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SINTAXE DA LNGUA INGLESA

Prof a. Ana Cludia Pozo Griecco

SUMRIO
APRESENTAO 

INTRODUO7

UNIDADE 1

TCNICAS DE LEITURA

1.1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1.2. VERB TO BE

13

1.3.ARTICLES

18

1.4. THERE TO BE 

21

1.5.POSSESSIVES

25

UNIDADE 2

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

37

2.1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

37

2.2. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

43

2.3. PREPOSITIONS I

47

2.4. ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL PHRASES

50

UNIDADE 3

WH QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

65

3.1. WH QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

65

3.2. FUTURE TENSES

68

3.2.1. FUTURE WTH WILL

69

3.2.2. FUTURE WITH GOING TO

70

3.3. SIMPLE PAST VERB TO BE

74

3.4. SIMPLE PAST - THERE TO BE 

78

SUMRIO

UNIDADE 4

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


4.1. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

87

4.2. SIMPLE PAST TENSE

94

4.2.1. REGULAR VERBS


4.3. IRREGULAR VERBS
4.4. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

87

94
97
102

APNDICES - LIST OF MOST COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

117

REFERNCIAS 

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SUMRIO

APRESENTAO
Be all welcome!
Bem-vindo(a) disciplina Sintaxe da Lngua Inglesa!
Este livro didtico foi elaborado especialmente para voc, aluno(a) do curso
de Letras da Universidade Braz Cubas, que necessitar de conhecimentos bsicos e
intermedirios da Lngua Inglesa uma vez no mercado de trabalho, em sala de aula,
com seus prprios alunos. Aprender a ensinar as estruturas da lngua praticar a
prpria lngua, fazer exerccios, interpretar textos, ampliar o vocabulrio. Este material
concentra as estruturas mais elementares e intermedirias e, ao final desse percurso,
voc dever estar apto a produzir enunciados competentemente.
O material est dividido em quatro unidades. Cada unidade contm a explicao
com exemplos, de pontos gramaticais especficos, bsicos e intermedirios da Lngua
Inglesa. Em seguida, exerccios que contextualizam a gramtica apresentada, para a
prtica e fixao dos contedos. Ao final de cada UNIT, h outra seo que chamaremos
de KEY, na qual voc encontrar os padres de respostas para todos os exerccios.
Assim, poder ele mesmo se avaliar e ser ainda mais responsvel pela construo de
seu prprio conhecimento. Voc tambm encontrar, ao final do livro didtico, uma
lista de verbos irregulares, para que possa utilizar como consulta.
Agora s comear!
Lets go! Keep up the good work and have fun with English!
Professora Ana Cludia Pozo Griecco

APRESENTAO

APRESENTAO

INTRODUO
Pronto para comear?
Mas antes, vamos a uma pergunta: voc sabe o que Sintaxe da Lngua Inglesa?
Sintaxe a parte da lngua que explora a maneira que o falante organiza e relaciona as
partes de uma sentena. o estudo das relaes que as palavras estabelecem entre si e
das relaes que cada perodo estabelece com outros perodos. Ento, para se estudar
a Sintaxe, no s da Lngua Inglesa, mas de qualquer outra lngua, imprescindvel que
conheamos a gramtica dessa lngua, e como os elementos se estruturam entre si. H
muitas regras e vamos estudar cada uma delas. E voc, futuro professor(a) de Lngua
Inglesa e Lngua Portuguesa deve internalizar essas regras, saber us-las e ensin-las
competentemente. Tudo o que voc precisa de um bom dicionrio, e muito boa
vontade!
importante lembr-lo(a) que as teleaulas so de suma importncia para
que nosso trabalho seja concludo com sucesso! Ento, no deixe de assisti-las, pois
nossos materiais se completam e s funcionaro com sucesso se forem trabalhados
mutuamente. No deixe de utilizar todos os recursos que disponibilizamos para voc,
nosso aluno! Assim, com certeza alcanaremos o sucesso pretendido!
Comeamos nosso material com a gramtica bsica da Lngua Inglesa verbo
to be, pronomes, artigos etc. Em seguida, daremos incio gramtica intermediria
simple present, present continuous, simple past etc. Exerccios prticos e estruturais
esto relacionados para fixao dos contedos e das regras. E lembre-se: h respostas
padro para todos eles, assim voc poder acompanhar de perto sua evoluo!
Ento, espero voc l!
Professora Ana Cludia Pozo Griecco

INTRODUO

INTRODUO

UNIDADE 1

TCNICAS DE LEITURA
OB JET IVOS DA UN ID A D E
Apresentar as estruturas gramaticais bsicas e intermedirias, a fim de
se desenvolver as habilidades e competncias necessrias compreenso
e produo de textos e enunciados em Lngua Inglesa.

HAB ILIDADES E C O MP E T N C IA S
Domnio das estruturas gramaticais bsicas da lngua inglesa apropriada aos nveis elementar e intermedirio;
Leitura, interpretao e produo de pequenos textos e enunciados de
natureza simples.

1.1.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

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Os PERSONAL PRONOUNS so
os pronomes pessoais em Ingls.
Eles

representam

as

pessoas,

e esto divididos em: SUBJECTIVE


PRONOUNS e OBJECTIVES PRONOUS.
Os SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS so
usados como SUJEITO da orao. Aquele
que pratica a ao.
Observe:
I am a teacher.

You are a student.

She is a good girl.


Perceba que SUBJECT PRONOUN posicionado sempre antes de um verbo:
Chris is not at home. He is at work now.
Susan is a doctor. She is brilliant!
Computers are not cheap. They are expensive.
O pronome IT merece uma ateno especial, uma vez que no temos um
correspondente em Portugus. Alm de ser usado para falar das coisas, dos objetos e
dos animais, tambm usamos IT para falar:
Das horas IT IS TEN OCLOCK NOW.
Dos dias da semana IT IS MONDAY.
Do clima/ tempo IT IS SUNNY. / IT IS COLD.
Das distncias IT IS 2 MILES TO THE TOWN CENTRE.
Os OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS, por sua vez, representam o OBJETO, que pode ser
DIRETO ou INDIRETO.
Observe:
Martin loves her.

I want to talk to you.

Give me themoney!

Perceba que ele posicionado sempre depois do verbo ou depois de uma

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preposio.
There is Carmen. Lets talk to her.

That is my friend Bob. I live near him.

Lets do some exercises now.

1.

Sublinhe a alternativa correta.

Model:
We/ Us go to the club every weekend. My mother drives we/ us there.

a.

Can you help I/ me?

b.

My brother is a doctor. He/ him is a great surgeon.

c.

What is wrong with they/ them?

d.

That is Susan, Julios girlfriend. He/ him loves she/ her.

e.

Dads car isnt here. It/ its in the garage.

2.

Substitua as palavras em negrito pelos SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

Model:
My father is doing his work.
He is doing his work.
a.

The girls are studying English now.

b.

The lawyer is talking to his daughter.

c.

My sister and I are teachers.

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d.

The dogs are barking a lot today!

e.

You and your brother must be in class on time.

3.

Agora, substitua as palavras em negrito por OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

Model:
The teacher is teaching her students.
The teacher is teaching them.
a.

These bags belong to Paul and Bill.

b.

Mr. Jones is talking to his son.

c.

My mother always gives my sister and I presents.

d.

At Christmas, my grandparents always buy my sister a gift.

e.

I need to repair my bicycle.

4.

Complete o texto com os SUBJECTIVE ou OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS.

Hi, my name is Susan. ___I___ (a) am 25 years old. My family lives in


San Diego, California. ________ (b) have a brother called Simon and a sister
called Sophia. ___We____ (c) live in a big house. ________ (d) has 3 bedrooms.
My sister and ________ (e) like jogging. ________ (f) go jogging every night
after work. Our personal instructor always helps ________ (g) and controls our
jogging time. _________ (h) is tiring, but ________ (i) have fun too.

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1.2.

VERB TO BE

O verbo to Be um dos verbos mais utilizados na Lngua Inglesa. considerado


um verbo especial, e pode se apresentar de trs maneiras no SIMPLE PRESENT (presente
simples): AM IS ARE. Cada um dos Subjects Pronouns tem o seu verbo to be
correspondente. Observe:
Usa-se o Verbo to Be:
Para identificar e descrever pessoas e objetos.
I am from The United States.
It is a door.
They are my friends Carol and Jack.
He is a student.
Nas expresses de tempo e lugar.
It is cold today.

You are in London.

Nas expresses de idade.


I am 40 years old. Tim is 28 years old.
Para formar sentenas NEGATIVAS ou INTERROGATIVAS com o verbo to be, basta
movimentar o verbo, ou seja, no necessrio nenhum verbo auxiliar. O prprio verbo
to be vai transformar oraes AFIRMATIVAS em NEGATIVAS ou INTERROGATIVAS.

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Observe como construmos NEGATIVE SENTENCES:


- Affirmative sentence: He is a good student.
- Negative sentence: He is not a good student.
- Negative contracted sentence: He isnt a good student.

Para formar uma sentena negativa, basta acrescentar a palavra NOT


imediatamente aps o verbo to be. Ou se preferir, utilizar a forma contrada ISNT.
Ento: IS NOT = ISNT

ARE NOT = ARENT

AM NOT = No h contrao possvel

Agora, INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES:


- Affirmative sentence: Carol is a nice girl.
- Interrogative sentence: Is Carol a nice girl?

Observe que para construirmos sentenas interrogativas temos que inverter o


SUJEITO e o VERBO. Carol is.../ Is Carol...?
Have a look at the table below:

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Podemos contrair tambm o SUBJECT PRONOUN e o VERBO TO BE:

Now, lets work on it.

1. Escreva a contracted form.


a. He is: _______________________________
b. She is: ______________________________
c. They are: ____________________________
d. You are: _____________________________
e. I am not: _____________________________
f. We are not: ___________________________
g. It is not: ______________________________
h. She is not: ____________________________

2. Complete com am, is or are.


a. The weather ____is____ very nice today.

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b. I________ not tired.


c. This case ________ very heavy.
d. These cases ________ very heavy.
e. The dog _______ asleep.
f. Look! There ________ Carol.
g. I________ hot! Can you open the window?
h. This castle ________one thousand years old.
i. Carmen ________ hungry. Lets eat a burger.
j. Mrs. Johnson and my mother ________ very good friends.
k. This ________ the latest model keyboard.
l. My mother and I ________ are teachers.
3. Escreve sentenas positivas ou negativas. Use o verb to be am, is, are.
Models:
Paris/ capital of France.

I/ interested in baseball.

Paris is the capital of France.

I am not interested in baseball.

a.

I/ hungry _________________________________________________

b.

It/ warm today ____________________________________________

c.

Rome/ in Spain ___________________________________________

d.

I/ afraid of dogs ___________________________________________

e.

Canada/ a very big country __________________________________

f.

The Amazon/ in Africa ______________________________________

g.

Motor-racing/ a dangerous sport ______________________________

h.

Cats/ big animals __________________________________________

4. Responda as perguntas utilizando somente SHORT FORMS.


Model:

16

Are you married?

Is it dark now?

Yes, I am.

No, it isnt.

UNIDADE I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

a.

Are you tall? ______________________________________________

b.

Is it cold today? ___________________________________________

c.

Are you a teacher? ________________________________________

d.

Are you tired? ____________________________________________

e.

Are your hands cold? ______________________________________

f.

Are you hungry? __________________________________________

g.

Are you fat? ______________________________________________

h.

Is it sunny? ______________________________________________

5. Transforme as oraes abaixo em NEGATIVAS e INTERROGATIVAS.


Model:
Affirmative: My brother is an engineer.
Negative: My brother is not an engineer.
Interrogative: Is my brother an engineer?
a.

My eyes are green.

b.

My hair is long and straight.

c.

My favorite actor is Brad Pitt.

d.

It is freezing today.

e.

You are a great professional.

f.

Janes favorite color is blue.

6. Bill est em Bali. Complete o e-mail que ele enviou a seus amigos contando

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as novidades. Use o verbo to Be.


Hi, everyone!
Guess where I ________ ? What a beautiful sunset! It ________ Matahari beach,
in Bali.I ________ here for a week.It ________ hot and sunny. The food ________ great
lots of fish and seafood. But the waves ________ the best of all! They ________ up
to 3 meters tall. And you, guys? ________ you ok? I hope so. My family _______ here
with me and they send you best regards. See you soon!
Love, Bill.

1.3.

ARTICLES
Os artigos so palavras usadas sempre antes de um substantivo. Eles so

divididos em artigos definido e indefinido. Em ingls, so eles: THE/ AN or A. Vamos


ver como so utilizados.

The Indefinite Article A, AN


A e AN (um/ uma) so usados:
- antes de substantivos contveis no singular.
A boy, a house, an orange, an elephant.
quando uma pessoa ou coisa mencionada pela primeira vez.
I have a dog and a cat. My dog is Rex and my cat is Fluffy.
A usado antes de palavras:
no singular, iniciadas por consoantes.
A dog a chair a friend a teacher
iniciadas por h quando este for pronunciado.
A horse a house a huge car a happy child
iniciadas por vogais que tem sons de consoantes.
A university (pronuncia-se yuniversity) a uniform (pronuncia-se yuniform)
AN usado antes palavras:
no singular, iniciadas por vogais.
An egg
an eraser
an animal an awful person
-iniciadas por h quando este no for pronunciado.
An hour

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an honest person

UNIDADE I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

an honor

AN ou A nunca sero usados antes de substantivos no plural ou diante de


substantivos incontveis.
Whales are big animals

I need some sugar.

Usamos AN ou A para falar de profisses:


My mother is a teacher.

Julia Robert is an actress.

The definite article THE


O artigo definido THE (o, a, os, as) usado antes de substantivos:
no singular ou plural, precedidos ou no por adjetivos:
The girl
the girls
the pretty girl
the pretty girls
que se referem a uma pessoa ou coisa que j tenha sido mencionada
anteriormente. Observe a diferena entre the e a/an:
I need to take a bus. The bus is late, so I got late to work.
que se referem a alguma coisa ou algum, especificamente:
The teacher is in her room correcting the tests.
O artigo THE tambm usado:
antes de instrumentos musicais:
The piano The flute
The drums
antes de lugares geogrficos:
The Amazon River The Americas
locais pblicos e nomes conhecidos:
The bank the cinema The Madison Square Garden The Louvre Museum
antes de coisas nicas:
The sun The moon
em algumas expresses de tempo:
In the morning

In the afternoon

In the evening

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LET S PR AC T IC E!

1. Escreva a ou an.
a. ________ book

g. ________economic problem

b. ________old book

h. ________ nice morning

c. ________ university

i. ________ hour

d. ________ drugstore

j. ________ pretty dress

e. ________ airport

k. ________ awful accident

f. ________American restaurant

l. ________trumpet.

2. Encaixe as palavras nas colunas abaixo.


EVALUATION BREAD HOUSES COCKTAIL ACCENT BICYCLE HOUR STUDENTS
EUROPEAN COUNTRY ENGINEER BOOK KID USEFUL THINGS MONEY - MAN

3. Complete as sentenas com a, an ou the.


a. Mr. Wilson likes to play ________ guitar.
b. There is ________ beautiful garden in front of _________ theater.
c. London is ________ biggest city in England.

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d. ________ Earth is becoming hotter and hotter.


e. I play tennis in ________ morning.
f. I like to go to ________ zoo to see ________ elephants.
g. French is ________ difficult language.
h. Do you want ________ orange or ________ apple?

4. Complete o texto sobre o Brasil. Use a, an ou X (quando o artigo no for


necessrio).
________Brazil is ________ huge country. In ________ north, there are ________
rain forests and ________ longest river is also situated there. In ________ south,
________ climate is more European. ________Brazil also has many social differences.
________ rich owns most of ________ countrys wealth and ________ poor often live
on ________ minimum wage.
5. Encontre o erro e faa a correo.
Model:
I am going to a movies after work. I am going to the movies after work.
a. A Japanese flag is red and white.______________________________
b. There is the apple here. __________________________________
c. My best friend is the dentist. _______________________________
d. It is the difficult question. _________________________________
e. My brother is an director. _________________________________
f. I like to see a squirrels in the park. ____________________________
g. A bank is closed on Sundays. _____________________________
h. Look at a moon! Its beautiful!______________________________

1.4.

THERE TO BE
There is a cat on the roof.

There are seven days in a week.

O THERE TO BE utilizado para falar de coisas que existem, de eventos ou


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acontecimentos, ou mesmo de quantidade. Observe:

Look at the examples:


There is a big tree in the garden.
Theres a good film on TV this evening.
Excuse me, is there a public toilet near here?
There isnt any child at the park.
Are there new teachers here?

Lets do some exercises!

1. Sublinhe a alternativa correta.


Model:
(Is there/ are there) a taxi near here?

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a. Are there/ Is there lots of students in your school?


b. How many girls are there/ is there in your classroom?
c. In my street, there are/ there is a huge square.
d. There are/ there is ten tigers at the zoo.
e. There arent/ there isnt a football field near your house.
f. There are/ there is many dogs on the streets.
g. Are there/ is there something to eat at home?
h. There are/ there is only one apple left.

2. Salespolis uma cidade pequena. Leia as informaes no quadro e escreva


sentenas com THERE IS, THERE ISNT, THERE ARE ou THERE ARENT.

Model:
There is a sport center in this city.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
3. Complete as sentenas. Use there is/ there isnt/ is there?/ there are/ there
arent/ are there?.
a.

New York is a very modern town. ______________ many old buildings.


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b.

Look! ______________ a photo of Lucas in the newspaper.

c.

Excuse me, ______________ a restaurant around here?

d.

______________ five people in my family: my parents, my two sisters

and me.
e.

How many bedrooms ______________ in your flat?

f.

Where can we sit? ______________ any chairs!

g.

______________ a bus from the city center to the airport?

h.

______________ books in this backpack? Its so heavy!

4. Escreva sentenas utilizando os nmeros corretamente.


4

11

26

30

50

365

Model:
(seasons/ a year) - There are four (4) seasons in a year.
a.

(days/ in a week) _______ ___________________________________

b.

(days/ in a year)_________________________________________

c.

(states/ in the USA) ______________________________________

d.

(planets/ in the Solar System) ________________________________

e.

(days/ in September) ____________________________________

f.

(players/ in a football team) ________________________________

g.

(letters/ in the English alphabet) _____________________________

5. Coloque there is ou it.


Model: Theres a train at 10:30. Its a fast train.

24

a.

Im not going to buy this shirt. ________s very expensive!

b.

What is wrong? ________s something in my eye!

c.

________s car in front of my house. Is ________ your car?

d.

________s a package on the floor. Is ________ for you?

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e.

Is ________ any good program on TV now? Yes, ________s a film at

channel 8.

1.5.

POSSESSIVES

Usa-se os POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES sempre antes de um substantivo:


What`s your name?
Alex has got his camera.
These are our suitcases.
O POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE corresponde ao sujeito a qual se refere:
Julia and her brother

Tony and his grandmother

Perceba como utilizado o POSSESSIVE PRONOUN:


This is your coat. That`s mine. (=my coat)
My name is Tony. What`s yours? (=your name?)
This isn`t Maria`s bag. Hers is blue. (=her bag)
Usa-se o POSSESSIVE PRONOUN como substituto do substantivo que j foi
mencionado anteriormente, evitando assim repeties desnecessrias.
This is my bag. Where is your bag? Ou Where is yours?
I love my girlfriend. Tom loves his girlfriend. Ou Tom loves his.

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Got it?

Now, it is your turn!

1. Escolha a alternativa correta.


a. I am doing (my / mine) homework.
b. (Our / Ours) magazine is here, where are (their / theirs)?
c. Jessica is reading (her / hers) English book, Billy is reading (his/ its).
d. (My / Mine) name is Catherine, what is (your / yours)?
e. The cat is in (it / its) house.
f. The students don`t like (their / theirs) new school.
g. Tim, (your / yours) mother is on the phone!
h. This purse is (her / hers).
i. The yellow bicycles are (our / ours).
j. Gigi is a friend of (my / mine).
k. (Their / Theirs) dog is white, like (our / ours).
l. This is not (our / ours) car. It`s (their / theirs).

2. Complete as sentenas com os POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES ou com os


POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
a. Sylvia reads __________ composition, but we don`t read __________.
b. The girls are waiting for ___________ boyfriends.
c. John, are those some of __________ friends?
d. That boy is asking about ____________ pen.
e. She knows ______________ lesson well and I know __________.
f. I love __________ country. Do you love ___________?
g. The men are preparing ___________ cocktails.
h. Brian and I are going to meet ___________ friends.
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i. The British painter drinks ___________ tea at 5 o`clock.


j. Give me __________ address and I`ll give you ____________.

3. Substitua as palavras em negrito utilizando os POSSESSIVES adequados.


a. Gina`s books are on the table. Where are our books?

b. The boys shoes aren`t here.

c. This is Kelly`s skate. I can`t find your skate.

d. The firemen`s truck is near the corner.

e. Who is at school now? His friends and my friends.

4. Escreva.
Model:
one of my friends -

a friend of mine

a. one of my habits -
b. one of Sally`s dreams -
c. one of our relatives -
d. one of his ideas -
e. one of their poems -
f. one of your good pictures -

5. Carmen mexicana e est estudando Ingls nos Estados Unidos. Complete a


carta que ela escreveu para seus amigos no Mxico. Use os POSSESSIVES.

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DIC A DE L EIT UR A
Para complementar nossos estudos, sugiro uma gramtica muito interessante e muito fcil de utilizar: Gramtica Escolar da Lngua Inglesa,
da Editora Longman. Com muitas dicas e exerccios prticos, este livro
vai ajud-lo(a) a crescer ainda mais!
Continue praticando o Ingls! Complemente esta unidade assistindo
nossa primeira teleaula e utilize a plataforma de estudos para novas
atividades e para tirar dvidas no Frum.
Keep up the good work and lets have fun with English!

CONFIRA SUAS RESPOSTAS KEY


1.1.
1.
a. me
b. He
c. them
d. he/ her
e. it

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2.
a. They
b. He
c. We
d. They
e. You

3.
a. them
b. him
c. us
d. her
e. it

4.
a. I
b. I
c. we
d. It
e. I
f. We
g. us
h. it
i. we

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1.2
1.
a) Hes
b) Shes
c) Theyre
d) Youre
e) Im not
f) Were not/ we arent
g) Its not/ It isnt
h) Shes not/ She isnt
2.
a) is
b) am
c) is
d) are
e) is
f) is
g) am
h) is
i) is
j) are
k) is
l) are
3.
a) I am not hungry./ I am hungry.
b) It is warm today.
c) Rome isnt in Spain.

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d) I am not afraid of dogs./ I am afraid of dogs.


e) Canada is a big country.
f) The Amazon isnt in Africa.
g) Motor-racing is a dangerous sport.
h) Cats arent big animals.

4.
a. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
b. Yes, it is./ No, it isnt.
c. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
d. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
e. Yes, they are./ No, they arent.
f. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
g. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
h. Yes, it is. No, it isnt.

5.
a) Negativa: My eyes arent green.
Interrogativa: Are my eyes green?
b) Negativa: My hair isnt long and straight.
Interrogativa: Is my hair long and straight?
c) Negativa: My favorite actor isnt Brad Pitt.
Interrogativa: Is my favorite actor Brad Pitt?
d) Negativa: It isnt freezing today.
Interrogativa: Is is freezing today?
e) Negativa: You arent a great professional.
Interrogativa: Are you a great professional?
f) Negativa: Janes favorite color isnt blue.

UNIDADE
31 I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

31

Interrogativa: Is Janes favorite color blue?

6.
Hi, everyone!
Guess where I am ? What a beautiful sunset! It is Matahari beach, in Bali. I am
here for a week. It is hot and sunny. The food is great lots of fish and seafood. But
the waves are the best of all! They are up to 3 meters tall. And you, guys? Are you ok?
I hope so. My family is here with me and they send you best regards. See you soon!
Love, Bill.
1.3.
1.
a) a
b) an
c) a
d) a
e) an
f) an
g) an
h) a
i) an
j) a
k) an
l) a

32

UNIDADE I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

2.

3.
a) the
b) a/ the
c) the
d) The
e) the
f) the/ the
g) a
h) an/ an

4.
_X_Brazilis__A_ huge country. In__THE__ north, there are __X__ rain forests
and __THE__ longest river is also situated there. In __THE__ south, __THE__ climate
is more European. __X__ Brazil also has many social differences. __THE__ rich owns
most of ___THE___ countrys wealth and___THE__ poor often live on __X__ minimum
wage.

UNIDADE
33 I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

33

5.
a) THE Japanese flag is red and white.
b) There is AN apple here.
c) My best friend is A dentist.
d) It is A difficult question.
e) My brother is THE director.
f) I like to see THE squirrels in the park.
g) THE bank is closed on Sundays.
h) Look at THE moon! Its beautiful!

1.4.
1.
a) Are there lots of students in your school?
b) How many girls are there in your classroom?
c) In my street, there is a huge square.
d) There are ten tigers at the zoo.
e) There isnt a football field near your house.
f) There are many dogs on the streets.
g) Is there something to eat at home?
h) There is only one apple left.

2.
a) There is a sport center.
b) There isnt a university.
c) There isnt a swimming pool.
d) There is a public hospital.
e) There arent hotels.
f) There are two cinemas.

34

UNIDADE I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

g) There is a cathedral.
h) There are many restaurants.

3.
a) There arent
b) There is
c) Is there
d) There are.
e) Are there.
f) There arent
g) Is there
h) Are there

4.
a) There are seven days in a week.
b) There are 365 days in a year.
c) There are 50 states in the United State.
d) There are eight planets in the Solar System.
e) There are 30 days in September.
f) There are 11 players in a football team.
g) There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet.

5.
a) Its
b) Its
c) There/ it
d) There/ it
e) There/ there

UNIDADE
35 I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

35

36

UNIDADE I TCNICAS DE LEITURA

UNIDADE 2

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


OB JET IVOS DA UN ID A D E
Introduzir os tempos verbais Simple Present Tense e Present
Continuous Tense;
Apresentar a formao de estruturas negativas e interrogativas e o uso
dos verbos auxiliares.
Apresentar as Preposies IN, ON e AT, bem como suas diferentes aplicaes. Explicar e diferenciar Adjetivos e Advrbios ou Locues Adverbiais,
Favorecer a compreenso das diferentes aplicaes em enunciados
simples da Lngua Inglesa.

HAB ILIDADES E C O MP E T N C IA S
Domnio das estruturas gramaticais bsicas da lngua inglesa apropriada aos nveis elementar e intermedirio;
Leitura, interpretao e produo de pequenos textos e enunciados de
natureza simples.

2.1.

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Usamos o SIMPLE PRESENT para falar de aes que acontecem com frequncia

em nossas vidas, que falam de nossas rotinas, de nosso cotidiano. Muitas vezes, o
SIMPLE PRESENT vem acompanhado de advrbios de frequncia (always, usually,
never, everyday etc.) justamente para enfatizar estas aes.

Example: I take a shower every day.

Tambm usamos o SIMPLE PRESENT para falar de fatos que so geralmente

UNIDADE 237- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

37

considerados verdade universalmente, de um modo geral.

Example: Elephants live in Africa.

Ainda usamos o SIMPLE PRESENT falar de aes frequentes que j so


planejadas antecipadamente, relacionadas com horrios.

Example:The train to Glasgow leaves at 7:35 am.


My sister takes the bus home at 6 pm every day.

Observe como so estruturadas as formas afirmativas, interrogativas e


negativas de sentenas no SIMPLE PRESENT.

Usa-se DO e DOES como verbos auxiliares na construo de estruturas


interrogativas e negativas.
DO Usado com os pronomes I, YOU, WE, THEY.
DOES Usado com os pronomes HE, SHE, IT.
Pay attention to it:
Affirmative: They like popcorn.
38

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Interrogative: DO they like popcorn?


Negativa: They DONT like popcorn.

Na estrutura interrogativa o verbo auxiliar DO posicionado


imediatamente antes do sujeito DO they like popcorn?
J na estrutura negativa, o verbo auxiliar DO posicionado, juntamente
com NOT, antes do verbo They DONT like popcorn.

Pay a lot more attention here:


Affirmative: She loves ice cream.
Interrogative: DOES she love ice cream?
Negative: She DOESNT love ice cream.

Observe que usamos DOES para sujeitos que representem as 3s pessoas


do singular HE, SHE, IT. Aqui temos mais alteraes. J na estrutura afirmativa,
acrescentamos S, - ES, - IES ao final dos verbos She loves ice cream.
Nas interrogativas, continuando utilizando o verbo auxiliar DOES antes
do sujeito, porm, quando isso acontece, o verbo volta a sua forma infinitiva
DOES she love ice cream? Ou seja, retira-se S.
O mesmo acontece nas formas negativas, utilizamos o verbo auxiliar
DOES justamente com NOT antes do verbo, e mais uma vez, o final S do verbo
cai She DOESNT love ice cream.

So, dont forget the short forms:


DO NOT = DONT
DOES NOT = DOESNT

UNIDADE 239- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

39

SPELLING OF ENDINGS FOR THE THIRD PERSONS SINGULAR HE, SHE


AND IT
Como j sabemos, quando trabalhamos com estruturas afirmativas no SIMPLE
PRESENTE e nosso sujeito for uma das 3s pessoas do singular (He, She, or It), devemos
acrescentar S, ES, ou IES ao final dos verbos. Ento, importante conhecermos a
SPELLING OF ENDINGS RULE. Pay attention to it:
Para verbos terminados em - CH, - SH, -S, -O, e - Z: acrescentamosES:
Examples:
Teach teaches;
Pass passes;
Brush brushes;
Fix fixes;
Go goes.
Bob goes to the gym every morning.
Para verbos termidados em consonant + y: trocamos o Y for IES:
Examples:
Study studies;
Cry cries;
Fly flies.
Christine studies English at the University.
Para todos os outros verbos, como um regra geral: acrescentamos S:
Examples:
Work works;
Play plays;
Live lives;
Move moves.
George usually plays basketball on weekends.

40

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Lets try?
1. Complete as sentenas usando o Simple Present com os verbos entre
parnteses.
a. Dogs__________________________________. (bark)
b. I usually _______________________________ (drive) to school.
c. He __________________________________ (work) near his house.
d. They often _______________________________ (take) the but to work.
e. You usually _______________________________ (arrive) late.

2. Complete o texto com informaes sobre Lisa e Anna utilizando o


Simple Present.
Lisa and Anna __live__ (live) in London and they usually ________________
(go) to Cambridge by car. When they _________________(get) there they
generally _________________ (phone) their grandma and _______________
(spend) the afternoon with her. Grandma _______________ (love) them and
________________ (feel) happy with their visit.

3. Escolha a opo correta.


a. He often (wait/ waits) for me.
b. The boys (swim/ swims) everyday.
c. We (buy/ buys) apples at the supermarket.
d. You always (take/ takes) the wrong bus.
e. She generally (eat/ eats) bread and butter in the morning.
f. I (wash/ washes) my hair everyday.

UNIDADE 241- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

41

4. Complete as sentenas utilizando os verbos BOIL, CLOSE, COST, GO,


HAVE, LIKE MEET, OPEN, SMOKE, SPEAK, TEACH, WASH, VISIT, EAT, DRINK.
Ateno s Spelling rules!
a. Little Lucy ____eats___ fruit every morning.
b. They usually _____________________ much beer.
c. She _______________________ her parents every weekend.
d. She is very clever. She ______________________ four languages.
e. Steve _______________________ ten cigarettes a day.
f. We usually _____________________ dinner at 8 oclock.
g. I _________________ films. I often ___________________ to the movies.
h. Water _________________________ at 100 degrees Celsius.
i. In Britain the banks ________________________ at 9.30 in the morning.
j. The City Museum ________________________ at 5 oclock every evening.
k. Food is expensive. It _______________________ a lot of money.
l. Tina is a teacher. She ______________________ Math for young children.
m. Your job is very interesting. You ____________________ a lot of people.
n. John ________________________ his hair twice a week.

5. Reescreva as sentenas utilizando as 3s pessoas do singular (He, She,


It).
Model:
They usually go to the gym in the morning. He usually goes to the gym
in the morning.
a. I hurry to the gym every week.____________________________________
b. You often go to library on weekends._______________________________
c. They brush their teeth in the morning.______________________________
d. We usually have lunch at 12 noon._________________________________
e. The girls go to school by bus._____________________________________

42

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

2.2.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


He is brushing his teeth.

The kid is playing with her toys.

Usamos o PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE para falar de aes que


acontecem no mesmo momento em que estamos falando. Agora, por exemplo,
estamos estudando ingls, ento:
We are studying English now.
A estrutura do PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE formada:

WE ARE STUDYING ENGLISH NOW.


As estruturas no PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE vm sempre acompanhadas de
advrbios ou locues adverbiais de tempo como NOW (agora), AT TH MOMENT (no
momento), RIGHT NOW (agora) etc.
Observe:

UNIDADE 243- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

43

SPELLING OF ENDINGS
Em alguns verbos, basta acrescentarmos o ING que j temos parte da
estrutura do Present Continuous feita. Porm, h verbos que requerem uma
ateno especial na hora de se acrescentar o ING:
Verbos terminados em E:
Come> Coming
Smoke> Smoking
Write> Writing
Verbos monossilbicos terminados em Consoante + Vogal + Consoante:
Run > Running
Sit > Sitting
Swim > Swimming

Alguns casos especiais:


Lie> Lying
Die> Dying

44

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Now, it is time to check out!

1. Escreva estruturas no Present Continuous.


Model:
(I/ wash/ my hair) I am washing my hair.
a. (it/ rain) _____________________________________________________
b. (I/ rest/ on the sofa) ___________________________________________
c. (He/ drink/ milk) ______________________________________________
d. (She/ learn/ Spanish) __________________________________________
e. (We/ have/ lunch) ____________________________________________
f. (The sun/ shine) _____________________________________________
g. (Paul/ eat/ popcorn) __________________________________________
h. (Christine/ read/ a magazine) ___________________________________

UNIDADE 245- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

45

2. Faa as negativas e interrogativas das sentenas abaixo.


Model:
The girls are sleeping. The girls are not sleeping. Are the girls sleeping?
a. It is snowing.

b. The man is riding his bicycle.

c. Those children are playing soccer.

d. We are doing exercises.

3.

Escreva respostas curtas. Positivas ou Negativas.

Model:
Are you watching TV? Yes, I am.
Is Mike studying French? Yes, he is.

ou

No, I am not.
ou

No, he isnt.

a. Is Susan wearing a blue coat?


b. Is Brain travelling abroad?
c. Is that clock working?
d. Are you and your brother running?
e. Are the kids laughing?
f. Are you talking on the phone?

46

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

4.

Complete as sentenas com o verbos em parenteses. Use o Present

Continuous.
Model:
My brother and I

2.3.

are doing

(do) homework.

a.

My friends (travel) to Europe.

b.

The dog (sleep) on the rug.

c.

The boys (watch) cartoons.

d.

The teacher (correct) exercises.

e.

Paul (work) on his project.

f.

Catherine (paint) her bedroom.

PREPOSITIONS I
PREPOSITIONS IN/ ON/ AT
IN usado em:

In a room The baby is in its bedroom.


In a city Marcus is in London.
In a country I live in Brazil.
In the water/ In the sea/ In the river The boat is in the sea.
In a row/ in a line/ in a queue My boyfriend is in a line.
Tambm usamos in com as seguintes palavras: bed, hospital, prison, the street.
In bed - Bill is in bed.
In prison - James is in prison.
Usamos ainda IN com anos, meses (sem datas), estao do ano, perodos:
Brazil was discovered in 1500.
We go to the mountains in winter.
My birthday is in January. (on January 24th)
I go to school in the morning. (at night)
UNIDADE 247- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

47

ON usado em:
On the wall The painting is on the wall.
On the floor The rug is on the floor.
On the table The food is already on the table.
Usa-se ON com as palavras: a farm, the left, the right, the coast, an island, a
road, the way, a street.
My parents are living on a farm.
The toilet is on the left.
My beach house is on the coast.
The hospital is on Apple Street.
Usa-se ON com dias da semana ou meses do ano/ data:
My English class is on Saturdays.
My birthday is on January 24th.
We change presents on Christmas.
AT usado em:
At the top/ botton of a page: The number must go on the top of the
page.
At the end of the line: My sister is that girl at the end of that line.
Podemos tambm usar AT:
Para dizer que algum est em um acontecimento: Julie is at the party.
Com as palavras home, work, university, the station, the airport: She is
at work.
Quando nos referimos ao lugar em que um acontecimento ocorre: The
exhibition is at the National Museum.
Com horas: The meeting is at 8 oclock.

48

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Your turn!

1. Complete com in, at, ou on.


a. Dont spill grape juice

the sofa!

b. Simon lives the countryside.


c. The hospital is
d. Adrian is

the left.

the university.

e. My classes start

7:30 am.

f. Brian and his brother live

the second floor.

g. My bus arrives

the station

h. Dad is resting

his armchair.

i. My sister likes to swim


j. The cat is

11 oclock.

the sea.

top of the stairs.

2. Escreva at/ on/ in:


a. the end of the year.
b. night.
c. Christmas Eve.
d. 2011.
e. 12 noon.
f. Spring.
g. a quarter to eight.
h. Friday morning.
i. the morning.
j. August 1st.
k.

January.
UNIDADE 249- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

49

ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS AND ADVERBIAL


PHRASES.
2.4.

ADJECTIVES
O que so adjetivos? So palavras que qualificam os substantivos, indicandolhes um estado ou um modo se ser. Vamos observar os usos especficos dos adjetivos
em Ingls.
Os adjetivos so usados para descrever objetos, coisas ou pessoas.
A pretty woman

An expensive car

Nunca so usados no plural.


apoor child

poor children

The girl is fat.

The girls are fat.

So usados antes de substantivos ou depois dos seguintes verbos ligao: be,


become, get, smell, taste, sound, seem, appear, look, feel, make.
The blue car is parked on the street.

The tall boy is standing over

there.
They look sad.

It smells good.

Its getting late.

I fell well.

Existem pares de adjetivos quer terminam em -ed e -ing. Observe a


diferena.
- A terminao ing tem sentido ativo indicando atributo de uma coisa ou
pessoa: An interesting class. (uma aula interessante)
- A terminao ed tem sentido passivo, e se refere ao sentimento de
algum em relao a alguma coisa ou pessoa: An interested student. (um
50

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

aluno interessado)
- Outros adjetivos terminados em ing e ed:

Fascinating Fascinated Shocking - Shocked

Amazing Amazed Depressing Depressed

Horrifying Horrified Amusing Amused

Worrying Worried Embarrassing

Embarrassed

Shall we do some exercises?

1. Complete as sentenas com os adjetivos indicados.

a. The question is ________________ . I dont know how to answer it!


b. The baby girl is too _________________ . She needs to eat more.
c. Sallys mother is ______________ with her. She is _____________ in bed.
d. I want to read an _______________ book. Do you have any?
e. They need a new car. Theirs is very ________________.
f. I am very _______________ ! I work too hard!
g. The ________________ problem in our city is pollution.
h. Janet is an ________________ student.

2. Coloque as sentenas na forma plural.


Model: My sister is beautiful. (singular)
My sisters are beautiful. (plural)
a. The flat is big and expensive.

UNIDADE 251- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

51

b. The book is interesting.

c. My son is intelligent.

d. The computer is cheap.

e. The car is expensive.

3. Sublinhe a alternativa correta.


Model: I am really surprised/ surprising with the new student.
a. The film is really excited/ exciting.
b. The professor is disappointed/ disappointing with the students.
c. I want to go to London. It seems to be an interested/ interesting trip.
d. Simon is really tired/ tiring today.
e. The story Mr. Jones is telling us is really amused/ amusing.

52

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

4. Complete o texto utilizando os adjetivos propostos. O texto sobre


uma atriz, Sandra, e ela conta um pouco sobre sua vida agitada. Nem todos os
adjetivos sero utilizados.

ADVERBS and ADVERBIAL PHRASES

Advrbios so palavras utilizadas para modificar uma outra palavra,


que pode ser um verbo, um adjetivo, um outro advrbio ou at uma sentena
inteira.

UNIDADE 253- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

53

Its too cold today!

He drives very quickly.

They do their homework

easily.

Eles so classificados de acordo com manner (maneira), place (lugar),


time (tempo), frequency (frequncia) e intensity (intensidade). Vamos ver com
utiliz-los.Shallwe?
Adverbs of Manner
Os advrbios de modo nos dizem de que maneira as coisas acontecem
ou de que maneira algum faz alguma coisa. Normalmente utilizamos estes
advrbios depois do objeto ou depois de um verbo. Exemplos: badly, carefully,
perfectly, heavily, slowly, quietly etc.

Muito importante: reparem que a maioria dos adverbs of manner


termina em ly, porm, nem todos as palavras terminadas em ly so advrbios.
Algumas palavras terminadas em ly, como lonely, daily, silly, lovely, friendly,
so adjetivos, e no advrbios.
Adverbs of Place (or Adverbial Phrases of Place)
Os advrbios de lugar,ou locues adverbiais de lugar, nos dizem onde,
em que lugar as coisas acontecem.Geralmente, vem no final da frase. Exemplos:
here, there, at home, in the office, at school, over there, near, far etc.

54

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Adverbs of Time
Os advrbios de tempo nos dizem quando as coisas acontecem.E so
tambm, geralmente, posicionados no final da sentence. Exemplos: now,
today, yesterday, tomorrow, last month, on Sundays, at 9 oclock, at night, in
the evening etc.

Adverbs of Frequency
Os advrbios de frequncia nos dizem com que frequncia as coisas acontecem:
sempre, nunca, s vezes, normalmente, geralmente etc. Eles so posicionados,
normalmente, antes dos verbos principais, e depois do verbo to Be. Observe:

So eles: always, sometimes, usually, often, rarely, never, generaly,


every day, once a week (month, year).
Normalmente, os advrbios everyday e once a week so posicionados
no final da sentena.
Examples:
Lisa goes to school every day.
The Stwarts travel to England once a year.

UNIDADE 255- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

55

Adverbs of Intensity
So eles: almost, nearly, really, very, quite, too, rather, quite, such,
enough.
Ns, normalmente, usamos estes advrbios antes de adjetivos, antes de
verbos, ou at mesmo antes de outro advrbio. E eles nos falam da intensidade
das coisas ou das aes. Examples:

Now, lets work out on some


exercises!

1. Complete as sentenas com os advrbios SLOWLY, HERE, NOW, LOUDLY,


TODAY, VERY.
a. Gina isnt at school ___________ . She is sick in bed.
b. What do you think Bill is doing __________? I dont know, maybe he is
studying.
c. Can you speak more __________ ? I dont understand what you are
saying.
d. Joan doesnt live __________ anymore. I think he has moved to another
city.
e. I am __________ happy today! I am on vacations!
f. The music is playing so ___________ ! Put the volume down, please!

56

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

2. Sublinhe a alternativa correta.


Model:I so/ usually play volleyball on weekends.
a. We are so/ certainly tired today that we want to stay home.
b. They love each other never/ very much.
c. Its quite/ always late! Lets go home.
d. Linus really/ probably wont go to the party. He is sick.
e. Britney is such/ nearly a nice girl.
f. The Smiths too/ rarely go out on weekends. They like to stay at home.

3. Posicione os advrbios corretamente.


Model:Julie plays golf on Sunday morning. (here)

Julies plays golf here on Sunday morning.

a. Bob studies at home. (in the evening)

b. Does she have a shower after work? (normally)

c. Mr. Morrison walks home after work. (always)

d. I finish work at 6 pm. (on week days)

e. I am home at night. (always)

f. Cindy goes out. (every weekend)

g. Lucy is studying hard for the final exam. (very)

UNIDADE 257- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

57

4. Corrija os erros nestas sentenas.


Model: Bianca knows the answer definitely. - Bianca definitely knows
the answer.
a.

Quickly the girl runs to school.

b. To work I go in the morning by bus.

c. They play in the afternoon tennis.

d. Lisander was yesterday here.

e. Always we go to the gyn.

Para complementar esta unidade, assista segunda teleaula, anote suas


dvidas e compartilhe-as no Frum. Lembre-se de verificar as atividades e os
prazos no ambiente virtual, nossa plataforma de estudos!

CONFIRA SUAS RESPOSTAS:


Key

2.1.
1.
a. Bark
b. Drive
c. Works
d. Take
58

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

e. Arrive

2.
Go get phone spend loves feels

3.
a. Waits
b. Swim
c. Buy
d. Take
e. Eats
f. Wash

4.
a. Eats
b. Drink
c. Visits
d. Speaks
e. Smokes
f. Have
g. Like go
h. Boils
i. Open
j. Closes
k. Costs
l. Teaches
m. Meet
n. Washes

UNIDADE 259- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

59

2.2.
1.
a. It is raining.
b. I am resting on the sofa.
c. He is drinking milk.
d. She is learning Spanish.
e. We are having lunch.
f. The sun is shining.
g. Paul is eating popcorn.
h. Christine is reading a magazine.

2.
a. It is not snowing./ Is it snowing?
b. The man is not riding his bicycle./ Is the man riding his bicycle?
c. Those children are not playing soccer./ Are those children playing
soccer?
d. We are not doing exercises./ Are we doing exercises?

3.
a. Yes, she is./ No, she isnt.
b. Yes, he is./ No, he isnt.
c. Yes, it is./ No, it isnt.
d. Yes, we are./ No, we arent.
e. Yes, they are./ No, they arent.
f. Yes, I am./ No, I am not.
4.
a. My friends are travelling to Europe.
b. The dog is sleeping on the rug.
60

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

c. The boys are watching cartoons.


d. The teacher is correcting exercises.
e. Paul is working on his project.
f. Catherine is painting her bedroom.

2.3.
1.
a. On
b. In
c. On
d. At
e. At
f. On
g. At - at
h. on
i. in
j. at

2.
a. at
b. at
c. on
d. in
e. at
f. in
g. at
h. on
i. in

UNIDADE 261- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

61

j. on
k. in

2.4.
1.
a. difficult
b. thin
c. worried sick
d. interesting
e. old
f. tired
g. principal
h. excellent

2.
a. The flats are big and expensive.
b. The books are interesting.
c. My sons are intelligent.
d. The computers are cheap.
e. The cars are expensive.

3.
a. Exciting
b. Disappointed
c. Interesting
d. Tired
e. Amusing

62

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

4.
Exciting tiring different bored interesting surprised excellent/ good
blond straight green tall thin
ADVERBS and ADVERBIAL PRHASES

1.
a. Today
b. Now
c. Slowly
d. Here
e. Very
f. Loudly

2.
a. So
b. Very
c. Quite
d. Probably
e. Such
f. Rarely

3.
a. Bob studies at home in the evening.
b. Does she normally have a shower after work?
c. Mr. Morrison always walks home after work.
d. I finish work at 6 pm on week days.
e. I am always at home at night.
f. Cindy goes out every weekend.

UNIDADE 263- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

63

g. Lucy is studying very hard for the final exam.

4.
a. The girl runs to school quickly.
b. I go to work by bus in the morning.
c. They play tennis in the afternoon.
d. Lisander was here yesterday.
e. We always go to the gyn.

64

UNIDADE 2 - THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

UNIDADE 3

WH QUESTIONS OR
QUESTIONS WORDS
OB JET IVOS DA UN ID A D E
Apresentar as Wh-questions ou Questions Words e as diversas possibilidades de uso em estruturas interrogativas;
Introduzir os tempos verbais Future, e Simple Past com o verbo To Be e
com a estrutura There To Be;
Favorecer a compreenso de pequenos textos e enunciados de natureza mais complexa.

HAB ILIDADES E C O MP E T N C IA S
Domnio das estruturas gramaticais de nvel intermedirio da Lngua
Inglesa.
Compreenso, produo e identificao de estruturas mais complexas
da Lngua Inglesa.

3.1.

WH QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS


Wh- questions ou questions words so palavras interrogativas usadas para

fazer perguntas para se obter informaes especficas. So, geralmente, posicionadas


antes de verbos auxiliares ou verbos modais. So elas: WHAT (Qual?, O qu?), WHEN
(Quando?), WHERE (Onde?), WHY (Por que?), WHO (Quem?), WHOSE (De quem?),
WHICH (Qual?), HOW (Como?).
Mas como us-las? Quais as informaes especficas que eu quero descobrir ao
usar as WH-QUESTIONS?
Lets study one by one to find out how to use them!
WHAT? usado para perguntar sobre as coisas.
Exemplos: What time is it? Its 10 oclock.
UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
65

65

What is your favorite color? Blue.


WHEN? usado para perguntar sobre o tempo, quando em que as coisas
acontecem.
Exemplos: When are you going to travel to the United States? In April.
When are your English classes? On Saturdays.
WHERE? usado para perguntar sobre lugares, onde os fatos ocorrem.
Exemplos: Where do you live? I live in Boston.
Where are you from? I am from Brazil.
WHY? usado para perguntar a razo das coisas acontecerem. Por que
acontecem.
Exemplos: Why are you so happy today? Because I passed on the exam!
Why are you late? Because I overslept this morning.

Perceba que quando fazemos perguntas com WHY (por que?) a resposta
sempre inicia-se com BECAUSE (porque). Ento, na pergunta usa-se WHY e na resposta
BECAUSE.
WHO...? usado para perguntar sobre pessoas.
Exemplos: Who is that woman? She is my sister.
Who is your favorite designer? Calvin Klein is.
WHOSE? usado para falar de posse, a quem pertence determinado objeto.
Exemplos: Whose book is this? This is my book.
Whose birthday is today? Its Tommys birthday today.
WHICH? usa-se which para perguntar sobre coisas ou pessoas quando se
tem opes para se escolher.
Compare: What is your favorite color? My favorite color is blue.

66

Which color do you prefer, blue or pink? I preferpink.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

Repare que quando usamos which, so oferecidas opes para se escolher.


Exemplos: Which actress do you like most, Cameron Diaz or Demi More? I
love Cameron Diaz!
Which food do you prefer Chinese or Italian? Italian is my favorite.
HOW? usa-se how para perguntar de que maneira as coisas/ fatos
ocorrem.
Exemplos: How are you? I am fine, thanks.
How is your new job going? Everything is fine, so far!
Ateno: HOW um WH-QUESTION que sobre variaes, de acordo com o
que se adiciona a ele. So elas:
How old are you? Im 40 years old. (Quantos anos voc tem?)
How far is your house from here? Just five minutes walking. (Quo
longe sua casa daqui?)
How much is that purse? Its just U$ 40! (Quanto custa aquela bolsa?)
How much money do you have on you? Only U$ 10! (Quanto dinheiro
voc tem com voc?)
How many brothers do you have? I have 3 brothers. (Quantos irmos
voc tem?)
How often do you go to work by car? I always go to work by car.
(Com que frequncia voc vai ao trabalho de carro?)
How long have you been here? I have been here for two hours. (H
quanto tempo voc est aqui?)

IT S T IM E TO D O S O ME E XE R C IS E S ! L E T S W O R K O N

THEM !

1. Ligue as perguntas s respostas correspondentes.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
67

67

a. Who is that man?

) She is at school.

b. Whose motorcycle is that?

) He is reading the news now.

c. Why is Jonathan sad?

) I go to the club.

d. How do you go to work?

) That man is my father.

e. Which coat do you prefer?

) I work in a bank.

f. What is he doing now?

) I go to work by car.

g. Where do you work?

) That motorcycle is mine.

h. Where do you go on Sundays?

) I prefer the black one.

i. Where is Christine?

) Because he is unemployed.

2. Complete as sentenas com o Wh-question mais adequado.


a. ____________ is she tired? Because she is working a lot!
b. ____________ are they leaving? Tomorrow morning.
c. ____________ dress is this? This is Lindas dress.
d. ____________ isnt John here today? Because he has to work.
e. ____________ is your name? My name is Simon.
f. ____________ is this CD? Its just 5 dollars.
g. ____________ time do you leave to work? At seven oclock.
h. ____________ color do you prefer, green or purple? I like purple.
i. ____________ is your birthday? Its on June 27th.
j. ____________ is your sister? She is at work.
k. ____________ does he love? He loves Lisa.
l. ____________ do you spell your name? Its J-O-A-N-N-E.

3.2.

FUTURE TENSES
H diferentes formas de se expressar o futuro em Ingls. Podemos usar

o WILL, a estrutura GOING TO, o PRESENT CONTINUOUS, ou at o FUTURE


PERFECT para expressar aes futuras. Vamos nos ater, neste primeiro momento,
68

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

as estruturas futuras com WILL e GOING TO.

FUTURE WTH WILL

3.2.1.

Usamos WILL para expressar o futuro. Observe a estrutura:


Todos os pronomes pessoais obedecem mesma regra estrutural.
No h variaes.
Usamos WILL para:
prever fatos e acontecimentos:

The prices WILL increase 12% next month.

Indicar decises tomadas no momento da fala:

The bell is ringing. I WILL see who it is.

Oferecer ajuda ou fazer um pedido:

Mom, WILL you lend me your car?


I WILL help you.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
69

69

WILL NEGATIVE FORMS


- Para formar sentenas negativas com WILL, basta acrescentar NOT
imediatamente depois de WILL. Observe e compare:

Affirmative: I WILL go home by bus today.


Negative: I WILL NOT go home by bus today.(Full form)

Affirmative: Janette WILL cook tonight.


Negative: Janette WONT cook tonight. (Contracted form)
Ento: WILL NOT = WONT

WILL INTERROGATIVE FORMS


- Sentenas interrogativas so formadas invertendo-se o sujeito e
WILL, da mesma forma que fazemos com o Verbo to Be, ou com
qualquer outro verbo auxiliar. Note e compare:

Affirmative: They WILL arrive tomorrow.


Interrogative: WILL they arrive tomorrow?

3.2.2.

Affirmative: We WILL eat now.


Interrogative: WILL we eat now?

FUTURE WITH GOING TO

Tambm usamos GOING TO para expressar o futuro. Observe a estrutura:

70

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

GOING TO usado para expressar planos ou intenes determinados antes


do momento em que se fala, ou seja, quando os planos ou intenes so
planejados com uma certa antecedncia.
Examples:
I am GOING TO travel to London next month.
Suellen is GOING TO be at home tomorrow morning.
GOING TO NEGATIVE FORMS
- Para formar sentenas negativas com GOING TO basta utilizar a
forma negativa do verbo to Be. Observe e compare:

Affirmative: Lionel IS GOING TO start a new job next week.


Negative: Lionel IS NOT GOING TO start a new job next week. (full
form)
Negative: Lionel ISNT GOING TO start a new job next week. (contracted
form)

Affirmative: The girls ARE GOING TO dance on Saturday night.


Negative: The girls ARE NOT GOING TO dance on Saturday night. (full
form)
Negative: The girls ARENT GOING TO dance on Saturday night.
(contracted form)

GOING TO INTERROGATIVE FORMS


- As sentenas negatives com GOING TO so formadas invertendo-se
o sujeito e o verbo tobe. Note e compare:

Affirmative: CharlotteIS GOING TO have a baby!


Interrogative: IS Charlotte GOING TO have a baby?

Affirmative: You ARE GOING TO by a new car.


Interrogative form: ARE you GOING TO by a new car?

SEE? HOW SIM P L E IT IS ! N O W L E T S T RY T O D O S O ME


EXER C ISES!

1. Complete as sentenas com o future usando WILL. Use os verbos entre


parnteses.
a. The population _______________ (increase) 50% in the next ten years.
UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
71

71

b. The telephone is ringing. I ________________ (answer) it!


c. Dad, _________ you _________ (lend) me 10 bucks?
d. Dont be so sad about the exam! I know you ________________ (pass)
on it.
e. The twin sisters ______________________ (arrive) home tomorrow night.
f. The government __________________ (make) a final decision next week.

2. Escreva sentenas afirmativas, negativas ou interrogativas usando


o future com WILL.
Model: Jane/ study/ for her English test with you?
Will Jane study for her English test with you?
a. Christofer/ see/ his brother/ tomorrow.

b. My father/ not pay/ the bill.

c. Paul/ be/ at the prom.

d. You/ help/ me/ tomorrow?

e. They/ not meet/ again.

3. Responda as questes usando as informaes entre parnteses.


Model: When will you arrive? (next month)
I will arrive next month.
a. Who will win the next World Cup? (Brazil)

b. When will be your next vacation? (In May)

72

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

c. What time will we finish this work? (at 7 pm)

d. How will your parents get to the party? (by car)

e. Who will be there to meet me? (Marcus)

f. Which coat will you use, the black or the brown one? (the black one)

4. Ligue as perguntas s respostas correspondentes.


a. I have a test tomorrow.

) I am going to buy another

one.
b. What do you want to eat?

) I am going to study hard.

c. I am so tired tonight!

) I am going to be late.

d. The meeting is at 5 pm, and I am here!

) I am going to eat a soup.

e. Oh! My watch is broken!

) I am going to sleep earlier.

5. Complete a conversa entre os dois amigos usando WILL, WONT ou


GOING TO.
Julius: Lets go to the movies on the weekend!
Janis: Sorry, Julius! I cant. I ________________________ (not be) here.
I ___________________________ (be) in Fortaleza.
Julius: What ______________ you _______________ (do) there?
Janis: I _______________________ (visit) my sister.
Julius: When ______________ you ______________ (come) back?
Janis: I _____________________________ (come) back next week only!

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
73

73

3.3.

SIMPLE PAST VERB TO BE


Como j sabemos, o verbo to Be um dos verbos
mais utilizados na Lngua Inglesa, e considerado
um verbo especial. No SIMPLE PAST (Passado Simples)
ele se apresenta de duas maneiras: WAS e WERE.
Cada um dos Subjective Pronouns tem o sua forma
de verbo to Be no passado correspondente. Observe:

Usa-se o Verbo to Be no SIMPLE PAST da mesma maneira que usamos no


SIMPLE PRESENT:
Para identificar e descrever pessoas e objetos.
Nas expresses de tempo e lugar.
Nas expresses de idade.
Para formar sentenas NEGATIVAS ou INTERROGATIVAS com o verbo to Be
no SIMPLE PAST, basta movimentar o verbo, da mesma forma que fazemos quando
o usamos no SIMPLE PRESENT, ou seja, no necessrio nenhum verbo auxiliar.
O prprio verbo to Be vai transformar oraes AFIRMATIVAS em NEGATIVAS ou
INTERROGATIVAS.

74

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

Observe como construmos NEGATIVE SENTENCES:


Affirmative sentence: My sister WAS a good teacher.
Negative sentence: My sister WAS NOT a good teacher.
Negative contracted sentence: My sister WASNT a good teacher.
Para formar uma sentena negativa, basta acrescentar a palavra NOT
imediatamente aps o verbo to Be. Ou se preferir, utilizar a forma contrada
WASNT.
Ento: WAS NOT = WASNT

WERE NOT = WERENT

Agora, INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES:


- Affirmative sentence: The boys WERE at home.
- Interrogative sentence: WERE the boys at home?
Observe que para construirmos sentenas interrogativas temos que
inverter o SUJEITO e o VERBO: The boys were.../ Were the boys...?
Lets have a look at another table:

SOME TIPS FOR YOU!


muito comum utilizarmos respostas curtas em Ingls, sejam elas
UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
75

75

afirmativas ou negativas. Observe como se comporta o verbo to Be no SIMPLE


PAST:
Were you at home last night? Yes, I was. Ou No, I wasnt.
Was Taylor with his mother yesterday? Yes, he was. Ou No, he wasnt.
Were the kids at the park last Saturday? Yes, they were. Ou No, they
werent.

Advrbios de tempo (Adverbs of Time) e Locues Adverbiais (Adverbial


Phrases) como YESTERDAY, YESTERDAY MORNING, YESTERDAY EVENING,
LAST WEEK, LAST YEAR, LAST MONTH, ten minutes AGO, three days AGO,
entre outras, esto sempre presentes em oraes no Simple Past.
Where you at your mothers house YESTERDAY? Yes, I was.
They were in the garden 20 minutes AGO!

GOT IT? SO, LETS PRACTICE!

1. Complete as sentenas com o verbo to Be no SIMPLE PAST WAS/


WERE.
a. Last year, Julia ______ 22 years old. Today she is 23.
b. When I ______ a child, I ______ afraid of dogs.
c. We ______ tired after the trip, and we ______ also very hungry.
d. The hotel ______ very comfortable.
e. Where ______ you at 6 oclock yesterday afternoon?
f. ______ the weather good when you ______ on vacations?
g. Those pants are beautiful! ______ they expensive?
h. ______ Janet late for the meeting?

76

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

2. Agora, complete com WAS/ WASNT ou WERE/ WERENT.


a. The Browns didnt like their accommodations. It ________ very small
and it ________ clean.
b. James got married when he ________ only 22 years old.
c. Bill called you yesterday morning, but you ________ at home. Where
________ you?
d. My boss ________ at work last week because he ________ sick in bed.
e. The mall ________ open yesterday because it _______ a public holiday.
f. Linda worked a lot last night, but she ________ tired.
g. This time last year, I ________ in Brazil. I ________ in Paris, enjoying my
vacations.

3. Responda as perguntas utilizando as informaes dadas.


Model: Where were you yesterday evening? (at the movies)
I was at the movies.
a. Who was that woman with you last afternoon? (my mother)

b. When was your last trip to England? (in 2009)

c. Was Carmen at home last morning? (negative/ at work)

d. Was Robert sick last week? (affirmative/ at the hospital)

e. Where was Adrian yesterday? (at the gyn)

4. Circule a alternativa correta.


a. Selena and I (was/ were) at school yesterday morning.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
77

77

b. Your backpack (was/ were) here a minute ago.


c. (Was/ Were) you on vacations?
d. (Was/ Were) it hot last month in Miami?
e. My husband and I (wasnt/ werent) in Brazil last year.
f. (Was/ Were) the children hungry after school?

5. Julian and Paul esto de frias no Brasil. Eles esto na Bahia. Complete
o e-mail que eles escreveram, utilizando o verbo to Be no SIMPLE PRESET (AM
IS ARE) ou no SIMPLE PAST (WAS WERE).

3.4.

SIMPLE PAST - THERE TO BE


(haver, existir no passado)
O THERE TO BE no SIMPLE PAST utilizado para falar de coisas que

existiram, de eventos ou acontecimentos, ou mesmo de quantidade, no


passado. Observe:
In 2000, there was a park near my house.
Algo que existia.
There were beautiful flowers at that park.

There was a special section at the movies yesterday.

78

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

Acontecimentos
There were parties all over the place.

Passados.

There was cake on the table 5 minutes ago.

Quantidades.

There were three new students in my English class.


E como estruturar sentenas negativas e
interrogativas?
Ora, basta movimentar o verbo to Be!
Vamos ver como acontece com estruturas
negativas.
Affirmative sentence: There was a dog in the garden.
Negative sentence: There was not a dog in the garden.
Contracted Negative: There wasnt a dog in the garden.

So, the contracted NEGATIVE forms are:

WAS WASNT

WERE WERENT
Agora, vamos observar as estruturas INTERROGATIVAS.
Affirmative sentence: There were many apples in the basket.
Interrogative sentence: Were there many apples in the basket?
Look at the examples:
There WAS a child lost on the street.
There WASNT any good movie on TV last night.
Excuse me,WAS there a blond woman here 5 minutes ago?
There WERE many children at the club last weekend.
WERE there new animals at the zoo last Saturday?

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
79

79

It is your turn

to do some exercises!

1. Circule a alternativa correta. Note que h sentenas no Simple Present


e no Simple Past.
a. (Was there/ Were there) a yellow cab near here yesterday?
b. (Are there/ Is there) lots of children at your school?
c. (Was there/ Were there) many people at the theater last night?
d. (There was/ There were) four giraffes at the zoo.
e. (Is there/ Are there) anything to eat in your bag?
f. How many girls (is there/ are there) in your English class?
g. (Wasnt there/ Werent there) many guests at your birthday party?

2. Complete as sentenas com a forma correta de THERE TO BE.


a. How many DVDs ________________ in your case?
b. ________________ a car crash in your street yesterday morning?
c. ________________ a person calling me on the phone. Ill get it!
d. ________________ a woman waiting for you yesterday.
e. ________________ an old apple tree in front of my house. Its beautiful!
f. ________________ four children here now, but _________________ six
ten minutes ago.
g. How many pets _________________ in your house when you were a
child?
h. What __________________ in your purse?_________________ a wallet
only!

80

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

3. Cathy e Martin, foram seus vizinhos de longa data. Agora, eles se


mudaram e escreveram um e-mail contando as novidades da nova vizinhana.
Preencha o e-mail com as variaes de THERE TO BE.

Lembre-se que como parte desta unidade voc deve assistir terceira
teleaula. Participe de nossos Fruns e verifique a atividade proposta na
plataforma de estudos.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
81

81

CONFIRA SUAS RESPOSTAS


Key
3.1.
1.
(i)
(f)
(h)
(a)
(g)
(d)
(b)
(e)
(c)

2.
a. Why
b. When
c. Whose
d. Why
e. What
f. How much
g. What
h. Which
i. When
j. Where

82

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

k. Who
l. How
3.2.
1.
a. Will increase
b. Will answer
c. Will lend
d. Will pass
e. Will arrive
f. Will make

2.
a. Christofer will see his brother tomorrow.
b. My father will not/ wont pay the bill.
c. Paul will be at the prom.
d. Will you help me tomorrow?
e. They will not meet again.

3.
a. Brazil will win the next World Cup.
b. My next vacation will be in May.
c. We will finish this work at 7 pm.
d. They will get to the party by car.
e. Marcus will be there to meet you.
f. I will use the black one.

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
83

83

4.
(e)
(a)
(d)
(b)
(c)

5.
Am not going to be am going to be will/ do am going to visit - will
you come am going to come

3.3.
1.
a. Was
b. Was was
c. Were were
d. Was
e. Were
f. Was were
g. Were
h. Was
2.
a. Was- wasnt
b. Was
c. Werent were
d. Wasnt was
e. Wasnt was
f. Wasnt
84

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

g. Wasnt was

3.
a. That woman was my mother.
b. My last trip to England was in 2009.
c. No, she wasnt.
d. Yes, he was at the hospital.
e. He was at the gyn.
4.
a. Were
b. Was
c. Were
d. Was
e. Werent
f. Were

5.
Are were is was were are is is

3.4.
1.
a. Was there
b. Are there
c. Were there
d. Were there
e. Is there
f. Are there
g. Werent there
UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS
OR QUESTIONS WORDS
85

85

2.
a. Are there
b. Was there
c. There is
d. There was
e. There is
f. There are/ there were
g. Were there
h. Is there/ there is

3.
1. there is
2. there is
3. there is
4. there are
5. there were
6. there were
7. there are
8. there are

86

UNIDADE 3 - WH - QUESTIONS OR QUESTIONS WORDS

UNIDADE 4

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


OB JET IVOS DA UN ID A D E
Apresentar e diferenciar os tempos verbais Past Continuous, Simple
Past (Verbos Regulares e Irregulares) e o Present Perfect Tense, suas formaes estruturais e suas diferentes formas de uso.

HAB ILIDADES E C O MP E T N C IA S
Compreenso e identificao dos diferentes tempos verbais da Lngua
Inglesa, e fazer uso corretamente das estruturas gramaticais de natureza
mais complexa.

4.1.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Usamos o PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE para falar de aes que estavam


acontecendo, ou seja, que estavam em andamento em um determinado momento no
passado.
UNIDADE 4 87
- THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

87

I was reading a wonderful book yesterday night.


At 11 in the morning, I was baking a cake.

Tambm usamos o PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE para narrar circunstncias


ou fatos de uma determinada situao no passado.

It was a terrible winter! It was snowing a lot and the children were
skiing down the mountains.
It was dark and late at night. The strange people were walking on the
street.

A estrutura do PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE formada da mesma maneira


que fazemos com o Present Continuous Tense, s que utilizamos o verbo to Be
em sua forma passada, ou seja, WAS e WERE:

As estruturas no PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE podem vir acompanhadas de


Adverbs (Advrbios) ou Adverbial Phrases (Locues Adverbiais)no passado, como
YESTERDAY (ontem), LAST NIGHT (noite passada), LAST SUMMER (vero passado), 20
minutes AGO (20 minutos atrs) etc.
Observe:

88

UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

SPELLING OF ENDINGS
O SPELLING OF ENDINGS o modo que escrevemos os verbos quando
acrescentamos ING), segue as mesmas regras do Present Continuous: em
alguns verbos, basta acrescentarmos a terminao - ING. Porm, h verbos que
requerem uma ateno especial na hora de se acrescentar o ING. Vamos revlos:
Verbos terminados em E:
Come> Coming
Smoke> Smoking
Write> Writing
Verbos monossilbicos terminados em Consoante + Vogal + Consoante:
Run > Running
Sit > Sitting
Swim > Swimming
Alguns casos especiais:
Lie> Lying
Die> Dying
As estruturas negativas e interrogativas seguem as mesmas regras: basta
movimentar o verbo to Be no SIMPLE PAST. Lets have a look at them.

UNIDADE 4 89
- THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

89

NEGATIVE STRUCTURES

INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES

Lets have a look at some more examples.


At 5 oclock, Joseph was watching TV.
It was raining a lot yesterday.
In 2006, I was living in Vancouver.
Today Bob is wearing a sweater, but yesterday he was wearing a

90

UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

raincoat.
The sun was shining and the birds were singing.
Where were you working yesterday morning?
What was Priscilla doing at the party?
Bob wasnt buying anything at the mall.
The children werent having fun.
Who was talking with you on the phone?

Ok? Lets practice!

1. Veja as atividades realizadas por Sylvia ontem. Escreva sentenas dizendo


o que ela estava fazendo, de acordo com sua agenda.

Model: At 7 oclock, Sylvia was preparing breakfast.


a. At 8 oclock, Sylvia was________________________________________ .
b. At 10 oclock,Sylvia___________________________________________ .
c. At 11______________________________________________________ .
d. __________________________________________________________ .

2. Voc foi a uma festa ontem. E agora est contanto a uma amiga o
UNIDADE 4 91
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91

que as pessoas estavam usando ou fazendo. Use as informaes dadas para


construir sentenas usando o PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE.
Model: (Jonh wear a black leather jacket)
Jonh was wearing a black leather jacket.
a. (Lisa smoke a cigarette)

b. (Carl dance with Britney)

c. (Amy sing a song)

d. (George drink a cocktail)

e. (Elaine carry a beautiful velvet purse)

f. (Bruce use an umbrella)

Agora transforme todas as sentenas acima em NEGATIVES e


INTERROGATIVES.
Model: John was wearing a black leather jacket.
Negative: John wasnt wearing a black leather jacket.
Interrogative: Was John wearing a black leather jacket?
a. Negative:
Interrogative:
b. Negative:
Interrogative:
c. Negative:
Interrogative:
d. Negative:

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Interrogative:
e. Negative:
Interrogative:
f. Negative:
Interrogative:
3. Complete as sentenas com o PAST CONTINUOUS usando os verbos
entre parnteses.
a. The girls __________________ (swim) an hour ago.
b. What __________ Cinthia__________ (do) in the library?
c. __________ you __________ (fell) well yesterday?
d. At dinner time, Chris ____________________ (eat) in an Italian restaurant.
e. At 8 in the morning, Phillip ____________________ (fly) to Switzerland.
f. Maria ____________________ (read) a bestseller.
g. It ____________________ (rain) a lot yesterday!
h. __________ Brian ___________ (live) in San Diego in 2009?

4. Escreva perguntas. Use WAS/ WERE ING.


Model: (What Timothy do in the morning)
What was Timothy doing in the moring?
(your mother cook lunch - yesterday)
Was your mother cooking lunch yesterday?
a. (What you do at 10 oclock)

b. (Where Patty study last morning)

c. (What Patrick wear yesterday)

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93

d. (it rain yesterday)

e. (Where your parents live in 1999)


f. (The baby cry)

g. (The kids play - soccer)

h. (The old man carry an umbrella)

4.2.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE


J estudamos o SIMPLE PAST do Verbo To Be e suas aplicaes em There To

Be, e tambm no Past Continuous Tense. Agora hora de estudarmos como o


SIMPLE PAST TENSE funciona com os demais verbos, como correr, brincar, estudar,
escrever etc.
De um modo geral, podemos dividir os demais verbos em VERBOS REGULARES
e VERBOS IRREGULARES. Vamos, neste primeiro momento, nos ater somente aos
VERBOS REGULARES, e posteriormente estudaremos os VERBOS IRREGULARES.

4.2.1.

REGULAR VERBS
Os REGULAR VERBS so aqueles
que, para se construir a forma passada,
acrescentamos ED ao infinitivo dos verbos.
Examples:
Work (forma infinitiva) Worked
(forma passada)
Call (forma infinitiva) Called (forma
passada)

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Watch (forma infinitiva) Watched (forma passada)


Basta acrescentarmos ED, - D, ou- IED ao final da forma infinitiva do
verbo e temos o SIMPLE PAST deste verbo.
Pay attention:

O SIMPLE PAST usado para:


Falar de aes do passado, acabadas em um tempo definido. Example:
We walked around the park yesterday evening.
I talked to my sister on the phone last Sunday.
Paul lived in Greece in 2001.
, normalmente, empregado com Adverbs ou Adverbial Phrases of Time.
Brian watched a good movie on TV last night.
Gina called me in the evening.
Tambm empregamos o SIMPLE PAST para falar de hbitos ou de
acontecimentos do passado. Porm, nestas situaes mais comum
usarmos a expresso USED TO. Observe as possibilidades:
I always stayed home alone when I was a kid.
OU I used to stay home alone when I was a kid.
My brother, Tom, lived in Holland when he was 20 years old.
OU
My brother, Tom, used to live in Holland when he was 20 years old.
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95

Note que quando usamos USED TOo verbo,responsvel pela ao,


volta para a forma infinitiva.
S nos resta saber ento, em quais situaes devemos colocar ED, - D
ou IED ao final de cada verbo. Tudo depende de como a terminao desse
verbo, ou seja, como este verbo termina. o que chamaremos de SPELLING
RULES.
SPELLING RULES
H, basicamente, quatro regrinhas que devemos ter sempre em mente quando
utilizamos VERBOS REGULARES. So elas:
Regra Geral: acrescenta-se ED ao infinitivo de verbos em geral.
work worked
clean cleaned
spill spilled
wait waited
Acrescenta-se somente D ao infinitivo de verbos terminados em E.
live lived
love loved
bake baked
change changed
Se o verbo terminar em Y ,elimina-se o Y final e acrescenta-seIED.
study studied
hurry hurried
cry cried
carry carried
Se o verbo for monossilbico, ou seja, se for um verbo formado por uma
s slaba, ou se for um verbo que termine em slaba tnica formada
por CVC (Consoante/ Vogal/ Consoante), dobra-se a ltima consoante a
acrescenta-se ED.
stop stopped
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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

plan - planned
permitpermitted
jog jogged
Did you get it? So now, lets study the Irregular Verbs.

4.3.

IRREGULAR VERBS
Os IRREGULAR VERBS s se diferem dos REGULAR VERBS quanto a forma.

Observamos que para formar REGULAR VERBS basta acrescentarmos ED, -D ou -IED
ao final do infinitivo de um verbo de acordo com as SPELLING RULES. J os IRREGULAR
VERBS no obedecem a nenhuma regra, ou seja, eles tem forma prpria e diferentes
umas das outras. Observe:
Swim Swam
Make Made
Think Thought
Catch Caught
Buy Bought
Lets see some examples.

Michael and Eliza wrote a book together when they were teenagers.
Lucy saw her ex-boyfriend at the shopping mall yesterday.
Stephanie paid U$ 3,000 for a purse last month! Its a rip off!
Melinda went to the circus last night.

Ao final deste material, h uma lista dos principais IRREGULAR VERBS, a qual
dever ser consultada sempre que necessrio.
Agora, vamos aprender a elaborar NEGATIVE e INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES no
SIMPLE PAST.
Observe como so estruturadas as formas interrogativas e negativas de
sentenas no SIMPLE PAST TENSE.

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97

Usa-se DID como verbo auxiliar na construo de estruturas interrogativas


e negativas.
Pay attention to it:
Affirmative: We danced a lot at the party yesterday.
Interrogative: DID we DANCE a lot at the party yesterday.
Negativa: We DIDNT DANCE a lot at the party yesterday.

Na estrutura interrogativa o verbo auxiliar DID posicionado imediatamente
antes do sujeito:

J na estrutura negativa, o verbo auxiliar DID posicionado, juntamente


com NOT, antes do verbo:


Pay a lot more attention here:

Nas interrogativas, continuando utilizando o verbo auxiliar DID antes do
sujeito, porm, quando isso acontece, o verbo volta a sua forma infinitiva.

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

O mesmo acontece nas formas negativas, utilizamos o verbo auxiliar


DID justamente com NOT antes do verbo, e mais uma vez, o verbo volta para o
infinitivo.

Dont forget the short form:


DID NOT = DIDNT
And the short answers:
DID you WORK last night?
Yes, I DID.
No, I DIDNT.

DID the teachers REST on their vacations?


Yes, they DID.
No, they DIDNT.

GOT IT AL L ?
SO, L ETS PR AC TIC E !
Here is another tip for you:
Consulte as SPEELING RULES e a LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES sempre que necessrio para a realizao dos exerccios.

1. Complete as sentenas usando o SIMPLE PAST. Use os verbos entre


parnteses.
a. Our industry ______________ (develop) a new security system.
b. The truck ______________ (belong) to my Dad.
c. Brian ________________ (try) to talk to his girlfriend last night.
d. The Wilsons _________________ (arrive) late at the airport and
_________________ (miss) their flight.
UNIDADE 4 99
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99

e. She _________________ (love) her husband very much.


f. The boy _________________ (spill) grape juice on the sofa.
g. A tornado __________________ (destroy) the city last week.
h. Marcia ____________________ (talk) to her parents a few minutes ago.

2. Transforme as sentenas em negativas e interrogativas.


Model: I watched TV last night.
Negative: I didnt watch TV last night.
Interrogative: Did you watch TV last night?
a. I enjoyed the party yesterday.
Negative:
Interrogative:
b. Janice called her sister last night.
Negative:
Interrogative:
c. Juliet loved the play yesterday night.
Negative:
Interrogative:
d. My mother washed the clothes in the morning.
Negative:
Interrogative:
e. The engineer wanted a new job.
Negative:
Interrogative:
f. The kids played baseball at the park last weekend.
Negative:
Interrogative:
g. We listened to the radio all day long.

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Negative:
Interrogative:
h. The mechanic fixed my car very fast.
Negative:
Interrogative:

3. Complete as sentenas com o negativo dos verbos sublinhados


Model: I saw Mary yesterday, but she didnt see me.
a. My friend worked on Saturday but she __________________ on Sunday.
b. Lisa went to the bank but she _______________________ to the
supermarket.
c. We got up late last morning but we ______________________ late today.
d. I ate meat for lunch yesterday but I _____________________ meat today.
e. Jack studied English at school but he _____________________ French.

4. Agora, construa perguntas baseadas nas respostas dadas.


Model: I saw a good movie on TV last night. And you?
Did you see a good movie on TV last night?
a. I enjoyed the party. And you?

b. I spent a good holiday on the beach. And you?

c. Betty slept well last night. And you?

d. We had a great time at the park. And you?

e. We loved the dinner party. And you?

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101

f. I went to the movies last night. And you?

5. Responda as perguntas. Use as respostas dadas.


Model: What did she buy? (a new dress)
She bought a new dress.
a. Where did she teach Math? (at the Primary School)

b. How did your mother travel? (by bus)

c. When did you sell your house? (last year)

d. What did Michael tell his friend? (about the party)

e. How did she come home? (on foot)

f. Where did they meet? (at the shopping mall)

4.4.

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


O PRESENT PERFECT TENSE um tempo verbal que fala de aes que

aconteceram no passado, mas que, de alguma maneira, tem ligaes com o presente.
Vamos entender como este tempo verbal estruturado e ento, estudaremos as
diferentes formas de us-lo.

O PRESENT PERFECT TENSE formado pelo presente do Verbo to Have seguido

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

do Passado Particpio do Verbo principal da ao. Examples:

Mas como saber qual o PAST PARTICIPLE de um verbo? O PAST PARTICIPLE


dos REGULAR VERBS igual ao SIMPLE PAST.

J o PAST PARTICIPLE dos IRREGULAR VERBS, assim como o SIMPLE PAST, no


obedece nenhuma regra. Tem forma prpria.

UNIDADE 4 103
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103

O PRESENT PERFECT TENSE usado para:


Falar de aes que comearam a acontecer no passado, mas que continuam
acontecendo no tempo presente. Observe:

1999 = Mike moved to New Hampshire. (Past time)


2011 = Mike lives in New Hampshire. (Present time)
Mike has lived in New Hampshire for 12 years.

Nosso exemplo diz que Mike mudou-se para New Hampshire em 1999.
E desde ento, tem morado l. Ento, usa-se o PRESENT PERFECT TENSE para
falar de uma ao que teve incio no passado (quando Mike mudou-se para l),
mas que no tempo presente (hoje), a ao continua acontecendo em tempo
presente.
Falar de aes que aconteceram num tempo indefinido no passado.
I have finished my job.

No entanto, se for mencionado ou sugerido o tempo exato em que a


ao ocorreu, usa-se o SIMPLE PAST. Compare:

I have finished my job.= PRESENT PERFECT


I finished my job yesterday night.= SIMPLE PAST
O PRESENT PERFECT TENSE usado com:
SINCE or FOR (desde; por) para expressar aes que tiveram incio no
passado, mas que continuam acontecendo no presente. Since (desde) e
For (por) funcionam com marcadores de tempo. Eles nos dizem desde
quando a ao comeou a acontecer (Since), e por quanto tempo a ao
vem acontecendo (For).

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Melanie has played the piano since she was a little girl.
She has played the piano for 10 years.
JUST Para falar de aes que acabaram de acontecer.
Alice has just had lunch.
Sam and Carol have just got married.
ALREADY (J) Para falar de aes que aconteceram antes que deveriam
acontecer. Ele normalmente posicionado antes do verbo principal.
My parents have already arrived from Marrocos.
Denise has already cooked dinner.
MANY TIMES (muitas vezes) Usa-se MANY TIMES para falar de aes
que aconteceram repetidas vezes no passado.
We have been to London many times.
Andrea has seen that play many times.
YET (ainda; j) usa-se para despertar certa expectativa de que alguma
coisa acontea. Yet normalmente posicionado ao final da sentena.
My sons havent arrived yet!
Susie hasnt finished her History paper yet!
EVER or NEVER (alguma vez; nunca) so usados para falar de experincias
vividas durante um perodo de tempo.
I have never been to the USA.
Have you ever been to Florida?
Estudaremos agora, como construir NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE
SENTENCES no PAST PERFECT TENSE. Pay attention.

UNIDADE 4 105
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105

Observe neste caso que, o verbo que funciona como AXILIARY VERB, o
prprio HAVE ou HAS. o Verbo To Have que vai estruturar as INTERROGATIVE
e NEGATIVE SENTENCES. Special attention here:
Affirmative: They have danced a lot.
Interrogative: Have they danced a lot?
Negative: They have not danced a lot.
Contracted Negative: They havent danced a lot.

Affirmative: Jessica has driven for 4 hours.


Interrogative: Has Jessica driven for 4 hours?
Negative: Jessica has not driven for 4 hours.
Contracted Negative:Jessica hasnt driven for 4 hours.

Dont forget that:


Usa-se HAS para as 3s pessoas do singular: HE SHE IT

The short forms:

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

HAVE NOT = HAVENT


HAS NOT = HASNT

And the short answers:


HAVE you worked hard lately?

Yes, I HAVE.
No, I HAVENT.

HAS Lilly already been to Australia?

Yes, she HAS.


No, she HASNT.

HAVE we studied English lately?

Yes, we HAVE.
No, we HAVENT.

I hope your answer for the last question Have we studied English lately? was
yes, because definitely it was what we have been doing!

So, keep up with the good


work do a good job!

1. Complete as sentenas utilizando o PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.


a. She __________________ (paint) her house.
b. Brian __________________ (study) hard for his Grammar test.

UNIDADE 4 107
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107

c. We ___________________ (buy) many things for the party.


d. The Kennedys ___________________ (be) to Greece many times.
e. ______________ Norman _______________ (cut) his hair?
f. ______________ you _________________ (go) to the mall?
g. Melody ____________ already ____________ (clean) her room.
h. Judy ____________ just _______________ (travel) to England.
i. Emma and Paul _____________ just ____________ (move) to London.

2. Estruture sentenas negativas e interrogativas.


Model: I have been to Bahia.
Interrogative: Have you been to Bahia?
Negative: I havent been to Bahia.
a. Bianca has cleaned her bedroom.
Interrogative:
Negative:
b. William has done his homework.
Interrogative:
Negative:
c. It has stopped raining.
Interrogative:
Negative:
d. The picture has fallen down the wall.
Interrogative:
Negative:
e. My parents have gone home earlier.
Interrogative:
Negative:
f. Steve has closed the windows.

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Interrogative:
Negative:

3. Complete as sentenas usando os verbos dados.

Model: Are they still having dinner? No, they have already finished.
a. I ______________________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
b. Is Sylvia there? No, she ______________________ to the drugstore.
c. _______________ you ______________ your homework? No, Im going
to do it later.
d. Where is your key? I dont know. I _______________________ it!
e. Look! Somebody ______________________ that window.
f. Your house looks different. __________________ you __________________
it?
g. I cant find my umbrella! Somebody _________________________ it.
h.

Im

looking

for

Elizabeth.

Where

________________

she

__________________?
i. Do you want the newspaper? No, thanks. I _____________________ it.

5. Complete as sentenas. Ateno ao verbo da sentence inicial, pois


ele que ser usado para preencher a lacuna no PRESENT PERFECT.
Model: Billy is in Jamaica. He has been in Jamaica since January.
a. Elliot has a toothache. He ____________________ a toothache since he
got up.
b. I know Olivia. I ______________________ Olivia for a long time.
c. Bill and Susan are married. They _______________________ married
since 2007.

UNIDADE 4 109
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109

d. I study English. I ________________________ English for ten years.


e. Simon is sick. He ________________________ sick for a week.
f. Winona works in a bank. She _______________________ in a bank for
five years.
g. We live in this apartment. We ______________________ in this apartment
since 1998.
h. They play golf. They ______________________ for 3 years.

6. Sua amiga Michelle est vivendo em Vancouver. Complete a carta que


voc est escrevendo a ela usando o PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.

Para complementar esta ltima unidade, assista nossa quarta teleaula,


verifique suas dvidas e compartilhe-as no Frum. Lembre-se de fazer as
atividades dentro dos prazos no ambiente virtual.

CONFIRA SUAS RESPOSTAS Key

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

4.1.
1.
a. At 8 oclock, Sylvia was going to the supermarket.
b. At 10 oclock, Sylvia was washing the car.
c. At 11 oclock, Sylvia was preparing dinner.
d. At 1 oclock, Sylvia was going to the shopping mall with Billy.

2.
a. Lisa was smoking a cigarette.
b. Carl was dancing with Britney.
c. Amy was singing a song.
d. George was drinking a cocktail.
e. Elaine was carrying a beautiful velvet purse.
f. Bruce was using an umbrella.

a. Lisa wasnt smoking a cigarette./ Was Lisa smoking a cigarette?


b. Carl wasnt dancing with Britney./ Was Carl dancing with Britney?
c. Amy wasnt singing a song./ Was Amy singing a song?
d. George wasnt drinking a cocktail./ Was George drinking a cocktail?
e. Elaine wasnt carrying a beautiful velvet purse./ Was Elaine carrying a beautiful
velvet purse?
f. Bruce wasnt wearing an umbrella./ Was Bruce wearing an umbrella?

3.
a. were swimming
b. was/ doing
c. Were/ felling
d. was eating

UNIDADE 4 111
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111

e. was flying
f. was reading
g. was raining
h. Was/ living

4.
a. What were you doing at 10 oclock?
b. Where was Patty studying last morning?
c. What was Patrick wearing yesterday?
d. Was it raining yesterday?
e. Where were your parents living in 1999?
f. Was the baby crying?
g. Were the kids playing soccer?
h. Was the old man carrying an umbrella?

4.2.
1.
a. developed
b. belonged
c. tried
d. arrived missed
e. loved
f. spilled
g. destroyed
h. talked

2.
a.

112

I didnt enjoy the party last night.

UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Did you enjoy the party last night?

b.

Janice didnt call her sister last night.

Did Janice call her sister last night?

c.

Juliet didnt love the play yesterday night.

Did Juliet love the play yesterday night?

d.

My mother didnt wash the clothes in the morning.

Did my mother wash the clothes in the morning?

e.

The engineer didnt want a new job.

Did the engineer want a new job?

f.

The kids didnt play baseball at the park last weekend.

Did the kids play baseball at the park last weekend?

g.

We didnt listen to the radio all day long.

Did we listen to the radio all day long?

h.

The mechanic didnt fix my car very fast.

Did the mechanic fix my car very fast?

3.
a. didnt work
b. didnt go
c. didnt get up
d. didnt eat
e. didnt study

4.
a. Did you enjoy the party?
b. Did you spend a good holiday on the beach?
c. Did you sleep well last night?
d. Did you have a great time at the park?

UNIDADE 4 113
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113

e. Did you love the dinner party?


f. Did you go to the movies last night?

5.
a. She taught Math at the Primary School.
b. My mother travelled by bus.
c. I sold my house last year.
d. He told his friend about the party.
e. She came home on foot.
f. They met at the shopping mall.

4.3.
1.
a. has painted
b. has studied
c. have bought
d. have been
e. Has/ cut
f. Have/ gone
g. has/ cleaned
h. has/ travelled
i. have/ moved

2.
a. Has Bianca cleaned her bedroom?/ Bianca hasnt cleaned her bedroom.
b. Has William done his homework?/ William hasnt done his homework.
c. Has it stopped raining?/ It hasnt stopped raining.
d. Has the picture fallen down the wall?/ The picture hasnt fallen down the

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UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

wall.
e. Have my parents gone home earlier?/ My parents havent gone home earlier.
f. Has Steve closed the windows?/ Steve hasnt closed the windows.

3.
a. have bought
b. has gone
c. Have/ done
d. have lost
e. has broken
f. Have/ painted
g. has taken
h. has/ gone
i. have read

4.
a. has had
b. have known
c. have been
d. have studied
e. has been
f. has worked
g. have lived
h. have played

5.
1. have happened
2. hasnt written

UNIDADE 4 115
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115

3. havent seen
4. havent been
5. havent had
6. Have/ done

116

UNIDADE 4 - THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

LIST OF MOST COMMON


IRREGULAR VERBS

APNDICE 1 - LIST OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

117

118

APNDICE 1 - LIST OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

APNDICE 1 - LIST OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

119

120

APNDICE 1 - LIST OF COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

REFERNCIAS
AMORIM, Jos Olavo; SZABO, Anna. Longman gramtica escolar da lngua
inglesa. So Paulo: Longman, 2004.
AMOS, Eduardo; PRESCHER, Elisabeth. The New Simplified Grammar. So
Paulo: Richmond Publishing, 2005.
BEAUMONT, Digby. The Heinemann Elementary English Grammar. Oxford:
Heinemann, 1993.
GOODEY, Noel; BOLTON, David. English Grammar in Steps with answers.
London: Richmond Publishing, 1996.
MURPHY, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1985.
__________________. Essential Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1990.
WATKINS, Michael; PORTER, Timothy. Gramtica da lngua inglesa. So Paulo:
Editora tica, 2002

121

REFERNCIAS

121