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Chem lab report

Design
Aim: To determine the moles of water of
crystallization in oxalic acid.
Hypothesis: If NaOH is added to Hydrated Oxalic
acid, then the hydrogen ions from the acid will
react with hydroxide ions from NaOH to produce
water. The rest forms a colorless salt.
In this experiment, the moles of water of
crystallization is calculated using titration. An
indicator is used to show when the titration has
ended. Since two moles of NaOH react with one
mole of oxalic acid, we can find out the moles of
oxalic acid used, then using the mass of the
crystals taken, find the mass of water present in
the crystals which will give the molecules of water
of crystallization in oxalic acid.
Variables:
Independent :
o Volume of NaOH used- since 25cm^3 of
NaOH is taken for all trials
Dependent:
o Volume of oxalic acid solution used-the
volume of oxalic acid solution used would

depend on the volume of NaOH taken for


titration.
Controlled variables:
o The volume of NaOH taken for titration
should be kept constant for each trials.
o Mass of oxalic acid crystals-the mass
should be controlled at the beginning of
the experiment and should be taken in
small amount(1.5g)
o Temperature-since it affects the reaction, it
should be maintained.
Materials and equipment:
o
o
o
o
o

Burette (50ml)
Pipette (10ml)
NaOH
Oxalic acid crystals
Balance

o Phenolphthalein
o Conical flask
o Volumetric flask
(250ml)
o Pipette filler

Environmental care: the solutions can be drained


down the sink.
Safety:
wear eye protection
use pipette filler

Procedure:
1. Weigh out accurately 1.5 g of oxalic crystals using a
digital balance (check for zero error before weighing
the crystals).
2. Put the crystals in the volumetric flask using a
funnel. Make sure that the crystals dont fall out.
3. Pour water into the volumetric flask and fill it up to
the 250 c m mark.
3

4. Close the opening of the flask and shake the solution


before pouring it into the burette using a funnel.
3

5. Pipette 25.0 c m of 0.1 mol d m


solution into a conical flask.

sodium hydroxide

6. Add two to three drops of phenolphthalein into the


conical flask.
7. Pour the oxalic acid slowly into the conical flask.
Make sure you swirl continuously.
8. Add oxalic acid until the indicator loses its color.
9. Record the reading of the burette and repeat the
experiment.

DCP
Table1: raw data of volume of oxalic acid used

Volume of oxalic
acid used ( 0.12ml )
Observation:

Trial
1
21.5

Trial
2
23.0

Trial
3
17.6

Trial
4
18.9

Trial
5
24.5

Since one molecule of oxalic


acid, when diluted in water,
gives 2 hydrogen ions.
(COOH )2 . x H 2 O 2 H

These 2 ions neutralize with

one hydroxide ions from NaOH.


NaOH (aq ) N a+1 +O H 1
( aq)

( aq)

(aq) H 2 O

+ (aq) +2 OH

2H

The indicator lost its color at


the end of the reaction.

Table 2: data processing for average volume of


acid used
Measure Mean/
d
mL
volume/
mL

Precision
Accuracy
Range/ Standa Error/m %
mL
rd
L
error
deviati
on

24.5
27.9
23.4
25.64
4.5
24.9
27.5
Table 3: calculation
Processing

1.96

0.05

uncertainty
2 NaOH + (COOH )2 . x H 2 O Na2 C 2 O 4 + y H 2 O

0.19

Moles of NaOH:
25 0.1
=2.5 103
1000

Moles of oxalic acid used to


titrate NaOH:
2.5 103
=1.25 103
2

Moles of oxalic acid


present in 250 c m :

%uncertainty=

( 1.25 103 250 )


25.64

0.12
100= 0.46
25.64

Uncertainty in volumetric
flask

=0.012

0.12

Mass of one mole of oxalic


acid:
1.5

=125
0.012

%uncertainty=

0.1
100=6.66
1.5

6.66+0.46=7.12
125 8.90

Mass of water of crystallization= 125 90 = 35 ( 8.90)


Number of molecules of water present in one mole:
35
=1.9 2 molecules
18

Therefore oxalic acid

(COOH )2 .2 H 2 O

2 NaOH + (COOH )2 .2 H 2 O Na2 C 2 O4 + 4 H 2 O

CE
Conclusion and evaluation

There are 2 molecules of water of crystallization in one


mole of oxalic acid. The calculated result is close to the
actual value.
The volumes of the acid are found to be precise and
accurate which might reduce random errors.
% deviation:

21.9
100=5
2

However there might be some errors in the experiment


to account for the deviation;
Parallax errors

End point

Using contaminated
solutions

When filling the


volumetric flask with
water, make sure the
lower meniscus is
parallel with the line of
250 cm^3
Color changes of
indicators are not
instant and therefore
more acid is used often.
Since using tap water
which contains
impurities, it might
affect the readings.
Also, when the pipette
is not rinsed with
distilled water in
between the trials, the

Amount of
phenolphthalein used

existing oxalic acid may


react with NaOH and
give different reading.
The amount of indicator
used can cause the end
point to shift.

Improvements:
Use pure water

Parallax error

Random errors
Pipette use

Check the purity of


water by boiling at 100
degree Celsius, and use
fractional distillation to
get pure water.
Avoid seeing the
readings from an angle.
Make sure that the
burette/pipette are
straight when recording
value
Repeat the experiment
for more accuracy
Wash after every trial.