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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Combustion

Ing. Jos Luis Palacios E., M.Sc.


Quito, 04 de Junio 2015
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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Combustion
A chemical reaction during which a fuel is oxidized and a large quantity
of energy is released is called combustion. [1]
When this chemical reaction occurs, the bonds within molecules of the
reactants are broken, and atoms and electrons rearrange to form
products. [2]

[2]

massofreactants=massoftheproducts
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19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III
[1]

For simplicity:
gasoline octane C8H18

methanol methyl alcohol CH3OH

diesel dodecane C12H26

naturalgas methane CH4

Theultimateanalysisgivesthecompositiononamassbasisintermsof
therelativesamountsofchemicalelements(C, H and S).

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Combustion
Rapid combustion of combustible elements of the fuel results in energy
release as combustion products are formed.
The 3 major combustible chemical elements in most common fuels are:
C, H and S.
S is usually a relatively unimportant contributor to the energy released,
but it can be a significant cause of pollution and corrosion problems.[2]
[2]

EachmolofO2reactswith3.76molN2
[1]

EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Stoichiometric reaction
The mnimum amount of air needed for the complete combustin of a
fuel is called stocichiometric or theoretical air.
When a fuel is completely burned with theoretical air, no uncombined
oxygen is present in the combustin products gases.
The theoretical is also referred to as the chemically correct amount of
air, or 100% theoretical air. [1]

EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Combustion is complete when all the carbon present in the fuel is


burned to carbon dioxide, and all other combustible elements are fully
oxidized.[2]
When these conditions are not fulfilled, combustion is incomplete.[2]
A key parameter is air-fuel ratio (AF), which is the amount of air in the
reaction to the amount of fuel.[2]

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Stoichiometric reaction
What happens when air is humid?
Air with

= 60% and dry bulb temperature of 20C @ Quito atm. pressure.

SOLUTION

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

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dryair

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FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Fuel: natural gas

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

If 10% of excess air is required, then:

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

The dew-point temperature of the products is the temperature at which


the water vapor in the products starts to condense as the products are
cooled at constant pressure.

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19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

If the products are cooled down at 30C, what is the amount of water that
wil condense if 10% of excess air is required?

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

The enthalpy of formation is the energy released or absorbed when


the compund is formed from its elements. [1]
The compound and elements all being at the standard reference state
(25C and 1 atm). [2]

[1]

Heatisreleased
+Heatmustbeadded

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

[2]

Heating value (HV) is the amount of heat released when a fuel is


burned completely in a esteady-flow process and the products are
returned to the state of the reactants. [1]

The HV dependes on the phase of the H2O in the products.


Higher heating value (HHV) when the water in the products is in the
liquid form.
Lower heating value (LHV) when the water in the products is in the
vapor form.[1]

[1]

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19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Determine the enthalpy of combustion (formation) of liquid octane


(C8H18) at 25C and 1 atm. Assume the water in the products is in the liquid
form.
stableelements

(liquid)

HHV
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

First-Law Analysis
Steady Flow Systems

[1]

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

First-Law Analysis
Closed Systems

[1]

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FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Liquid propane (C3H8) enters a combustin chamber at 25C at a rate


of 0.05 kg/min where it is mixed and burned with 50 percent excess
air that enters the combustin chamber at 7C. An analysis of the
combustin gases reveals that all the hydrogen in the fuel burns to
H2O but only 90 percent of the carbn burns to CO2 with the remaining
10 percent forming CO. If the exit temperature of the combustin
gases is 1500K, determine the mass flow rate of air and the rate of
heat transfer from the combustin chamber.

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

3.76
2

5 1.5

3.76

2.7

0.3

12

0.05

2.65

28.2

25.53

25.53

28.96

7.5 4.76
3

3.76

1.18


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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

27

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

[2]

Heating value (HV) is the amount of heat released when a fuel is


burned completely in a esteady-flow process and the products are
returned to the state of the reactants. [1]

The HV dependes on the phase of the H2O in the products.


Higher heating value (HHV) when the water in the products is in the
liquid form.
Lower heating value (LHV) when the water in the products is in the
vapor form.[1]

[1]

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Adiabatic Flame Temperature is the mximum temperature when


[1]
combustin is complete and no heat is lost to the surroundings.

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Liquid octane enters the combustin chamber of a gas turbine


steadily at 1 atm and 25C, and it is burned with air that enters the
combustion chamber at the same state. Determine the asiabatic flame
temperatura for complete combustion.

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Enthalpies @ temperature trial and error.

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Contenido
1. Introduction
2. A/F ratio
3. Energy Balance
4. Pollution issues

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EscuelaPolitcnicaNacional

19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

[1]

Control of pollutant emissions is a major factor in the design of modern


combustion systems.
Pollutants of concern include particulate matter, such as soot, fly ash,
metal fumes, various aerosols.
EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS
Primary air pollutants emitted directly from the source.
Secondary pollutants formed via reaction involving primary pollutants
in the atmosphere.

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

Seinfeld indicates four principal effects of air pollutants in the


troposphere:
1. Altered properties of the atmosphere and precipitation.
2. Harm to vegetation.
3. Soiling and deterioration of materials.
4. Potential increase of morbidity (sickness) and mortality in humans.
Emission of Nox into the straosphere by
speed civil transpord aircraft is also an issue.
Concern here is about the catalytic destruction
of stratospheric ozone by NO. [3]
ozonedestruction

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19/06/2015

ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

CO has affinity with hemoglobin and removes O2 from the blood.

EffectsofCOexposureonhumans.

[3]
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FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

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ESCUELA POLITCNICA NACIONAL


FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

[1]

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FACULTAD DE INGENIERA MECNICA
Termodinmica III

References
1.
2.
3.

Yunus Cengel and Michael Boles, Thermodynamics an Engineering Approach, McGrawHill, 5th Ed.
Moran M.J. and Shapiro H.N. 1998, Fundamental of Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd. Edi., John Wiley & Sons, New
York, US
Turns S., An Introduction to Combustion, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill

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