging from traffic violations to attempted burglaryplead guilty in exchange for having their
penalty set by a jury of their peers.
Although teen juries usually cannot order fines or jail time, they can sentence offenders to
perform community service, offer apologies, write essays, and return to teen courts as jurors.
Once the sentence is completed the teen's record is wiped clean, as though he or she never
committed a crime.
This is not a mock trialthese are no Mickey Mouse courts, says Dela Rosa, who has
helped create more than 50 teen courts around the country. The teens take this court very
seriously. And if they don't, they learn their lesson the hard way.
In fact, many teen juries hand down harsher penalties than the standard courts do. The
lipstick thief had to perform 48 hours of community service, attend an anti-theft class, write a
1,000-word essay, and serve on a teen-court jury.
But do teen courts really help keep kids out of trouble? Supporters say the courts are an
effective way to reach delinquent teens before they become serious criminals. The courts help
ease the burden on the already overloaded juvenile justice system. And they have a track record
of succes. Nationally, 40 to 50 percent of teen offenders commit crimes again. But of those who
go through teen courts, less than 10 percent get arrested again.
Critics say such numbers are deceiving. Since most defendants are first-time offenders
charged with minor crimes, few are likely to become repeat offenders anyway. For the young
people involved, teen court in an invaluable learning experience, says Hunter Hurst, director of
the National Center for Juvenile Justice in Pittsburgh. But as for changing behavior, the evidence
is not there at all.
Legal experts also question whether teen courts are really fair to defendants. Having to
face a teen jury instead of an adult one may pressure teenagers to plead guilty, even if they're
not. And while teen-court jurors receive weeks of training and must pass a law test, critics say
even the most highly trained teen is not mature enough for jury duty. Sometimes inexperience
leads to overzealous verdicts. And some teen courts have seen their proceedings disrupted by

participants who have dozed off, broken into laughter, or arrived unprepared to try a case.
If young people are sufficiently different from adults to warrant a different legal process,
are they capable of running a court? asks Hurst. Is that what we want?
The Law Says: Be Home by 8:00
As one of the nation's most violent cities, New Orleans has had its share of youth crime. So
last year, the city adopted a curfew to get teenagers off the street. Today, anyone under 18 must
be indoors by 8 p.m. on school nights and 11 p.m. Friday and Saturday.
New Orleans police say the curfew has produced dramatic results. In the past year, police
have rounded up 3,900 kids for violating the curfew. Juvenile murders have fallen by 33 percent,
rape by 67 percent, armed robbery by 33 percent, and car theft by 42 percent.
Seeing these results, local governments across the nation have found youth curfews hard
to resist. Of the 77 largest American cities, 59 now have curfews. The laws vary from place to
place. Most allow police to round up teens at night, while others also cover school hours. In some
cases, offenders are taken to detention centers; in others, they are handed a citation, like a
parking ticket, and then escorted home.
Despite their apparent success, curfews have drawn a chorus of criticism from teens,
parents, and civil liberties advocates. Many law-abading teens find the restrictions unfair. It is
totally and completely wrong to punish all of the teenagers when only small percentage are the
really guitly, says Jessica Levi, 15, of Washington, D.C., where a curfew was adopted this
summer. Another disadvantange for some parents and their kids is that curfews get in the way of
after-school jobs, social activities, and athletics. And civil liberties groups such as the American
Civil Liberties Union charge that curfews violate the First Amendment right to peaceful assembly.
Courts have overturned many curfew laws on these grounds.
Punish the Parents
When 15-year-old Jeremiah Beck was caught shoplifting, he didn't face any chargebut his
mother did. Though she hadn't set foot near the scene of the crime, Anita Beck went to court for
Jeremiah's mistake. The charge? Failing to supervise her son.
Because of all the growth in the number of minor crimes committed by juveniles, the town
of Silverton, Oregon, where the Becks live, passed a law holding parents responsible for their kids'
wrongdoings. The law allows judges to fine parents up to $1,000 and require them to take parent
effectiveness classes if their kids commit a minor crime.
The law was recently adopted statewide and may become a model for communities around
the nation. The reason: It seems to be working. Since the law took effect in January, Silverton's
juvenile crime rate has declined by 55 percent, Police Chief Randy Lunsford claims. Before, minor
offenders often went unpunished and felt free to try more serious crimes, he says. Now, parents
are forced to step in and police their kids before they graduate from petty thievery to armed
robbery.
Not everyone considers the law such a shinning model. Many parents claim it's
unconstitutional to charge one person for someone else's crime. This law smacks of

totalitarianism, says attorney Josi Davidson, who represents a group of parents challenging the
law. It's too much government intrusion into families' lives. It absolutely violates due process,
under which you can't be punished unless you've done something wrong.
Anita Beck was found innocent, but Silvia Whitney was cited when her 17-year-old son,
Scott, got caught with a beer. While Scott takes a court-ordered alcohol awareness course, his
mom is fighting the charge. Scott takes her side. It should be my fault, he says. I got in
trouble; she didn't. The government's trying to be my dad, and it's not right.

Put the following main ideas in the order they appear in the article. Number them from 1 to 7.
_______ a. Last year, New Orleans adopted a curfew to get teenagers off the street.
_______ b. Supporters say the courts are an effective way to reach delinquent teens before they become
serious criminals.
_______ c. Not everyone considers the parental law a great model.
_______ d. Curfews have drawn a chorus of criticism from teens, parents, and civil liberties advocates.
_______ e. Silverton, Oregon, passed a law holding parents responsible for their kids' wrondoing.
_______ f. Cities and towns across the United States have come up with some unusual solutions to teen
crime.
_______ g. Teen courts are becoming more and more popular every year.

Now complete the chart with the information from the text.
Type of program

Teen Court

Teen Curfew

Parental Laws

Arguments in favor of the


program

Arguments against the program

Grammar Spot
Some and any
Another and other
A. Some and any
In general, we use some (also somebody, something, someone) in positive sentences, and any (also
anybody, anyone, anything) in negative sentences:
Some cities have come up with some creative solutions to fight juvenile crime.
Some cities haven't come up with any solution to fight juvenile crime.
We also use any for questions except for offers/requests:
Do you have any questions?

Would you like some tea? / Can I have some coffe?

B. Another, other and others


Another is used before a singular noun: We look at curfews as another tool to keep kids safe.
Another can be used as a pronoun too. In this case, make sure you don't include a noun: One teen had to
write a 1,000-word essay; another had to do community service.
Other is used before a plural noun: Meanwhile, other parents are still stuck in court.
Others is a pronoun and it is used without nouns: In others, they are handed a citation.
Exercises
1. Complete the sentences with any, some, another, other or others.
i.

This evening I'm going out with ____________ friends of mine.

ii. There is ____________ way of dealing with this: it's called curfew.
iii. I didn't have ____________ money, so I had to borrow ____________.
iv. Can I have ____________ milk in my coffee, please?
v. You can't exchange money at this bank but you go to ____________.
vi. This tea is delicious. Can I have ____________ cup?
vii. Have you read ____________ good books lately?

Controlling Crime
Before you listen:
Violent crime has dropped in the United States in recent years, but overall crime rate is still
alarmingly high. Crime control is one of the most difficult and controversial subjects in sociology.
People have very different beliefs about the best way to lower the crime rate.
Many people believe that the best way to control crime is to stop it from happening in the first
place. This might mean developing educational and social programs to discourage young people from
becoming involved in criminal activity, or having more police officers on the streets. Other people think
that the best way to control crime is to have tougher punishments. This might include having stricter
laws, more arrests, and longer prison terms.

What are two different approaches to controlling crime?


How could educational and social programs help lower the crime rate?

Which of the two different approaches to controlling crime do you think is more effective? Why?
Do you think your community has a high crime rate or a low crime rate? Explain

Now read the technical terms and definitions for various types of crime in the left column of the chart
below. Read the examples of each type of crime in the right column.
Type of crime

Example

1. Assault and robbery (attacking someone and A group of teenagers between the ages of 15 and
stealing their possessions)
17 attack an old man as he walks home. They steal
his wallet and beat him with a baseball bat,
leaving him unconscious on the sidewalk.
2. Abduction (taking a person against his or her A woman who is divorced from her husband
will)
secretly takes the couple's 13-year-old son and runs
off with him to another country. The father and
mother share custody of the son.
3. Vandalism (destroying property)

Some teenagers break into a school cafeteria and


smash all the plates. Then they spray paint the
walls.

4. Delinquent payment (not paying money that you Two people who are renting an apartment have not
owe)
paid their rent for the last three months.
5. Impersonation/Breaking and entering
A man knocks on the door of an elderly woman's
(pretending to be someone else and enetering house, pretending to be a TV repairman. Once
somewhere illegally)
inside, he asks to use the bathroom, but, instead,
he goes into the bedroom and steals money and
jewelry.
6. False ID (having identification papers that An 18-year-old makes a copy of his friend's college
identify you as someone else)
ID. He uses it to pretend that he is 21.

Listen to people express their opinions about the crimes listed above. Listen carefully to what they say
and the degree of certainty with which they express their opinions. Circle the degree of certainty that
the speaker expresses.
1

Sure

Not Sure

Sure

Not Sure

Sure

Not Sure

Sure

Not Sure

Sure

Not Sure

Sure

Not Sure

Do you agree with these people's opinions? Why/why not?


Grammar Spot
Subject-Verb Agreement

Singular subjects

I. When the following words are used as subjects, they are always singular. Some of these words are
plural in meaning, but they always require a singular verb.
everyone everybody everything someone somebody
no one nobody nothing each either neither
Example:

Everyone is here.
S
V

something

anyone

anybody

anything

Neither of these books is new.


S
V

II. When each or every comes before singular subjects joined by and, a singular verb is required.
Example: Each student and teacher has a locker.
S
S
V
III. Introductory it is singular and always followed by a singular verb.
Example: It is his grades that worry him.
SV

Plural subjects

I. Subjects joined by and or both... and... take a plural verb.


Example: The teacher and the students are attending the lecture.
S
S
V

II. Several, many, both, few are plural words and always take a plural verb.
Example: Only a few have passed the exam.
S
V
III. Some nouns are always plural in form and always take plural verbs.
Clothes: trousers, pants, jeans, sunglasses
Tools: scissors, pliers, tweezers
Abstract: thanks, means
However, some of them can take a singular verb when they are used in expressions such as a pair of..., a
word of...
His pants are still ar the cleaners.
S
V

That pair of pants is dirty.


S
V

Your thanks are enough for me.


S
V

A word of thanks is enough.


S
V

Alternatives

I. When subjects are joined by the following structures, the verb must agree with the closest subject.
Neither the students nor the teacher is allowed to smoke.
S
S
V
Either the teacher or students have your books.
S
S
V
Not only the students but also the teacher is coming soon.
S
S
V
II. Many words can be singular or plural depending on what they refer to: none, all, some, any, majority,
most, half, etc. When these words are used with a singular noun, then the verb is singular; when they
are used with a plural noun, then the verb is plural.
Examples: All of the book has been destroyed.
S
V

All of the books have been destroyed.


S
V

III. The expression a number of is plural, and the expression the number of is singular.
A number of students were missing from class.
S
V
The number of students in class is small.
S
V

Exercises
Complete these sentences with is or are depending on the subject.
1. Either his children or his wife _______ arriving today.
2. Both the chair and the sofa _______ on sale.
3. It _______ the bicyclists who endanger the joggers.
4. Everyone in the class _______ working hard.
5. All of the water _______ contaminated.
6. Every dog and cat _______ vaccinated against rabies.
7. A number of doctors _______ working in this hospital.
8. All of the rooms _______ clean.
9. The number of female doctors _______ growing.
10. Not only men but also women _______ eligible to vote.
11. It _______ the exam that worries me.
12. Each boy and girl _______ doing the test.

Techniques for Solving Crimes


Before

you read:
Have you ever seen TV series or movies about detectives solving crime? Make a list.
What are the techniques you have seen? How effective are they?
In your opinion, what is the most effective technique for solving a crime?

Now read a text about this topic. First look up the words in bold in a dictionary.
There are many methods of crime detection. Detection methods include the study of
handwriting to find out who was the author of an incriminating document and the use of a lie
detector test that indicates whether suspects are telling the truth by measuring their breathing
and pulse and skin movements. Detectives can even use insects to help solve a murder case! By
knowing how long it would take certain insects to break down the body tissue, scientists can
estimate the time of death. Insects can also be used to solve drug crimes. Insects are often found
in illegal shipments of drugs. Detectives can use knowledge about where the insects come from to
trace the drugs back to a particular location in the world.
One of the most important and reliable kinds of evidence that can be used in solving crimes
is still the fingerprint. A person's fingerprints are the swirled patterns of ridges and valleys in the
skin on the tips of the fingers. These patterns are unique, that is, no two people have identical
patterns, and the patterns do not change over time. Criminal investigation agencies all over the
world have large collections of fingerprints to use in crime detection and these are now
computerized to make it easier to search for matching prints. If fingerprints are found at a crime
scene, officers may enter them into a computer bank to search for a match with the prints of a
suspected criminal.
Fingerprints form when someone touches a surface. Sweat and amino acids from the body
transfer to the surface and leave an impression. Sometimes it is only a partial impression, but that
can be sufficient. Many prints are invisible under normal circumstances, but they can be made
visible using a variety of techniques, such as dusting powders and chemicals. The prints are then
photographed and lifted with a tape. Today, prints are often examined in darkness using highpowered lasers, and they can be retrieved from almost any surfaceeven plastic bags or human
skin.
Of course, some crime scenes may contain no fingerprints. When the New York City police
arrested a murder suspect in June 1998, they had no physical evidence tying him to the killing.
Only days later they were able to link him to that homicide, plus two other homicides and it all
came down to a cup of coffee. The detectives who had arrested the man on a petty theft charge,
gave him coffee while they were questioning him. After the suspect left the room, detectives used
the saliva he left on the cup to obtain his DNA. Testing then showed that his DNA matched not
only the DNA found at the crime scene, but DNA associated with other crimes as well. Another
case involved a DNA sample from a popsicle. Detectives who had been following the suspect
picked up the popsicle from a trash bin. In this case, however, the suspect was found not to be
connected to the crime.
DNA analysis is based on the fact that every person (except an identical twin) has certain
elements in his or her DNA that are unique. A sample of DNA can be taken from a person and

matched to a sample of DNA taken from a crime scenefrom a drop of blood or a trand of hair, for
example. New methods of DNA testing mean that it is now a much faster and cheaper process,
and large banks of DNA test results can be stored in computers, just as fingerprints are. When
DNA is collected from a crime scene, the computers can search for a test result that matches the
sample. Now, in New York City, detectives are being instructed to pick up such discarded items as
gum, tissues, Band-Aids, and, in some cases, the spit of suspects, in order to get samples of
their DNA. If detectives can match the DNA to DNA recovered from the crime scene, chances for a
guilty plea or conviction are higher. If there is no match, suspects can be eliminated.
The analysis of DNA is another example of how science and technology are transforming
crime fighting. However, there are some difficulties with this method. While some see it as a
positive technological advancementa tool that helps police to find and charge the guilty and to
free the innocentothers see it as a serious invasion of privacy, suggesting it is like a police
search of a person or place without permission. United States law regards DNA like other
property that someone has abandoned. If a suspect leaves saliva on a glass in a restaurant, or a
cigarret butt on a sidewalk, or in some other public place, this is abandoned property. If someone
drinks from a glass in a restaurant and then leaves the restaurant, he or she is, in legal terms,
abandoning the DNA left on the glass.
There is also the issue that DNA can be used to reveal much information about a person's
genetic code. It can show, for example, whether the person has genes that relate to particular
illnesses or to particular kinds of behavior. For reasons of privacy, therefore, it is important that
DNA testing be strictly limited to simply identifying the person, and not used for other purposes
without the person's permission. Special legislation may be needed to protect this genetic
information.

Now answer the questions below.


1. In which ways can insects help solve crimes?
__________________________________________________________________
2. What is the main characteristic of a fingerprint?
__________________________________________________________________
3. How can detectives see fingerprints?
__________________________________________________________________
4. Why is DNA more useful than fingerprints?
__________________________________________________________________
5. What do some people say against the use of DNA?
__________________________________________________________________
Complete the following sentences using information from Table 7.2.
1. The most useful source of DNA is ________________________________________.
2. Saliva on __________________________ or __________________________ is more useful than
that found on __________________________ or __________________________.
3. The least useful source of DNA is __________________________.
4. Mucus on used tisssue paper is not a useful as, for example, __________________________.
Imagine you are a detective. You have been involved in solving a crime using DNA. Now you must write
your report. Tell the story of how you collected the DNA and how it helped you find the criminal. Use the
guide questions below to help you get started.
1.
2.
3.
4.

What was the crime?


Who was the suspect?
How did you collect the DNA?
Then what happened?

__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Grammar Spot
Referents
Referents are words in a passage that other words refer to. Usually, they are mentioned before
the pronoun in the passageoften immediately before it; this is called anaphora. However, sometimes
the referent appears after the pronoun (cataphora). The referent may be in the same sentence as the
pronoun or it may be in another sentence.
The meaning of the sentence (context) can help you identify the referents. The function of the
pronoun or referring wordfor example, whether it is a subject or objectcan help you find the correct
referent. Grammatical structures are often clues that point to the identity of referents. Sentence
structure, logic, and common sense can help you locate referents.
Some words and pronouns that have referents are:
Subject Pronouns

he

she

it

they

Object Pronouns

him

her

it

them

Possessive Adjectives

his

her

its

their

Demonstrative Pronouns

this

that

these those

Relative Pronoun

who

which

Other Pronouns

all

another

any

one

others

several

both

each
some

a few many most


the first

none
the last

the other

Exercises
Read an extract and underline the referents and the words/phrases that refer to them.
The analysis of DNA is another example of how science and technology are transforming
crime fighting. However, there are some difficulties with this method. While some see it as a
positive technological advancementa tool that helps police to find and charge the guilty and to
free the innocentothers see it as a serious invasion of privacy, suggesting it is like a police
search of a person or place without permission. United States law regards DNA like other
property that someone has abandoned. If a suspect leaves saliva on a glass in a restaurant, or a
cigarret butt on a sidewalk, or in some other public place, this is abandoned property. If someone
drinks from a glass in a restaurant and then leaves the restaurant, he or she is, in legal terms,
abandoning the DNA left on the glass.

UNIT 4: THE MEDIA


Before you read:
Think about your own use of the mass media. Then complete this chart with your own information and
compare it with your classmates.

Provide a short description for each type of television program and give some examples.
Talk shows
News
Prime-time movies
Soap operas
Cartoons
Sitcoms
Documentaries
Now read a text about the roles of mass media.
The term mass media refers to the channels of communication (media) that exist to reach
a large public audience (the mass of the population). Mass media includes newspapers,
magazines, television, radio, and more recently, the Internet. It informs people about events that
they would otherwise know little about. Mass media communication is usually fast, because the
media will report an important event as quickly as possible after it happens. In fact, some
television reporting is live; that is, the viewers can see the events as they happen. It is also
transilient; that is, the focus on one event doesn't last long. This is captured in the expression
there is nothing as old as yesterday's news.
The mass media is an important part of life in many countries such as the United States.
Over 55 million newspapers are circulated each day. There are over five radios per household, and
it is estimated that radio reaches 77% of people over the age of 12 every day. The radio listening
time for those over 12 is more than three hours each day. Most households also have two or more
television sets, with a total viewing time of about seven hours per day. The amount of time that
people spend in front of their television sets varies with age, gender, and education, but on
average it amounts to three to four hours a day.

While most of us make use of some form of the media on a daily basis, we may not think
about the functions or purposes the media serves in our society. One important function is
entertainment. On television, in particular, the variety of entertainment programs is extensive,
ranging from soap operas, to comedy, to talk shows, to sports. Even advertising, where the main
purpose is to sell things to the public, may sometimes be seen as entertainment.
Another function is education. A quick look through a television or radio guide will reveal
many programs with an educational focus. These include documentaries on a wide range of topics
such as animal behavior, geography, history or art. They also include a wide variety of
instructional programs such as cooking, home decorating, or investing. Some children's programs
are also educational, teaching children to count or recognize words, or introducing them to
different societies and cultures.
The media can provide important community information in the form of warnings. For
example, the media can warn of the danger of an approaching hurricane or tornado. These
warnings provide up-to-the-minute information on the location of the bad weather and alert
people to take the necessary precautions. Without such warnings there would be a greater danger
of loss of life and property. Warnings may also be given for other hazards such as air or water
pollution. Periodically, the media raises questions about water quality, suggesting that the water
we drink is not safe. How much these water scares are motivated by commercial interests is
unknown. However, bottled water is a 2-billion-dollar business and growing.
In addition to these functions, the media has an important role in shaping our beliefs.
Sometimes information contained in the media is deliberately presented in such way that it
encourages us to believe certain things or to form certain opinions. This practice is referred to as
propaganda. When we think of propaganda, we usually think of political forces, but commercial
interests may also use the media to propagandize. Advertisements, for example, encourage us to
believe that certain products will change our lives in amazing ways. The media can also influence
what we believe is possible. For example, 43% of adults in the US believe that UFOs
(Unindentified Flying Objects) may be space vehicles from another planet, and most people think
that alien visitors would be like E.T. from the movie by Steven Spielberg. TV and movies are likely
to be responsible for these views (Miller 1978).
A further function of the mass media is that of socialization. This is the process by which a
society transmits cultural values about what is appropiate behavior to its members. People may be
socialized into behaving in certain ways in response to a personal problem, because they have
frequently seen others on the news or in soap operas behaving that way in similar circumstances.
Finally, for some people the media offers companionship. Television celebrities and talk show hosts
may be seen as friends by their viewers, particularly if those viewers are socially isolated, aged
or invalid, and in need of companionship.
The range of functions or purposes of the media in society are many and varied, and the
influence on our lives is considerable. The media influences how we spend our time and our
money, what we get to see and hear about, and the way we understand those events. It helps to
shape our beliefs, our opinions and our behaviors.

Vocabulary in context
In the text there are many words that have been highlighted. It is very common to use the
context in order to guess the meaning of unknown words. The context is the settingthe sentence and
paragraphin which a word or phrase appears. The meaning of a word or phrase in context is its meaning
in the particular sentence and paragraph in which it is used. A single English word can have many
different meanings so its precise meaning always depends on the context in which it is used.
To understand the meaning of a word in context, you can use different types of context clues:
your knowledge of structure, punctuation, and the meaning of other words in the same sentence or
paragraph. Also, you can use your common sense and knowledge of the world.
Structural clues
Clue: BE
Example: A supernova is a massive star that Explanation: the meaning of supernova is given by
undergoes a gravitational collapse, then a gigantic the information after the verb is. A supernova is a
explosion, blasting away the outer layers into massive star that collapses and then explodes.
space.
Clue: OR
Example: The inclination or tilt of the earth's axis Explanation: the meaning of inclination is given by
with respect to the sun determines the seasons.
the information after the conjunction or.
Inclination means tilt.
Clue: APPOSITIVE
Example: Thermal power stations are designed to
pass as much energy as possible from the fuel to
the turbines, machines whose blades are turned by
the movement of the steam.
Clue: LIST or SERIES
Example: Because of their similar teeth, seals and
walruses are believed to have evolved from the
same ancestral groups as the weasels, badgers, and
other mustelids.

Explanation: the meaning of turbines is given by


the appositive, the noun phrase after the comma.
Turbines are machines with blades that are turned
by the movement of the steam.

Explanation: Items in a list or series are related in


some way. The meaning of mustelids is suggested
by the other words in the list: weasels, badgers,
and other. Mustelids are animals like weasels and
badgers.

Clue: LINKING WORDS/EXPRESSIONS


Function: Illustration (for example, for instance, like, such as)
Example: Several personnel managers complain Explanation: the meaning of obsolete is given by
about the lag of business colleges in eliminating the information after for instance. Shorthand is an
obsolete skills. For instance, shorthand is still example of an obsolete skill. Obsolete describes
taught in many secretarial programs although it is something that is no longer useful.
rarely used.

Function: Contrast and concession (but, conversely, despite, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead,
nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, unlike, whereas, while)
Example: Twilight rays are nearly parallel, but Explanation: The meaning of diverge is given by but
because of the observer's perspective, they appear and parallel. From this, you know that diverge is
to diverge..
different from parallel.
Punctuation clues
comma
,
dash

colon
:
Example: Virtually every community college now
offers contract education: short-term programs,
ranging from a few hours to several days, from
employees of specific companies, which pay a share
of th cost.
Word Parts
Prefix
con
intro
syn

Stem
feder
duc
chron

Suffix
ate
tion
ize

parentheses
( )
quotation marks

brackets
[ ]
Explanation: the meaning of contract education is
given by the information after the colon. Contract
education is short-term programs for employees of
specific companies.

Word
confederate
introduction
synchronize

Exercises
Now guess the meaning of all the highlighted words in the reading passage.

Reporting the facts


Before you read:
In the examples below, the words in bold contain the prefix mis:
The article misreports the facts. The thief stole $1,000, not $10,000.
I misheard you. I thought you said you came from Austria, not Australia.
The governor was misquoted. She didn't say, I will resign. She said, I may resign.
How does adding the prefix mis to the beginning of a word change the meaning?
How can this prefix relate to the topic, Reporting the facts?
Now read a text about this topic.
Should you believe what you read or hear in the media? What is presented as fact is not
always so. Sometimes errors occur because the reporters and editors did not check the facts
properly. Sometimes new reporters misreport or misrepresent information in an effort to make a
story more newsworthy. Changing the facts a little can make the story either more serious or
more sensational.
______________________________
There have been some embarrassing examples where major newspapers and TV networks
have published false information because reporters have not checked it for accuracy. One such
example was the publication of a report of the death of the elderly comedian, Bob Hope. A U.S.
Congressman apparently misheard someone talking about Bob Hope. He stood up in Congress and
announced the death of the comedian. This was then picked up and published widely in the media.
When reporters called Mr. Hope's home to follow up the story, his daughter was very surprised and
assured them that he was happily eating his breakfast at that moment.
______________________________
Research into the accuracy of media reporting has revealed some interesting findings. One
media researcher collected and studied newspaper articles about climate change. His study
revealed a number of examples of errors in the media. In one article about the rise in sea level, it
was reported that the sea level was rising at 1 to 2 centimeters per year, when the interviewee
had (correctly) said millimeters. Another story predicted that the annual rainfall would increase 8
centimeters rather than millimeters. The researcher argued that these mistakes did not occur at
random because this could help others to manipulate information and thus, influence people's
opinions.
______________________________
Misquotation of sources is a common complaint about news stories. In the study mentioned
above, 34 percent of sources believed that they had been misquoted, that is, the sources did not
really say what was reported in the news story. When you read a direct quotation in the a news
story, you probably think you are reading someone's exact words. But often the part of the text in
quotation marks is actually a summary of what was said, put together by the reporter. In some
cases, sources that are quoted in media stories have never even spoken to the reporters.
A well-known case of misquotation occurred in the U.S. media in 1999. Al Gore, the U.S.
vice president at the time, was speaking to a group of secondary school students about efforts to

clean up toxic waste. He was referring to a community where the issue had been taken up by local
residents and said, ...that was the one that started it all. One prominent newspaper reported his
words as I was the one that started it all. As this misquotation was re-reported by other
newspapers around the country, Al Gore faced enormous criticism for trying to claim credit for
things he had not done.
Misquotation is also possible in broadcasting (radio and television). Technology makes it
possible to edit what someone says so that it sounds like continuous speech, when in fact some
phrases or sentences have been removed. Broadcasters argue that this is sometimes necessary.
They say that if they are quoting someone who is not a very skilled speaker, they have to edit the
talk. Another issue is the rearranging of questions and answers, so that a question receives an
answer that was originally given to another, though similar, question.
______________________________
The Internet is the source of many rumors, or unverified stories. Rumors are generally
spread from one person to another by word of mouth, and the story evolves or changes in the
process. But the Internet has allowed rumors to spread much further and faster than ever before.
In fact the Internet has begun to be used as a deliberate strategy to circulate rumors, often for
political purposes and often with a serious impact. In 1998, false reports of riots in Malaysia
sparked panic that prompted people to stock up on food and lock themselves indoors.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

There are 4 sections in this text. Match the titles i-vi to their corresponding sections. Note that
there are more titles than sections.
Rumors on the Internet
The Internet as a powerful tool
Failing to check the facts
Misquoting
Reporting statistics
Misreporting

Scan the text and find the following information:

The name of a famous person from the U.S. _____________________


Two different numbers

_____________________

A unit of measurement

_____________________

A percentage _____________________
A year _____________________

1. The word newsworthy in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to


a) meaningful
b) insignificant
c) late
d) fresh

2. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to


a) accuracy
b) reporters
c) information
d) examples
3. The word random in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
a) essential
b) unpremeditated
c) particular
d) definite
4. The phrase the issue in paragraph 5 refers to
a) community
b) Al Gore
c) efforts to clean toxic waste
d) local residents
5. The word argue in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
a) concur
b) contend
c) contempt
d) condescension
6. The word sparked in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to
a) ceased
b) started
c) deadened
d) muffled
7. The word prompted in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to
a) urged
b) halted
c) hindered
d) hidden

Collocations: classify the words below according to the adjectives you can use with them. Some
of them can used more than once.
criticism

common

information
false

complaint
enormous

impact
deliberate

words
serious

strategy
exact

Paraphrasing
A paraphrase is a restatement of another sentence that gives the same information as the original
sentence but in a different way. Paraphrases or restatements may have different sentence structure or
use diferent words. They often use synonyms, words that have the same meaning, or nearly the same
meaning, as the words in the original sentence. In order to identify the paraphrase of a sentence, focus
on the essential information in the original sentence, which includes the ideas that are basic to the
sentence's meaning.
Example:
Original sentence
If we factor in the inequality of life, then the
carrying capacity of Earth will be much smaller than
if we simply estimate how much food it takes to
avoid starvation.

Paraphrase
Earth can support fewer people if the quality of
life is considered more significant than just
avoiding starvation.

Drawing inferences and determining purpose


An inference is a conclusion you can make from the information given in a passage. An inference
is an idea that you can reasonably take to be true, based on what the author says. Some inferences can
be made from a single sentence, but others are based on a whole paragraph or on the entire passage.
When you make inferences, use key words and ideas in the passage and your overall understanding on
the author's message, as well as reason, logic, and common sense.
The purpose of a passage is the reason the author wrote it. The author wants you to understand
the topic in a certain way, and its purpose may be to inform, define, explain, illustrate, compare,
criticize, etc. The author's purpose is closely related to the main points made about the topic.
Example:

Researchers have confirmed the link between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and rising
temperatures. Global warming is a serious threat to entire ecosystems, the global atmosphere, and the oceans.
While we are already seeing its effect on wildlife and habitat, we know that reducing carbon dioxide emissions
from human activitiessuch as burning fossil fuels in power plants and automobileswill help slow global
warming and minimize negative effects.
What can be inferred from this paragraph about carbon dioxide?
a) It burns at a very high temperature.
b) It is the main atmospheric gas.
c) It is a cause of global warming.
d) It is used as a fuel for automobiles.
Why is burning fossil fuels mentioned?
a) To explain what carbon dioxide is.
b) To illustrate an action that produces carbon dioxide.
c) To illustrate a cause of global warming.
d) To describe the effects of global warming.

Exercises
Read this text about Prestige and answer the questions below.

Prestige refers to a person's social standingthe level of respect that other people are willing to show. A
person with high prestige is honored or esteemed by other people, while a person with low prestige is
disrespected or marginalized. Prestige is a valued resource for people at all levels of a society, and this can be
seen among inner-city youth, where to disrespect or diss someone has negative consequences. Exactly what
qualities are respected will vary from one society to another.
In the United States, the top-status occupations are the professionsphysicians, lawyers, professors, and
clergyrequiring many years of education and training. At the other end of the hierarchy, the lowest prestige is
associated with occupations requiring little formal educationfor example, bus drivers, sanitation works, and
janitors. Prestige is linked to income, but there are exceptions, such as college professors, who have high
prestige but relatively low salaries compared to physicians and lawyers. Conversely, some low-prestige workers
receive high union wages and benefits. Criminals are often well rewarded with income and respect in their
communities, while politiciansmany of whom are wealthyare frequently less respected than occupations
such as secretary and bank teller.

1. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in
paragraph 1?
a) The most valuable resource in any society is prestige, but young people who disrespect others
reject this.
b) People at all social levels value prestige, and to disrespect another is punished, for example,
among urban youth.
c) The disrespectful behavior of some young people shows that prestige is not valued equally
throughout a society.
d) There are serious consequences when teenagers from the inner city do not show respect for
other groups.
2. Why are inner-city youngsters mentioned?
a) To describe the ways in which respect is valued in a society.
b) To compare how different people value respect in a society.
c) To illustrate the qualities that are taken into account when people value respect.
d) To illustrate that to some extent, all people in a society value respect.
3. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in
paragraph 2?
a) If an occupation has high prestige, then it usually has a high income; college professors,
physicians, and lawyers are good examples.
b) Occupational status depends on income, although there is a wide range of income levels in
occupations such as college professor.
c) The fact that college professors have high prestige but relatively low incomes is an exception
to the rule that prestige and income are related.
d) It is unfair for college professors to have low salaries compared to other high-prestige
professions that have high salaries.

Privacy and The Media


Before you read:
Who are these people? What do you already know about them?

Why do you think they might be mentioned in a text about privacy and the media?
Work in pairs. Imagine that you are members of the editorial board of a newspaper. You have
photographs of the following events:

A politician passionately kissing someone other than his or her spouse


A person threatening to commit suicide by jumping off a building
A movie star punching a news reporter in the street
A celebrity being attacked by a wild dog
A teenager being arrested for shoplifting
A movie star sunbathing in a bikini in the backyard of her private residence.

Discuss and decide which of these photographs, if any, you will publish in your newspaper. What factors
did you consider in making your decision?
Now read a text about this topic.
Journalists are often faced with difficult decisions about whether or not to print a story or a
photograph. There are a number of ethical issues they need to consider. Is the material too
violent? Will it upset people because it tells about acts or events that are against their moral
values? Does it represent an invasion of someone's privacy, that is, does it present to the public
something that should remain private? Journalists must decide what responsibility, if any, they
have to society and if that responsibility is best fulfilled by publishing or not publishing.
An interesting question related to invasion of privacy is whether or not the public has the
right to know about the private lives of people who are public figures. In 1987, one U.S.
presidential candidate, Gary Hart, was forced to drop out ( ) before the election because of press
stories about his affair with a woman. Now, all candidates for the office of president can expect to
have their lives watched closely and with interest by the media. In 1998, the story of the
relationship between President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky dominated ( ) the media for many
months. The public was presented with very personal details of the relationship, and the scandal

( ) almost forced the president to resign. A basic question for the media is whether a politician's
personal life is relevant to his or her performance in the job. One point of view suggests that if a
person is not honest and faithful to his or her spouse, that person is not honest and faithful to his
or her country. Another view says that if you get rid of everyone who has broken a moral law,
there will be no one left to serve in public office.
Politicians are not the only ones whose private lives are of interest to the media. Famous
people of various kinds, including movie stars and royalty, are often closely followed by the press.
There have been stories of journalists digging through garbage bins to find little bits of
information on the private lives of the rich and famous. Some press photographers try to take
photographs of famous people in their most private moments to sell them to the world's media.
They often use very powerful long lenses so that they can take photos from a distance and spy
into people's home, for example. These photographers are called paparazzi.
Paparazzi have been around for decades, but their business has grown in recent years as
there are now more magazines that focus on the lives of famous people. New technology such as
digital videos and cameras also allows them to send the photographs much more quickly to one
publisher or to many publishers around the world. There is a lot of money to be made and this
means that some of the paparazzi are becoming even more aggressive in their efforts to get a
good photo. Some paparazzi have been accused of deliberately starting fights with movie stars
in order to shoot them in embarrassing situations.
In 1997, when Princess Diana died in a car accident in Paris, her car was being chased by
paparazzi. This started a big public debate about the behavior of paparazzi and the issues of
privacy and the media. There was much public criticism of the paparazzi and of the newspapers
and magazines that published paparazzi photos. One member of the paparazzi argued, I feel no
responsibility, legal or moral. Of course I'm sad, because someone we all adore is dead. But when
you become Princess Di, you are a public person. Many magazine editors say that when they are
deciding whether or not to use paparazzi photos, they consider each case separately. They decide
whether the news value of a picture is more important than the person's right to peace and
privacy.
Some critics have called for laws to limit the actions of paparazzi. However, the campaign
against the paparazzi has its dangers. Journalism necessarily involves some degree of
unwelcome ( ) observation, that is, the journalist's job is to investigate ( ) matters that some
people would not like to have publicized. Moreover, famous people often use the paparazzi for
their own purposes. They look for as much media coverage ( ) as possible to keep them in the
news, in order to maintain their fame and popularity.

I.

Answer these questions.

1. What are some ethical issues that journalists need to consider before publishing a news story?
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Who was Gary Hart and why was he mentioned?
___________________________________________________________________________

3. The word ones in paragraph 3 refers to


a) politicians
b) famous people
c) royals
d) people whose lives are the media's target
4. The word them in paragraph 3 refers to
a) press photographers
b) photographs
c) world's media
d) none of the above
5. What are paparazzi?
___________________________________________________________________________
6. The word them in paragraph 4 refers to
a) digital videos and cameras
b) photographs
c) publishers
d) paparazzi
7. The word this in paragraph 4 refers to
a) money
b) paparazzi
c) good photo
d) none of the above
8. What happened after Princess Diana died?
___________________________________________________________________________
9. Why do some people favor paparazzi?
___________________________________________________________________________
10. The word them in paragraph 6 refers to
a) media coverage
b) famous people
c) journalists
d) news
II. Look at the words in bold in paragraphs 2 and 6. Match them to their synonyms and/or
definitions. Note that there are more definitions/synonyms than words in bold.
a) causing shame and discomfort
b) using strong, forceful methods
c) was most important

d) not wanted
e) a shocking event
f) on purpose

g) quit
h) attention
i) examine

Grammar Spot
The Passive Voice (present simple)
Read at the following sentences.
i. Journalists must decide what responsibility they have to society.
ii. Famous people of various kinds are often closely followed by the press.
In which sentence is the subject the one that does the action?
In which sentence is the subject affected by the action?
How many verbs do the sentences use? Are there any auxilaries? If so, which one(s)?
We use active voice to say what the subject does:
Journalists investigate matters that are controversial.
S
V
We use a passive voice to say what happens to the subject:
Controversial matters are investigated by journalists.
S
V
When we use the passive voice, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:
These photographers are called paparazzi. Someone gave them that name but we don't know his/her
identity.
Magazines about famous people are printed everyday. Someone prints them but his/her identity is not
relevant.
If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by:
These pictures are taken by paparazzi.
Exercises
Rewrite these sentences using passive voice.
1. Somebody cleans the room every day.
_____________________________________________________________________
2. People don't use this road very often.
_____________________________________________________________________
3. How do people learn languages?
_____________________________________________________________________
4. The doctors operate 50 patients in this hospital every day.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. The media usually show false stories.
_____________________________________________________________________

Intenet Issues
Before you read: Internet Quiz
Answer these questions about the Internet.
What is the Internet?
How did it begin?
Why do people use the Internet today?
What do you use the Internet for?
How many hours do you spend on the Internet?
Is your use of, and attitude about, computers different from that of your parents?
Now read a text about the topic.
The Internet is an amazing information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use
it as an investigative tool. Journalists use it to find information for stories. Doctors use it to learn
more about unfamiliar diseases and the latest medical developments. Ordinary people use it for
shopping, banking, bill-paying, and communication with family and friends. People all over the
world use it to connect with individuals from other countries and cultures. However, while there
are many positive developments associated with the Internet, there are also certain fears and
concerns.
One concern relates to a lack of censorship or control over what appears on the Internet.
Anyone can put information on the Internet that can be then read by anyone else, at any time.
This makes it very different from television or radio. With television and radio there are editors to
check the accuracy or appropiateness of the content of programs, and with television there are
restrictions on what kinds of programs can be broadcast and at what times of the day. With the
Internet, parents cannot check a published guide to determine what is suitable for their children to
see. While software can be used to block access to certain websites, such as those displaying
pornography, this can never be completely effective.
There are also concerns about privacy and control of communication on the Intenet. For
example, when you use e-mail communication or participate in chat groups, it is possible that
your private messages may be read by others without your knowing. If you buy things online or
simply browse the Internet, it is possible to trace all the websites that you visit. Someone may be
looking over your shoulder electronically. Such information can be used to build up a profile of
your interests and habits. One purpose for such a profile is to provide information to companies
that sell online advertising space. If they know your habits and interests, they can select
particular advertisements to send you when you are online. The advertisements are chosen to
match your profile. One potential danger is that the information could be used by others to your
disadvantage. For example, an employer could use such information to decide that you are not a
suitable applicant for a job.
A further issue relates to the misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Many companies are
now finding that they need to establish policies to control when employees use the Internet and
for what purposes. Recent surveys undertaken in the United States have revealed, for example,
that:
47% of employees send up to five personal e-mails per day, 32% send up to ten personal
e-mails daily, and 28% receive up to twenty personal e-mails per day.

Online industry analysts predict that Internet misuse will cost companies an estimated 1
billion dollars in lost productivity.
In companies that use software to monitor employee use of the Internet, 60% of the
managers said they had disciplined employees for online misuse, and 30% had fired people
for such behavior, which included shopping or gambling online and downloading
pornography.

A fourth and growing area of concern is that of Internet addiction. An Internet addict is
someone who is unable to control his or her own use of the Internet and whose behavior
threatens to overwhelm his or her normal life. Internet addiction can result in many problems
including a lack of sleep, lateness for appointments, neglect of work responsibilities, and the
disintegration of marriages and families. Internet addiction is not just a matter of how much time
a person spends online. It is more a matter of how much damage Internet can cause in a person's
life.

1. Name two ways in which people use the Internet.


i.

_________________________________________________________________

ii. _________________________________________________________________
2. What are the four concerns that are mentioned in the text?
i.

_________________________________________________________________

ii. _________________________________________________________________
iii. _________________________________________________________________
iv. _________________________________________________________________
3. What is the difference between Internet and television and radio?
_________________________________________________________________
4. Why is it dangerous to shop online?
_________________________________________________________________
5. What are some examples of Internet misuse at work?
_________________________________________________________________
6. What are some problems associated to Internet addiction?
_________________________________________________________________

Now take the Internet addiction test, and calculate your score. Then read the Analysis of results
section and discuss your results with your classmates.

To assess your level of addiction, answer the questions below. Consider only the time you spend online
for nonstudy and non-job-related purposes. For each question, give yourself a score using the following
scale:
0 = Never

1 = Rarely

2 = Occasionally

3 = Often

4 = Always

How often do...


1. _____ you find that you stay online longer that you intended?
2. _____ you neglect household chores to spend more time online?
3. _____ you form new relationships with fellow online users?
4. _____ others in your life complain to you about the amount of time you spend online?
5. _____ you spend so much time online that your study or work is affected?
6. _____ you check your e-mail before something else that you need to do?
7. _____ you feel that life on the Internet is more interesting than offline life?
8. _____ you lose sleep due to late-night use of the Internet?
9. _____ you try to cut down the amount of time you spend online and fail?
10. _____ you choose to spend more time online rather than going out with others?
Your total score: ______

Analysis of results
The higher you score, the greater your level of addiction. Here's a general scale to help measure your
score.
10-19 points: You are an average online user. At times you may spend a bit too much time on the
Internet, but you have control over your usage.
20-29 points: You are experiencing occasional or frequent problems because of the Internet. You should
consider the Internet's full impact on your life.
30-40 points: Your Internet usage is causing significant problems in your life. You should evaluate the
impact of the Internet on your life and address the problems caused by your Internet usage.

Grammar Spot
The Passive Voice (past simple)
The passive voice can be used with all tenses in English. The rules for the use of past simple are the
same as the ones for present simple. The only change is the auxiliary verb be: now you need to use
was or were instead of am/are/is.
Example:
In the past, letters and postcards were used to communicate. Now the Internet is used by many people
in the world to communicate.
Exercises
I. Complete the sentences below with a suitable verb in past simple using passive voice or active
voice
sell

follow

arrest

destroy

wear

develop

prevent

decrease

1. A number of priceless works of art ________________ in the earthquake last year.


2. Kathy left the room and everyone ________________ her.
3. A new drug to combat asthma in small children ________________ last month.
4. There's an exhibition of the clothes that Queen Victoria ________________.
5. The economic situation in the region ________________ quite sharply during the last year.
6. People who didn't have a valid visa ________________ from entering the country.
7. More than 100,000 smartphones ________________ last month.
8. A man ________________ for smuggling stolen goods into the country.

II. Rewrite the following active voice sentences using passive voice. Note that not all of them can
be used in this way.
1. The students finished the tests on time.
____________________________________________________________________
2. We walk to work every morning.
____________________________________________________________________
3. The staff arranged the seats so that everyone could have a place to sit.
____________________________________________________________________
4. The storm killed four people and left 50 others without a home.
____________________________________________________________________
5. The chapter about color was very difficult.
____________________________________________________________________

UNIT 5: BODY LANGUAGE


Before you read:
Can you change the meaning of a message by the way you use your voice and gestures?
Say the phrase It's time to go in different ways. What are those meanings?
Now read a text abou this topic.
(1)
Those characteristics that may be found in all forms of nonverbal communication are called
universals, and they provide a framework within which the specifics of nonverbal communication may be
viewed.

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION OCCURS IN A CONTEXT


Like verbal communication, nonverbal communication exists in a context, and that context determines
to a large extent the meanings of any nonverbal behaviors. The same nonverbal behavior may have a totally
different meaning when it occurs in another context. A wink of the eye to an attractive person on a bus means
something completely different from a wink of the eye to signify a lie. Similarly, the meaning of a given bit of a
nonverbal behavior depends on the verbal behavior it accompanies or is close to in time. Of course, even if we
know the context in detail, we still might not be able to decipher the meaning of nonverbal behavior. In
attempting to understand and analyze non-verbal communication, however, it is essential to recognize the
context in a complete way.
(2)

NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS ARE USUALLY PACKAGED


Nonverbal behaviors, whether they involve the hands, the eyes, or the muscle tone of the body, usually
occur in packages or clusters in which the various verbal and nonverbal behaviors reinforce each other, an
occurrence referred to as congruence. We do not express fear with our eyes while the rest of our body relaxes
as if sleeping; rather, the entire body expresses the emotion. We may, for the purposes of analysis, focus
primarily on the eyes, the facial muscles, or the hand movement, but in everyday communication, these do not
occur in isolation from other non-verbal behaviors. In fact, it is physically difficult to express an intense
emotion with only one part of the body. Try to express an emotion with the face only. You will find the rest of
our body takes on the qualities of that emotion as well.
(3)

NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR ALWAYS COMMUNICATES


The observation that all behavior communicates is particularly important in regard to nonverbal
communication. It is impossible not to behave; consequently, it is impossible not to communicate. Regardless of
what one does or does not do, one's nonverbal behavior communicates something to someone (assuming that it
occurs in an interactional setting).
(4)

(5)
Even small movements are extremely important in interpersonal relationships. We can tell, for example,
when two people genuinely like each other and when they are merely being polite. If we had to state how we
know this, we would probably have considerable difficulty. These inferences, many of which are correct, are
based primarily on these small nonverbal behaviors of the participantsthe muscles around the eyes, the
degree of eye contact, the way in which the individuals face each other, and so on. All nonverbal behavior,
however small or transitory, is significant; all of it communicates.
(6)

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IS GOVERNED BY RULES


Nonverbal communication is rule-governed; it is regulated by a system of rules and norms that state

what is and what is not appropiate, expected, and permissible in specific social situations. We learn both the
ways to communicate nonverbally and the rules of appropiateness at the same time from observing the
behaviors of the adult community. For example, we learn that touch is permissible under certain circumstances
but not others, and we learn which type of touching is permissible and which is not; in short, we learn the rules
governing touching behavior. We learn that women may touch each other in public; for example, they may hold
hands, walk arm in arm, engage in prolonged hugging, and even dance together. We also learn that men may not
do this, at least not with social criticism. Furthermore, we learn that there are certain parts of the body that
may not be touched and certain parts that may. As a relationship changes, so do the rules for touching. As we
become more intimate, the rules for touching become less restrictive.
(7)
In the United States, direct eye contact signals openness and honesty. But among Native Americans,
direct eye contact between, say, a teacher and a student, would be considered inappropiate, perhaps aggressive;
appropiate student behavior would be to avoid eye contact with the teacher. From this simple example, it is
easy to see how miscommunication can easily take place. To a teacher in the United States, avoidance of eye
contact by a Native American could easily be taken to mean guilt, disinterest, or disrespect, when in fact the
child was following his or her own culturally established rules of eye contact. Like the nonverbal behaviors
themselves, these rules are learned without conscious awareness. We learn them largely from observing others.
The rules are brought to our attention only in formal discussions of nonverbal communication, such as this one,
or when rules are violated and the violations are called to our attentioneither directly by some tactless snob
or indirectly through the examples of others. While linguists are attempting to formulate the rules for verbal
messages, nonverbal researchers are attempting to formulate the rules for nonverbal messagesrules that
native communicators know and use every day, but cannot necessarily verbalize.
I.

Read the following statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false ones.

1. _____ If we know the full context for a piece of nonverbal behavior, we can always understand
its meaning.
2. _____ It is not easy to express an emotion with just one part of your body; the rest of the body
will move automatically.
3. _____ Tiny body movements do not play a significant part in communicating a message.
4. _____ We are usually taught the rules for appropiate nonverbal behavior in school.
5. _____ Nonverbal communication can change depending on the culture where it is used.
6. _____ Observation plays an important role in learning the rules for nonverbal communication.
II. Choose the correct letter a), b), c), or d)
1. What is the best title for the text?
a) Body Language
b) Universals of Body Language
c) Universals of Nonverbal Communication
d) Universals of Communication

III. Go back to paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, and classify the underlined words and phrases according to
their function in the text.
Function

Linking word/phrase

Name some examples of nonverbal communication that are used in Chile.


Is there any difference among them? (register, age, etc)

Grammar Spot
Passive voice: Progressive and perfect tenses

Exercises
Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use the previous sentence to help you understand the
context.
1. There's somebody behind us. (I think / we / follow) ___________________________________.
2. This room looks different. (you / paint?)

___________________________________.

3. My car has disappeared. (it / steal!) ___________________________________.


4. Tom gets a higher salary now. (he / promote) ___________________________________.
5. Ann can't use her office at the moment. (it / redecorate)
___________________________________.
6. The man next door disappeared six months ago. (he / see / since then)
___________________________________.

Facial Communication
Before you read:
According to a key hypothesis presented in the text below, facial expressions are largely universal. If this
is so, all the students in your class should choose the same answers in the following activity, regardless
of their age, sex, or cultural background.
Find the face that best expresses each emotion and write the letter of that face in the blank. Compare
answers with your classmates.

Now read a text about Facial Expression.


Throughout our interpersonal interactions, our faces communicate, especially our emotions. Paul
Elkman, Wallace V. Friesen, and Phoebe Ellsworth (1972) claim that facial messages may communicate at least
the following eight emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest. Dale
Leathers (1990) has proposed that in addition to these, facial movements may also communicate bewilderment
and determination.
Try to communicate surprise using only facial movements. Do this in front of a mirror and attempt to
describe in as much detail as possible the specific movements of the face that make up surprise. If you signal
suprise like most people, you probably employ raised and curved eyebrows, long horizontal forehead wrinkles,
wide-open eyes, a dropped-open mouth, and lips parted with no tension. Even if there were differencesand
clearly there would be from one person to anotheryou could probably recognize the movements listed here as
indicative of surprise. In FAST (Facial Affect Scoring Technique), the face is broken up into three main parts:
eyebrows and forehead, eyes and eyelids, and the lower face from the bridge of the nose down. Judges then try
to identify various emotions by observing the different parts of the face and writing descriptions similar to the
one just given for surprise. In this way we can study more effectively just how the face communicates the
various emotions.

_________________________________________________
The accuracy with which people express emotions facially and the accuracy with which receivers
decode the expressions have been the objects of considerable research. One problem confronting this research
is that it is difficult to separate the ability of the encoder from the ability of the decoder. Thus a person may be
quite adept at communicating emotions, but the receiver may prove to be insensitive. On the other hand, the
receiver may be quite good at deciphering emotions, but the sender may be inept. And, of course, there are
tremendous differences from one person to another and with the same person at different times.
A second problem is that accuracy seems to vary with the method of the research. In some cases still
photographs are used and people are asked to judge the emotions the people are experiencing. Some research
uses live models or actors and actresses who have been trained to communicate the different emotions. Still
others use more spontaneous methods. For example, an individual judge views a person who is herself or
himself viewing and reacting to a film. The judge, without seeing the film, has to decode the emotion the viewer
is experiencing. As it can be appreciated, each method yields somewhat different results. Accuracy also varies
with emotions themselves, because some emotions are easier to communicate and decode than others.
_________________________________________________
It appears from cross-cultural research that facial expressions have a somewhat universal nature. For
example, people in Borneo and New Guinea who have had little contact with Western cultures were able to
match accurately emotions with pictures of facial expressions of Westeners. Furthermore, their own facial
expressions, posed to communicate different emotions, were accurately decoded by people in the USA.
Similarly, in studies conducted with children who were born blind and who, therefore, could not see how others
facially expressed the various emotions, the children seem to use the same facial expressions as their sighted
peers. Studies such as these point to a universality among facial gestures. The wide variations in facial
communication that we do observe in different cultures seem to reflect what is permissible and not permissible
to communicate, rather than a difference in the way in which emotions are expressed facially. For example, in
some cultures it is to show contempt or disgust openly and publicly , but in others people are taught to hide
such emotions in public and to display tem only privately.
There are two blanks to write the title of those sections. Choose from the list below and write your
choice.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Accuracy
Universal or Relative?
Universal Facial Communication
Communication Accuracy
Mainstream Accuracy

Choose the correct letter a), b), c) or d)


1. What are some of the eight emotions that facial messages can communicate?
a) anger, fear, determination, and happiness
b) happiness, surprise, sadness, and disgust
c) happiness, fear, bewilderment, and surprise
d) contempt, interest, fear, and excitement

2. Why is FAST used?


a) To describe the eight basic emotions that facial messages can communicate.
b) To study the eight emotions that facial messages can communicate.
c) To study how emotions are communicated by the face.
d) To study how the face can communicate the same message in different cultures.
3. The word adept in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
a) skillful
b) awkward
c) clumpsy
d) adapted
4. The word yields in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
a) holds
b) refuses
c) produces
d) abandons
5. What can be inferred from paragraph 5?
a) Cultural conventions do not change facial expressions.
b) Facial expressions can vary depending on the culture.
c) The public display of facial expressions may change depending on the country where it is used.
d) Blind people can show similar facial expressions as those shown by their sighted peers.
III. Drawing.
1.

2.

Draw the following details onto the face in the figure:


raised and curved eyebrows
long horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
wide-open eyes
a dropped-open mouth
Now draw two lines across the face to show the three parts of the face used in FAST.

Grammar Spot
Passive Voice: Summary
To turn a sentence from the active into the passive voice:
a) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
b) The active verb changes into a passive form.
c) The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent.
Active voice: Kim showed no surprise.
S
V
O

Passive voice: No surprise was shown by Kim.


S
V
A
Active

Passive

Present Simple

She says hurtful words.

Hurtful words are said by her.

Present Continuous

She is saying hurtful words.

Hurtful words are being said by


her.

Past Simple

She said hurtful words.

Hurtful words were said by her.

Past Continuous

She was saying hurtful words.

Hurtful words were beings said by


her.

Present Perfect Simple

She has said hurtful words.

Hurtful words have been said by


her.

Past Perfect Simple

She had said hurtful words.

Hurtful words had been said by


her.

Future Simple

She will say hurtful words.

Hurtful words will be said by her.

Modals (will, should, must, etc.)

She may say hurtful words.

Hurtful words may be said by her.

Only the verbs that take object (transitive verbs) can be turned into the passive.
Example: The ball hit the wall.

The wall was hit by the ball.


When the subject of the active sentence is one of the following: people, one,
someone/somebody, they, he, etc., the agent is often omitted in the passive sentence.
Example: People watch TV all over the world.

TV is watched all over the world.


Object pronouns become subject pronouns in passive sentences.
Example: He gave these books to me.

I was given these books.


When the verb of the active sentence is followed by a preposition, the preposition is kept in the
passive sentence as well.
Example: Burglars broke into our house last night.
Our house was broken into last
night.
Exercises
Rewrite the following sentence using passive voice.
They won't take him home after the party.

__________________________________________

Someone left the front door open.

__________________________________________

UNIT 6: FRIENDSHIP
Before you read: Getting to know new people
I. There is a proverb in English that reads: First impressions are the most lasting. Do you agree
with it? Why/why not?
II. How should you behave the first time you meet someone whom you would like to get to know
better? What should you talk about? Imagine you are meeting someone for the first time. Decide
which of the following topics would be good to talk about (check Yes), and which would not
(check No). When you finish, decide which topic would be the best choice, and which the worst.
Give reasons.

III. What are some positive and negative aspects of starting a conversation with a stranger in the
following places?
A library
A party
A museum or art gallery
A classroom
A disco
A bar
A train station
A bus stop
IV. An opening line is the first thing you say when you approach a stranger and try to start a
conversation. What would be a good opening line in each of the places mentioned above?

Now read a text about initiating relationships.


Perhaps the most difficult and yet the most important aspect of relationship development is the
process of initiating relationshipsmeeting the person and presenting yourself. Murray Davis, in Initimate
Relations (1973), notes that the first encounter consists of six steps, similar to those represented in Figure
1, The process of asking for a date.
EXAMINE THE QUALIFIERS
The first step is to examine the qualifiers, those qualities that make the individual you wish to
encounter an appropiate choice. Some qualifiers are manifest or open to easy inspection, such as beauty,
style of clothes, jewelry, and the like. Other qualifiers are latent or hidden from easy inspection, such as
personality, health, wealth, talent, intelligence, and the like. Qualifiers can tell us something about who the
person is and help us to decide if we wish to pursue this initial encounter.
DETERMINE CLEARANCE
Try to determine if this person is available for an encounter. Is the person wearing a wedding ring?
Does the person seem to be waiting for someone else?

OPEN THE ENCOUNTER


Open the encounter, both nonverbally and verbally. Davis suggests that we look for two things: (1) a
topic that will interest the other person (and you) and that could be drawn out of the opener and (2)
indications by the other person of a readiness to engage in a more protracted encounter. If yes/no answers
are given to your questions or if eye contact is not maintained, then you have some pretty good indication
that this person is not open to an extended encounter with you at this time. If, on the other hand, the person
responds at length or asks you questions in return, then you have some feedback that says Continue!
SELECT AN INTEGRATING TOPIC
An integrating topic is one that will interest the other person and you, and will serve to integrate or
unite the two of you. Generally, such topics are found through an analysis of free informationinformation
about the person that you can see or that is dropped into the conversation. For example, a band T-shirt or a
uniform will tell you something about the person and will suggest a possible topic of conversation. Similarly,
a casual remark may include the person's occupation or area of study or sports interestall of which can be
used as take-off points for further interaction. Look and listen, therefore, for the free information that will
enable you to continue the interaction and that will suggest additional communication topics. Further, ask
questions (none that are too prying, of course) to discover more about this person and to communicate you
interest.
CREATE A FAVORABLE IMPRESSION
Display what is called a come-on self, a part of you that is inviting, engaging, and otherwise
interesting to another person. Display a part of you that will make the other person want to continue the
encounter.
ESTABLISH A SECOND MEETING
If you and your new partner seem to be getting along, then a second meeting should be
established. This may vary from a very general type of meeting (Do you always eat here on Fridays?) to a
very specific type of meeting (How about going to the movies next Saturday?)

Figure 1

I.

Organize these behaviors according to the step in which they should occur. Number them 1-6.

A. _____ You smile a lot and try to be charming.


B. _____ You try to keep the conversation about the other person.
C. _____ You look to see if the other person is waiting for someone else.
D. _____ You take a closer look at the other person's clothes and style.
E. _____ You turn the conversation to talk about the future.
F. _____ You listen to see if the other person answers you at length.
II. Choose the correct letter a), b), or c)
1. The word pursue in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
a) engage in
b) flee
c) shun
2. The word protracted in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
a) short
b) extended
c) fast
3. The word remark in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to
a) comment
b) offer
c) compliment

Grammar Spot
Relative clauses
Read the following sentences:
Display a part of you that will make the other person want to continue the encounter.
I prefer meeting people who are friends of my friends than meeting strangers.
I think meeting people for the first time is challenging, which is why I keep doing it.
I know a person whose best friend is someone she met at a museum.
What do the words in bold refer to?
Relative pronouns (who, which, whose, that) introduce relative clauses. We use relative clauses to
identify the noun in the main clause.
Example: I prefer meeting people who are friends of my friends.
We use who or that instead of subject pronouns to refer to people.
We use which or that instead of subject pronouns to refer to objects or animals.
We use whose instead of possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc) with people, objects and animals in
order to show possession.

We do not omit the relative pronoun when it is the subject of the relative clause, that is, when there is
not a noun or subject pronoun between the relative clause and the verb.
Example: I met two people yesterday. They are from Belgium. I met two people who/that are from
Belgium yesterday.
We can omit the relative pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause, that is, when there is a
noun or a subject pronoun between the relative pronoun and the verb.
Example: They are from Belgium. I met them yesterday. They are the people from Belgium
(who/that) I met yesterday.

Exercises
Match column A with column B to make correct sentences.
A

1. The girl

which I like most is Austria.

2. Is this the puppy

whose wife had an accident lives next door.

3. The doctors

whose husband is a banker?

4. The man

who lives next door is called Helen.

5. The country

which I was riding belongs to my brother.

6. The bicycle

which you bought from the pet shop?

7. Is this the woman

who work in this hospital are very good.

The Nonverbal and Verbal First Encounter


Before you read:
The text below offers suggestions for how to act during a first encounter with a stranger. Predict
whether the author will recommend (write R) or not recommend (write NR) the following behaviors:
1. ______ Keep your arms crossed over your chest.
2. ______ Get as close to the other person as possible.
3. ______ Give all your attention to the other person.
4. ______ Try not to look into the other person's eyes.
5. ______ When the other person gives you a positive sign, you should also give a positive sign back,
like a smile.
6. ______ After you have made contact nonverbally, it is best not to wait too long before you start
talking.
7. ______ Introduce yourself simply by saying, Hi, my name is
8. ______ Try to keep the conversation mostly about you, so the other person can learn as much
about you as possible.
9. ______ If you see something you like in the other person, give a compliment. For example, you
can say, I really like your shoes.
10. ______ Quickly start talking about your deepest feelings.
11. ______ Talk about people, places, leisure activities that you both know about.
12. ______ Ask many questions that begin, Are you ?, Do you ?, Have you ?, and so on.
Now read the text below and when you finish, check if your predictions were correct.
THE NONVERBAL ENCOUNTER
Nonverbal communication concerns every aspect of yourself that sends messages to another
person. On the basis of these messages, the other person forms an impression of youan impression that
will be quickly and firmly established.
1. Establish eye contact. Eye contact is the first nonverbal signal to send. The eyes communicate an
awareness of and interest in the other person.
2. While maintaining eye contact, smile and further signal your interest in and your positive response
to this other person.
3. Concentrate your focus. The rest of the room should be nonverbally shut off from awareness. Be
careful, however, that you do not focus so directly as to make the person uncomfortable.
4. Establish physical closeness, or at least lessen the physical distance between the two of you.
Approach, but not to the point of discomfort, so that your interest of making contact is obvious.
5. Throughout this nonverbal encounter, maintain a posture that communicates an openness, a
willingness to enter into interaction with the other person. Hands crossed over the chest or clutched
around your stomach are exactly the kind of postures that you want to avoid. These are often
interpreted to signal an unwillingness to let others enter your space.
6. Respond visibly. Assuming that your nonverbal communication is returned, respond to it visibly with

a smile, a head nod, a wink.


7. Reinforce positive behaviors. Reinforce those behaviors of the other person that signal interest and
a reciprocal willingness to make contact. Reinforce these by responding positively to them; again,
nod or smile or somehow indicate your favorable reaction.
8. Avoid overexposure. Nonverbal communication works to make contact or to signal interest, but it
can cause problems if it is excessive or of it is not followed by more direct communication.
Consequently, if you intend to make verbal contact, do so after a relatively short time or wait until
another time.
THE VERBAL ENCOUNTER
1. Introduce youself. Try to avoid trite and clichd opening lines. Do not become identified with,
Haven't I seen you here before? Actually, these openers are legitimate and would be more than
appropiate if others understood that opening lines are merely ways of saying Hello. But many do
not; many think that these lines are a measure of your intelligence and wit. Given that sorry state of
affairs, it is probably best to simply say, Hi, my name is Pam.
2. Focus the conversation on the other person. Get the other person involved in talking about himself
or herself: No one enjoys talking about anything more. Also, it will provide you with an opportunity to
learn something about the person you want to get to know.
3. Compliment the other person; be sincere but complimentary and positive. If you cannot find
anything to compliment the person about, then it is probably wise to reassess your interest in this
person and perhaps move on.
4. Be energetic. No one likes a lethargic, slow-moving, non-dynamic partner. Demonstrate your high
energy level by responding facially with appropiate effect, smiling, talking in a varied manner, being
flexible with your body posture and gestures, asking questions as appropiate, and otherwise
demonstrating that you are really here.
5. Stress the positives. In the discussion of interpersonal effectiveness, it was noted that positiveness
was one of the major qualities of effectiveness. It also contributes to a positive first impression
simply because we like and are attracted to a positive more than a negative person.
6. Avoid negative and too intimate self-disclosures. Enter a relationship gradually and gracefully.
Disclosures should come gradually and along with reciprocal disclosures. Anything too intimate or
too negative early in the relationship will create a negative image. If you cannot resist selfdisclosing, then try to stick to the postives and to those matters that would not be considered overly
intimate.
7. Establish commonalities. Seek to discover in your interaction those things you have in common with
the other personattitudes, interests, personal qualities, third parties, places, and so on.
8. Avoid yes/no questions, yes/no answers, and rapid-fire questions. Ask questions that are openended, questions that the receiver may answer at some length. Similarly, respond with answers
more complete than simply yes or no. Be careful, too, that your questions do not appear to be an
interrogation.
Answer the questions below.
I.

The Nonverbal Encounter

1. The word awareness in point 1 is closest in meaning to


a) unconsciousness
b) understanding
c) unfamiliarity

2. The phrase shut off in point 3 is closest in meaning to


a) exclude
b) welcome
c) silence
3. What should you respond to the other person?
a) Keeping a certain distance
b) Clutching your arms around your stomach.
c) Nodding
4. The word them in point 7 refers to
a) the other person's positive behaviors
b) your positive behaviors
c) your responses
II. The Verbal Encounter
1. The word trite in point 1 is closest in meaning to
a) commonplace
b) pertinent
c) uncommon
2. What is important about openers?
___________________________________________________________
3. The word overly in point 6 is closest in meaning to
a) inadequately
b) too much
c) fairly
4. What type of questions should you ask?
___________________________________________________________

Grammar Spot
Relative Clauses
When, Where, Why
Read the following sentences:
1999 was the year when they met.
Joe's bar is the place where they usually hang out.
They have the same sense of humor, that's why they have remained friends for so long.
Which ones do you use to:
refer to a place

____________

give a reason

____________

refer to time

____________

Exercises
Fill in the gaps with who, why, where, when, which or whose.

Dear Aunt Joan,


How are you? My new address, (1) __________ I was supposed to give you a long time ago, is at
the top of this page. Sorry!
The village (2) __________ I live now is very quiet and peaceful. In fact, that is the reason (3)
__________ I decided to rent a house here. The people (4) __________ live next door to me are very
friendly. The day (5) __________ I moved in, they invited me for tea. The woman (6) __________ house
I've rented lives in the same street as you. Her name is Mrs. Fitzgerald. Do you know her? I must go
now, the telephone is ringing.
Write to me soon.
Love,
Rachel.

Friendship Values
Before

you read:
How would you define a friend?
Make a list of the different activities that you have done with friends in the past week.
How many close friends do you have? Do you have a close friend of the opposite sex?

Now read a text about this topic.


NEED SATISFACTION
Friendships develop and are maintained to satisfy our needs. Selecting friends on the basis of need
satisfaction is similar to choosing a marriage partner, an employee, or any person who may be in a position
to satisfy our needs. Thus, for example, if we have the need to be the center of attention or to be popular,
we choose friends who fulfill these needsthat is, people who allow us, and even encourage us, to be the
center of attention or who tell us, verbally and nonverbally, that we are popular. As we grow older or
develop in different ways, our needs change, and in many instances old friends are dropped from our close
circle to be replaced by new friends who better serve our new needs.
FIVE FRIENDSHIP VALUES
Interpersonal researcher Paul H. Wright (1978, 1984) has identified more specifically the needs that
we seek to have satisfied through friendships. We establish and maintain friendships, Wright observes,
because they provide us with certain direct rewards.
1. Friends have a utility value. A friend may have special talents, skills, or resources that may prove
useful to us in achieving our specific goals and needs. We may, for example, become friends with
someone who is particularly bright because such a person might assist us in getting better grades,
in solving our personal problems, or in getting a better job.
2. Friends have an affirmation value. The behavior of a friend toward us acts as a mirror that serves to
affirm our personal value and enables us to recognize our attributes. A friend may, for example,
help us to recognize more clearly our leadership abilities, our athletic prowess, or our sense of
humor.
3. Friends have an ego-support value . By behaving in a supportive, encouraging, and helpful manner,
friends enable us more easily to view ourselves as worthy and competent individuals.
4. Friends have a stimulation value . A friend introduces us to new ideas and new ways of seeing the
world and helps us to expand world view. A friend enables us to come into contact with issues and
concepts with which we were not previously familiarmodern art, foreign cultures, new foods, and
hundreds of other new, different, and stimulating things.
5. Friends have a security value. A friend does nothing to hurt the other person or to emphasize or call
attention to the other person's inadequacies or weaknesses. Because of this security value, friends
can interact freely and openly without having to worry about betrayal or negative responses.
PLEASURE AND PAIN FUNCTIONS
The other function of friendship is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. This is actually a special
case of the need-satisfaction function.
If you were to ask people to complete the statement I most need a friend when..., they would
probably answer in one of two ways. One would be to say, I most need a friend when I'm down. Such
statement exemplifies the function that a friendship can serve when it helps us to avoid or lessen the pain.
We want a friend to be around when we are feeling down so that he or she will make us feel a little better,

lift our spirits, or in some way alleviate the pain we are feeling.
The other way to complete the statement would be to say, I most need a friend when I'm happy,
because this type of statement tipifies the general function friendships serve to augment one's pleasure. A
great part of the pleasure in winning a game, or in experiencing good fortune is in telling someone else
about it and in many cases sharing it with them.

Look at the box and fill in the blanks with words that appear in the text. Use the similar expressions that
appear on the right side of the box.

To what extent do your personal experiences support the ideas expressed in this text? Choose one
of the five friendship values and talk about one personal example to illustrate that value.

Grammar Spot
Prepositions of time
1) IN

ON

2) FROM TO

AT

UNTIL

SINCE

FOR

3) BEFORE

AFTER

DURING

WHILE

Exercises
1.Write in/on/at or no preposition to complete these sentences.
a) Where were you ______ February 28?
b) I got up ______ 7 o'clock this morning.
c) I don't like getting up early ______ the morning.
d) Did you go out ______ Tuesday?
e) Did you go out ______ last Tuesday?
f) I often go away ______ the weekend.
g) Do you work ______ Saturdays?
h) I like to look at the stars ______ night.
i)

Julia's birthday is ______ May.

j) Are you coming to the party ______ next Friday?

2. Read the information about these people and complete the sentences using from... to/ until/ since.

i.

(Alex/Canada/1982-1990)

Alex lived in Canada ________ 1982 ________ 1990.

ii. (Alex/Canada/> 1990)

Alex lived in Canada ________ 1990.

iii. (Alex/England/1990 >)

Alex has lived in England ________ 1990.

iv. (Alice/France/> 1991)

Alice lived in France _____________________________.

v. (Alice/Switzerland/1991 >) Alice has lived in Switzerland ______________________.


vi. (Carol/a hotel/1990-1993)

________________________________________________.

vii. (Carol/a restaurant/1993 >) ________________________________________________.


viii.

(Gerry/a teacher/1983-1989) ________________________________________________.

ix. (Gerry/a salesman/1989 >) ________________________________________________.


Now use the same information to write sentences using for.

i.

(Alex/Canada)

Alex lived in Canada ______ eight years.

ii. (Alex/England)

________________________________________________.

iii. (Alice/Switzerland)

________________________________________________.

iv. (Carol/restaurant)

________________________________________________.

v. (Gerry/a salesman)

________________________________________________.

3. Complete the sentences using before/after/during/while and the information from the box.
the concert

the course

the end

they went to Australia


i.

lunch

the exam

class

you are waiting

Everybody was nervous _____________________________.

ii. I usually work four hours in the morning, and another two hours _________________________.
iii. The film was very boring. We left ______________________.
iv. Ann went to evening classes to learn German. She learned a lot __________________________.
v. My aunt and uncle lived in London ____________________________________.
vi. We're going to the movies _________________________. Would like to join us?
vii. Would you like to sit down ___________________________.
viii.

Are you going home ________________________? No, we're going to a restaurant.

4. Complete the sentences using a verb in -ing.


i.

I felt sick after ________________ too much chocolate.

ii. I'm going to ask you a question. Think carefully before ________________ it.
iii. After ________________ the exam, we went to a bar.
iv. Before ________________ to a foreign country, it's a good idea to learn a few words of the
language.

Friendship Rules
Before you read:
Think about intercultural frienships.
Do you have any friends from other cultures? If yes, how did you meet them and get to know
them?
What could you do to increase your chances of meeting and making friends with someone from a
different culture?
Why might it be difficult to make friends with someone from another culture?
Do you think that the same rules you have with your friends can be applied to intercultural
friendship? Why/why not?
Now read a text about this topic.
Recently, interpersonal researchers have sought to conceptualize friendship as rule-governed
behavior and have attempted to identify the rules that friends consider important in maintaining their
relationships.

The most important friendship rules identified by interpersonal researchers Michael Argyle and
Monika Henderson (1984) are presented in Figure 9.2. When these rules are followed, the friendship is

strong and mutually satisfying. In examining these rules, try to identify additional rules that you
consider important in your friendship.

Figure 9.3 represents the abuses that are most significant in breaking up a friendship, also

identified by Argyle and Henderson. Note that some of the rules for maintaining a friendship directly
correspond to the abuses that break up friendships. For example, it is important to show emotional

support to maintain a friendship, but when this doesn't happen, the friendship will prove less
satisfying and may well break up. The general assumption here is that friendships break down when a
significant friendship rule is violated.

Discovering the rules of friendship will serve a number of useful functions. Ideally, it will
enable us to identify successful versus destructive friendship behavior. Thus, we will better be able to
teach the social skills involved in friendship development and maitenance. Furthermore, these rules
will help us to pinpoint in relatively specific terms what went wrong when a friendship breaks up and

enable us possibly to repair the relationship. Finally, since the rules of friendship vary somewhat from
one culture to another, it is helpful to identify the rules that are unique for each culture so that
intercultural friendships may be more effectively developed and maintained.

1. Which sentence below best expresses the information in paragraph 1?


a) Friends follow each others' rules and try to satisfy each others' needs.
b) Friendship is a behavior that needs rules to exist.
c) Friends create rules to guide their relationships and what they consider important.
d) It may be said that there are certain guidelines that friends follow in order to have and keep
successful relationships.
2. The word this in paragraph 3 refers to
a) maintaining a frienship
b) showing emotional support
c) ways of breaking up friendships
d) violations of friendship rules
3. The word pinpoint in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
a) identify
b) overlook
c) lose
d) explain
4. The word somewhat in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
a) to a large extent
b) to some extent
c) significantly
d) wildly

Grammar Spot
Prepositions of place
IN

ON

AT

NEXT TO

BETWEEN
IN FRONT OF
BY
UNDER
ABOVE

BEHIND
BELOW

OPPOSITE

Exercises
A. Look at the pictures and answer the questions below using in/on/at.

1. Where is he?

__________________________

2. Where are the shoes? __________________________


3. Where is the pen?

__________________________

4. Where is the clock?

__________________________

5. Where is the bus?

__________________________

6. Where are the horses? __________________________


7. Where are they?

__________________________

8. Where is she?

__________________________

9. Where is she? __________________________


10. Where is he?

__________________________

11. Where are they?

__________________________

12. Where are they?

__________________________

B. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. The cat is ___________ the table.

5. The cinema is ___________ the right.

2. There is a big tree ___________ the house.

6. She's sitting ___________ the phone.

3. The plane is flying ___________ the clouds.

7. The switch is ___________ the window.

4. She is standing ___________ the piano.

8. The cupboard is ___________ the sink.

9. There are some shoes ___________ the bed.


10. The plant is ___________ the piano.
11. Paul is sitting ___________ Fiona.
12. In Britain people drive ___________ the left.
C. Write sentences about the picture using the words in brackets.

1. (next to)

The bank is ______________________

2. (in front of)

The fountain is ______________________

3. (opposite)

Paul's office is ______________________

4. (next to)

The supermarket is ______________________

5. (above)

Paul's office is ______________________

6. (between)

The bookshop is ______________________

Bibliografa
Ackert, Patricia, and Linda Lee. Cause & Effect. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, 2005. Print.
Brown, Kristine, and Susan Hood. Academic Encounters: Life in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.
Dooley, Jenny, and Virginia Evans. Grammarway. Swansea: Express Pub., 1999. Print.
English, Andrew & Laura M. English. North Start. Focus on Reading and Writing. Addison Wesley
Longman, 1998.
Gallagher, Nancy. Delta's Key to the next Generation TOEFL Test: Advanced Skill Practice for the IBT.
McHenry, IL: Delta Pub., 2005. Print.
Garner, James Finn. Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Collection of Modern Tales for Our Life and
times. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1994. Print.
Hewings, Martin. Advanced Grammar in Use: A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Advanced
Learners of English. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print.
King, Carol, and Nancy Stanley. Building Skills for the TOEFL Test. Essex, Eng.: Longman, 1996. Print.
Murphy, Raymond, Miles Craven, and Brigit Viney. English Grammar in Use: A Self-study Reference and
Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Print.
Murphy, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use: A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Elementary
Students of English. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 1997. Print.
Pavlik, Cheryl. Hot Topics 3. Boston, MA: Thomson/Heinle, 2006. Print.
Sanabria, K. Academic Listening Encounters: Life in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.
Seal, Bernard. Academic Encounters: Human Behavior: Reading, Study Skills, Writing. Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1998.