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# C.

Summary
In this experiment the velocity of sound of air in rod in two ways. The students
used the Kundts Tube Apparatus with a meter stick, a piece of cloth, a thermometer,
some rosin and Lycopodium powder. The lycopodium was evenly distributed throughout
the tube which was shaken so that the powder can move and wont have lumps. The
rod in the Kundts Tube Apparatus is made up of brass and its length was measured.
The temperature of the room was also recorded. The rosin power in the cloth was used
to produce friction with the tube when the rod is stroked or rubbed horizontally
producing a high pitched tone. It was done continuously until the power forms waves
which are measurable and looks somewhat the same from one another. The distances
of each wave was measured and the average of the half wavelengths of the sound in air
column, La, was determined by dividing it to the total number of loops or segments
measured. We calculate for the velocity of sound in air using recorded temperature. The
value of Vr was solved. Using the Youngs Modulus and the density of the brass rod, the
Vr can also be determined. The velocity of the sound in air from the textbook was
compared to the obtained experimental value and theoretical value.
The main objective of the experiment is to determine the velocity of sound in the
rod (Vr). By performing the experiment, there are values obtained which are: the length
of the rod (Lr), the average length of the half wavelength (L a), and the velocity of sound
in air (Va), which is obtained from the equation

V a=

332 m
+0.6(t) , where t is the room
s

temperature. The velocity of sound produce in the rod can be computed using equation

the equation:

V r =V a

Lr
La

## since the frequency of the sound in the air is the same as

that in the metal rod. Another way to determine the velocity of sound is by using the

Y
equation: V r =

## , using Young's Modulus and density of the rod.

The performed experiment tells us if we know the speed of sound in air, the
speed of sound in a solid rod can be calculated based on the measurement of sound
wavelength, (). If the frequency of the sound wave, (f) is known, we can calculate the
speed of sound as: v = f .
D. Conclusion
The objectives are to determine the velocity of sound in a metal rod and to
determine the speed of sound in tube applying the principles of resonance. The first
objective was fulfilled since we have acquired the needed data to compute for the
velocity of sound in metal rod which for example is the Youngs Modulus and density of
the rod which is brass. The second objective was also achieved since the movement or
the disturbance of the powder in the tube which was caused by the sound when the rod
was stroke made it possible to gather data about the length of the heaps and the
velocity of sound in rod can be computed.
The speed of sound depends on the medium through which the waves are
passing. The sound is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the stiffness of the
medium and its density. The distance between two consecutive nodes or antinodes in a
standing wave is half of its wavelength and the wavelength of the tone is in the rod is
twice the length of the rod. Among three mediums, solid, liquid and gas, soundwaves
will travel fastest in solid because the denser the medium, the faster the sound that will
propagate. Solids have the strongest interactions between particles and thus the
longitudinal waves travel faster than solids. Velocity is directly proportional to the
Youngs Modulus and inversely proportional to the density of the rod.
An application of the topic about longitudinal waves is the sound of the train
whistle. The train whistles as it leaves the station and the people nearby will notice
nothing unusual only the degree of intensity of someone in the platform from someone
inside the carriage. As the train moves forward the intensity of the sound from someone
inside will be different from someone on the platform. However if somebody is standing
further ahead along the track, that individual hears the compacted sound waves. The

individual that was left from the station hears the sound waves that radiate from behind
the train. It is the same train making the same sound, but since the train has compacted
the sound waves before it, the waves behind it are spread out, delivering a sound of
much lower frequency. Sound then varies from point of reference.