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Vaibhav R. Badukale, Akhil Wankhede, Uday Wankar,Yaduvendra kumar,Mishra,Akash Dahake

Electrial Engg. Department,GCOCE Chandrapur RTMNU Nagpur
Bypass Ballarsha Road, Chandrapur

With the development of industry and
agriculture, a great amount of energy such as coal, oil
and gas has been consumed in the world. Extensive
use of these fossil energies deteriorates a series of
problems like energy crisis, environmental pollution
and so on. Everybody knows that the fossil energy
reserves are finite, some day it will be exhausted.
It is possible that the world will face a
global energy crisis due to a decline in the
availability of cheap oil and recommendations to a
decreasing dependency on fossil fuel. This has led to
increasing interest in alternate power/fuel research

solar and wind power generation is very expensive.

By far, it cannot be widely used.






generation system affected by the changing of the

weather very much, so it has obvious defects in
reliability compared with fossil fuel, and it is difficult
to make it fit for practical use the lack of economical
efficiency .Because of these problems it needs to
increase the reliability of energy supply by
developing a system which interacts Solar and wind
energy. This kind of system is usually called windsolar hybrid power generation system significantly
alternated fossil fuel with big ecological problems.

such as fuel cell technology, hydrogen fuel, biodiesel,

Karrick process, solar energy, geothermal energy,
tidal energy and wind. Today, solar energy and wind
energy have significantly alternated fossil fuel with
big ecological problems.
With the development of the science and
technology, power generation using solar energy and
wind power is gradually known by more and more
people. And it is widespread used in many developed
countries. The merits of the solar and wind power
generation are very obvious-infinite and nonpolluting. The raw materials of the solar and wind
power generation derived from nature, and wind
power generation can work twenty-four hours a day,
solar power generation only works by daylight. In
addition, this kind of power generation has no
exhaust emission and there is no influence to the
nature. But it also has some shortcomings. Because
of the imperfect of the technology, equipment of the

Renewable energy is energy which comes
from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain,
tides, waves and geothermal heat, which are
renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of
global final energy consumption

comes from

renewable, with 10% coming from traditional

biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4%
from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro,
modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio
fuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing
very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity
generation is around 19%, with 16% of global
electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from
new renewable.
The global search and the rise in the cost of
conventional fossil fuel is making supply-demand of
electricity product almost impossible especially in

some remote areas. Generators which are often used

as an alternative to conventional power supply
systems are known to be run only during certain
hours of the day, and the cost of fueling them is
increasingly becoming difficult if they are to be used
for commercial purposes. There is a growing






photovoltaic system and Wind power have an

important role to play in order to save the situation.

1.1 Solar Energy

In India the annual global solar radiation is
about 5 KWh/ sq m per day with about 2300-3200
sun-shine hours per year. Solar radiations represent

Figure 1.1 Electric Power Generation Using

Solar Energy

1.2 Wind Energy

the earths most abundant energy source. The

Wind energy is another viable option. The

perennial source of solar energy provides unlimited

Wind Turbine Generator is designed for optimal

supply, has no negative impact on the environment.

operation at wind speed of 10-14 m/s. The Turbine

The solar photovoltaic (PV) modules convert solar

Generator starts at a cut-in speed of 3-3.5 m/s and

radiation from the sun into electrical energy in the

generates power at speeds 4.5 m/s and above. In India

form of direct current (DC). Converting solar energy

the best wind speed is available during monsoon

into electricity is the answer to the mounting power

from May to September and low wind speed during

problems in the rural areas. Its suitability for

November to March. The annual national average

decentralized applications and its environment-

wind speed considered is 5-6 m/s. Wherever average

friendly nature make it an attractive option to

wind speed of 4.5 m/s. and above is available it is

supplement the energy supply from other sources. 1

also an attractive option to supplement the energy

KWp of SPV generates 3.5-4.5 units (KWhr) per day.

supply. Wind generators can even be installed on

If we could install Solar Photovoltaic Cells much of

telecom tower at a height of 15-20 mt. with suitable

the rural exchange power needs could be met,

modification in tower design, taking into account

adequately cutting down harmful greenhouse gases.

tower strength . 1 KW WTG generates around 3 units

Figure 2.1shows electric power generation using

(KWhr) per day. Figure 2.2shows electric power

solar energy

generation from wind energy.

The 'hybrid' part of the name refers to the
fact that these power systems usually involve another
form of energy production, such as use of solar
panels or wind turbines. These power generators
work in unison within the system to maximize fuel
economy. To accommodate multiple sources of
power, these systems involve a computerized
controller, which controls operation, usage, and
energy production.
Figure 1.2 Shows Electric Power Generation

2.1 Need Of Hybridization

From Wind Energy.

As the non renewable sources of energy are

going to exhaust in the nearby future so there is a
necessity to preserve the sources of energy and

1.3 Appropriate Geographical Region:

should invent the alternative to save this energy. As

1.3.1 Solar:

this non renewable form of energy is energy is sun

In India the annual average solar radiation of

energy so we should use solar energy. This method

5 KW h/sq m per day with about 2300-3200 sunshine

of sourcing can be very well adapted in villages

hours per year is available in most parts of the

where till now in some areas electricity is not

country except some pockets in north-east. As such

available. So the solar energy and wind energy there

solar power (SPV) decentralized system can be

can be used for various household purposes, street

considered for the telecommunication network in

lightning. This saves non renewable like coal. So in

rural areas in most parts of the country.

this way, the hybridization purpose is very well

1.3.2 Wind:

achieved and proves efficient. So the hybridization

technique is a need for now days as well as for the

The southern and western coastal areas are

the ideal location for wind generators. For the

upcoming days.

telecommunication network in rural areas in states

2.2 Different Hybrid Power Technologies

like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra

1. Solar-wind hybrid.

and parts of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya

2. Solar-diesel hybrid.

Pradesh where the annual average wind speed of 5-6

3. Wind-hydro hybrid.

m/s is available, installation of hybrid solar-wind

4. Wind-diesel hybrid.

power system can be an attractive option to

supplement the energy supply.

2.2.1 Solar-Wind Hybrid Power System

the engine is needed, it starts automatically and runs

Hybrid Wind-Solar System for the rural

at the minimum RPM to provide maximum fuel

exchanges can make an ideal alternative in areas

economy. Running the engine slower, and shutting

where wind velocity of 5-6 m/s is available. Solar-

the engine off when loads are low, results in dramatic

wind power generations are clear and non-polluting.

fuel savings, lower maintenance and increased engine

Also they complement each other. During the period


of bright sunlight the solar energy is utilized for

charging the batteries, creating enough energy

3.1 Components of the hybrid generator:-

reserve to be drawn during night, while the wind

1. Solar panel

turbine produce most of the energy during monsoon

2. Controller

when solar power generation is minimum. Thus the

hybrid combination uses the best of both means and
can provide quality, stable power supply for

3. D.C. generator
4. Batteries
5. DC to AC converters

sustainable development in rural areas. These

systems are specifically designed to draw 48 volts
DC power output from the solar cells/ wind turbines
and combine them to charge the storage batteries.
The system does require availability of diesel
generator, though for much reduced number of hours
operation. It is also designed to give priority to solar
and wind power so that operations of generators can
be minimized to the extent possible.

3.2 Working
The solar panel and wind turbine produces
DC power to charge the batteries and run the
inverters when needed .The inverter converts the
stored DC power to unstable AC electrical energy .
Having battery storage also helps the generator to
absorb load spikes. The controller monitors the
system starting and stopping engine as need. Because
hybrid generators already have an inverter and
battery storage, energy from wind or solar power can

Hybrid Generators generally have reduced

be connected directly to the generator for increased


fuel consumption, reduced maintenance, and provide

Solar power is the most abundant alternative

highly reliable electric power, as compared with non-

energy source available. Wind power and hydro

hybrid generators. This is due to a difference in the

power are the next most abundant alternative energy

way which it is operated, when compared to

sources. One disadvantage of solar power systems is

traditional generators. Most engine driven electric

they require the sun to generate alternative energy.

generators run continuously and at a high /fixed RPM

No sun means no energy. Solar power systems are

this results in significant quantities of fuel being

most efficient when sunlight is focused for maximum

consumed even if the loads are low.

exposure. Efficiency also increases in regions where

A hybrid generator automatically shuts the

sunlight is readily available. The second most readily

engine off when demand is low. When power from

available source of alternative energy, wind power,

suffers similar disadvantages. No wind means no

energy. Wind power generators require wind speeds

as low as 3 miles per hour to operate. Wind power


efficiency increases with the speed and duration of

4.1 Choice of components for 1000 Watt

the wind.
Hybrid generator systems can be constructed


either as grid-assisted or grid-inter-tied and off-grid.

The choice of 1000W is a sample case and

Grid assisted systems will use both electrical grid and

this can be extended to any required capacity. To

alternative energy sources. The electrical energy

achieve a solar power capacity of 1000watts the

provided from these multiple sources will then be

capacities of Solar panel, Charging Controller, bank

stored in battery systems. There is an advantage to

of battery and Inverter are determined. The values

grid-assisted alternative energy sources, when the

cannot be picked abstractly and hence, their ratings

wind does not blow, or the sun does not shine, the

and specification have to be determined through

electrical system will still be storing power in the

calculations in other for the system to perform to

battery system. In these systems, hybrid generators

required specifications. For this design 12 hours was

operate as a method to reduce utility costs. Off-grid

assumed for the duration of the operation and the

systems on the other hand are designed to provide

calculations is done as indicated below:

alternative energy sources that are completely

4.1.1 Solar Panel:

separate from grid power. Hybrid generators in this

Total load = 1000W

case are the sole method of electrical input to the

Period of operation or duration = 12 Hours

battery storage system.

Then, Total Watt-Hour = 100012= 12000w-hr

The typical layout of the power plant is as shown in

The period of the solar panel exposed to the sun = 8


Hours (Averagely between 9am and 3pm) Therefore

solar panel wattage = 1200 -r/8r=1,500 .
Hence solar panel of 1,500W will be needed for this
If solar panel of 150W is to be use the number of
panels to arrange in parallel to achieve 1,5000 Watt
will be:
No of panel =1500 /150 =10
This shows 10 of 150 Watt solar panel will be
required for this design

Figure 3.1. Layout of the Power Plant .

4.1.3 Battery capacity:

Given that the total load P= 1000W and
Operational period = 12 Hours
Watt/hour capacity = 12,000 W-hr
To make the chosen battery to last long it is assumed
that only a quarter () of the battery capacity will be
made used of so that it will not be over discharged
therefore hence the required batter capacity will be
12, 000 4 = 48,000 W/h
Now the choice of battery hour depends on A-H
Figure 4.1.1 Solar panel

rating of the storage battery. For example, for

200AH, 12V battery the number of batteries that will

4.1.2 Charging Controllers:

be needed is 48000200=240 batteries. Also for a

For this design of 1000W solar power supply P=IV

1500AH, 12V batteries the number of batteries that


will be needed is 480001500 = 32 batteries. Hence,

I is the expected charging current and

for this design and to avoid too much weight and

V is the voltage of the battery and = 12 V

occupying unnecessary space, 15000AH 12V battery

P is the power supply rating= 1000W

should be used, Therefore the total number of storage

Hence I =

battery required for 1000W solar power supply


Since the value 83.3 A Charging controllers is not

system = 32

readily available in the market then 1000A charging

controller will be used.

Figure 4.1.3 Solar Battery

4.1.4 Inverter
Since the total load is 1000W it is advisable
Figure 4.1.2 Charge Controller

to size the required inverter to be 1500W as designed

for solar panel ratings. Hence 1500W pure sign wave
inverter is recommended in other to prolong the
lifespan of the inverter.

1. Very high reliability (combines wind power, and

solar power)
2. Long term Sustainability
3. High energy output (since both are complimentary
to each other)
4. Cost saving (only one time investment)
5. Low maintenance cost (there is nothing to replace)
6. Long term warranty
7. No pollution, no noise, and deadly against

Figure 4.1.4 Solar Inverter

environment pollution
8. Clean and pure energy


9. Provides un-interrupted power supply to the


The standalone system can be used, since it

can be deployed anywhere with minimum space

10. Provide clean, green, reliable, pollution free, low

utilization. The capacity of standalone system ranges

emission and distributed technology power

from 500VA to 5KVA.

11 The system gives quality power out-put DC to

charge directly the storage battery or provide

For large scale commercial and industrial


applications, separately mounted wind turbine and

12. The system can be designed for both off-grid and

solar panels are used to engineer the required

on grid applications.

capacity requirements can be accommodated.

13. Efficient and easy installation, longer life

Typical applications include:

1. Hotels


2. Business (Institutions and Government)

The disadvantages of power generation by

3. Large Estate Houses

solar-wind are as follows :

4. Factories and manufacturing facilities

1. Large number of harmonics is produced.

5. Commercial Power generation

2. Initial investment is more.

6. Street lighting

3. Large space is required for larger generations

4. Wind energy systems are noisy in operation; a
large unit can be heard many kilometers away.
5. Efficiency is less than conventional power plants.

As the technology of solar collectors and
small wind turbine generators has advanced in past
decades, so has the industry in terms of efficiency in
manufacturing and fabrication technologies, as well
as direct labour cost.

1. By this project many villages can be lighted. For
villages which are much away from the construction
site of large power generating stations such as hydro
and nuclear can be provided power.

2. Also to satisfied the increasing demand of

electricity with clean hybrid power station by solar
wind can be used.

1) www.solarserver.com/
2) www.windpower.org
3) http//:www.scientific.net
4) W.W.S. Charters. Solar and Wind Power
Technologies. CSC Technical Publication
Services No 187, Commonwealth Science
Council. (1985).