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THE TRADE TRIANGLE

NDEX:
1-Introduction...................................................................................pag.1
2-Stages...........................................................................................pag.1
3-The Outward Passage...................................................................pag.4
4-The Middle Passage......................................................................pag.5
5-The Return Passage......................................................................pag.6
6-Effects of the slave trade triangle...................................................pag.7
7-Problems with slave trade..............................................................pag.8
8-Conclusions....................................................................................pag.9
9-Bibliograpy......................................................................................pag.9

1-Introduction:
New England colonies, including Massachusetts and the city of Boston actively
participated in the so-called Triangular Trade. The trade was called triangular
because of the specific pattern in which the goods were exchanged. Like any other
trade the purpose was to bring goods from overseas that were in high demand at
home and trade them for goods that would be more expensive if sold overseas.
In most cases the triangular trade relied on importing slaves from Africa to work on
plantations, but unlike Brazil and other South American countries such as Peru that
traded with Africa directly, the triangular trade involved three destinations. It required
more planning and carried higher risk and as a result was more profitable.

2-Stages:
The Transatlantic Slave Trade had three stages:

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STAGE 1
-Slave ships from Britain left ports like London, Liverpool and Bristol for West Africa
carrying goods such as cloth, guns, ironware and drink that had been made in Britain.
-Later, on the West African coast, these goods would be traded for men, women and
children who had been captured by slave traders or bought from African chiefs.

STAGE 2
-African dealers kidnapped people from villages up to hundreds of miles inland. One of
these people was Quobna Ottabah Cugoano whodescribed in the autobiography how
the slavers attacked with pistols and threatened to kill those who did not obey. They
marched the captives to the coast where they would be traded for goods. The prisoners
would be forced to march long distances,as Major Galan describes , with their hands tied
behind their backs and their necks connected by wooden yokes.
-On the African coast, European traders bought enslaved peoples from travelling
African dealers or nearby African chiefs. Families were separated.
-The traders held the enslaved Africans until a ship appeared, and then sold them to a
European or African captain. It often took a long time for a captain to fill his ship. He
rarely filled his ship in one spot. Instead he would spend three to four months sailing
along the coast, looking for the fittest and cheapest slaves.
-Ships would sail up and down the coast filling their holds with enslaved Africans. On
the brutal 'Middle passage', enslaved Africans were densely packed onto ships that
would carry them to the West Indies.

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-There were many cases of violent resistance by Africans against slave ships and their
crews. These included attacks from the shore by free' Africans against ships or
longboats and many cases of shipboard revolt by slaves.

STAGE 3
-In the West Indies enslaved Africans would be sold to the highest bidder at slave
auctions.
-Once they had been bought, enslaved Africans worked for nothing on plantations.
-They belonged to the plantation owner, like any other possession, and had no rights at
all. The enslaved Africans were often punished very harshly.
-Enslaved Africans resisted against their enslavement in many ways, from revolution to
silent, personal resistance. Some refused to be enslaved and took their own lives.
Sometimes pregnant women preferred abortion to bringing a child into slavery.
-On the plantations, many enslaved Africans tried to slow down the pace of work by
pretending to be ill, causing fires or accidentally' breaking tools. Whenever possible,
enslaved Africans ran away. Some escaped to South America, England or North
America. Also there were hundreds of slave revolts.
-Two thirds of the enslaved Africans, taken to the Americas, ended up on sugar
plantations. Sugar was used to sweeten another crop harvested by enslaved Africans in
the West Indies - coffee.

-With the money made from the sale of enslaved Africans, goods such as sugar, coffee
and tobacco were bought and carried back to Britain for sale. The ships were loaded
with produce from the plantations for the voyage home.
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3-The Outward Passage


For the Bristol merchants the slave trade seemed an "open sesame" to prosperity. For
example, the Warmley Brass Company, owned by the Goldney and Champion families,
exported "Guinea" cooking pots. The outward voyage from Bristol was made with
trinkets, beads, copper rods, cotton goods, guns and alcohol which were to be traded
for slaves off the coast of West Africa.
All goods could be traded profitably although African slave traders were not to be
treated lightly and would drive a hard bargain. According to the French merchant Jean
Barbot, who spent some time on the Gold Coast in the late 17th Century, the people
there had at first been swindled because it never entered their thoughts that white men
would cheat them.
However, they soon learned better and became very careful traders. Both sides cheated
when they could, as the trade was rough and unregulated, with blackmail and deceit
more common than honest dealing.
There was one French captain who bought a large quantity of gold and sailed home
congratulating himself on having made a fortune in exchange for his trashy goods, only
to discover, when he arrived home, that he had actually bought a worthless load of old
brass filings.
Slaves were held in holding forts on the coast until slave ships arrived to transport them
across the Atlantic Ocean.

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4-The Middle Passage


The Middle Passage was the crossing from Africa to the Americas, which the ships
made carrying their cargo of slaves. It was so-called because it was the middle section
of the trade route taken by many of the ships. The first section (the Outward Passage )
was from Europe to Africa. Then came the Middle Passage, and the Return Passage
was the final journey from the Americas to Europe. The Middle Passage took the
enslaved Africans away from their homeland. They were from different countries and
different ethnic (or cultural) groups. They spoke different languages. Many had never
seen the sea before, let alone been on a ship. They had no knowledge of where they
were going or what awaited them there. The slaves were packed below the decks of the
ship. The men were usually shackled together in pairs using leg irons, or shackles.
Some leg irons are pictured here. The men were considered dangerous, as they were
mostly young and strong and likely to turn on their captors if the opportunity arose.
People were packed so close that they could not get to the toilet buckets, and so lay in
their own filth. Seasickness, heat and lack of air all contributed to the terrible smell.

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These conditions also encouraged disease, particularly fever and the bloody flux or
gastroenteritis (a serious stomach bug). The voyage usually took six to eight weeks, but
bad weather could increase this to 13 weeks or more. This engraving (a type of print) of
the slave ship the Brookes, from Liverpool, shows the slaves packed into the hold of the
ship. It shows 295 enslaved Africans, this was the legal number the ship could carry
after a change in the law. The Dolben Act of 1788 regulated the number of slaves
according to the size of the ship. On a previous voyage the Brookes had carried 609. If
you look carefully at the Brookes picture, you can see the leg irons shackling the men
together at the ankle. There are a very few accounts of the Middle Passage, written by
enslaved Africans who had experienced conditions on a slave ship at first-hand. This
was because many Africans who made the crossing would not have known how to
write, or had the chance to learn later in life. One well known African writer who did
experience the crossing wrote, was Olaudah Equiano. He wrote, The shrieks of the
women and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost
inconceivable, in his autobiography The Interesting Narrative, published in 1789. For
many on the terrible crossing, death was preferable to the unknown fate awaiting them.

Ottobah Cuguano, an African man who was enslaved in about 1770, planned with his
fellow slaves to blow up the ship and all die together. Their plan failed.

5-The Return Passage


Having loaded the ships with sugar, tobacco and rum paid for from the proceeds of the
sale of slaves, the captains would try to set sail for England on the final part of their
triangular voyage before the Hurricane season began in mid-July. This was to avoid
much higher insurance rates which were demanded for ships leaving at more
"dangerous" times of year. Captains would always wish to be fully loaded, to ensure
greater profit, but this might not always be the case if time was short.
The journey home, following trade winds, could be expected to take between 6-8
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weeks. The journey was not without dangers associated with Atlantic storms prevalent
at that time of year. A ship that sank, or was wrecked near the English coast, could
mean disaster for a single owner. This was the reason most Merchant Venturers shared
the risk, and therefore the profit, by investing jointly in the trade.
Once back in Bristol the cargo would be unloaded and sold for often a very good profit,
releasing funds for financing new Transatlantic Trade.
In the early days of the slave trade it was rare for slaves to be aboard ships on the
return journey to Bristol, although one or more personal servants might accompany their
master.
These slaves were taken to England purely to indicate the wealth of their owner
although some were undoubtedly well loved and cared for. However they would usually
be looked upon as 'pets' rather than as human beings.

By the end of the transatlantic trade, however, many thousands of the new AfricanCaribbean or African-American slaves were being transported to England. Many were to
spend their remaining years as English domestic slaves but a small number were
eventually granted their freedom and continued to live and work in England.

6-Effects of the slave trade triangle


The Europeans forced trade onto the Africans, they pressured them into trading and
gave them no choice but to trade people. Think of it as.. Trade or die!
It's estimated that approximately 5000 slaves a year were shipped from North Africa's
Gold Coast. In short terms, Africans traded their own people to the Europeans for goods
and money.

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Then, the slave trade impacted Europe by bringing in wealth. The slaves brought over
to Europe made daily life easier by allowing people to sit inside and not have to do so
much labour, because they had their own house hold slave to do that hard, dirty work
for them with minimum or no pay. It raised the economy to a higher standard of living,
since people had more time to do arts - such as writing, reading, painting, etc. It allowed
the Europeans to be stronger by influencing other parts of the world to participate in
accepting slave trading and incorporating slaves into their homes.

7-Problems with slave trade


Many Europeans often caught sicknesses from going to Africa, on the ships sickness
was often spread because the slaves were put in to compact spaces and there was little
room to use the restroom or bathe, many slaves choose to be taken in to slavery to
work for money and leave but ended up staying permanently working for a master or
mistress and not getting paid or able to return home, many tribes had rebellions against
slave trade areas and Europeans participating in it, many chiefs traded their own people
and tribes traded other tribes - how deceptive -, and of course your basic problems:
poor health, hygiene, disease.
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8-Conclusions
With this work we have learned what is the trade triangle and all that was done, which
carried, why they carried, who transported him, how society has changed since then,
who has benefited the triangle trade, the effects it had in society ...

9-Bibliograpy
http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/triangle.aspx
https://www.boundless.com/u-s-history/slavery-freedom-and-the-struggle-forempire-1750-1763/slavery-in-the-colonies/the-triangular-trade/
http://abolition.e2bn.org/slavery_43.html

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