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International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015





Professor, 2Associate Professor,

Department of Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering,
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology- Longowal, Punjab, INDIA
E-mail: 2gsgsgrewal@yahoo.com

Abstract: Permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) is a exceedingly efficient motor and is successfully operated in a
wide range of speed. Various types of permanent magnet synchronous motors are accessible in the market offering
advantages of direct on line starting as induction motor and effectively running on synchronous speed. Major disadvantages
of PMSM is uncertainty of successfully synchronization, loading capability during asynchronous as well as synchronous
period. The present market potential for motors places a high value of operating efficiency , reliability, variable speed
operation, low running temperature, quiet operation and minimum cost. In comparison to induction motor , PMSM provides
the peculiarity of consumer prerequisite along with high power density and high power factor. The advancement in the
design technologies and magnetic material allows the achievement of souk ambition at even higher temperature without
much more permanent magnetization loss. This paper presented the investigations of new structures appearing in scientific
literature carried out by the researchers to obtain multi-objective optimal design for PMSM.
Index Terms - Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, Axial Flux Geometry, Radial Flux Geometry, Torque, Efficiency
Power Factor And Hybrid Models

provide an overview of the present-day advancement

in the design of PMSM.

Huge amount of electric energy drawn by the electric
derives is gone astray in the form of heat due to
nonefficient performance of the drives. In the family
of line start motors, the prolific induction motor is
one, of which operation is unhealthy and not fit in
market trends. The permanent magnet
synchronous motor is the only alternative to
overcome this disadvantages of line start induction
motor [1].The operation of the permanent magnet
synchronous motor comprises
two modes,
asynchronous mode during which the machine runs
as induction motor and synchronous mode during
which the motor run at synchronous speed [2].
Certainty of successful synchronization is an
important undertaking
of researchers and
asynchronous torque and magnetic braking torque are
deciding factor of success rate. Hybrid electric
vehicles(HEV) especially preferred for high speed
application ranging from 7000rpm to 16000rpm and
faster acceleration are favourable due difficulties of
batteries and current lack of an electric vehicles[27].
Design considerations divides permanent magnet
synchronous motor into various categories.

Fig.1 Axial Flux geometry[5]

On the basis of flux linkage two types of machines
are reported - radial flux PMSM and axial flux
PMSM shown Fig. 1 & 2 [5]. Two more types of
PMSM depending upon the rotor structure available
in the market are Line start interior permanent magnet
synchronous motor (LSIPMSM) and surface mounted
Permanent magnet synchronous motor (LSSPMSM)
[14]. This paper is devoted to

Fig.2 Radial Flux Geometry[5]


Out of the main parts of the motor the stator has not
reported much more variety. Two main stator
designs slotted and slotless are used in general these
days [5]. The slotted stator geometry has the

Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

advantages of reduction in amount of PMs

needed[18]. The slotless type machine is not
recommended for traction applications because it is
subjected to number of stresses[20]

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

and predictions of computer based model shown in

fig. 3 & 4 [8] is less convincing .
The V curves produced by conducting no load
testing differ from calculated as presented in fig. 4[8]
The Geometry offers leakage flux reduction to large
extent even rotor slot leakage is totally eliminated
but only stator slot leakage and stator coil end
leakage remains[22].

A. Axial Flux Geometry :

The axial flux permanent magnet motor(AFPM) is a
better choice in some applications such as in wheel
motors of electric vehicles as compared to radial flux
machine[6]. The comparison of output parameters
presented in the table - I [7] validated the choice of
Axial flux motor of its in wheel motors in electric
vehicles. The axial flux disc motor proved to be
reliable and efficient in applications of low speed and
high torque
Table I: AFPM and RFPM in wheel motors[7]

Fig. 3 Torque vs stator current[8]

The skewing of permanent magnets has proved

fruitful in reducing cogging torque effect.[8]

An axial flux permanent magnet motors have disc

shaped stator and rotor cores with single rotor disc
sandwiched in two stator discs or single stator disc in
between two rotor discs. The flux crosses the air gap
axially and passes through the core in the
circumferential direction[8]. The m.m.f has the form
of quassi square wave. The advent of high field rare
earth permanent magnets has opened new doors for
performance[18]. The AFPM motors can be an
alternative to conventional radial flux PM motors
particularly for low speed and high torque electrical
A number of configurations have been proposed[1019] . Such as internal rotor[13], internal stator[11],
multidisc type, slotted or slotless and rotors with
interior or surface mounted permanent magnets[6] are
also available. Various design parameters such as
outer diameter, inner diameter, inner to outer
diameter ratio, number of slots magnet pitch and
skewing affect the performance of the machine and
the careful choice of the values of these parameter is
the main justification of the suitability of an AFPM
The travelling wave modelling of AFPM motor with
slotted stator geometry and analysis
saturation in stator iron and effects of slot leakage
reveals that square flux wave in teeth produces a
triangular wave in the yoke which lead to higher flux
density in yoke(1.9wb/m2) as compared to
teeth(1.6wb/m2)[8]. The laboratory machine results

Fig.4 V Curves for Slotted stator AFPM motor[8]

Slotted stator axial flux geometry suffers from a

major drawback of under utilization of stator winding
due to end winding length [18]. The slotless axial flux
motors proved good interest in high performances
drives [10][11][23] and particularly designed
preferred for applications characterised by low speed
and high torque to weight ratio[12][24]. The slotless
axial flux machine
having two rotor discs
sandwiching one stator shown in fig.5[18] has
advantages of utilization of both working surfaces of
stator core as compared to conventional machine. The
stator has toroidal winding placed on iron strip[25].
The rotating rotor discs acting natural fans serving for
cooling and thereby lowering the working
temperature and permitting higher permissible
electric loading. The machine torque as presented by
equation (1) is function of outer diameter[18]

Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

Where A is coefficient that depends upon thermal

and structural parameters and R0 is outer diameter of
machine that will be significant design parameter to

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

conductors are subjected to different conditions of

magnetic field along the radial length[25]. From the
electromagnetic considerations, the magnets side
edges should sweep the stator conductors during the
motion all along the height, this involves annular
sector shapes of permanent magnets. A typical three
phase 8-pole with one coil per pole per phase is
shown in fig.8[25]. The left part shows cut view of
stator and right shows one of the rotors The Z- axis
coincides with radial axis and active parts of
conductors parallel to r- axis.

Fig. 5 Two rotor discs sandwiching one stator[18]

obtain higher torque to weight ratio principally

applicable in electric vehicles. The variation of torque
at rated current and 50% loading with outer radius is
shown in fig. 6[18]

Fig.8 Radial variation of magnet pitch [ 25]

Radial sections of the conductors are not in same

electromagnetic conditions, the fact can be realized
from the flux lines for two sections inner and outer
radius[25]. The influence of radial variations of
magnet pitch on the torque value for converter fed
axial flux machine is shown in table-II[25].
The powder iron metallurgy core is used in axial flux
for minimizing the cogging torque
disturbance [26]. The 2D results of cogging torque
and without modified geometry without
considering edge factor of permanent magnets is
shown in fig. 9[26]

Fig.6 Variation of torque at full and half load with outer

radius [18]

There is another factor Kr, the ratio of inner to outer

radius of machine on which the machine dynamic
characteristics depends[24]. The choice of value of
Kr is used to maximise torque, torque to weight ratio
and efficiency. The variation of these performance
parameters with Kr

Table II [ 25] Effect of radial variations of magnetic

pitch on torque[25]

fig.7 Variation of performance parameters with Kr[18]

Due to radial variation of magnet pitch in the slotless

permanent magnet axial flux motor, the active

Fig.9 Cogging torque with and without modified geometry [26]

Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

Inspite of disadvantages of decrease in output torque,

the short pitched stator winding design has been used
to reduce both harmonic component and length of end
windings[27]. 150 magnet span and one slot pitch
skewing of magnet resulted in ripple free torque and
decrease in losses preferably in high speed
In stator core, M-4 grain oriented silicon steel is used
to reduce stator core losses. Moreover magnet
excitation is kept low around 0.73T and low flux
density in stator core about 1.2T is preferred. The
steinmetz equation given by (2) describes the specific
core loss in W/kg [28]
= 0.014492 . + 0.00004219
The difference in the measured and predicted stator
core losses are due to unepredected hystersis loss
caused by anisotropy of M-4 steel.
The eddy current loss is major component of total
rotor core losses. It has further divided into three
parts, no load eddy current loss due to the existence
of slots, on load eddy current loss caused by mmf
winding harmonics and on load eddy current losses
induced due the presence of time harmonics of supply
system in inverter fed motors[29]. The rotor losses
can be calculated from static FE solutions [30] using
the positional magnet flux density waveforms. The
concentrated windings produce large amount of
current linkage harmonics passing across the
permanent magnets causing large eddy currents. The
large slot opening causes flux density variations that
turn out eddy current losses in permanent
magnets[31]. The analytical methods [32][33] used to
calculate losses in radial flux permanent magnet
machine ignore the effect of slot opening whereas in
axial flux machines losses are estimated by taking
into account the slot opening using Heller and
Hamats equation [34]. The eddy current losses
evaluated using three method are no load method for
dynamic(unmagnetized magnets) method for losses
due to stator mmf space harmonics and load method
for both components simultaneously without
considering influence of skin effect and
saturation[29][31-41]. The effect of
segmentation is shown in fig.10 [31]

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

The relation used to estimate eddy current losses in

magnets using FEA [31] is given (3)


material resistivity V the volume and j
current density
The windage and frictional losses contribute the
major portion of total losses in high speed machines
and magnitude of these losses increases with speed as
shown in fig.11[27]. These losses are calculated by
the method recommended in[33].

Fig. 11 Windage and friction losses v/s speed[27].

The second problem in high speed machines is

significant mechanical vibrations and stresses
experienced by permanent magnets .These produced
by attractive forces
between rotor permanent
magnets and stator core and centrifugal forces. The
glue used for fixing permanent magnets in low speed
machines can withstand maximum force density
around 5N/mm2.[27].The testing upto 120oC showed
the impossibility of protection of permanent magnets.
The adhesive force of glue is increased by nickel
coating of the magnets and protection is provided by
placing fibre glass rim over rotor magnets. By doing
this the stress value is increased to 1G Pascal[27]
Thermal conductivity of NdFeB is relatively poor
(9W/mk)[31] which is problematic for surface
mounted magnet geometry because of large eddy
current losses in the permanent magnets. High power
loss density leads to fatal temperature rise and hence
demagnetization and lower the efficiency of sintered
NdFeB bulky permanent magnet machines. The
difficulty is shorted out by replacing sintered NdFeB
permanent magnet by plastic bonded magnets
operated above 1000C [37] but suffer at the same time
from smaller remnant flux density (0.65T) and
coercive force force(403KA/m) compared to sintered
NdFeB 1.05T and 800KA/m[36]. Also energy
product of plastic bonded magnets is lower (40-90
KJ/m3 ) whereas sintered NdFeB permanent magnets
have 190-380 KJ/m3 [29].This leads to increase in
size of machine and there by centrifugal forces.
B. Radial flux Geometry:
The line start permanent magnet motor combines the
features of both permanent magnet rotor for
synchronous motor operation and squirrel cage
induction motor during the asynchronous motor
operation and the machine has the ability to direct
line start therefore.[42].The proper volume ratio

Fig. 10 Effect of sintered segmentation[31]

Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

between permanent magnets and squirrel cage is the

best response to the challenge of reduced construction
and running cost along with better performance[43].
with elimination of magnetizing current
resulted into improvement of operating power factor
and reduction in stator windings losses[44]. Two
design of LSPMM recorded in the literature are
surface mounted permanent magnet machine and
interior permanent magnet machine shown in fig.12
a&b [45]. The challenge of high efficiency motoring
over the world has been responded by the LSPMM
which has boosted by the dramatic improvement in
the magnet properties of the permanent magnets used
and tone motor energy efficiency class globally [4647]. The possibility of high temperature operation
without demagnetizing of the PMs, the LSPMM
gained the popularity

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

asynchronous and synchronous operations. There

exists wide trade off between the two operations and
then techno- economic feasibility of the machine is
evaluated [53]. The various rotor structures based on
the permanent magnet arrangements [54-55] is shown
in the fig.13[1/4]

C. Interior Permanent Magnet structure:

The interior magnet design as shown in fig.12.a[45]
has embedded magnets [46-47]. This type of
configuration suffer less from demagnetization
problem. This design is also called convex design[50]
During asynchronous period from standstill to just
reaching synchronous speed , the accelerating torque
is the resultant of two torques- cage torque and
braking torque[51] given by the equations(4&5) [45]

Fig.13 Rotor topologies of IPM [54]

The results showing the comparative performance of

these six models simulated in Maxwell has been
demonstrated in table III & IV[54]. The radial
arrangement provided better output parameters
Table III Results of rotor topologies of IPM[54]

Fig.12 Interior Permanent Magnet Motor [45]

Table IV Results of rotor topologies of IPM[54]

During synchronous period the braking torque almost

reduced to zero value and the main torque is
alignment torque of permanent magnets and
reluctance torque produced due to the saliency factor
of rotor structure, both the torque are given by

The IPM suffers from serious drawback of higher

leakage flux and thereby less air gap flux density.
But the cogging torque developed is less and
subjected to less vibrations so less noisy operation.
The synchronizing capability of IPM is better but it
hand has small synchronous loading capability[45]
Numerous rotor topologies of IPM are proposed in
literature in last about 30 years for improving both

The effect of shape of magnets using arc, rectangular

and parallelogram type of magnets has been
evaluated and observed that spoke arc magnet
combination is superior in comparison to
others[54].The proposed arrangement is shown in
fig.14[54] The prototype has drawn 13% lower full
load current and deliver 16% more output.

Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

The comparison of various output parameters shown

in fig. 17[48] with radial bonded spoke type and new
geometry verifies the better performance of new
The new hybrid rotor geometry of permanent magnet
synchronous motor used both ferrite and bonded rare
earth magnets with the objective to increase air gap
flux density and thereby output power[63]. About
30% higher flux density is achieved as compared to
conventional circumferentially magnetized rotor for
same magnet volume. The effect of magnet size,
location and angle of inclination evaluated using
FEM and Maxwell. Best compromise between cost
and performance has been achieved
Super premium efficient line start up permanent
magnet synchronous motor design [64] shows
increased efficiency level with reduced size and

Fig.14 Spoke arc magnet shape [54]

Repeated five full load tests of duration 8 hours each,

shows no deterioration of the magnets. The little
decrease in open circuit voltage has been recovered
when machine resumed normal temperature[54]. The
model has better power factor, less rated current and
high energy saving prospective. Double layer magnet
arrangement in interior permanent magnet motor with
flux weakening control adopted to increase speed
range of motor [56].The arrangements Itype[57],
Vtype [58-59] and double layer [60-62]shown in
fig.15[56] are generally used to increase the
reluctance torque

Fig.15 Magnet arrangements inIPM[56]

The results clarified that type arrangement has wide

range of speed with high efficiency and maximum
torque at low speed due to lower Ld and high Lq is
The new rotor geometry in fig.16[48] has combined
advantages of conventional radial and circumferential
geometries. It shows a good potential of energy
saving and improvement in power factor.

Fig. 17 Synchronous performance of IPM a)Efficiency, b)

Power Factor, c) Torque and d) Line current Vs. Load angle
for 1. Radialy magnetized with bonded, 2 Radialy magnetized
with ferrite, 3 Spoke type with ferrite and 4. New geometry
with ferrite[48]

Fig.16 Combination of radial and circumferential


Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

weight. Three rotor configurations namely parallel

magnet path, series magnetic path and combined
magnetic path shown in fig. 18[64] have been
principally investigated with the help of FEA.
Comparison of results from table-VI[64]) verified the
improvement in design.

Volume-3, Issue-10, Oct.-2015

material used for reducing size and cost of the

machine has been analyzed. For instance, the axial
flux motor has developed high working torque,
higher torque to weight ratio for same number poles
and slots however these are not suitable for high
speed drives, on the other hand the radial flux
with surface mounted magnets has
advantages of high air gap flux density and high
synchronous loading capacity though it suffers from
large vibration and noisy operation Similarly interior
permanent magnet synchronous motor is less
subjected to cogging torque and demagnetizing
problem but has the weakness of low synchronous
capability and high leakage flux. The very little
efforts has been made to combine the features of two
or more machines in the literature. The hybrid model
using two types magnets yield better results in
comparison to conventional model. We are working
on the newly proposed model that will combine the
features of axial flux geometry as well as radial
geometry to improve the asynchronous and
synchronous loading capability of the machine. The
model mingle the feature of interior permanent
magnet motor and surface mounted geometry that
will yield better solution to cogging torque reduction.
The results of combining the features will certainly
give the birth to new generation of synchronous

Table .VI Comparison of LSPMSM(IE4) and


The magnets are mounted on the surface of the

rotor[65-66][45] . The geometry offers less leakage
flux and reluctance consequently air gap flux
density is high in comparison to IPM of same size
therefore delivers large output power. But regrettably
suffers from increased cogging torque more vibration
and noisy operation due to bigger reluctance forces
developed. The machine with surface mounted design
has smaller asynchronous loading capability but large
synchronous loading capability


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a) Rotor with parallel b) Rotor with series

magnet path
magnet path

c) Rotor with combined magnet path

Fig.18 Super premium deign of PMSM[64]

The various design strategies investigated have their

own advantages and disadvantages but hybridization
showed observable effect on the performance of the
This paper has presented an overview of various
design strategies used in the design of permanent
magnet synchronous motor developed by the
researchers in the past and the effect of variation of
geometric parameters on the performance of the
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Review Of Design And Performance Of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor


International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982

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